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GB/T 8564-2003

Table of Contents

Foreword
1. Scope
2. Normative References
3. General
4. General Requirements
5. Installation of Vertical Reaction Turbine
6. Installation of Through Flow Turbine
7. Installation of Reaction Turbine
8. Installation and Commissioning of Speed-Governing System
9. Installation of Vertical Hydraulic Turbine Generator
10. Installation of Horizontal Hydraulic Turbine Generator
11. Installation of Bulb Hydraulic Turbine Generator
12. Installation of Pipelines and Fittings
13. Installation of Butterfly Valve and Globe Valve
14. Electrical Tests on Hydraulic Turbine Generator Unit
15. Trial Run of Hydraulic Turbine Generator Unit
Appendix A (Informative Appendix): List of Hand-over Documentation
Appendix B (Normative Appendix): Installation requirements of mechanical hydraulic governor
Appendix C (Normative Appendix): Requirements on the drying of hydraulic turbine generator stator
Appendix D (Informative Appendix): Pickling, Passivation and Rinsing of Pipe
Appendix E (Informative Appendix): Standards Related to Nondestructive Inspection of Welds
Appendix F (Informative Appendix): Requirements on Steam Turbine Oil Stipulated in GB11120-1989
Appendix G (Normative Appendix): Description on Standard Wording

Foreword
This standard covers the installation, commissioning and test for hydraulic turbine generator units and
their auxiliary equipment. It is also the main content involved in the acceptance test and examination for
generator units. It is applicable for the installation of various hydraulic turbine generator units and their
auxiliary equipment.
This standard is the revision of GB 8564-1988 Specification Installation of Hydraulic Turbine Generator
Units (The Original Standard in short hereafter). The Original Standard is a summary of Chinese
professionals on the installation of hydraulic turbine generator units and their auxiliary equipment based
on the accumulated experience by 1988. This standard has made some supplements, deletion and
modifications on the basis of The Original Standard according to the requirements in the installation of
numbers of newly-built large- and medium- scale hydraulic turbine generator units and their auxiliary
equipment including the imported large-scale hydraulic turbine generator units, and at the same time
assimilating some contents in the relevant foreign standards.
Compared with the 1988 version of GB 8564-1988, this standard has made the following revisions:
This standard is defined as a recommended standard;
The applicable scope of this standard is revised, and the sections Scope and Normative
References are listed separately;
New contents are added, including installation of cylinder valve, installation of reaction turbine and
bearing assembly, assembly of welded rack of generator, on-site assembly of generator stator frame
and iron core, welding of disc- rotor field spider, installation of excitation system, and trial operation of
reversible pumped-storage generating unit so on;
Some contents are supplemented, including governor installation, oil filling and adjustment test of
speed-governing system, requirements on pipeline welding technology, and quality inspection so on;
Some contents are deleted from the text, e.g. installation of mechanical-hydraulic governor, exciter
and permanent magnetic generator. The contents on installation of mechanical-hydraulic governor and
drying of stator winding are listed as appendices;
The indexes and limits in some clauses are partially adjusted and improved.
Internal water cooling or evaporative cooling stator windings have been applied in some generator units
in China. However, these cooling methods are still immature in design and construction experiences and
unlikely to be expanded rapidly in application, so we havent introduced them into this standard in this
revision.
This standard will replace GB 8564-1988 as of its effective date.
Appendix B, Appendix C and Appendix G of This standard are normative appendices.
Appendix A, Appendix D, Appendix E and Appendix F of This standard are informative appendices.
This standard are proposed and controlled by China Electricity Council Standardization Center.
The enterprises participating in the drafting of This standard include: China Gezhouba (Group)
Corporation, China Water Conservancy and Hydropower Construction Corporation, China Yangtze
Three Gorges Project Development Corporation, and Harbin Electrical Machinery Company Limited.
The main drafters of This standard include: Fu YuanChu, Zhang Ye, Wang LongQuan, Qin XiXiang, Liu
YongDong, Zhao ShiRu, Li ZhengAn, Zhang YaoZhong, Du QiChen, Zhang LianBin, Zhao GuiShan, Xu
GuangTao, Gong DePing, Want Tian, Yang XiYin, Huang HongYong, Zhang ChengPing, Liu YanHua,

Jiang XiaoBin, Yin LongSheng, Liu ChanXue, and Tang WanBin.


China Electricity Council Standardization Center reserves the ultimate right for the interpretation of this
standard.

GB/T8564-2003
Specification Installation of Hydraulic Turbine Generator Units
1 Scope
This standard describes the requirements on the installation, commissioning and test of hydraulic turbine
generator units and their auxiliary equipment. It is applicable for the installation and acceptance test of
hydraulic turbine generator units satisfying one of the following conditions:
a) Single unit capacity no smaller than 15MW;
b) Reaction turbine, with the nominal diameter of runner no less than 1.5m;
c) Mixed-flow turbine, with the nominal diameter of runner no less than 2.0m;
d) Axial, diagonal or through flow turbine, with the nominal diameter of runner no less than 3.0m.
For the hydraulic turbine generator units of single-unit capacity smaller than 15MW and the generator
units with turbine runner of nominal diameter less than the limits given in b), c) and d), This standard can
serve as a reference.
This standard is also applicable for the installation and acceptance test of reversible pumped-storage
generator units.

2 Normative References
The terms in the following documents are becoming an integral part of this standard by quoting. All the
modifications (excluding corrigenda) or revisions following the quoted documents marked with date are
not applicable for this standard. However, the parties involved in the standard are encouraged to search
for the possibility to apply the new versions of these quoted documents. As for the quoted documents
without marked with certain date, the latest versions shall be complied with for the standard.
GB/T 3323 Methods for radiographic inspection and classification of radiographs for fusion welded
butt joints in steel
GB/T 7409.3 Excitation system for synchronous electrical machines--Technical requirements excitation
system for large and medium synchronous generators
GB/T 10969 Specifications for water passage components of hydraulic turbines
GB 11120

LTSA turbine oil

GB/T 11345 Method for manual ultrasonic testing and classification of testing results for ferritic steel
welds
GB/T 18482 Start-up test code for reversible pump-storage units
GB 50150
engineering

Standard for hand-over test of electric equipment electric equipment installation

GB 50168
engineering

Code for construction and acceptance of cable levels electric equipment installation

GB 50171
Code for construction and acceptance of switchboard outfit complete cubicle and
secondary circuit electric equipment installation engineering
DL/T 507
unit

Start-up test code for hydraulic-turbine and generator units hydraulic turbine generator

DL/T 679

Code for welder technical qualification

DL/T 827

Start-up test code for through flow type bulb turbine generator units

JB/T 4709

Welding specification for steel pressure vessels

JB/T 6204
Code for insulation resistance and withstanding voltage test of large-scale high-voltage
AC generator stator
JB/T 8439

Anti-corona technical requirement for high-voltage generator used at high altitude

JB/T 8660
units

Specification on packing, transportation and preservation of hydraulic turbine generator

3 General
3.1 The hydraulic turbine generator unit shall be installed according to the installation drawings and
relevant design documents for the generator unit reviewed and confirmed by the design division and the
manufacturer, as well as the requirements specified in this standard. In the case of any special
requirements of the manufacturer, the requirements on the manufacturers relevant technical documents
shall be complied with. Supplemental provisions shall be made for the contents without requirements
specified either in the standard or the manufacturers technical documents. Should the manufacturers
technical requirements conflict with the standard, generally the manufacturers requirements shall
govern. Otherwise, relevant agreement shall be reached with the manufacturer.
3.2 Besides this standard, the relevant requirements given in the currently effective specifications on
safety, environment protection and fire control etc. issued by the state or relevant ministries shall also be
complied with in the installation of generator units and their auxiliary equipment.
3.3 The equipment of hydraulic turbine generator unit shall comply with the currently effective national
technical standards and the requirements given in the purchase order. After the equipment arriving at
the destination, the installation enterprise can request to the owner for taking part in the open package
inspection according to JB/T8660.
The following documents shall serve as the base simultaneously for the installation and acceptance test
of generator units and their auxiliary equipment:
a) The instructions for equipment installation, operation and maintenance, and the relevant technical
documents;
b) All drawings and data provided along with the equipment (including the equipment assembly drawing
and the constructional drawings of parts);
c) Quality certificate, inspection and test records of the equipment;
d) Material certificates for main parts.
3.4 Prior to the installation of generator unit, the design drawings, delivery inspection record and
relevant documents provided by the manufacturer shall be read carefully and familiarized, and
reasonable construction organization design shall be made according to the actual construction
situation.
3.5 Prior to the installation of generator unit, the installation enterprise shall read the relevant civil
design drawings related to the installation and participate in the acceptance test of the civil work handed
over for installation. Any found defects shall be removed before starting the installation.
3.6 All materials used for the installation of hydraulic turbine generator unit shall meet the design
requirements. The inspection report and quality certificate shall be provided for main materials.
3.7 The installation site shall be planned uniformly and shall meet the following requirements:
a) The installation site shall be proof of wind, rain and dust. The installation of generator unit can be
started only after the roofs of workshop buildings in the generator unit section and the adjoining
generator unit sections have been closed completely;
b) The temperature at the installation site shall generally no lower than 50C, and the relative humidity of
air no higher than 85%; The equipment and parts of special requirements on temperature, humidity or
others shall be installed according to the design requirements;
c) Adequate lighting shall be provided for the installation site;

d) The installation site shall be supplied with facilities for construction safety protection. The site for
storing flammable or explosive articles shall comply with the relevant safety requirements;
e) The installation shall be conducted according to the site regulations. The installation equipment,
instruments, tools and construction materials shall be stocked in order, the site shall be kept clean, the
passage shall be kept unblocked and the site shall be cleaned off after work.
3.8 Upon the completion of the installation of hydraulic turbine generator unit, trial run shall be
conducted to comprehensively inspect the design, manufacture and installation quality of the generator
unit according to the requirements given in the standard and DL/T 507. Following the passing of trial run,
the acceptance test shall be carried out for the startup of generator unit, and relevant data shall be
handed over referring to the requirement set forth in Appendix A.

4 General Requirements
4.1 General cleaning and inspection shall be conducted before installing the equipment. The main
dimensions and fitting tolerances of key parts shall comply with the drawing requirements and shall be
checked with the factory records.
Records and relevant signatures shall be maintained for equipment inspection and defect treatment.
The supplied equipment delivered as assembled with the manufacturers quality warranty shall not be
decomposed during the warranty period.
4.2 The footplates of equipment foundation shall be embedded generally with the elevation deviation
not exceeding -5mm~0mm, the deviation in center and position no more than 10mm, and the level
deviation no more than 1mm/m.
4.3 The embedded components shall be fixed reliably after being installed. The foundation bolts, jacks,
tensioners, wedge plates and foundation plates etc shall be fixed by spot welding. The jointing planes
between embedded components and concrete shall be free of oil stain or severe corrosion.
4.4 The installation of anchor bolts shall meet the following requirements:
a) The position of anchor bolt holes shall be correct, and the burr on the inner wall shall be cleaned off.
The deviation between the central line of bolt hole and that of foundation shall be no more than 10mm;
The elevation and the depth of the bolt holes shall meet the design requirements; The vertical deviation
of bolts hole wall shall be smaller than 10mm and no more than L/200 (L refers to the length of anchor
bolt, mm, the same below);
b) The center and elevation of the anchor bolts buried directly or with conduit into the second-phase
concrete shall meet the design requirements. The center deviation shall be no more than 2mm, the
elevation deviation no more than 0 mm~+3 mm, and the vertical deviation shall be smaller than L/450;
c) In the case that preembedded reinforced steel is applied for the welding of screws on anchor bolts, the
following requirements shall be satisfied:
1) The material of preembedded reinforced steel shall be consistent with that of anchor bolt;
2) The sectional area of preembedded reinforced steel shall be larger than that of anchor bolt, and
the preembedded reinforced steel shall be vertical;
3) Should double side welding be applied between bolt and preembedded reinforced steel, the weld
length shall not be smaller than 5 times of anchor bolt diameter; In the case of single side welding,
the weld length shall not be smaller than 10 times of anchor bolt diameter.
4.5 The wedge plate shall be used in pairs and the jointing length shall be more than 2/3. For the wedge
plates for bearing key components, 0.05mm feeler shall be used to check the contact after the
installation. The contacting length on each side shall not be more than 70%.
4.6 The equipment can be installed only after the strength of foundation concrete reaches 70% of the
designed value. The second-phase concrete for foundation plates shall be laid densely and solidly.
4.7 The jointing planes of equipment shall be smooth and free of burr. The jointing gap shall be check
with 0.05mm feeler that unable to pass through; the allowed local gaps shall be check with 0.10mm
feeler that the depth shall not exceed 1-3 of the jointing width, and the overall length shall not exceed
20% of the perimeter; No gap is allowed around the jointing bolts or dowels. The step on the installing
plane of jointing seam shall not exceed 0.10mm.
4.8 The fitting marks shall be noticed during the part assembling. As multiple generator units are being

installed, each generator unit shall be assembled with the parts marked with the same series number.
The numbering for the same type of parts or measuring points in the installation record shall start from
+Y in clockwise sequence (seen from the end of generator, the same below) for stationary parts; or start
from the position of No.1 pole of rotor in clockwise sequence (expect the measuring points on the shaft
in turning, which is in anticlockwise sequence) for rotating parts; The consistency with the numbering
rule of the manufacturer shall be checked.
4.9 For the connecting bolts with pretightening force, the deviation in prestressing force shall not
exceed 10% of the specified value. Without certain requirements specified by the manufacturer, the
pretightening force shall not be smaller than 2 times of the designed working pressure, but not
exceeding 3/4 of the material yield strength.
As installing the connecting bolts with teeth, lubricant shall be applied on the thread; The connecting
bolts shall be evenly tightened in times; sampling inspection (about 20%) shall be made at normal
temperature for the heat-tightened bolts for checking the pretension.
After completing the installation of various parts, the dowel holes shall be bored and the dowels shall be
fitted according to the design requirements.
The bolts, nuts and dowels shall be locked firmly as the design required.
4.10 The general measurement on generator unit shall meet the following requirements:
a) All measuring instruments shall have been qualified the regular inspection and calibration conducted
by authorized metering organization.
b) The error in X and Y reference axes and reference elevation point for the installation of generator unit
shall not exceed 1mm by contrast with the workshop benchmark;
c) The measurement error in the elevation difference of various parts shall not exceed 0.5mm;
d) The measurement error in level shall not exceed 0.02mm/m;
e) The diameter of the steel wire used for center measurement is generally ranged between
0.3mm-0.4mm, and the tensile stress shall be no less than 1200MPa;
f) No matter which method is applied for measuring the center or roundness of generator unit, the
measurement error shall normally no more than 0.05mm;
g) The impact of temperature change on the measurement precision shall be taken into consideration.
The measured values shall be corrected according to the temperature change.
4.11 In the hydrostatic pressure test for measuring the strength of site-made bearing equipment and
connectors, the test pressure shall be 1.5 times of the rated working pressure, but the minimum pressure
shall not be smaller than 0.4MPa. Maintain the test pressure for 10min, and no defects like leakage or
crack shall occur.
In the tightness breakdown test of the equipment and connectors, the test pressure shall be l.25 times of
the actual working pressure and maintained for 30min, no leakage shall occur. In the tightness test, the
test pressure shall be the actual working pressure and maintained for 8 hours, no leakage shall occur.
Hydrostatic pressure test shall be conducted for single cooler at the designed test pressure. Without
relevant specification in the design, the test pressure shall be normally 2 times of the working pressure,
but no lower than 0.4Mpa. Maintain the test pressure for 30min, no leakage shall occur.

