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Jan R Svensson, ABB Corporate Research, 2014-11-28

ABBs HVDC and SVC Light


- technology and applications
ABB
Month DD, YYYY | Slide 1

Jan R. Svensson

Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden

PhD in power electronics

Assistant professor in power electronics grid applications

Docent (DSc) in power electronics

ABB 1999

5 years with ABB HVDC

5 years with ABB FACTS

5 years as Program Manager Active Grid Infrastructure


at ABB Corporate Research

Now: Senior Principal Scientist on power electronic systems in


transmission grids at ABB Corporate Research

jan.r.svensson@se.abb.com
+46 70 333 6266
ABB
Month DD, YYYY | Slide 2

A global leader in power and automation technologies


Leading market positions in main businesses

150,000 employees in about 100


countries

$42 billion in revenue (2013)

Formed in 1988 merger of


engineering companies

Swiss BBC founded 1891

Swedish ASEA founded 1883

Publicly owned company with


head office in Switzerland

ABB Group
November 24, 2014 | Slide 3

How ABB is organized


Five global divisions

Power
Products

Power
Systems

Discrete
Automation
and Motion

Low Voltage
Products

Process
Automation

$11 billion
35,600
employees

$8.4 billion
20,300
employees

$9.9 billion
30,200
employees

$7.7 billion
31,700
employees

$8.5 billion
25,900
employees

ABBs portfolio covers

Electricals, automation, controls and


instrumentation for power generation
and industrial processes
Power transmission
Distribution solutions
Low-voltage products

Motors and drives


Intelligent building systems
Robots and robot systems
Services to improve customers
productivity and reliability

Note: System business = Deliver a function (Tailor-made system)


ABB Group
November 24, 2014 | Slide 4

ABB FACTS and SVC Light

ABB FACTS and SVC Light

ABB
Month DD, YYYY | Slide 5

Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS)

FACTS is a group of devices that improve the performance of the power system

FACTS often use power electronics

P=

V1V 2
X

Different FACTS devices control:

sin

(d 1 - d 2 )

FACTS controllers result in:

Series impedance of line

Damping oscillations

Shunt impedance

Current in line

Controls line power closer to


the thermal limit

Voltage amplitude in a node

Prevents voltage collapses

Voltage phase angle


between two areas

Voltage control

Power quality

ABB
24 November 2014 | Slide 6

Transmission Capacity

Flexible AC transmission System (FACTS)


Transmission under Optimized Conditions
Thermal Limit

FACTS

Technology

Using FACTS technology is like removing the froth in a glass of beer


ABB
24 November 2014 | Slide 7

ABB FACTS
A pioneer in smart technologies
Shunt Compensation
SVC

since 1975

STATCOM (SVC Light)

since 1997

Shunt Compensation

Series Compensation
Fixed (SC)

since 1950

Controlled (TCSC)

since 1997

Dynamic Energy Storage


DynaPeaQ

Series Compensation

since 2010

..FACTS are well-proven technologies!


Dynamic Energy Storage
SVC = Static Var Compensator

ABB Group

November

24, 2014 | Slide 8

SC = Series compensation
TCSC = Thyristor Controlled Series Compensator

FACTS Currently Installed Base


Over 800 installations in the past 40 years

1-10 stations
11-50 stations
>50 stations

ABB Group

November

24, 2014 | Slide 9

Shunt compensation
Static VAr Compensator (SVC) versus STATCOM (SVC Light)
Classic SVC (introduced 1975)

Variable inductors and capacitors


obtained by thyristors

Lgrid

STATCOM (Static Compensator)

I load

I comp

Lgrid

Q~U2
Load balancing
Low-frequency harmonics

Examples:

Rawlings, Maryland in USA rated at 500 kV, -145/+575 Mvar

Saudi Electricity Company 110 kV, -60/+600 Mvar

ABB
Month DD, YYYY | Slide 10

I load

I comp

R
L

VSC (Voltage Source Converter)


controls current through inductor

R
L

Q~U
High bandwidth => quicker control
Active filtering
Load balancing
Flicker mitigation
Low content of harmonics
Less sensitive to grid changes

SVC Light: ABBs STATCOM (introduced 1997)


Three-level Neutral Point Clamping converter
+

Series-connected IGBTs => Udc is high


Direct connection to PCC up to 35 kV

High switching frequency enables

High bandwidth and short response time

Small built-in filters

Transmission

Up to 100MVA

Industry

Valve hall for SVC Light

Projects for both:


applications

applications

ABB
24 November 2014 | Slide 11

STATCOM (SVC Light Next generation)


Chain-link converter

Launched in Paris 2014

60

Multi-level chain-link converter


Delta-connected

Voltage example
with about 25
series connected
converter cells

40

20

Uv(t) [kV]

-20

-40

-60

0.005

0.01

0.015

0.02
time s

0.025

0.03

0.035

0.04

V SC Toolbox version 2.4. 11-Nov-2008 09:00:20

One module
4

ABB
Month DD, YYYY | Slide 12

converter cell

converter cells

SVC Light for electrical transmission grids


using transformer to step up voltage

Containers for lower voltage levels

Buildings for higher voltage levels

2
1
3

1. VSC / 2. Control and protection system / 3. Cooling system / 4. Phase reactors

ABB
Month DD, YYYY | Slide 13

SVC Light for electrical transmission grids

SVC Light First generation

SVC Light Next generation

Introduced

1997

2014

VSC tech.