4.12 In the kerosene leakage test for equipment vessels, the test shall be kept for at least 4 hours, no
leakage shall occur. After completing the leakage test, the vessel should not be disassembled in
general.
4.13 The single keys shall be examined combinedly with the key ways. The tolerance shall meet the
design requirements. The keys in pairs shall be examined combinedly and the parallelism shall meet the
design requirements.
4.14 The welding of generator unit and its auxiliary equipment shall meet the following requirements:
a) The welders taking part in the welding of generator unit and its auxiliary equipment shall have been
received the special training and qualified the examination according to DL/T679 or the manufacturers
requirements;
b) The length and height of all welding seams shall meet the drawing requirements. Welding quality shall
be inspected according the requirements of design drawings;
c) For the welding of key parts, the welding procedure made on the basis of welding process
assessment or the welding code of the manufacturer shall be complied with.
4.15 The code of turbine oil used by the generator unit and the speed-governing system shall meet the
design requirements with the various indexes satisfying the limits given in GB11120 (refer to Appendix
F).
4.16 All monitoring device and automation elements of the generator unit shall be inspected and
qualified according to the delivery technical requirements.
4.17 The hydraulic turbine generator unit shall be kept clean during the component assembling and
overall assembling and after installation. After installation, the generator unit shall be cleaned internally
and externally thoroughly to remove any abnormal materials or stains.
4.18 The anti-corrosion paint on various parts of hydraulic turbine generator unit shall meet the following
requirements:
a) Surface pretreatment and coating protection shall be conducted in the manufacturers factory for
various parts of generator unit according to the requirements given in design drawings;
b) The top coating to be applied on the site (including on-site welding) shall be conducted according to
the design requirements. Should the applied paint color be inconsistent with the workshop ornaments,
appropriate modification can be made except the color of pipelines;
c) Should the surface coating on some part be damaged locally during the installation, repair shall be
conducted according to the requirements on the original coating;
d) The coatings applied on the site shall be even in thickness, homogeneous in color and free of bubble
or wrinkle;
e) The parts to be painted on the site as specified in the contract or owing to particular requirements
shall meet the relevant particular requirements.

5 Installation of vertical reaction turbine


5.1 Installation of embedded components
5.1.1 The steel lining at the nose of central pier for the draft tube shall be installed to meet the following
requirements:
a) The distance tolerance from the top of steel lining at the nose to the X axis of the generator unit:
30mm;
b) The distance tolerance from the top of steel lining at the nose to the Y axis of the generator unit:
15mm;
c)

The elevation tolerance of the top (or bottom) of steel lining at the nose: 10mm;

d)

The verticality tolerance of the steel lining at the nose: 10mm.

5. 1.2 The draft tube liner shall be installed with the tolerance meeting the requirements given in Table 1.
Table 1 The Installation Tolerance of Draft Tube Liner
unit: mm
Runner Diameter D
3000
No.

Item

6000

8000
D

D<3000

D<

D<

D<

6000

8000

10000

Notes

10000

Dimensions of
elbow section

0.0015H (B, r)

H- section height, B- section


length, r- radius of arc section

Lower elbow
nozzle

Smoothly
nozzle

Center and
orientation of
upper elbow or
cone nozzle

10

12

To measure the distance


between the X and Y marks on
the nozzle to the X and Y
reference lines of the generator
unit

Elevation of
upper elbow or
cone nozzle

0~+8

0~+12

0~+15

0~+18

0~+20

8~24 measuring points evenly


distributed

0.001H (B, r)

transited

from

the

concrete

D- the designed nozzle


diameter; 8~24 measuring
points evenly distributed
5

Diameter of
cone nozzle

0.0015D

Difference in
inner wall
perimeter of
adjacent cone
nozzles

0.0015L

The draft tube with flanges or


of inserting type shall satisfy
the requirements given in
Table 17.

0.001L

L- nozzle perimeter

Center of lower
cone nozzle
without elbow
liner

10

15

20

25

To hang a line hammer for


measurement, or check the
smooth transition with concrete
nozzle

30

5. 1.3 The installation tolerances of runner chamber, foundation ring and stay ring shall meet the
requirements given in Table 2. The design requirements shall be complied with in the case of particular
design requirements.
Table 2 The Installation Tolerances of Runner Chamber, Foundation Ring and Stay Ring unit: mm
Runner Diameter D
3000
No.

6000

D<

Item

D<

D<

3000
6000

Center and orientation

Elevation

The
smoothn
ess
of
flange to
install
head
cover
and
foundatio
n ring

8000

8000
D
D<
1000
0

Notes

1000
0

To measure the distance


between the X and Y marks
on
the
embedded
component to the X and Y
reference lines of the
generator unit

3
Radial
measu
remen
t

Periph
eral
measu
remen
t

With
out
on-site
machining

0.05mm/m, the max. not exceeding


0.60

With
on-site
machining
With
out
on-site
machining

0.25

0.30

0.40

With
on-site
machining

Roundness of runner chamber

Roundness of foundation ring


and stay ring, coaxiality of runner
chamber

0.60

The elevation difference


between the highest and the
lowest points

0.35

The difference between various radii


and the average radius shall not
exceeding 10% of the average
designed clearance between the
blades and the runner chamber.

To measure the upper,


middle and lower sections
for axial turbine; to measure
the upper and lower rabbets
for diagonal turbine; 8~24
measuring points evenly
distributed

1.0

8~24
measuring
points
evenly distributed; take the
center of stationary wearing
ring as the reference for
mixed-flow turbine; take the
center of runner chamber as
the reference for axial
turbine.

1.5

2.0

2.5

3.0

5.1.4 The jointing planes of sectioned runner chamber, foundation ring and stay ring in the bolt-jointed
structure shall be applied with sealant. The jointing gaps shall meet the requirements given in Clause 4.7.
In order to prevent leakage, the jointing gaps to be exposed to the flowing medium can be sealing
welded, and the weld surfaces shall be ground to be smooth. The assembly of runner chamber,
foundation ring and stay ring shall comply with the design requirement in the case of welded assembly
structure.
5. 1.5 As installing the runner chamber ring and the stationary guide vane of post type stay ring, the
orientation deviation between stay ring and foundation ring shall be consistent. The end clearance of
guide vane shall be ensured to meet the design requirements, and the height from the upper plane of
foundation ring to the upper plane of stay ring shall be strictly controlled. The distortion of stay ring
caused by concrete laying, the error of measuring tools, and the decreasing of guide vane end clearance
owing to the distortion of head cover during operation shall be taken into consideration. The stay ring
shall be reliably fixed in order to minimize the distortion in the concrete laying period.
5.1.6 The assembly tolerance of spiral case shall meet the requirements given in Table 3.
Table 3 The Assembly Tolerance of Spiral Case
No.

Item

Tolerance

+2~+6

K1-K2

10

e1-e2

0.002e

0.001L, the
maximum shall not
exceed 9

0.002D

5.1.7

unit: mm

Notes

Assembling on a steel platform, or checking the nozzle


by line inspection method, the nozzle shall be on the
same plane (a must item to be verified)

The installation tolerance of spiral case shall meet the requirements given in Table 4.
Table 4 The Installation Tolerance of Spiral Case

No.

Item

Straight
tube

unit: mm

Tolerance

Notes

Distance to the Y axis


of the generator unit

0.003D

D- The inlet diameter of spiral case.


Taking the steel pipe nozzle as the
reference if the steel pipe has been
installed, the central deviation shall not
exceed 15% of the thickness of spiral case
sheet.

Elevation

Elevation of the farthest point

15

Tilting value of nozzle at the


positioning section

Deviation between the nozzle at


the positioning section and the
reference line

Radius of the farthest point

0.004R

R- The designed radius of the farthest


point

Height of nozzle section

0.002H

H- The height of nozzle section (section


diameter) (a must item to be verified)

5.1.8 The welding of spiral case shall meet the following requirements:
a) The welding shall be carried out to meet the requirements given in Clause 4.1 4;
b) In generally, the gaps of butt welds connecting various sections and between spiral case and
stay ring shall be ranged between 2mm~4mm. The staggers exposing to the flowing medium
shall not exceed 10% of the sheet thickness. However, the maximum stagger of longitudinal
seam shall not be more than 2mm, and the maximum stagger of ring seam shall not be more
than 3mm;
c) The length of groove with local gap exceeding 5mm shall not exceed 10% of the weld length.
Repair welding is allowed at the groove.
5.1.9 The welds on spiral case shall be conducted with visual appearance inspection and
non-destructive inspection. In the case of lacking manufacture requirements:
a) Visual appearance inspection on welds shall meet the requirements given in Table 5 shall be
satisfied;
Table 5 Visual Appearance Inspection for Welds on Spiral Case

unit: mm

No.

Item

Allowed defects and dimensions

Crack

Not allowed

Surface dredge

Not allowed

Undercut

The depth shall not exceed 0.5, the continuous


length shall not exceed 100, and the cumulative
length of undercuts at two sides shall not more
than 10% of the full length of the weld

Not welded fully

Not allowed

Surface pore

Not allowed

Remaining height
of weld, h

Width of butt weld

manual welding

12<25, h= 0~2.5; 25<<80, h= 0~5


Thickness of steel plate

submerged arc
welding

0~4

manual welding

Cover a width 2~4 on the groove at each side, of


smooth transition

submerged arc
welding

Cover a width 2~7on the groove at each side, of


smooth transition

Splash

Remove to be clean

Burr

Not allowed

b) Non-destructive inspection of welds:


With the ray detection, the length to be inspected: 10% for ring seams, 20% for longitudinal

seams or the butt welds between spiral case and stay ring. According to GB/T 3323, the
welding quality of ring seam shall meet the requirements of grade III, and that of longitudinal
seams or the butt welds between spiral case and stay ring shall meet the requirements of
grade II.
With the ultrasonic detection, the length to be inspected: 100% for ring seams, longitudinal
seams or the butt welds between spiral case and stay ring; According to GB/T 11345, the
welding quality of ring seam shall meet the requirements of BII, and that of longitudinal seams
or the butt welds between spiral case and stay ring shall meet the requirements of grade BI.
For the positions with doubt, recheck by means of ray detection.
c) For the steel lining of concrete spiral case, generally kerosene permeability test shall be
conducted, in which the welds shall be free of penetrative defect.
5.1.10 The worksite hydrostatic test on spiral case or the concrete laying for spiral case under pressure
shall be conducted according to the design requirements.
5.1.11 Prior to the concrete laying, the surface of spiral case shall be cleaned off angles or clamp plates.
Any burr shall be ground to be smooth, and the welds with damaged base shall be repaired and ground
and detected by magnetic powder inspection.
5.1.12 The measure shall be taken to prevent the stay ring from distortion during the installation, welding
and concrete laying of spiral case. The rising speed of concrete laying shall not exceed 300 mm/h. The
height of each concrete layer is normally 1 m~2 m, and the placement shall be symmetrical in pieces and
layers. The height of liquid concrete shall be controlled normally about 0.6 m. During the laying, the stay
ring shall be monitored to avoid distortion, and the concrete laying sequence can be adjusted at any time
according to the actual situation.
5.1.13 The roughness of the surfaces of embedded components exposing to the flowing medium shall
satisfy the requirements given in GB/T 10969. The welds exposing to the flowing medium on draft tube
liner, runner chamber and spiral case (or spiral case liner) shall be ground to be smooth. The transition
surfaces exposing to the flowing medium between the embedded components and the concrete shall be
smooth.
5.1.14 The installation tolerance of pit liner shall meet the requirements given in Table 6.
Table 6 The Installation Tolerance of Pit Liner

unit: mm

Runner Diameter D
No.

D<

Item

300
0

Center

Diameter
upper hole

of

Elevation
upper hole

of

3000

6000

8000

D<

D<

D<

6000

8000

10000

D
10000

10

15

20

10

12

Notes

To measure the distance


between the bore holes of upper
flanges on the liner flange and
the stay ring; 8~16 measuring
points evenly distributed

8~16 measuring points evenly


distributed

Level difference
of upper hole

8~16 measuring points evenly


distributed

5.1.15 The installation tolerance of servomotor foundation shall meet the requirements given in Table 7.
Table 7 The Installation Tolerance of Servomotor Foundation
Runner Diameter D
No.

D<

Item

300
0
1

Verticality, mm

Center
elevation, mm

Parallelism to the
coordinate reference
lines
of
the
generator unit

Distance
to
the
coordinate reference
lines
of
the
generator unit

3000

6000

8000

D<

D<

D<

6000

8000

10000

D
10000
0.30

and

Notes

0.25

1.0

1.5

2.0

2.5

3.0

1.0

1.5

2.0

2.5

3.0

To measure from the upper


flange of stay ring

3.0

5.2 Assembly of runner


5.2. 1 The runner sections of mixed-flow turbine shall be assembled, welded and annealed according to
the specified assembly welding technology and meeting the following requirements:
a) No undercut in the welds of runner throat ring. As the manufacturer required, flaw detection shall
be conducted to ensure the satisfaction of the requirements;
b) The joining gap of crown shall meet the requirements given in Clause 4.7;
c) The inferior fovea on crown flange shall not be more than 0.07mm/m, the superior hump shall
not be more than 0.0 3mm/m, and the maximum shall not exceed 0.06mm. For the main shaft in
a structure applying friction for momentum transfer, superior hump is generally not allowed;
d) The staggers on band weld shall not be more than 0.5 mm;
e) After the blade sections and the blade packing are installed and welded, the blade shape shall
meet the design requirements.
5.2.2 Before the on-site welding of wearing ring, the roundness of runner at the positions for installing
wearing ring shall meet the requirements given in Clause 5.2.8. After being welded, the wearing ring
shall be tightly attached and the welding quality shall meet the design requirements. If heat shrink is
required for installing the wearing ring, the shrink-on process shall meet the design requirements.
5.2.3 After the wearing rings of runner sections being ground, the measuring points shall not be less than
32. The dimensions shall meet the design requirements. The roundness shall meet the requirements of

Clause 5.2.8.
5.2.4 The static balance test shall be conducted according to Clause 5.2.5 after the runner sections
being ground. Distributing plate shall be supplied in the test and the clump weight shall be welded firmly
on the top surface of crown beneath the distributing plate.
5.2.5 The static balance test of runner shall meet the following requirements:
a) The static balancing tool shall be concentric with the runner. The concentricity deviation shall not
be more than 0.07mm. The horizontal deviation of the supporting seat shall not be more than
0.02mm/m;
b) As applying steel balls or mirror plate for balancing, the sensitivity of the static balancing tool
shall meet the requirements given in Table 8;
Table 8 Distances from the Ball Center to the Center of Runner Weight
Runner mass t, kg

Max. distance, mm

Min. distance, mm

t<5000

40

20

5000t<1000

50

30

10000t <50000

60

40

50000t <10000

80

50

10000t <20000

100

70

t20000

120

90

c) As applying the balancing method of measuring pole strain or static pressure spherical bearing,
the technology and requirements provided by the manufacturer shall be complied with;
d) The remaining unbalance tolerance shall meet the design requirements. In the case of lacking
design requirements, the requirements given in Table 9 shall be satisfied.
Table 9 The Permitted Unbalance Tolerance eper for Unit Mass of Runner
Max. working speed, r/min

125

150

200

250

300

400

Permitted unbalance tolerance


for unit mass of runner eper,
gmm/kg

550

450

330

270

220

170

5.2.6 The operating test and the tightness pressure test on the runner blade of adjustable blade propeller
turbine shall meet the following requirements:
a) The quality of oil used in the test shall be qualified, and the oil temperature shall not be lower
than 5C;
b) Hold the maximum testing pressure for 16 hours;
c) During the test, the full stroke of blade opening and closing shall be operated for 2~3 cycles per
hour;
d) The jointing seams shall be free of leakage. The oil leakage of single blade sealing device with
or without test pressure shall not exceed the limit given in Table 10, and not more than that in the

delivery test;
Table 10 Oil Leakage Limits of Single Propeller Sealing Device per Hour
Runner diameter D, mm

D<3000

3000D<6000

6000D<8000

8000D<10000

D10000

Oil leakage limit of


single propeller sealing
device per hour, mL/h

10

12

15

e) The runner servomotor shall act stably. The minimum oil pressure for opening and closing shall
not be more than 15% of the rated working pressure;
f) Figuring the relation curve between the runner servomotor stroke and the blade rotational angle.
5.2.7 The connection between the main shaft and the runner shall meet the following requirements:
a) The jointing plane of flange shall leave no gap. Check with a 0.03mm feeler, which shall not be
able to be inserted;
b) The bolt drop pit on the flange guard shall be filled to be flat;
c) The bolt of runner cone shall be firmly spot-welded. Measures shall be taken for the guarding
plate to prevent distortion. The welds shall be ground to be smooth.
5.2.8 The coaxiality and roundness of various parts of runner shall be checked taking the main shaft as
the center. The difference between the diameters and the average diameter shall meet the requirements
given in Table 11.
Table 11 Tolerance in Coaxiality and Roundness of Various Parts of Runner
No.

Item

Rated
head
<200m

1) Wearing ring
2) Installing surface of
wearing ring

Tolerance

Notes

10% of
designed
clearance

The outer edges of blade


shall be measured only if
necessary and the
external

3) Outer edges of
blade
4) Wearing ring on
distributing plate
5) Similarly serving as
the guard for flange
in sealing check
2

Rated
head
200m

1) Outer edge of
crown
2) Outer edge of band

15% of
designed
clearance

5% of designed
clearance

The corresponding fixed


parts are head cover and
bottom ring

3) Wearing ring of
upper comb

0.10 mm

4) Lower wearing ring


5.3 Preassembly of distributor
5.3.1 Before preassembling the distributor, pit test shall be conducted to detect the roundness of the
bore hole on stay ring and thus to determine the center of the generator unit. Measure the elevation and
level of the upper surfaces of stay ring and foundation ring, and calculate the height difference, which
shall meet the requirements given in Clause 5.1.3 and the relevant drawings.
For the turbine design with cylindrical valve, the cylindrical valve shall be included in the
preassembly of distributor.
5.3.2 The jointing planes of bottom ring sections, head cover and inner head cover shall be applied with
sealant. The jointing gap shall meet the requirements given in Clause 4.7. In the case that the wearing
ring shall be inserted by shrink or mechanical pressure, the relevant design requirements shall be
complied with.
5.3.3

The preassembly of distributor shall meet the following requirements:

a) In the case of mixed-flow turbine, the lower stationary wearing ring can be installed referring to
the central measuring points determined by pit detection. The center of the lower stationary
wearing ring is taken as the reference center of the generator unit. The coaxiality and roundness
of various stationary wearing rings shall be checked referring to the reference center of the
generator unit. The difference between the diameters and the average diameter shall meet the
requirements for relevant parts given in Table 11. If the height of the working surface of wearing
ring exceeds 200m m, both the upper and the lower rings shall be checked;
b) In the case of axial turbine, the center of runner chamber shall be taken as the reference center
of the generator unit. The coaxiality of the front edges of sealing seat and bearing pedestal
flange shall be checked referring to the reference center of the generator unit. The tolerance
shall meet the requirements given in Table 12;
Table 12 Coaxiality Tolerance of the Front Edges of Sealing Seat and Bearing Pedestal Flange
unit: mm
Runner
diameter
D

D<3000

Tolerance

0.25

3000D

6000D

8000D

<6000

<8000

<10000

1000
0

0.50

0.75

1.00

Notes

8~24 points evenly


distributed

c) In the case of diagonal turbine, the center of upper front edge of runner chamber shall be taken
as the reference center of the generator unit;
d) The preassembled quantity of guide vanes shall generally not be less than 1/3 of the total
quantity;
e) After the adjustment of bottom ring and head cover, the quantity of installing bolts symmetrically
tightened shall generally not be less than 50% and shall meet the requirements given in Table
13. As checking the end face clearances of guide vanes, and the clearances at two ends of

guide vanes, no regular inclination is allowed. The maximum overall clearance shall not exceed
the designed clearance, and the distortion of head cover after being loaded shall be taken into
consideration.
Table 13 Adjustment Tolerance of Bottom Ring and Head Cover

unit: mm

Runner Diameter D
3000

6000

8000

D<

D<

D<

6000

8000

10000

D<

Item

10000

3000
Roundness
wearing ring

of

Concentricity
wearing ring

of

Level difference of
upper
face
of
bottom ring

Coaxiality of holes
on guide vane
bearing bush

5% of the designed clearance for the runner


wearing ring
0.15

0.35

Notes

0.20

0.45

0.60

8~24 points evenly


distributed
8~24 points evenly
distributed
The peripheral points of
measuring points shall not
be less than the guide vane
quantity. Take the elevation
difference
between
the
highest point and the lowest
point

Meeting the design requirements

5.3.4 The distributor directly for formal installation without preassembly shall also comply with the
requirements stipulated from 5.3.1 to 5.3.3.
5.3.5 The installation of cylindrical valve shall satisfy the following requirements:
a) Upon the cylinder assembled and welded, the roundness of the cylinder under free condition
shall meet the design requirements;
b) The installation and adjustment of servomotor and pipeline shall meet the design requirements,
and the consistency of action time of various servomotors shall be guaranteed;
c) The welding of cylinder shall satisfy the requirements stipulated in JB/T 4709 and Clause 4.14;
d) The installation of synchronous scheme and stroke indicator shall meet the design requirements.
The actions all through the stroke shall be stable.
5.4 The placement and installation of rotating parts
5.4. 1 The placing elevation of main shaft and runner after being lifted into the pit shall normally be
slightly lower than the designed elevation. A clearance ranged in 2 mm~6 mm shall remain between the
upper flange face of the main shaft and the front edge of lower flange of the lifted generator shaft. For
the generator unit with the thrust collar installed on the main shaft of turbine, the placing elevation of the
main shaft and runner after lifting into the pit shall be slightly higher than the designed elevation in order
to leave a clearance ranged in 2 mm~5 mm between the installed thrust collar and the mirror plate. The
verticality difference of main shaft shall generally not be more than 0.0 5mm/m.
As aligning the turbine or generator according to a real object, the center and the main shaft of runner

shall be adjusted to be perpendicular to leave the clearance for wearing ring satisfying the requirements
of Clause 5.4.2. The vertical deviation of main shaft shall not be more than 0.02 mm/m.
5.4.2 In the case of lacking the manufacturers instruction, the highest elevation of the installed runner,
and the clearance tolerance between various wearing rings or between blade and runner chamber shall
meet the requirements given in Table 14.
Table 14 Tolerance in the elevation and clearance of runner installation

unit: mm

Runner Diameter D
Item

3000

6000

8000

D<

D<

D<

6000

8000

10000

D<

10000

3000

Elevati
on

Notes

Mixed-flow

1.5

2.5

To measure the staggers


between the stationary and
the rotating wearing rings

Axial

0~+2

+~+3

0~+4

0~+5

To measure the distance


from the bottom ring to the
runner top face

Diagonal

0~+0
.8

0~+1.0

Rated head
<200 m

The difference of various clearances and the


actual average clearance shall not exceed
20% of the average clearance.
a1

Cleara
nce

a2
Rated head
200 m

b1
b2

To measure the clearance


between the blade to the
runner chamber
At full-closing position, to
measure
the
clearance
between the blade and the
runner chamber at the inlet,
outlet and the middle point

The difference of various clearances


and the actual average clearance
shall not exceed 10% of the
average clearance.

The difference of various clearances


and the actual average clearance
shall not exceed 10% of the
average clearance.

Note: The installed elevation of runner given in the table is the actual elevation having taken the sinking
of runner caused by water thrust into consideration.
5.4.3 After the generator coupled, no gap shall be left in the jointing seam of two flanges. Check with
0.03 mm feeler, which shall not be inserted.
5.4.4 The installation of operating oil pipes and oil head shall meet the following requirements:
a) The operating oil pipes shall be cleaned strictly and connected reliably free of oil leakage; the
measure shall be taken to lock the bolt-connected operation oil pipes;
b) The swing of operating oil pipe shall generally be no more than 0.20mm for fixed bowl structure,

and no more than 0.30mm for floating bowl structure;


c) The horizontal deviation of oil head shall not be more than 0.05mm/m measured on the plane of
oil head seat;
d) The clearance between the oil rings of rotating sump and oil head seat shall be even, and shall
not be less than 70% of the designed value;
e) The insulation resistance of oil head to the ground shall be no less than 0.5M measured with
the draft tube free of water.
5.5 Installation adjustment of guide vane and servomotor
5.5.1 The end face clearance of guide vane shall meet the designed requirements. The axial clearance
of the thrust ring of guide vane shall not be more than 50% of the upper clearance of the guide vane. The
guide vane shall rotate flexibly.
5.5.2 At the position of the maximum opening, the distance between guide vane and stop block shall
meet the designed requirements, to be ranged in 5 mm-10 mm in the case of no specified value.
The link shall be connected and adjusted with the guide vane and the regulating ring placed with a small
opening. The gap of local vertical surface of guide vane shall be detected with the vane fully closed. The
link can also be connected with the guide vane fastened by steel wire and the regulating ring at the full
closing position. The deviation in the closing circle of guide vane shall meet the designed requirements.
The link shall be adjusted to be horizontal, with the height difference of two ends no more than 1 mm.
The distance between the two axle holes shall be measured and recorded.
5.5.3 With the guide vane fastened by steel wire, the gap of local vertical surface of guide vane is
checked with a 0.05 mm feeler, which shall be unable to pass through. The local clearance shall not
exceed the limit given in Table 15. The overall length of guide vane shall not exceed 25% of the height of
guide vane. The design requirements shall be complied with in the case of particular requirements.
Table 15 Gap Tolerance of Local Vertical Surface of Guide Vane
Item

Height of guide vane, h


h<600

Guide vane
without
sealing rod
Guide vane
with sealing
rod

Notes

600h<1200

1200h<2000

2000h<4000

h4000

0.10

0.13

0.15

0.20

0.15

0.15

0.20

Checking the
vertical surface of
guide vane with the
sealing rod inserted,
no gap is permitted

5.5.4 The servomotor shall be installed to meet the following requirements:


a) For the servomotor to be disassembled on the site, after completing disassembly, cleaning,
inspection and assembly, the jointing gaps shall meet the design requirements. And the gaps
between various jointing planes shall meet the requirements given in Clause 4.7;
b) Tightness pressure test shall be conducted for the servomotor according to Clause 4.11. In the
test for swing servomotor, the oil distribution sleeve shall be turned for 3~5 cycles;
c) Regarding the horizontal deviation of servomotor installation, as the piston placed at full closing,

middle or full opening, the level difference of the sleeve or the piston rod shall not be more than
0.10 mm/m;
d) The clamping stroke of servomotor shall meet the design requirements provided by the
manufacturer, otherwise those given in Table 16 shall be complied with;
Table 16 Clamping Stroke of Servomotor

unit: mm

Runner Diameter D
Item

3000

6000

8000

D<

D<

D<

6000

8000

10000

6~8

7~10

8~13

D<

10000

3000

Straig
ht
cylind
er
servo
motor

Guide vane
with sealing
rod
Guide vane
without
sealing rod

Swing servomotor

4~7

3~6

Notes

5~7

6~9

7~12

10~15

9~14

With the guide vane placed at full closing, the


movement of piston as the servomotor
pressure rising from zero to 50% of working
oil pressure is the clamping stroke.

Remove the oil pressure of


servomotor, and measure
the movement of piston to
return
To determine according to
the requirements on the
straight cylinder servomotor
if it is convenient to adjust
the limiting device.

e) The position and opening size of throttling device shall meet the design requirements;
f)

The servomotor piston shall move stably and smoothly. The piston stroke shall meet the design
requirements. The stroke deviation between two pistons of straight cylinder servomotor shall not
be more than 1 mm;

g) After the oil pipelines for the oil distributor of servomotor is completed, the servomotor shall act
flexibly.
5.6 The installation of sealing for distributor and main shaft
5.6.1 The guide bearing shoe shall meet the following requirements:
a) The surface of runner guide bearing shoe shall be flat and free of defects like crack or scaling.
The guide bearing shoe made of Babbitt metal shall be free of defects like dense pores, crack,
hard spot or scaling. The roughness of bearing shoe surface shall be smaller than 0.8 m;
b) The runner guide bearing shoe or the cylinder guide bearing shoe shall be assembled on trial in
advance and the overall gap shall meet the design requirements. Neither the difference between
the maximum and the minimum overall gap at every end, nor the difference between the overall
gap of upper and lower ends in the same orientation shall be more than 10% of the actually
measured average overall gap.
c) No further grinding is needed for the cylinder bearing shoe meeting the requirements of the
above a) and b); for the sectioned shoe, whether grinding is needed shall be determined
according to the design requirements;

d) The surface of guide bearing shoe after grinding shall be jointed evenly. At least one contact
exists within every area of one square centimeter. Every local non-contacted area in each
bearing shoe shall not be larger than 5%, and the overall area shall not exceed 15% of the total
area of guide bearing shoe.
5.6.2 The guide bearing shoe shall be installed to meet the following requirements:
a) The guide bearing shoe shall be installed under the condition with the generator axis and thrust
collar adjusted properly, and the gap of wearing ring of turbine and the air gap of generator
meeting the specified requirements. To facilitate checking the central position of the shaft,
central measuring points shall be set at suitable positions on the stationary part of bearing and
relevant data shall be measured and recorded;
b) The guide bearing shoe shall be installed referring to the central position of main shaft, and the
gap shall be adjusted taking the swing direction and size of turning into consideration. The
overall installation gap shall meet the design requirements. However, the swing can be
neglected in gap adjustment for the generators with only two guide bearings;
c) The gap tolerance for sectioned guide bearing shoe shall not exceed 0.02mm; That for cylinder
guide bearing shoe shall be ranged in 20% of the specified gap. The shoe plane shall be kept
perpendicular.
5.6.3 The bearing shall be installed to meet the following requirements:
a) The oil box of thin oil bearing shall be oil-tight. Generally the gasoline leakage test shall be
conducted according to Clause 4.12;
b) Pressure test shall be conducted for the bearing cooler according to Clause 4.11;
c) The oil shall reach the specified quality. The oil level shall meet the design requirements, with
the deviation not exceeding 10 mm.
5.6.4 The standstill seal of main shaft shall be installed to meet the following requirements:
a) The air shrouding shall be charged with 0.05MPa compressed air to conduct air leakage test in
water before assembly. No air leakage shall occur;
b) With the air shrouding installed, the radial gap shall meet the design requirements. The deviation
shall not exceed 20% of the designed gap;
c) Air charging and venting test and pressure test shall be conducted for the installed air shrouding.
The pressure drop in the test shall meet the design requirements. In general, keeping for one
hour at a pressure as 1.5 times of working pressure, the pressure drop should not exceed 10%
of the rated working pressure.
5.6.5 The working sealing of main shaft shall meet the following requirements:
a) The axial and radial gaps of the installed working sealing shall meet the design requirements,
and the tolerance shall not exceed 20% of the actual average gap;
b) The sealing parts shall be able to move freely up and down, and contacted well with the sealing
surface of revolving ring; The water supply pipeline shall keep unblocked.
5.7 Installation of accessories
5.7.1 Action test and leakage test shall be conducted for vacuum break valve and aeration valve. The

starting pressure and the maximum opening shall meet the design requirements.
5.7.2 Tightness pressure test shall be conducted for the servomotor of gate valve or disk valve for the
draining of spiral case and draft tube according to Clause 4.11.
5.7.3 The horizontal deviation of the installed seat of disk valve shall not be more than 0.20mm/m.
With the disk valve installed, the sealing surface shall leave no gap. The valve group shall act flexibly,
and the valve stem shall be sealed reliably.
5.7.4 The aerating device at the central hole of main shaft shall be installed according to the design
requirements. If required by the design, barring examination shall be conducted for the aeration pipe at
the center of main shaft. The swing shall not exceed 20% of the actual average sealing gap, and the
maximum swing shall not exceed 0.30 mm. The connecting bolts shall be locked reliably. The insulation
resistance to the ground of the installed supporting seat shall be measured and generally no less than
0.5 M. Anti-dewing measures shall be taken for the naked pipelines.

6 Installation of Through Flow Turbine


6.1 Installation of embedded components
6.1.1 The draft tube of through flow turbine shall be installed according to the tolerance requirement
given in Table 17.
Table 17 The Installation Tolerance for Draft Tube of Through Flow Turbine

unit: mm

Runner Diameter D
No.

3000

6000

D<

D<

6000

8000

D<

Item

Notes

3000

Difference of Max. and Min.


diameters of nozzle flange

3.0

4.0

5.0

Refer to the flange on discharge ring


in the case of structure with
discharge ring

Center and orientation

1.5

2.0

2.5

The elevation of level mark at


nozzle, and the left/right deviation of
the verticality mark at the nozzle

Distance from the flange


plane to the central line of
runner

2.0

2.5

3.0

Verticality and levelness


flange plane

0.8

1.0

1.2

of

(1) Taking the downstream-side


flange as the reference in the
case that the pipe saddle is
preinstalled;
(2) To
measure
four
points
respectively at upper, lower, left
and right positions
To measure the verticality of the
flange plane referring to the central
line of the unit

6.1.2 The installation tolerance for the pipe saddle of through flow turbine shall meet the requirements
given in Table 18.
Table 18 The Installation Tolerance for Pipe Saddle of Through Flow Turbine

unit: mm

Runner Diameter D
No.

Item

3000

6000

D<

D<

6000

8000

3.0

1) The elevation of the level marks


on the upstream and downstream
4.0 flanges

D<

Notes

3000

Orientation and elevation

2.0

2) The distance from the X and Y


marks on the part to the

corresponding reference line


1) Take the flange as reference in
the case that the draft tube is
preinstalled

Distance between the flange


plane to the central line of
runner

2.0

2.5

3.0 2) To
measure
four
points
respectively at upper, lower, left
and right positions

Verticality and levelness of


the flange plane of the
maximum size

0.8

1.0

1.2

Roundness

1.0

1.5

2.0

Distance between the inner


and
outer
flanges
at
downstream side

0.6

1.0

1.2

Make conversion for other


verticality and levelness based on
the tolerance

6.1.3 The installation tolerance for the passage cover plate of through flow turbine shall meet the
requirements given in Table 19.
Table 19 The Installation Tolerance for Passage Cover plate of Through Flow Turbine

unit: mm

Runner Diameter D
No.