3-level NPC

Multi-level chain link

Converter voltage

35 kV

69 kV

Power range per block

+/- 90 MVAr

+/- 360 MVAr

Losses

Medium

Low

Active filtering

Yes, up to 9th harm.

Yes, up to 9th harm.

Need for filters

Yes, high-pass

No (depending on design)

DC capacitor

Common

Distributed

IGBT

ABB StakPak, 2,5 kV, 1600 A

ABB StakPak, 4,5 kV, 1800 A

ABB
Month DD, YYYY | Slide 14

SVC Light applications


Fundamental applications are:

Reactive power compensation;

Load balancing;

Harmonic reduction

Transmission grid

Voltage stabilization, facilitate


fault ride through and voltage
recovery

Rail power supply

Support rail-side grids and


maintain stability and power
quality
SVC Light, Evron

SVC Light, Cerro Navia

Utility scale renewables


(Wind & solar) integration

Voltage stability, grid code and


power quality enhancement

Industry

Power quality enhancement


in industry

Flicker mitigation from


electric arc furnace

Electric arc furnace

ABB
Month DD, YYYY | Slide 15

ABB HVDC and HVDC Light

ABB HVDC and HVDC Light

ABB
Month DD, YYYY | Slide 16

HVDC History

The breakthrough came 1954 in Sweden:


20MW, 100kV cable link from mainland to island of
Gotland using mercury-arc valves

In 1970s thyristors where introduced for HVDC

In 1997 self-commutated converters using IGBTs


where launched for HVDC

ABB
24 November 2014 | Slide 17

HVDC Light
ABBs VSC HVDC system
VSC

VSC

~
transformer

Research project 1994

Hllsjn 3 MW Test inst. 1997

Gotland 50 MW 1999

Cable or OHL

=
~

transformer

Concept includes extruded DC Cable with cross-linked


polyethylene (XLPE) insulation material

Hllsjn
Ploughing of HVDC Light cable

Gotland
ABB
24 November 2014 | Slide 18

Environmental friendly system

Minimum of right-of-way due to cables

VSC controls active and reactive power independently

VSC builds up its own grid (black start)

Evolution of HVDC Light


Power rating & cost (including loss cost) drive development
converter station losses

Ud

3.5%

HVDC Light
3.0%

Ud

Gen. 1 Two-level, high fsw


2.5%

Gen. 2 Threelevel

2.0%

Gen. 3 Two level , low fsw

1.5%

Gen. 4 Multi-level CTL


1.0%

Current source converter HVDC

Next generation of
HVDC Light

0.5%
0.0%
1995

2000

2005

2010

2015

ABB
Month DD, YYYY | Slide 19

MMC = modular multilevel converter


CTL = cascaded two-level

Progressing towards a stronger and smarter grid


More power and lower cost enable new applications
10GW

Transmission capacity (MW)

Transmission capacity (MW)

HVDC Light

HVDC Classic

6,000

+6X since 2000

4,000

2,000

1970

1990

2010

1000
800

+10X since 2000

400

2000

2010

Significant innovation steps


l

More power, lower losses

Reduced cost/MW

Power electronics/power semiconductors and cables are key contributors

Longer
ABB Group
November 24, 2014 | Slide 20

transmission distances

The new 525 kV extruded HVDC cable system

Launched in Paris 2014

for both subsea and underground applications


Utilizes

a new cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) DC insulation material

Al-conductor, 525kVdc

Cu-conductor, 525kVdc
ABB Group
November 24, 2014 | Slide 21

HVDC Light applications


Point-to-point transmission between grids

High power drive system


Troll A

70 km
+/- 60kV

Kollsnes

56kV

138kV

SM

Estlink: Harku converter 350MW

Embedded point-to-point transmission


Troll A platform

Offshore wind farm connection

Gotland 50MW

Electrification of offshore platforms


Dolwin alpha 800MW

Valhall complex 75MW


ABB
Month DD, YYYY | Slide 22

Dolwin beta 900MW

MotorFormer
4-pole, 40MW
0 - 65 Hz

HVDC Light

What is an interregional HVDC grid?

ABB Group
November 24, 2014 | Slide 23

A DC electricity grid that can operate:

Handle meshed grids

Independent of one or several


disturbances (isolate faults, protection
zones)

Technology development to obtain full


realization includes:

DC breaker

Cables for high voltages

Automatic network restoration

Power flow control

High voltage DC/DC converters

Global rules/regulations for operation

multi-terminal grid regional grid interregional grid

How and why a high voltage DC breaker


Hybrid HVDC Breaker
Main Breaker

Point to point

N-terminal

x
=

Load Commutation Switch

Scalable and cost competitive solution

P2

Fast breaking time < 5 ms;


Low on state losses < 0.01%

P1 P1
~

Ultrafast Disconnector

Residual
DC Current
Breaker

P2

Current Limiting
Reactor

x
STATCOM operation

STATCOM operation
Isolate faulty section

ABB Group
Slide 24
11U0333 Rev.00