Item

3000

6000

D<

D<

6000

8000

D<

Notes

3000

Center and position of silo


hole of passage cover plate

Elevation of foundation frame

Height deviation at four


corners of foundation frame

Levelness of flange on the


silo hole of passage cover
plate, mm/m

Deviation between the central line


of frame and the designed central
line

5.0
4.0

5.0

6.0

0.8

6.1.4 The installation tolerance for the servomotor foundation of through flow turbine shall meet the
requirements given in Table 7.
6.1.5 The concrete laying shall be conducted according to Clause 5.1.11 and 5.1.12 after the
acceptance test on the installation of pipe saddle.
6.2 Assembly of main shaft
6.2.1 The main shaft shall be assembled in the installation room generally. Put the main shaft onto the
supporting rack for assembly and adjust the levelness with the tolerance no more than 0.5mm/m.
6.2.2 The operating oil pipes shall be cleaned strictly and connected reliably free of oil leakage. The
inner operating oil pipe shall move flexibly in the outer operating oil pipe.

6.2.3 The check prior to the assembly of guide bearing shoe shall be conducted according to Clause
5.6.1; As mounting onto the main shaft, the gap tolerance of guide bearing shoe shall meet the design
requirements. The two ends of guide bearing shoe shall be well sealed so that the oil can be returned
fluently.
6.2.4 The fitting between guide bearing shoe and bearing case shall meet the requirement given in
Clause 10.4.4; The gap between the jointing planes of bearing case, supporting ring and hydro cone
shall meet the requirement given in Clause 4.7.
6.2.5 As installing the guide bearing, the changes caused by the deflection of rotating parts shall be
taken into consideration.
6.2.6 The bearing specified with insulation resistance against ground shall be detected with a 1000V
megohmmeter before filling oil. The insulation resistance shall not be lower than 1M.
6.3 Assembly of distributor
6.3.1 The jointing planes between the sectioned outer guide rings, inner guide ring and regulating ring
shall be applied with sealant or installed with sealing rods according to the design requirements. The
jointing seams shall meet the requirements given in Clause 4.7. The sealing rod shall be installed with a
length ranged in 1mm~2mm exposed at two ends.
6.3.2 The assembly of distributor shall meet the following requirements:
a) The coaxiality of the inner and outer guide ring shall be adjusted to keep the tolerance no more than
0.5mm;
b) The distance between the inner and outer flanges at the upstream side of distributor shall meet the
design requirements, with the tolerance no more than 0.4mm;
c) The end plane gap of guide vane shall be adjusted. The gap between the inner and outer end planes
at the closed position shall meet the design requirements. The gaps at the guide vane head and tail ends
shall be close to being equal, and the rotation of the guide vane shall be flexible;
d) The maximum gap at the vertical surface of guide vane shall not exceed 0.25mm. The length shall not
exceed 25% of the height of the guide vane.
6.4 Installation of distributor
6.4.1 After the inner and outer guide rings and the moveable guide vane being lifted into the pit as a
whole, the coaxiality from the inner guide ring and hydro cone to the pipe saddle shall be adjusted to be
no more than 0.5mm.
6.4.2 After the regulating ring and the outer guide ring being lifted into the pit, the gap between regulating
ring and outer guide ring shall be measured and adjusted to meet the design requirements.
6.5 Installation of main shaft, runner and runner chamber
6.5.1 After the installation of runner, tightness breakdown test and action test shall be conducted and
meet the requirements given in Clause 5.2.6.
6.5.2 As adjusting the axes, the changes in axes caused by operation, and the actual tilting value of the
flange plane of pipe saddle shall be taken into consideration, and the design requirements shall be
satisfied.
6.5.3 After completing the connection between runner and main shaft, the jointing plane shall be

detected with 0.03mm feeler, which shall not be able to pass through.
6.5.4 The operating oil pipe of oil head shall be included in the turning check. The swing of operating oil
pipe shall generally be no more than 0.1mm. The coaxiality between the oil head bowl and operating oil
pipe shall be no more than 0.15 mm for fixed bowl structure, and no more than 0.2 mm for floating bowl
structure;
6.5.5 The runner chamber shall be adjusted and installed with the runner as the center. The gap
between runner chamber and blade shall meet the design requirements.
6.5.6 The sealing installation of main shaft shall meet the requirements given in Clause 5.6.4 and Clause
5.6.5.
6.5.7 After the installation of expansion joints, the reserved clearance of expansion joints shall meet the
design requirements, and the tolerance shall not exceed 3mm.
6.6 The flow-passing planes and the jointing planes shall be installed with sealing parts and applied with
sealant according to the design requirements. Tightness check shall be conducted to avoid leakage.
6.7 For the distributor with heavy hammer, following the completion of turbine assembly and the
formation of distributor operation system, the heavy hammer closing test shall be conducted on the
generator unit under water-free or static water condition according to the design requirements. The
closing time shall be recorded.

7 Installation of Reaction Turbine


7.1 Installation of water distribution pipeline
7.1.1 The distance tolerance between the inlet central line of water distribution pipeline and the
coordinate line of the generator unit shall not be more than 2% of the inlet diameter.
7.1.2 As welding the flanges of manifold, the flanges shall be controlled and detected to avoid hazardous
distortion.
7.1.3 After the completion of manifold welding, each supporting plane of flange and nozzle shall be
checked in terms of the elevation, the horizontal distance to the coordinate line of generator unit, the
mutual distance and verticality of each flange, and the angular position of holes, to ensure the tolerances
to satisfy the design requirements.
7.1.4 Hydrostatic test shall be conducted for manifold and branch pipe. The test pressure shall comply
with the manufacturers requirements. The welding seams on manifold and branch pipe shall be free of
leakage, and the flanges of branch pipe shall be free of hazardous distortion.
7.1.5 Should the concrete shall be laid under pressure for manifold and branch pipe, the water pressure
in manifold shall be controlled according to the design requirements.
7.2 Installation of housing
7.2.1 The sectioned housing shall be assembled according to the requirements given in Clause 4.7.
Sealant shall be applied for the jointing without sealing or liner.
7.2.2 As installing the housing, the tolerance with the X and Y datum lines of generator unit shall not be
more than 1mm, the elevation deviation shall not exceed 2mm, and the horizontal deviation of the
upper flange plane of housing shall not be more than 0.04mm/m.
In the case of vertical generator unit, the elevation of various nozzle flanges on the housing shall be
equal, with the tolerance no more than 1mm; The verticality of various flanges shall not be more than
0.30mm/m, and the distance to the coordinator lines of the generator unit shall meet the design
requirements.
7.2.3 For the double runner horizontal turbine placed at two ends of generator unit, the relative elevation
difference between two housings shall not be more than 1mm; The central distance shall refer to the
position of thrust disc, and the addition of measured length of generator rotor and shaft plus the heat
extension of generator rotor, with the deviation not exceeding 0mm~+1mm.
7.3 Assembly of turbine bearing
7.3.1 The assembly of vertical turbine bearing shall meet the following requirements:
a) The bearing flange shall be measured to ensure the elevation deviation not to exceed 2mm and the
horizontal deviation generally smaller than 0.04mm/m;
b) The guide bearing and its support shall be preassembled. The central deviation between the center of
bearing support and the center of generator unit shall not be more than 0.40mm. After positioning the
preassembly, location holes shall be bored and location pin shall be fitted for jointing it with the housing;
c) Guide bearing shall be installed after the axes of generator unit being confirmed, and shall meet the
following requirements:
1) The oil box of thin oil bearing shall be oil-tight. The gasoline leakage test shall be conducted

according to Clause 4.12;


2) Pressure test shall be conducted for the bearing cooler according to Clause 4.11;
3) The oil shall reach the specified quality. The oil level shall meet the design requirements, with
the deviation not exceeding 6 mm.
7.3.2 The assembly of horizontal turbine bearing shall meet the following requirements:
a) Should the horizontal guide bearing require grinding on the site, the requirements given in Clause
10.1.1 and Clause 10.1.2 shall be complied with;
b) The clearance of bearing shall be adjusted to satisfy the requirements given in Clause 10.4.
7.4 Installation of turbine shaft
7.4.1 Prior to the installation of turbine shaft, the smoothness and levelness shall be checked for the
jointing flanges.
7.4.2 In the case of vertical generator unit, the upper flange plane of turbine shaft shall be 20mm-25mm
lower than the designed elevation. For the structures of turbine shaft directly connected with generator
rotor, the coaxiality between generator rotor flange and turbine shaft flange, the parallelism, and the
elevation of generator rotor flange against nozzle axis shall be adjusted to meet the design
requirements.
7.4.3 The deviation in levelness or verticality of main shaft shall not be more than 0.02mm/m.
7.4.4 Prior to the installation of guide bearing, the axis of the generator unit shall be check to meet the
design requirements.
7.5 Installation of nozzle and servomotor
7.5.1 Before installing the nozzle and servomotor, tightness breakdown test shall be conducted
according to the manufacturers requirements.
7.5.2 After assembling the nozzle and servomotor, the needle and servomotor shall act flexibly under
16% the rated pressure. With the closing chamber of servomotor filled with oil of rated pressure, no gap
shall remain between needle tip and nozzle tip ring. If the needle servomotor is a built-in servomotor, the
discharging chamber of oil-water mixture shall be checked and ensured to be free of oil or water
leakage.
7.5.3 The installation of nozzle shall meet the following requirements:
a) The central line of nozzle shall be tangent to the runner pitch circle, with the radial deviation no more
than 0.2% d1 (d1 is the diameter of runner pitch circle), and the axial deviation with the diverting blade of
bucket no more than 0.5% W (W is the maximum width at the internal side of bucket);
b) The deviation between the deflector center and the nozzle center shall not be more than 4mm;
c) The deviation of reduction length of buffer spring against the design value shall not exceed 1mm;
d) The synchronization deviation in the movement of various nozzle needles shall not exceed 2% of the
designed stroke;
e) The axial and radial deviation of the central line of negative braking nozzle shall not be more than
5mm.

7.6 Installation of runner


7.6.1 The runner shall be installed to meet the following requirements:
a) The rotating plane of diverting blade of runner bucket shall pass through the center of the flange for
installing nozzle on the housing, with the deviation no more than 0.5%W;
b) The run out tolerance of runner end surface shall not be more than 0.05mm/m;
c) The gap between runner and water baffle shall meet the design requirements.
7.6.2 The sealing of main shaft shall meet the requirements given in Clause 5.6.5.
7.7 Installation and adjustment of control mechanism
7.7.1 The center deviation of various parts of control mechanism shall not be more than 2mm, the
elevation deviation shall not exceed 1.5mm, the horizontal and vertical deviation shall not be more than
0.10mm/m. and the control mechanism shall act flexibly after installation.
7.7.2 The opening hole of deflector shall be 3mm larger than the jetting radius, but shall not exceed 6mm.
Different deflectors shall act synchronously, with the deviation not exceeding 2% of the designed value.

Installation and Commissioning of Speed-Governing System

8.1 Installation and commissioning of oil pressure unit


8.1.1 The foundation of return oil tank and pressure vessel and the equipment shall be installed to meet
the requirements given in Table 20.
8.1.2 The code and quality of oil used in the speed-governing system shall meet the requirements given
in Clause 4.15, and the working temperature oil shall be ranged in 10~50.
Table 20 The Installation Tolerance of Return Oil Tank (Governor Oil Tank) and Pressure Vessel
No.

Item

Tolerance

Notes

Center, mm

To measure the distance from the mark


on the equipment to the X and Y datum
lines of the unit

Elevation, mm

Levelness, mm/m

To measure the elevation of the four


corners of return oil tank (governor oil
tank)

Verticality of pressure
vessel, mm/m

To measure by the line arranged in X and


Y directions

8.1.3 Tightness breakdown test shall be conducted with qualified steam turbine oil for pressure vessel,
oil pipeline or bearing element before put into operation according to Clause 4.11.
8.1.4 The flexible coupling between the horizontal oil pump and the motor shall be installed and aligned,
with both the eccentricity and the tilting value no more than 0.08mm. With the axial play of oil pump at
the axial motor side being zero, a gap ranged in 1mm~3mm shall remain between couplings. After all
dowels fitted, the couplings shall allow slight relative rotation. Qualified steam turbine oil shall be filled in
the oil pump chamber.
8.1.5 The oil level at different parts of oil pressure unit shall meet the design requirements.
8.1.6 The trial run of oil pump and motor shall meet the following requirements:
a) The inspection and test on motor shall meet the relevant requirements given in GB50150;
b) The oil pump shall be operated without load for one hour, and then 15 minutes respectively under
25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of the rated pressure. No abnormity shall occur;
c) During operation, the vibration of the oil pump case shall not be more than 0.05mm, and the
temperature of bearing case shall not be higher than 60;
d) Under the rated pressure, the oil transmission rate of oil pump shall not be less than the designed
value.
8.1.7 The adjustment of various parts of oil pressure unit shall meet the following requirements:
a) Check the relation curve of the pressure and the output voltage (current) of the oil level sensor versus
oil pressure and oil level. The range with possible changes in working oil pressure and oil level shall
present as linear, with the characteristics satisfying the design requirements;
b) The pressure transmitter for safety valve and operating oil pump, and that for backup oil pump shall

be adjusted to meet the requirements given in Table 21 unless otherwise specified in the design. The
action deviation of pressure transmitter shall not exceed 1% of the setting value, and the returned value
shall not exceed the design requirements;
c) The operating pressure of the overflow value for continuously operating oil pump shall meet the
setting values for operating oil pump specified in Table 21 unless otherwise specified in the design;
Table 21 Setting Values of Pressure Transmitter for Safety Valve and Oil Pump
Rated
oil
pressure

unit: MPa

Setting value
Safety valve

Operating oil pump

Backup oil pump

Pressure to
start oil
draining

Pressure
of full
opening

Pressure
of full
closing

Starting
pressure

Reset
pressure

Starting
pressure

Reset
pressure

2.50

2.55

2.90

2.30

2.20~2.30

2.50

2.05~2.15

2.50

4.00

4.08

4.64

3.80

3.70~3.80

4.00

3.55~3.65

4.00

6.30

6.43

7.30

6.10

6.00~6.10

6.30

5.85~5.95

6.30

d) The safety valve shall cause no sharp vibration or noise as operating;


e) The setting values of low oil pressure in emergency shall meet the design requirements, and the
action deviation shall not exceed 2% of the setting value;
f) The oil level transmitter of the automatic air refilling device and return oil tank in pressure vessel shall
act accurately and reliably;
g) The startup and shutdown action of pressure oil pump and leakage oil pump shall be correct and
reliable. Reversal shall not be allowed.
8.1.8 With the pressure vessel at the working pressure and the oil level at the normal position, close
various connecting valves and keep for eight hours, the oil pressure drop shall not be more than 4% of
the rated working pressure. Write down the descending value of oil level.
8.2 Installation of governor
8.2.1 The mechanical cabinet, electrical cabinet and emergency control valve of the governor shall be
installed to meet the following requirements:
a) The installation tolerance for the mechanical cabinet, electrical cabinet and emergency control valve
of electro-hydraulic governor shall comply with the requirements given in Table 22;
Table 22 Installation Tolerance for The Mechanical Cabinet, Electrical Cabinet and Emergency Control
Valve of Electro-hydraulic Governor
No.

Item

Tolerance

Notes

Center, mm

To measure the distance between the


marks on the equipment and the X and Y
datum lines of the unit

Elevation, mm

Levelness of mechanical
cabinet, mm/m

0.15

To measure the pedestal of


electro-hydraulic switching device

Verticality or levelness of
emergency control valve,
mm/m

0.15

To measure the foundation plate of


emergency control valve

Verticality of electrical
cabinet, mm/m

To measure by the lines arranged in X


and Y directions

b) For the combined electro-hydraulic governor, the installation shall take the driving gear support of
regulating shaft as the reference, with the tolerance as the design required;
c) Refer to Appendix B for the installation of mechanical hydraulic governor.
8.2.2 For the mechanical-hydraulic component to be disassembled, the cleaning, assembly and
adjustment of its elements shall comply with the requirements given in the manufacturers drawing.
8.2.3 The indicators and levers in the mechanical cabinet of governor shall be adjusted according to the
dimensions marked in the relevant drawings, with the position deviation between various mechanisms
no more than 1mm.
8.2.4 With the servomotors of guide vane and impeller blade placed at the middle position (equivalent to
50% opening), the position of various regulating levers and links of reset mechanism shall meet the
design requirements, with the horizontal or vertical deviation no more than 1mm/m; The coupling of reset
mechanism shall be firm, and load test shall be conducted according to the design requirements.
8.2.5 The loop connection of various systems in the electrical part shall be checked and meet the design
requirements. The measurement of insulation resistance and the withstanding voltage test shall be
carried out according to the relevant requirements in GB 50150 Standard for Hand-Over Test of Electric
Equipment.
8.2.6 The output voltage of the stabilized voltage supply in the electrical part shall meet the design
requirements. The changes in output voltage shall generally not exceed 1% of the designed value.
8.2.7 The adjustable range of characteristics and adjustable parameters of various unit loops in electrical
part, e.g. permanent speed droop bp, slip ep, proportional gain Kp, integral gain K1, differential gain Kd (or
temporary speed droop bt, time constant of damping device Td and acceleration time constant T0), shall
meet the design requirements.
8.2.8 The adjustable range of set values of opening, frequency and power shall meet the design
requirements.
8.2.9 Record the signal input quantity and output quantity (current and voltage) of speed detector and
figure out the relation curve. Within the range of 10% of the ranted rotational speed, the static
characteristic curve shall close to be a straight line and the rotational speed dead zone shall meet the
designed setting values; Within the range of 2% of the ranted rotational speed, the deviation of the
measured value of amplification factor shall not exceed 5% of the designed value.
8.3 Oil filling and adjustment test of speed-governing system
8.3.1 Connect an oscillating current into the electro-hydraulic switching device and check the oscillating
quantity according to the design requirements.
8.3.2 Check the zero deviation of electro-hydraulic switching device and the zero drift of pressure. The
zero deviation shall generally not be more than 5% of the rated output quantity (current and voltage);
within the range of working oil pressure, the zero drift of pressure shall not cause any obvious movement
of servomotor.
8.3.3 Record the input frequency and the output movement of electro-hydraulic or electromechanical

switching device, and figure out the static characteristic curve. The dead zone and the amplification
factor shall meet the design requirements.
8.3.4 Measure the output voltage (current) of feedback sensor and the servomotor movement, and figure
out the relation curve. Within the entire stroke range of servomotor, the curve shall be linear, and the
characteristics shall meet the design requirements.
8.3.5 The initial oil filling for the speed-governing system shall be carried out slowly. The filled oil
pressure shall normally not exceed 50% of the rated pressure; Make the servomotor move in full stroke
for several cycles, no abnormity shall occur.
Switching test of different control methods (manual, automatic and others) shall be conducted for the
governor. The governor shall act normally without causing obvious swing of servomotor.
Tightness test shall be conducted for oil pipelines and bearing elements according to Clause 4.11.
8.3.6 Check the indication of pointer on the mechanical cabinet by manually controlling the opening limit
device of guide vane servomotor. The stroke indication shall be consistent with that of guide vane
servomotor and impeller blade servomotor. The deviation shall be no more than 1% of the full piston
stroke against the guide vane servomotor and no more than 0.5 against the impeller blade servomotor.
8.3.7 The emergency closing and opening time of guide vane and impeller blade, and the sectioned
closing stroke and time of guide vane shall not deviate from the corresponding designed values by more
than 5%, and eventually they shall satisfy the requirements of the calculation of guaranteed regulation.
The closing or opening time is normally evaluated as two times of the time required to move between the
opening 75% and 25%.
8.3.8 The time required for the emergency control valve to close the guide vane shall not deviate from
the designed value by more than 5%; and eventually they shall satisfy the requirements of the
calculation of guaranteed regulation.
8.3.9 The dead stroke of reset mechanism shall generally be no more than 0.2% of the full stroke of
servomotor.
8.3.10 Figure out the relation curve of the movement of guide vane servomotor versus the opening of
guide vane respectively in closing and opening directions. The opening of guide vane at one point shall
take the average of four to eight measured values; As the guide vane at full open, the opening value of
all guide vanes shall be measured, and the deviation shall not exceed 2% of the designed value.
8.3.11 Figure out the relation curve and the closing/opening rules of the movement of guide vane
servomotor versus the movement of impeller blade servomotor respectively in closing and opening
directions under different coupled relations with head, which shall meet the design requirements; The
inaccuracy of impeller blade servo system shall be smaller than 1.5% of the full stroke.
8.3.12 The practical open loop gain setting of servo system: the opening and closing time of servomotor
has been adjusted and meet the design requirements. With the amplification factor and lever ratio set at
the maximum designed value, input a step signal equal to 10% of the full stroke of servomotor to the
servo system, observe the movement of servomotor; Record the maximum amplification factor and lever
ratio enabling the servo system to keep stable without overshooting, and take it as the practical open
loop gain.
8.3.13 Record and figure out the static characteristic curve of the speed-governing system with the
permanent speed droop bp=6%. Its static characteristic curve shall close to be a straight line, and the
rotational speed dead zone shall be no more than 0.04%; For the speed-governing system of adjustable
blade propeller turbine, the inaccuracy of impeller blade servo system shall not be more than 1.5%.

8.3.14 With the spiral case free of water, write down the pressure of pressure vessel and the
descending value of oil level in the case of shutdown due to emergency low oil pressure.
8.3.15 With the spiral case free of water, measure the minimum operating oil pressure of the operation
mechanism of guide vane and impeller blade, which shall not be more than 16% of the rated oil
pressure.
8.3.16 Oil filling and adjustment test shall be conducted for the speed-governing system of reaction
turbine according to the relevant test items and standard given in Clause 8.3.
8.4 Simulation test of speed-governing system
8.4.1 Simulate various faults of speed-governing system, in which the protection device shall perform
reliably and the relevant alarm signals shall be correct.
8.4.2 Carry out the simulation tests (startup, shutdown and emergency shutdown) of generator unit by
means of manual or automatic methods, in which the speed-governing system shall act normally and the
relevant alarm signals shall be correct.

9 Installation of Vertical Hydraulic Turbine Generator


9.1 Assembly of frame
9.1.1 Check the jointing seams after assembling the arms of combined frame according to Clause 4.7.
The top of bearing frame and the jointing seams of arms shall be detected by 0.05mm feeler. The length
uncontacted locally shall not exceed 10% of the overall length at the top.
9.1.2 The assembly of welded frame shall meet the following requirements:
a) Support the central body firmly, and adjust it horizontal to ensure the horizontal deviation of upper
jointing plane not to exceed 0.04mm/m;
b) Connect the arms with the central body, and check the following items to meet the design
requirements:
1) The staggers on the jointing planes between various arms and the central body;
2) The deflection of various arms (i.e. verticality);
3) The height difference between the contacting planes of foundation plates of various arms and the
jointing planes with the central body;
4) The middle ordinates of external edges of various arms;
c) Conduct welding according to Clause 4.14 unless otherwise specified by the manufacturer;
d) Carry out appearance check and nondestructive detection according to the manufacturers drawings
and technical documents. Without the specified requirement of the manufacturer, the requirements given
in Table 5 shall be complied with in the appearance check of welding seams, and the following criteria
shall be adopted to evaluate the nondestructive detection:
1) In the case of ray detection, GB/T3323 shall be complied with. The quality of tensile butt welds shall
be no inferior to grade II, and the percentage of welds to be ray detected shall be 50%; The quality of
general butt welds shall be no inferior to grade III, and the percentage of welds to be ray detected shall
be 25%;
2) In the case of ultrasonic examination, GB/T11345 shall be complied with. The quality of tensile butt
welds shall be no inferior to grade BI, and the percentage of welds to be ultrasonic examined shall be
100%; The quality of general butt welds shall be no inferior to grade BII, and the percentage of welds to
be ultrasonic examined shall be 50%;
e) After completing the welding of arms, ensure the horizontal deviation of central body not to exceed
0.04mm/m. Check the middle ordinates of key ways on the outer edges of various arms, and ensure
their height difference against the contacting planes with the foundation plates of various arms and the
planes on the central body to meet the requirements of design drawings.
9.1.3 After assembling the sectioned thrust bearing pedestal, check the smoothness of the plane for
installing the bearing, with the deviation not exceeding 0.2mm. The gap of jointing seams shall meet the
requirements given in Clause 4.7.
9.1.4 For the sectioned bearing frame assembly, the assembly and welding of the central body and
various arms shall be conducted according to Clause 9.1.3 and Clause 9.1.2.
9.2 Grinding of guide bearing shoe

9.2.1 The thrust bearing shoe shall be free of defects like crack, slag blister or dense pores. The overall
area of local scaling raised on the surface material and the metal bottom surface of guide bearing shoe
shall not exceed 5% of the overall area of bearing shoe surface. Ultrasonic detection or other
examination shall be conducted if necessary.
The thermometer and high-pressure oil lifting pipes shall be trial installed with the guide bearing shoe for
inspection.
9.2.2 The working surfaces of mirror plate shall be free of scratch or corrosion, and the roughness and
hardness shall meet the relevant requirements. The parallelism of two surfaces and the smoothness of
working surfaces shall be checked according to the drawings if necessary.
9.2.3 For the thrust bearing shoe to be ground on the site as the manufacturer required, the bearing
shoes after ground shall meet the following requirements:
a) There shall be 1~3 contacting points per unit area of 1cm2 on the bearing shoe surface;
b) Each uncontacting area locally on the bearing shoe surface shall not be larger than 2% of the area of
bearing shoe, and not exceed 16cm2, the overall area uncontacted shall not exceed 5% of the area of
bearing shoe;
c) The edge for intaking oil shall be ground according to the manufacturers requirements;
d) For the thrust bearing shoe without pallet but being supported by screw, the requirements given in the
above mentioned a) and b) shall be satisfied, and the middle of the bearing shoe surface shall be ground
to be lower. A possible method is like this: Within the circle around the supporting screw with the
diameter equal to 2/3 of the length of bearing shoe, remove the contracting points (minor contacting
points can remain), and grind the corrugations in one direction; Next, within the shrunk circle around the
supporting screw with the diameter equal to 1/3 of the length of bearing shoe, grind the corrugations in
the direction orthogonal to the first cycle;
e) After barring of the generator unit, draw out the thrust bearing shoe and check the contacting
condition, which shall meet the requirements given in the above-mentioned a) and b);
f) Check the lifted high-pressure oil chamber according to the design requirements. Grind the surfaces if
necessary;
g) For the thrust bearing of double bearing shoes, the contact surface between the thin shoe and the
supporting shoe shall meet the design requirements. Without specified design requirements, the contact
surface between thin shoe and supporting shoe shall reach above 70%, and the contact surface shall be
distributed evenly. With the thrust bearing shoe in the stressed state, check the gap between thin shoe
and supporting shoe with a 0.02mm feeler, which shall be unable to pass through.
9.2.4 The guide bearing shoe required to be ground on the site shall meet the relevant requirements
stipulated in Clause 5.6.1.
9.3 Assembly of stator
9.3.1 The stator sections laminated in the manufacturers factory shall be assembled to meet the
following requirements:
a) Apply a 0.05mm feeler to check the jointing gaps in the pedestal, the feeler shall not pass around the
bolts or the locating dowels;
b) Shims shall be added in the jointing seams of iron core according to the design requirements, and the
shimmed jointing seams of iron core shall leave no gap;

c) The radial stagger at the bottom of the jointing groove of iron core shall not be more than 0.3mm;
d) The width of neck groove at the jointing seams shall meet the design requirements;
e) The assembly of stator pedestal and the foundation plates shall meet the requirement given in Clause
4.7.
9.3.2 For the roundness of the assembled stator with the sections pre-laminated in the manufacturers
factory, the differences between various measured radii and the average radius shall not be more than
4% of the designed air gap. In general, select measuring sections once in 1 m interval along the height
direction of the iron core, no less than 12 measuring points in every section, and no less than 3 points in
every section on the same stator section. Points at the jointing seams shall be selected and measures.
The roundness of the stator iron core in one piece shall also meet the above-mentioned requirements.
9.3.3 The stator pedestal to be laminated on the site shall be assembled according to the following
requirements unless otherwise specified by the manufacturer:
a) Arrange and adjust the assembly of pier and wedge plates according to graduation orientation and
distribution radius; the pier assembly shall be fixed firmly temporarily, and the top height difference of
various wedge plates shall be below 2mm;
b) The central roundness measurement frame shall be installed steadily, and the impacts from external
factors shall be avoided during the roundness measurement.
The verticality of the central column of roundness measurement frame shall not be more than 0.02mm/m,
and the maximum gradient within the measurement range shall not exceed 0.05mm.
The actual diameter and the static balance condition of the central column of roundness measurement
frame shall be checked;
c) Shims shall be added into the jointing seams of the pedestal assembly as the manufacturer required.
In the case of butt welded ring plates, the thickness of shim shall be normally ranged in 2mm~3mm; in
the case of lap welded ring plates, the thickness of shim shall be 1mm generally.
For the pedestal having been welded with the positioning ribs in the manufacturers factory, the
shrinkage of the welds shall be calculated based on the pedestals structure, and weld simulation test
shall be conducted for process assessment if necessary in order to add shims of certain thickness into
the jointing seams. General recommendation: 2.5mm for butt welds, and 1mm for lap welds;
d) After adjusting the assembly of stator pedestal and before welding, the following requirements shall
be satisfied:
1) The radius of circumferential bolt hole on the ring plate under the pedestal for fixing lower clamping
finger (refer to the center of through bolt for the pedestal of through bolt hole) shall not deviate more
than 1.5mm from the designed radius;
2) The deviation of the average absolute radius of inner circles of various ring plates from the designed
value shall meet the manufacturers requirements. As for the general recommendation, refer to Table
23 for butt welds, and to Table 24 for lap welds;

Table 23 The Deviation of the Average Absolute Radius of Inner Circles of Various Ring Plates on
Butt-Welded Pedestal from the Designed Value
unit: mm
Quantity of pedestal sections

Deviation of absolute radii of


inner circles of various ring
plates

+1.0~+2.0

+1.5~+2.5

+2.0~+3.0

+2.5~+3.5

+3.0~+4.0

Table 24 The Deviation of the Average Absolute Radius of Inner Circles of Various Ring Plates on
Lap-Welded Pedestal from the Designed Value
unit: mm unit: mm
Quantity of pedestal sections

Deviation of absolute radii of


inner circles of various ring
plates

+0.5~+1.5

+1.0~+2.0

3) For the pedestal with the positioning rib welded in the manufacturers factory, the difference
between the inner circle radius of positioning rib and the designed radius shall not be more than 1%
of the air gap.
9.3.4 Check and adjust the welded pedestal according the requirements given in items 1) and 2), d) of
Clause 9.3.3. The deviation of the absolute size of various radii shall not be more than 2mm.
After the on-site assembly and welding of the positioning ribs and the pedestal welded in the
manufacturers factory, measure the radii of positioning ribs at various ring plates, the deviation from the
designed value shall not be controlled within 2% of the air gap, and at the same time the maximum
tolerance shall not exceed 0.5mm of the designed value.
9.3.5 The installation of positioning rib shall meet the following requirements:
a) The positioning rib shall be adjusted to be straight before installation. Check with a leveling rule no
shorter than 1.5m, the radial or circumferential straightness accuracy of positioning rib shall not be more
than 0.1mm. For the positioning rib shorter than 1.5m, check with a leveling rule no shorter than the
positioning rib;
b) After positioning (or lap welding) the reference rib for positioning rib, the radius of reference rib shall
not deviate from the designed value more than 0.8% of the designed air gap, and both the
circumferential and the radial gradient shall exceed 0.15mm;
c) After completing the welding for all positioning ribs, the deviation between positioning rib radius and
the designed radius shall be ranged in 2% of the designed air gap, and the maximum deviation shall
not exceed 0.5mm; The radius difference of neighboring two positioning ribs at a same height shall not
be more than 0.6% of the designed air gap; The radius difference of a same positioning rib at a same
height caused by surface deflection shall not be more than 0.10mm;
d) The deviation between the middle ordinate of positioning rib at a same height and the average value
shall not be more than 0.25mm, and the accumulative deviation shall not exceed 0.4mm;
e) The slanting direction and gradient of the installed positioning ribs arranged aslant in circumference
shall meet the design requirements;

f) No gap shall remain between the bearing plate of positioning rib and the crown plate of pedestal;
g) Should the positioning ribs have been welded in the manufacturers factory, the inspection shall still
be conducted on the site. The unqualified positions shall be repaired.
9.3.6 The installation of lower clamping finger shall meet the following requirements:
a) The mutual height difference between various clamping fingers shall not be more than 2mm, and the
height difference between the adjoining two clamping fingers shall not be more than 1mm. For the small
clamping finger structure, the inner circle of the clamping fingers with the section is generally higher than
the outer circle by 1mm~3.5mm, depending on the stacking height of iron core, the structure of clamping
finger and the coupling mode. In generally, the higher the stator iron cores are stacked, the more higher
will the inner side of lower clamping finger be than the outer side. As the height of iron cores exceeding
2.5m, the upper limit is adopted;
b) Taking the shallow-toothed lamination as a template, adjust the press finger center and the lamination
tooth center to control the deviation no more than 2mm; the radial distance between the tooth end of
press finger and the tooth end of lamination shall complied with the relevant drawings.
9.3.7 The stator iron core laminations shall meet the following requirements:
a) The iron core laminations shall have well-preserved coating and keep clean, flat, and free of damage;
b) The stator iron core laminations shall be installed according to the procedure required by the
manufacturer; the laminating height of different lamination sections and each section shall be controlled;
and the laminations at the upper and lower ends shall be applied with adhesive as the manufacturer
required;
c) As the manufacturer required, the lamination shall attach with the positioning ribs closely or even
radial gaps remain between them;
d) In the construction of iron core laminations, laminations shall be evenly arranged with at least two slot
keys for each or positioned by slot wedge and slot key as the manufacturer required, and fitted with
dressing stick;
e) According to the deviation between the iron core height and the waviness measured after the
laminations pressed tightly in sections, give a height compensation in a method specified by the
manufacturer so that the deviation in each section of lamination doesnt go beyond the range
0mm~+1mm;
f) The height of iron core lamination shall take the shrinkage in the wholly compaction and heat
compaction into consideration. In general, the shrinkage of heat compaction should be considered as
0.2 %~0.3 % of the iron core height, which shall be equivalently distributed to every lamination section;
g) During the construction of iron core lamination, the roundness shall be checked and regulated
regularly.
9.3.8 The compaction of stator iron core shall meet the following requirements:
a) The pressing bolt out of the iron core shall be installed as the design required, and a clearance more
than 2mm shall be kept from the iron core.
The through pressing bolt shall keep insulated, reliable and free of damage, and the butterfly-shape
spring gasket shall be kept in good condition;
b) The iron core shall be compacted in sections first and then wholly. The height and times of sectioned
compaction shall meet the manufacturers requirements. Otherwise, the sectioned compaction height

should be determined according to the structure of iron core and generally not exceed 600mm for each
section;
c) The compacting force for sectioned compaction and wholly compaction of iron core shall meet the
manufacturers requirements;
d) The compacting force on iron core shall be increased time by time until reach the value specified by
the manufacturer. Otherwise, the pressing bolt for measuring even distribution can be applied to check
the average pressure in compaction by means of its elongation, in which the total bolts for measurement
on the whole circumference shall not be less than 10;
e) For the stator iron core required to be heat compacted, the heat compaction of iron core shall be
conducted after the wholly compaction and before the iron core magnetization test. Heat the core as
specified by the manufacturer, cool down naturally to the ambient temperature, and then press
according to the above-mentioned items c) and d);
f) After the iron core magnetization test, check the compaction according to the requirements given in
the item d);
g) Check the insulation of through bolt against ground iron core before and after the test, to ensure the
insulations resistance to satisfy the manufacturers requirements.
9.3.9 Following the completion of lamination and sectioned compaction, the upper clamping finger shall
be installed. After all pressing bolts installed and position, adjust the center of upper clamping finger and
the center of lamination tooth to be no more than 2mm, and the radial distance between the tooth end of
press finger and that of lamination to satisfy the relevant drawing requirements.
9.3.10 The assembled stator iron core shall meet the following requirements:
a) Roundness measurement of iron core: To measure multiple sections along the height direction of iron
core in an interval of about 1 m; The measuring points in every section shall not be less than 16. The
larger the diameter of stator iron core is, the more measuring points shall be arranged in every section.
The difference of various radii and the designed radius shall not exceed 4% of the designed air gap of
the generator;
b) Measure the iron core height by more than 16 measuring points evenly distributed on the bottom and
back of iron core slot, the deviation of various measured values and the designed value shall not exceed
the tolerance given in Table 25. In general, the deviation shall be positive;
Table 25 Height Tolerance of Measuring Points on Stator Iron Core
Iron core height,
h

h<1000

1000h<1500

1500h<2000

2000h<2500

h2500

Tolerance

-2~+4

-2~+5

-2~+6

-2~+7

-2~+8

unit: mm

c) The waviness of tooth tip at upper iron core slot shall not exceed the tolerances given in Table 26;
Table 26 Tolerance for the Waviness at Upper End of Iron Core
Iron core length,
l

l <1000

1000l <1500

1500l <2000

2000l <2500

l2500

Waviness

10

11

unit: mm

d) Check the slots on iron core one by one with a slot checking stick, and ensure the slot depth and width
to meet the designed values.

9.3.11 The supporting ring shall be assembled as the manufacturer required; the welding for joints of
metal supporting ring shall apply nonmagnetic material; and that for connecting the insulated supporting
ring shall meet the manufacturers requirements. The insulation liner shall be wrapped rightly. The joints
between the existing insulation and the new insulation shall be cut as slops, and the jointing length shall
not be less than the limits given in Table 27.
Table 27 Jointing Length for the Insulation of Supporting Ring
Rated voltage of
generator, kV

6.3

10.5

13.8

15.75

18.0

Jointing length,
mm

25

30

40

45

50

9.3.12 Before inserting the winding, the following examination shall be carried out:
a) Check the width of the straight section of a single stator winding in cool state, and ensure it to meet
the design requirements;
b) Carry out electrical test on the winding according to the requirements given in Clause 14.1.
9.3.13 The insertion of stator winding shall meet the following requirements:
a) The winding shall attach closely with the iron core and the supporting ring, and the elevation of the
upper and lower ends of winding shall be consistent, the bevel edge gap shall meet the design
requirements, and the winding shall be fixed reliably;
b) The joint between the upper and lower layers of winding shall be dressed and repaired until the
stagger is less than 5mm. The reliable welding for the joint shall not be impacted. The deviation in
foreandaft distance shall be within the range of connecting sleeve;
c) After the straight part of winding inserted in the neck groove, if the gap at single side exceeds 0.3mm
or the continuous length larger than 100mm, semi-conductive strips can be applied for filling, the filling
depth shall be equal to the insertion depth of winding if possible. For the stator the winding with
semi-conductive slot liner, the gap at single side shall meet the manufacturers requirements;
d) After inserting the upper and lower layers of winding, withstanding voltage test shall be conducted
according to Clause 14.1;
e) Epoxy/mica is applied for the main insulation of winding, for the generator unit of voltage degree no
less 10.5kV, surface slot potential or slot resistance shall be measured on the inserted winding under the
rated phase voltage, in general, the slot potential shall not be less than 10V, or the slot resistance shall
meet the manufacturers requirements.
9.3.14 The slot wedge shall fit tightly with the winding and the tooth socket of iron core. Driven down the
slot wedge and check the tightness by the method specified by the manufacturer, the length with allowed
gap in each piece of slot wedge shall not exceed 1/3 of the slot wedge length. The slot wedge shall not
protrude the iron core, and the vent of slot wedge shall be aligned with the center of iron core ventilation
slot, with the deviation no more than 3mm. The length protruding the slot of iron core and the fixing
method shall meet the design requirements.
9.3.15 The welding of the winding joint shall meet the following requirements:
a) The operator of braze welding shall have received professional training and qualified the
technical examination;
b) Prior to braze welding, the welding rod and the parts to be braze welded shall be cleaned to
present metal luster according to the manufacturers requirements;

c) In the case of brazed weld with tin brazing filler metal in overhand sleeve structure, the jointing
copper wire, overhand sleeve and copper wedge etc shall be tin dipped. The overhand sleeve,
copper wedge and conductive part of copper wire shall be attached closely without mandatory
clamping; The gap between the copper wire and the overhand sleeve shall generally not be
more than 0.3mm, and 0.5mm gap shall be permitted locally;
d) In the case of brazed weld with phosphor-copper brazing filler metal in strand lapping structure,
the strand lapping length shall not be less than 5 times of the strand thickness;
e) In the case of brazed weld with phosphor-silver-copper brazing filler metal in lapping structure,
the filling gap in the assembled joint shall generally be less than 0.25mm;
f)

As braze welding the joint, the heating method and technology shall be applied according to
the manufacturers requirements.

9.3.16 The requirements on the insulation of welded joint:


a) For the insulation made of mica tape wrapping, the joint of existing insulation shall be cut as
slop before wrapping with new insulation, the lapping length shall generally meet the
requirements given in Table 27; Adhesive shall be applied between insulation layers, the
wrapping shall be close and tight, and the wrapping layers shall meet the design
requirements;
b) For the insulation made of epoxy resin casting, the mixing proportion of epoxy resin shall meet
the design requirements; The gap around the joint with the insulation box shall be even, the
lapping length of the winding end insulation and the box shall meet the design requirements,
the casting shall be adequate without penetrative pore or crack.
9.3.17 The installation of bus-bar shall meet the following requirements:
a) The bolt connector shall be tin dipped or silver plated, the contacting plane of joint shall be
level and the smoothness shall not exceed 0.03mm, check with 0.05mm feeler to meet the
requirements. The jointing bolts shall be tightened by torque wrench according to the bolt
pretightening force as the design required;
b) The welding joint shall be free of pore or slag blister, the surface shall be smooth, and the
filling metal shall be plump.
9.3.18 The measurement of the insulation resistance of stator winding against ground and between the
windings:
a) The insulation resistance of stator winding at each phase shall not converted to the figure at
100 and shall be less than the figure calculated as per the following formula:

Wherein:
UN the rated line voltage of hydraulic turbine generator, V;
SN the rated capacity of hydraulic turbine generator, KVA.
For dry and clean hydraulic turbine generator, the stator winding insulation resistance Rt (M) at the
room temperature t () can be corrected as per the following formula:
Rt = R 1.6 (100-t)/10
Wherein:

R the calculated value of winding insulation resistance under heat state at 100, M.
b) At the temperature lower than 40, the absorption ratio of epoxy/mica insulation resistance
R60/R15 shall not be less than 1.6, or the polarization index R10min/1min shall not be less
than 2.0.
9.4 Assembly of rotor
9.4.1 The shrinkage fit of hub shall meet the following requirements:
a) Besides shrink range, the swelling capacity of hub shall also take the clearance required by the
shrinkage fit, and the shrinkage caused by temperature drop during fitting into consideration. The shrink
range shall be calculated from the value measured before shrinkage fit referring to the calculation
provided by the manufacturer, and the clearance required for the shrinkage fit shall generally be 1/1000
of the axial diameter, the shrinkage caused by temperature drop of hub, depending on the size of axial
diameter, shall be selected between 0.5mm~1.0mm;
b) Before heating the hub, adjust the verticality of main shaft and the levelness of hub under the stressed
state during lifting, which should be controlled below 0.05mm/m. As heating, monitor and control the
temperature to achieve even expansion. After heating, carefully check the swelling capacity of hub, and
ensure the value to satisfy the calculation requirements according to the above item a);
c) After shrinkage fit of the hub, the male tab of main shaft shall be cooled down above all. During
cooling, the temperature difference between the upper and lower ends of hub shall generally not exceed
40.
9.4.2 Before assembling the wheel arm, the central body shall be checked and adjusted as follows:
a) Check the dimensions of various parts according to the drawing requirements;
b) The central body of rotor shall be supported firmly, and the levelness of central body shall be adjusted
to be no more than 0.03mm/m.
9.4.3 The assembled wheel arm shall be checked to meet the following requirements:
a) The gap of jointing seams shall meet the requirements given in Clause 4.7;
b) The elevation difference between various hanging hooks at the lower end of wheel arm shall not be
more than 1mm in the case that the diameter of outer edge of wheel arm is smaller than 8m, and not be
more than 1.5mm in the case that the diameter of outer edge of wheel arm is not smaller than 8m;
c) The roundness and verticality of outer edge of wheel arm, the chord length at upper and lower ends of
various keys, and the depth and width of key ways shall meet the design requirements;
d) The tangent and radial gradient of key way on wheel arm shall not be more than 0.25mm/m, and the
maximum shall not exceed 0.5mm.
9.4.4 The rotor field spider in disc structure shall be assembled to meet the following requirements:
a) The central body of rotor shall be supported reliably, and the levelness of the central body shall be
adjusted to ensure the horizontal deviation of the upper flange plane not to exceed 0.03mm/m;
b) For the fan-shape sections of rotor field spider symmetrically mounted, the assembled rotor field
spider and the central body shall meet the following requirements:
1) The mutual elevation difference of the upper planes of hanging hooks on wheel arm shall not

exceed 1.5mm, and the height difference of the upper planes of two adjoining hanging hooks shall not
exceed 1mm;
2) The diameter of vertical rib plate shall be determined according to the shrinkage of welding seam,
generally 2mm-5mm larger than the designed value. Should the outside surface on vertical rib plate
need to be planed or milled, the allowance for plane or mill shall be considered besides the shrinkage
of welding seam;
3) The verticality of vertical rib plate shall not be more than 0.15mm/m;
4) The moveable chord length of wheel arm before welding shall take the shrinkage of welding into
consideration.
9.4.5 During welding the rotor disc spider, the changes in the spider size shall be monitored, and
corrective measures shall be taken. After welding, appearance check and nondestructive examination
shall be conducted according to the manufacturers drawings and relevant technical documents. If no
requirements specified by the manufacturer, the method given in 9.1.2 d) shall be applied for the quality
assessment on welding seam. After welding, the levelness of the central body shall satisfy the
requirements given in 9.4.4 a), and the dimensions of the disc spider shall meet the following
requirements:
a) The diameter deviation from the designed value of the outer surface of vertical rib plate that impacting
the rotor roundness shall not be more than 1.5% of air gap. For the rotor field spider fitted with stay
plate of vertical rib or auxiliary vertical rib plate, the diameter of vertical rib plate shall meet the
requirements after the stay plate of vertical rib or auxiliary vertical rib plate has completed welding and
grinding/dressing. Should the stay plate of vertical rib needs to be planed or milled after being welded,
the machined diameter deviation from the designed value shall not exceed 1% of the air gap;
b) The verticality of vertical rib plate shall not be more than 0.2mm/m;
c) The chord length at the upper and lower ends of the outer edges of wheel arm shall meet the design
requirements;
d) The elevation deviation of hanging hooks on vertical rib plate shall not be more than 2mm, but the
elevation deviation between two adjoining hanging hooks shall not be more than 1mm;
e) The smoothness of the jointing plane of braking ring plate shall not exceed 2.5mm,
9.4.6 The examination on magnetic yoke lamination and ventilation channel plate shall meet the
following requirements:
a) The surfaces of magnetic yoke lamination and ventilation channel plate shall be flat and free of oil,
corrosion or burr;
b) The magnetic yoke lamination should be weighed and grouped in the manufacturers factory if
possible. If the magnetic yoke lamination has not been grouped as per the quality in the manufacturers
factory, the requirements in Table 28 shall be complied with in weighing and grouping. 3~5 pieces shall
be sampled for thickness measurement in every group, and the positive and negative surfaces shall be
consistent as stacking;
c) According to the records of laminations in weighing, grouping and thickness measurement, and the
assembly drawing of magnetic yoke, calculate and list the weight and balance sheet for the stacking of
magnetic yoke. The ventilation channel plate shall also be considered in weight balancing;
d) The height and position of the wind guide strips and liner end rings of ventilation channel plate shall
meet the design requirements. Check the height difference between the liner end rings, and ensure it not
to exceed 0.2mm. The wind guide strip, liner end ring and lamination shall be attached together closely

and fixed firmly by spot welding.


Table 28 Quality Grouping of Magnetic Yoke Lamination
Mass of unit magnetic
yoke lamination, t, kg

Rotational speed, n, r/min


n<100

100n<300

n300

t<20

0.3

0.2

0.1

20t<40

0.4

0.3

0.2

T40

0.5

0.4

0.3

9.4.7 The installation of braking ring plate shall meet the following requirements:
a) The braking ring plate shall be assembled according to the numbers, otherwise, arranged
symmetrically by quality;
b) For the braking ring plate of assembly-welded structure, the smoothness of brake surface on braking
ring plate shall be smaller than 2.5mm, the convex to the below shall not be allowed on radial welds, the
allowed superior fovea shall not be more than 0.5mm;
c) For the braking ring plate of assembled structure:
1) The ring plate shall be horizontal in radial direction, with the deviation no more than 0.5mm; the
waviness along the whole circumference shall not be more than 2mm;
2) The joint shall leave a gap more than 2mm. Check the jointing seam of damper plate in the rotating
direction of generator unit, the latter piece shall not protrude the former piece;
3) The bolts at the ring plate shall yield into the friction surface more than 2mm.
9.4.8 The closed assembly of magnetic yoke lamination shall meet the following requirements:
a) A height of 100mm of magnetic yoke laminations shall be trial assembled firstly; Can the formal closed
assembly be started only after the dimensions of the trial assembly satisfy the requirements;
b) The laminations are generally positioned by means of magnetic yoke keys and dowels. For the
magnetic yoke without positioning structure, permanent bolts can be evenly inserted by more than 20%
for positioning, and there shall be at least 3 bolts for every lamination;
c) For the magnetic yoke laminations with temporary feather keys for tangent and radial positioning, the
feather keys shall be installed as the manufacturer required;
d) In the closed assembly, the clearance between the laminations and the outer circles of vertical ribs of
rotor field spider shall be consistent, and the positive and negative surfaces of lamination shall be
arranged uniformly. The mode of closed assembly and the height of laminations shall meet the design
requirements;
e) The magnetic yoke shall be impacted symmetrically in order by means of torque spanner; the
compacting force shall be increased gradually time by time until reaching the required pretightening
force. At least 10 bolts in the circumferential direction should be selected to measure the elongation and
check the pretightening force. The stress and the elongation of permanent bolts shall meet the
manufacturers requirements;

f) After the magnetic yoke closely impacted, calculate the lamination factor of the magnetic yoke by
means of gravimetric method, which shall not be less than 0.99. The sectioned compaction for the height
shall be conducted as the manufacturer required. If no requirements specified by the manufacturer, the
sectioned compaction height shall not be more than 800mm. However, for the laminations of inferior
quality or the magnetic yoke of considerable larger resistance for closed assembly, the sectioned
compaction height shall be decreased;
g) During the closed assembly of magnetic yoke, the roundness shall be checked and adjusted regularly;
h) For the braking damper plate arranged beneath the magnetic yoke, the adjustment of the radial
flatness and waviness shall be generally carried out at the same time as the compaction work, and shall
meet the requirements specified in 9.4.7 c);
i) After all the magnetic yokes being compacted, the average height of magnetic yoke shall not be lower
than the designed height of magnetic yoke. The height difference on a same vertical section shall not be
more than 5mm. The height deviation in the circumferential direction from the designed height shall not
exceed the tolerances specified in Table 29;
Table 29 Height Tolerances of Various Measuring Points on Magnetic Yoke in Circumferential Direction
unit: mm
Height of magnetic
yoke, h
Tolerance

h <1000

1000h<1500

1500h<2000

2000h<2500

h2500

-1~+5

-1~+7

-1~+8

0~+10

0~+11

j) No gap shall remain generally between magnetic yoke and hanging hook of wheel arm, scarce gaps
no more than 0.5mm shall be allowed;
k) The position and dimensions of ventilation slot, dove-tail slot and spring slot shall meet the design
requirements;
l) The clamp plates of magnetic yoke shall be weighed and arranged symmetrically by quality;
m) Check the contact surface between magnetic yoke and magnetic pole with a leveling rule no shorter
than 1m, the surface shall be plane and the local high points shall be ground to be level;
n) The closed assembly of sectioned magnetic yoke shall meet the requirements described in the above
items and the relevant drawings.
9.4.9 The installation of radial magnetic yoke keys shall meet the following requirements:
a) Symmetrically tighten the magnetic yoke keys in cold state, when the relative movement in
radius direction between rotor arms and magnetic yoke shall meet the manufacturers
recommendation. If no recommendation specified by the manufacturer, the average relative
movement in radius direction shall be controlled generally between 0.08mm~0.25mm
according to the size of residual deformation of rotor magnetic yoke;
b) For the magnetic yoke required to driving keys in hot state, the exposed length at the end of
magnetic yoke key shall meet the requirements on heat driven key ;
c) As heating the heat driven key (or hot adding shim) of magnetic yoke, the magnetic yoke shall
keep well heat preservation and measures shall be taken to form temperature difference
between the yoke and arms;
d) The tightening degree of heat driven key (or hot adding shim) of magnetic yoke shall meet the
design requirements;
e) After heat driving the key on magnetic yoke, cool it down to the room temperature, check the

roundness of magnetic yoke and ensure its compliance, cut the lower end of magnetic yoke
key to be flush with the hanging hook of wheel arm, and leave a length ranged in
150mm-200mm at the upper end, provided that sufficient distance has remained with the
upper frame or the windshield;
f)

For the rotor without shaft structure, after heat driving the key (or hot adding the shims), check
the deformation condition of upper and lower rabbets on the central body of rotor;

g) For the installation involving multiple types of keys like horizontal key of magnetic yoke,
circumferential positioning key, auxiliary positioning key and lamination key, the
manufacturers requirements shall be complied with.
9.4.10 Measure the roundness of magnetic yoke, the difference of various radii and the designed radius
shall not be more than 3.5% of the designed air gap.
9.4.11 Prior to the installation of magnetic pole, the following examinations shall be conducted:
a) With the winding of magnetic pole tightly compacted, the height difference between its clamp
plate and iron core shall meet the design requirements, otherwise, not exceed -1mm~0mm;
b) Before and after mounting the magnetic pole, the electrical inspection and test shall be
conducted according to Clause 14.4;
c) Check the polarity and assembly quality according to the magnetic pole numbers, and mount
the magnetic poles according to the numerical sequence specified by the manufacturer. If no
sequence specified by the manufacturer, after mounting magnetic poles, the unbalanced
mass in symmetrical directions within the angular scope between 22.5~45 shall not exceed
the requirements specified in Table 30. The mass of lead line and accessories shall generally
be taken into consideration of weight balancing.
Table 30

Tolerance of Unbalanced Mass after Mounting the Magnetic Pole

Total mass of magnetic


yoke and magnetic
pole, t

unit: kg

Tolerance of unbalanced mass after mounting the


magnetic pole under different rotational speed (r/min)
<200

200~<500

500

t<200

200t<400

400t<600

10

600t<800

12

t800

14

9.4.12 The mounting of magnetic pole shall meet the following requirements:
a) The tolerance for mounting elevation at the center of magnetic pole shall meet the requirements
specified in Table 31;
Table 31 Tolerance for Mounting Elevation at the Center of Magnetic Pole
Length of iron core on magnetic pole, m

Elevation tolerance, mm

1.5

1.0

1.5~2.0

1.5

>2.0

2.0

b) For the rotor with the rated rotational speed no smaller than 300r/min, the deviation in mounting
elevation of magnetic pole in symmetrical directions shall not be more than 1.5mm;
c) Before driving the magnetic pole key, lubricant shall be applied on the bevel, after driving the key, the
contact shall be close. Check the qualified magnetic pole key, the lower end shall be flush with the
bottom of dove-tail slot, and a length of about 200mm shall be reserved at the upper end provided that
sufficient distance has remained with the upper frame or the windshield;
d) The stopper of magnetic pole shall be tightly close to the bottom of magnetic pole dove-tail, and
welded together firmly;
e) The bracer between poles shall be installed correctly, supported firmly and locked reliably.
3.4.13 Check the rotor roundness after the magnetic poles being mounted, the difference of various radii
to the designed radius shall not be more than 4% of the designed air gap. The overall rotor eccentricity
shall meet the requirements specified in Table 32. However the maximum shall not be more than 1.5%
of the designed air gap.
Table 32 Tolerance for the Overall Rotor Eccentricity
Rotational speed of
generator unit, n, r/min

n<100

100n<200

200n<300

300n<500

Eccentricity tolerance,
mm

0.50

0.40

0.30

0.15

9.4.14 The jointing of magnetic pole connector and the installation of excitation lead wire shall meet the
following requirements:
a) The stagger of connector shall not exceed 10% of the connector width, the current density of contact
surface shall meet the design requirements;
b) The connecting welds shall be pump, appear neat and provided with certain elasticity.
For the bolt-connected joints, the contact shall be tight, and the jointing shall be conducted according to
the requirements specified in 9.3.17 a);
c) The insulation wrapping for the connectors shall meet the design requirements. A safety distance
between connector and grounding conductor shall be no smaller than 8mm. After clamping the
insulation template tightly, a clearance ranged in 1mm-2mm shall remain between the two ends of
templates;
d) The excitation lead wire of rotor shall be arranged in order and fixed reliably. The end connection shall
be jointed according to the design requirements. The bolt-connected joints shall be tin dipped or silver
plated, the coating shall be flat and connection shall be conducted according to the requirements
specified in 9.3.17 a). The bolts shall be locked reliably.
9.4.15 The fan shall be free of defects like crack. It shall be installed firmly and locked reliably. It is
forbidden to carry out gas cutting or electric welding on the fan. The distance between its metal part and
the magnetic pole connector with the winding shall be no less than 10mm.
9.4.16 The contact surface of damping ring connector shall be checked with a 0.05mm feeler, whose
inserting depth shall not exceed 5mm. The connecting bolt of damping ring connector shall be tightened
by the torque specified by the manufacturer and locked reliably.
9.4.17 After listing the rotor into the pit, various tests shall be conducted one by one according to Clause
14.5.

9.5 Overall installation


9.5.1 The installation of frame shall meet the following requirements:
a) The center deviation of installed frame shall not be more than 1mm. For the generator unit with the
rotational speed higher than 200r/min, the outer circle of oil deflector should be used to determine the
center. The center deviation shall meet the manufacturers requirements, and the roundness of oil
deflector shall meet the design requirements;
b) The center deviation of thrust bearing pedestal on the frame shall not be more than 1.5mm, and the
horizontal deviation shall not be more than 0.04mm/m. For the frame of the elastic oil tank thrust bearing
without supporting bolts and the thrust bearing with multiple spring supports, the horizontal deviation
shall not be more than 0.02mm/m;
c) The elevation deviation of installed frame shall generally not exceed 11.5mm;
d) The radial supporting jack for frame should be horizontal if possible, and the stress shall be uniformly
applied. The elevation deviation in the installation shall generally not exceed 5mm.
9.5.2 The installation of braking device shall meet the following requirements:
a) Tightness breakdown test shall be conducted on the braking device according to the design
requirements. Keep the test pressure for 30min, the pressure drop shall not exceed 3%. For the braking
device with a spring reset structure, the piston shall be able to reset after the pressure relieved;
b) The elevation deviation of top-mounted braking device shall not exceed l mm. The clearance
deviation with the rotor braking ring plate shall not exceed 20% of the designed value;
c) Tightness breakdown test shall be conducted on the pipelines in brake system according to the design
requirements;
d) Lifting test shall be conducted on the braking device filled with compressed air, during which check the
flexibility of braking device and the stroke of braking device according to the design requirements.
9.5.3 The installation of stator shall meet the following requirements:
a) The installing orientation of stator shall be consistent with the position of generator lead out line in
order to ensure the normal connection of the lead out line of generator;
b) As leveling the stator according to the actual central line of turbine, measure the same section in
assembly, the difference of various radii with the average radius shall not exceed 4% of the designed
air gap; as leveling the stator referring to the rotor, the requirements in the below item d) shall be
complied with;
c) Check the installation elevation of stator according to the elevation of the flange of turbine main shaft
and the measured dimensions of various parts, to ensure the average central elevation of stator iron
core to be consistent with the average central elevation of rotor magnetic pole, and the deviation shall
not exceed 0.15% of the effective length of stator iron core, but the maximum deviation shall not
exceed 4mm;
d) As the rotor is placed at the center of the generator unit, check the air gaps at the upper and lower
ends of stator and rotor, the deviation of various gaps from the average clearance shall not exceed 8%
of the average clearance.
9.5.4 The lifting of rotor shall meet the following requirements:

a) Before lifting the rotor of pendant generator, adjust the elevation of the top surface of braking device,
so that the thrust collar being mounted following the rotor lifting shall keep a clearance with the mirror
plate within 4mm~8mm;
b) For the umbrella or semi-umbrella type of hydraulic turbine generator without shaft structure, the
elevation adjustment of the top surface of its braking device shall only take the coupling clearance
between the turbine and the generator into consideration. As lifting the rotor, the rotor can be directly
mounted on the thrust bearing by means of a guide part;
c) As lifting the rotor, the bottom side of rotor shall be cleaned completely. The flexibility of rotor shall be
measured and checked at the lower part of magnetic yoke;
d) If the generator stator will to be aligned according to the rotor, the rotor shall be aligned according to a
qualified turbine shaft. The center deviation of two flange planes shall be smaller than 0.04mm, the
parallelism between flanges shall be smaller than 0.02mm, and the verticality of generator shaft or the
levelness of flange on the central body of rotor shall be calibrated;
e) If the generator stator has been aligned referring to the stationary part of turbine, after lifting the rotor,
adjust the center according to the air gap, and measure the air gaps at the upper and lower ends of
stator and rotor. The gaps shall not deviate from the average gap by more than 8%.
9.5.5 The installation of thrust collar shall meet the following requirements:
a) The elevation and levelness of mirror plate shall be adjusted before inserting the thrust collar. The
horizontal deviation of the surface of thrust bearing shoe without lubricant shall not exceed 0.02mm/m.
The flexibility of frame and the shrinkage of elastic thrust bearing upon bearing loads shall be taken into
consideration as determining the elevation;
b) The levelness of thrust collar shall be adjusted under the lifting state before the shrinkage fit. As
shrinkage fitting the thrust collar excessively mounted, the heating temperature for the thrust collar
should not exceed 100 preferentially;
c) After the shrinkage fit of thrust collar, the clamping ring can be installed only after the thrust collar
cools down to the room temperature. After the clamping ring is stressed, the gap at the upper and lower
stress surfaces of clamping ring shall be checked with a 0.02mm feeler, which cannot pass through.
Otherwise, draw out the ring for further treatment. No shim shall be added;
d) After the thrust collar bolt-connected with bolts, the pretightening force on connecting bolts shall meet
the requirements specified in Clause 4.9. No gap shall be allowed between the jointing surfaces, which
shall be checked by 0.03mm feeler. The center deviation of thrust collar with guide bearing journal shall
not exceed 0.03mm.
9.5.6 The adjustment of thrust guide bearing shoe shall meet the following requirements:
a) The stress on the thrust bearing shoe shall be adjusted under the conditions in which the large shaft is
placed vertically, the elevation and levelness of mirror plate meet the requirements, and the rotor and
runner are placed at the central position;
b) Generally, the stress on the rigid supporting thrust bearing shall be adjusted by means of measuring
the deformation of pallet of guide bearing shoe. In the lifting and falling of rotor , the deformation
difference between the pallets and the average deformation shall not exceed 10% of the average
deformation;
c) As adjusting the stress on the rigid supporting thrust bearing by hammering the weight bearing bolts,
the large shaft at the turbine bearing shall be monitored with a dial gauge. The inclination of large shaft
caused by the hammering force shall be averagely ranged within 0.05mm-0.10mm, and the change in
shaft inclination under a same hammering force shall not exceed 10% of the average change;

d) For the hydraulic thrust bearing with support pin, with the upper and lower guide bearing shoes
closing to the thrust bearing being attached tightly, after lifting and falling the rotor, the shrinkage
deviation of various elastic oil tanks shall not be more than 0.2mm as releasing the guide bearing shoe;
e) For the hydraulic thrust bearing without supporting bolts, the shrinkage of various elastic oil tanks
shall meet the design requirements.
f) For the thrust bearing with balancing block, with the balancing block being fixed, lift and fall the rotor,
and measure the deformation of the supporting shoe or the upper balancing block, which shall meet the
design requirements. If no design requirements available, the deformation deviation of supporting shoes
or upper balancing blocks shall not exceed 10% of the average deformation;
g) For the thrust bearing with elastic beam of double bearing points, after lifting the mirror plate onto the
thrust bearing shoe, adjust the levelness of mirror plate to be no more than 0.02mm/m. No gap shall
remain between the oil intake sides of thrust bearing shoe and the mirror plate, and the difference in the
gaps between the oil outlet sides and the mirror plate shall not be more than 20% of the average gap;
h) The thrust bearing supported with multiple springs shall be installed according to the manufacturers
requirements;
i) After final adjusting and positioning the thrust guide bearing shoe, the axial and tangent clearances
between the clamp plate and baffle of thrust bearing shoe and the shoes, the radial relative position of
thrust bearing shoe and mirror plate, and the axial clearance between the steel sleeve of hydraulic
bearing and the bottom tray of oil tank shall meet the design requirements;
j) In order to check the leakage of the elastic oil tank, after the thrust bearing has completed in adjusted
and the rotating part of generator unit has set on the thrust bearing, the distances between the upper
and the lower surfaces of thrust bearing seat shall be measured in cross directions, and write down the
results;
9.5.7 The checking and adjustment of the axes of generator unit shall meet the following requirements:
a) Generally turning method shall be applied for adjusting the axes. Before turning, the rotating
part of generator unit shall be placed at the central position, and the large shaft shall be placed
vertically in free state;
b) If high-pressure oil lifting device is used in turning, the thrust bearing shoe and the
high-pressure oil lifting device shall be cleaned. In the case of turning without high-pressure oil
lifting device, the surface of thrust bearing shoe shall be applied with clean lubricant free of
impurities;
c) In the case of rigid turning of thrust bearing, the force on various shoes shall be primarily
adjusted to be uniform, the levelness of mirror plate shall meet the requirements specified in
9.5.5 a), and the single-side clearance of the guide bearing shoe or the temporary guide
bearing shoe closing to the thrust collar shall be controlled within 0.03mm~0.05mm. After the
axes completed in adjustment, the swings of various parts of generator unit shall not exceed
the limits specified in Table 33.
As the condition permitted, rigid turning test shall also be conducted on the elastic thrust
bearing to check the swings of various parts at the axes of generator unit, and elastic turning
shall be conducted according to the item d) for checking the axial swing of the outer edges of
mirror plate;
Table 33 Allowed Swing of the Axes of Generator Unit (dual amplitude)
Axis
name

Measured part

Type of
swing

Rotational speed of shaft, n, r/min


n<150

150n<300

300n<500

500n<750

n750

Generator
shaft

Upper and
Lower journal
and flange for
bearing

Relative
swing,
mm/m

0.03

0.03

0.02

0.02

0.02

Turbine
shaft

Journal for
guide bearing

Relative
swing,
mm/m

0.05

0.05

0.04

0.03

0.02

Generator
shaft

collector ring

Absolute
swing, mm

0.50

0.40

0.30

0.20

0.10

Note 1: Absolute swing refers to the actual swing measured at the measuring position.
Note 2: Relative swing refers to the ratio between the absolute swing (mm) and the distance from the
measuring position to the mirror plate (m);
Note 3: In any case, the absolute swing of hydraulic turbine at the guide bearing shall not exceed the
following value:
0.03 mm for the unit with rotational speed below 250 r/min;
0.25 mm for the unit with rotational speed within 250~600 r/min;
0.20 mm for the unit with rotational speed above 600 r/min.
Note 4: All the above values refer to the unit swing in turning, but not in operation.

d) For the hydraulic thrust bearing with supporting pin, the elastic turning shall be conducted after
the elastic oil tank qualified in stress adjustment. The gap closing to the upper and lower guide
bearing shoes shall be adjusted to be ranged in 0.03mm~0.05mm. As turning, the axial swing
at the edge of mirror plate shall not exceed the limits specified in Table 34.
After checking and adjusting the axes, recheck the stress of elastic oil tank, which shall meet
the requirements given in 9.5.6 d);
Table 34 Allowed Axial Swing of Mirror Plate (run-out of end surface)
Diameter of mirror plate, m

Axial swing, mm

<2.0

0.10

2.0~3.5

0.15

>3.5

0.20

e) For the generator unit with multiple shaft sections, the deflection of various axes in various
sections shall be checked as turning, with the deviation preferentially no more than 0.04mm/m.
Before turning the generator unit, the axes machining record in the workshop and the gap
changes between the rotor and the upper and lower shaft rabbets after heat driving of key (or
heat adding of shim) shall be checked, as well we the changes of axes during turning;
f)

As the rotor set at the central position, check the air gap by turning at 90 intervals, the values
shall meet the requirements as specified in 9.5.3d);

g) As the rotor set at the central position, the air gap measuring device associated with turning
method should be applied for checking the stator roundness and rotor roundness, which shall

meet the requirements respectively specified in 9.3.10 a) and 9.4.13;


h) The deflection and verticality of the axes should be checked by hanging steel wires in cross
directions, or hanging steel wires at the center of axel hole, or other methods.
9.5.8 The high-pressure oil lifting device of thrust bearing and the external circulation cooling device
shall be installed to meet the following requirements:
a) The oil pipelines in the system shall be cleaned by pumping oil into the oil system with oil
pump until the oil at the outlet to be qualified. Oil pressure test shall be conducted as the
design required;
b) The starting pressure of overflow valve shall meet the design requirements. Tightness oil
pressure test shall be conducted as various check valves to be exposed to reverse pressure.
In the test, keep the reverse test pressure equal to 0.5, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.25 times of the working
pressure respectively for 10 minutes, no leakage shall occur;
c) Under the working pressure, adjust the oil flow through the throttle valves of bearing shoe, to
ensure the deviation in the oil film thickness of various bearing shoes not to exceed 0.02mm;
d) The external circulation cooling device and pipelines of thrust bearing shall be cleaned, and
hydrostatic pressure test shall be conducted according to the design requirements.
9.5.9 For the thrust bearing of pendant generator unit, the insulation resistance of various parts shall not
be smaller than the limits given in Table 35.
Table 35

Insulation of Various Parts on the Thrust Bearing of Pendant Generator Unit

No.

Component of thrust
bearing

Insulation
resistance,
M

Megohmmeter
voltage, V

Notes

Pedestal and frame of


thrust bearing

500

To measure after the pedestal and


frame being installed

Oil pipeline of
high-pressure oil lifting
device

10

500

To measure single pipelines before


coupling with the connector of thrust
bearing shoe

Thrust bearing
assembly

500

To measure after completing the


bearing assembly, lifting the rotor, and
before filling in with lubricant, with the
temperature controlled within 10~30

Thrust bearing
assembly

0.5

500

To measure after completing the


bearing assembly, lifting the rotor, and
filling in with lubricant, with the
temperature controlled within 10~30

Thrust bearing
assembly

0.02

500

To measure after the rotor set on the


thrust bearing, with all the couplings
between the rotating part and the
stationary part temporarily removed

Embedded
thermometer

50

250

To measure the insulation resistance of


each the reading line of thermometer to
the thrust bearing shoe before filling in
lubricant,

Note: Only one of the three items 3, 4 and 5 shall be measured.

9.5.10 The installation of guide bearing shall meet the following requirements:
a) The axes of generator unit and the stress on thrust bearing shoe shall be adjusted to be
qualified;
b) The clearance of turbine wearing ring and the air gap of generator shall be qualified;
c) As finally installing the sectioned guide bearing shoe of insulation requirement, the insulation
resistance shall normally be above 50M;
d) The installation of guide bearing shoe shall be adjusted referring to the center position of main
shaft, the clearance adjustment shall take the swing direction and size in turning into
consideration, and the overall installation clearance shall meet the design requirements;
e) The gap tolerance of sectioned guide bearing shoes shall not be more than 0.02mm, and the
gap deviation of two neighboring bearing shoes shall not exceed the required value by more
than 0.02mm. the bearing shoes shall be locked reliably after gap adjustment;
f)

As the main shaft set at the central position, measure the distance of the journal and the
machined surface on shoe frame in the X and Y direction, and write down the results.

9.5.11 The installation of oil sump shall meet the following requirements:
a) Kerosene leakage test shall be conducted for oil sump according to the requirements given in
Clause 4.12;
b) Hydrostatic pressure test shall be conducted for oil sump cooler before installation according
to the design requirements, tightness test shall be conducted after installation according to the
requirements specified in Clause 4.11;
c) The axial clearance of the rotating part and stationary part in oil sump shall meet the
requirements of the top rotor, the radial clearance shall meet the requirements given in the
design drawings, a shrinkage about 1mm shall remain as installing the groove sealing felt into
the sump, and the sealing felt shall not contact closely with the rotary shaft;
d) The oil sump shall be cleaned, and the oil circulating line shall keep unblocked as the design
required;
e) The outer circle of oil deflector shall be concentric with the generator unit with the center
deviation no more than 1.0mm, and the radial distance of the outer circle of oil deflector and
the inner circle of journal shall not deviate from the average distance by more than 10%;
f)

The oil level in the oil sump shall meet the design requirements with the deviation no more
than 5mm; The lubricant grade shall meet the design requirements. Check the oil quality
before filling and ensure the oil to satisfy the stipulations specified in GB11120;

g) As performing electric welding on rotating part, the ground line of electric welding machine
shall be connected directly to the part to be welded, and relevant safety measures shall be
taken to ensure the electric welding spatter not to splash into the oil sump or the bearing.
9.5.12 Installation of cover plate, windshield and fire service pipe
a) The distance of windshield, fire service pipe and stator the winding to the rotating part should not be
smaller than the designed dimensions, and not exceed the designed values by more than 20%;
b) The spray hole of fire service pipe (for spraying water or CO2 gas) shall be correctly oriented. Check
them based on their structural models and ensure them to satisfy the manufacturers requirements. Test
by filling with air if necessary;
c) The upper and lower cover plates and the upper and lower windshields shall be assembled strictly
according to the design requirements. The welding shall be reliable and the bolts shall be tightened and
locked firmly. The upper and lower cover plates shall be attached to ensure the tightness.

9.5.13 The installation of air cooler shall meet the following requirements:
a) Hydrostatic pressure test shall be conducted on single coolers before installation according to the
requirements given in Clause 4.11;
b) For the installed support of air cooler, the height tolerance shall be 10mm and the circumferential
tolerance 6mm. the welding or connection shall be performed according to the design requirements;
c) Anti-dewing measures shall be taken for the pipelines in the generator unit that exposed to the risk of
condensation.
9.5.14 The temperature measurement of the generator shall be installed to meet the following
requirements:
a) The insulation resistance of temperature measurement shall be no less than 0.5M. For the bearing
of insulation requirement, after each thermometer is installed, the insulation resistance of guide bearing
shoe shall meet the requirements specified in the Item No. 6 of Table 35;
b) For the terminal board of the temperature measurement for stator winding, if discharging gap exists,
the gap shall normally be ranged in 0.3mm-0.5mm;
c) Before sealing the bearing oil sump, the temperature measurement shall be inspected. The resistance
difference between various resistance thermometers shall not be more than 1.5%, and the resistance
against ground shall be checked. The indication of signaling thermometer shall be close to the
temperature of guide bearing shoe. The lead line of temperature measurement shall be fixed reliably;
d) The marking numbers of thermometer and temperature measurement switch shall be consistent with
those of bearing shoe, cooler and winding slot.
9.5.15 The installation of collector ring shall meet the following requirements:
a) The horizontal deviation of the installed collector ring shall normally not exceed 2mm;
b) The relevant electrical tests for collector ring shall meet the requirements specified in Clause 14.4;
c) The brush of collector ring shall move within the brush holder flexibly without blocking; the clearance
between the brush holder and the surface of collector ring shall be ranged in 2mm-3mm; The contact
surface area between brush and collector ring shall not be smaller than 75% of the brush section area;
The spring pressure shall be even.
9.6 Installation of excitation system and its equipment
9.6.1 The installation of excitation system and its equipment shall meet the requirements of GB/T7409.3.
The installation shall be started after the indoor architectural construction has been completed and the
indoor humidity can satisfy the specified requirements.
9.6.2 Special requirements on the installation of panels and cabinets in excitation system
a) The power rectifier cabinet and dust filter applying primary ventilation or closed circulation air cooler
shall not be plugged, and the cooling water way of heat exchanger shall not be blocked;
b) The contact tips within plug-in drawer shall be checked according to the design requirements.
9.6.3 Installation of field circuit breaker
a) The switching windings of and the locking mechanism of gearing device for the field circuit breaker

shall be checked respectively, and action test shall be conducted, in which the action reliability and the
action time shall meet the product standards;
b) Check the action sequence of arc-suppression contacts and main contacts to be correct; the action of
NC contact shall advance NO contact, the gap of NC contact after closing shall meet the design
requirements;
c) In the case of DM-type field circuit breaker, the number, arrangement, shape and installation position
of bars on arc chute, the connection and resistance of shunt resistance, and the opening of
arc-suppression contact etc shall meet the product standard and delivery requirements.
9.6.4 The laying and wiring of cables in excitation system
The power cables connecting the excitation transformer and the power cabinet shall be of the same
length.
The cable laying and wiring in the panel shall meet the requirements stipulated in GB 50168 and GB
50171.

10 Installation of Horizontal Hydraulic Turbine Generator


10.1 Grinding of guide bearing shoe
10.1.1 The guide bearing shoe and the mirror plate shall be inspected as per Clause 9.2.1 and Clause
9.2.2. For the guide bearing shoes required to be ground on the site as the manufacturer required, the
grinding is normally divided into initial grinding and fine grinding. The initial grinding shall be conducted
before inserting the rotor into the stator, and the fine grinding shall be conducted after the center of rotor
has been aligned.
10.1.2 The grinding of pedestal bearing shall meet the following requirements:
a) The gap between the guide bearing shoe and the journal shall meet the design requirements; the gap
at two sides shall be the half of the top gap, and the gap difference between two sides shall not exceed
10% of the gap;
b) The contact angle between the lower part of guide bearing shoe and the journal shall meet the design
requirements, but not exceed 60. The whole length of guide bearing shoe shall be evenly contacted,
and the number of contact points in each square centimeter within the scope of contact angle shall be
ranged in 1~3;
c) For the bearing with a circulation lubricating system of pressure oil, the size of oil groove shall meet
the design requirements, and at the joints, the end plate length at the two ends of vertical oil groove shall
not be smaller than 15mm.
10.1.3 The grinding of thrust bearing shoe shall meet the following requirements:
a) The contact surface between thrust bearing shoe and thrust disc shall cover at least 75%, with 1~3
contacting points in each square centimeter;
b) For the thrust bearing shoe without regulating device, the thickness shall be uniform. The thickness
difference of various bearing shoes in the same group shall not be more than 0.02mm.
10.2 Installation of bearing pedestal
10.2.1 The oil chamber of bearing pedestal shall be clean, the oil way shall be unblocked, and kerosene
leakage test shall be conducted according to the requirements specified in Clause 4.12.
10.2.2 The centers of two bearing holes shall be adjusted initially according to the actual center of the
stationary part of turbine, so that the deviation in coaxiality shall not be more than 0.1mm; the horizontal
deviation of bearing pedestal shall normally not exceed 0.2mm/m in horizontal direction, and 0.1mm/m in
the axial direction.
10.2.3 For the installation of bearing pedestal, besides adjusting the centers of two bearing holes initially
according to the actual center of the stationary part of turbine, the flexure and deformation of main shaft
and the shrinkage of bearing pedestal after positioning the rotor shall be taken into consideration.
a) Lifting and setting the rotor onto the bearing pedestal, measure the shrinkage of bearing pedestal, add
a gasket of the same thickness below the bottom of bearing pedestal;
b) According to the flexure and deformation of rotor main shaft, adjust the rise of rear bearing pedestal of
the generator, so that the turbine flanges can be connected parallel and concentric to the generator
flanges.
10.2.4 Should shim be needed for adjusting the bearing pedestal, the number of shims shall not exceed
3, and the shims shall pass through the foundation bolt.

10.2.5 For the bearing of insulation requirements, after completing the installation and connecting all
pipelines, the insulation resistance of bearing pedestal against the ground measured by a 1000V
megohmmeter shall not be smaller than 0.5M. The insulation spacer shall be clean and applied in
whole sheets, with the width the circumference 10mm~15mm more than the bearing pedestal. The
dowels and foundation bolts shall be insulated.
10.2.6 As preassembling the bearing cap, the horizontal jointing surface between bearing pedestal and
bearing cap shall be checked, and the bolts shall be tightened and confirmed by a 0.05mm feeler. The
jointing surface on bearing cap, and that between oil deflector and guide bearing saddle shall be
provided with seals or applied with sealant according to the manufacturers requirements.
10.2.7 The gap of various jointing surfaces between bearing pedestal and foundation plate, and the
installation of wedge plate shall meet the requirements specified in Clause 4.7 and 4.5.
10.3 Installation of stator, rotor and accessories
10.3.1 For the stator and rotor required to be assembled on the site, the relevant requirements specified
in Clause 9.3 and 9.4 shall be complied with.
10.3.2 The main shaft of coaxial turbine and generator shall be aligned in one try. For the generator unit
with the turbine and generator provided with separate shafts, the main shaft flanges of generator rotor
shall be aligned to the flanges of turbine main shaft. The deviation in coaxiality shall not exceed 0.04mm,
and the inclination between two flanges shall not be more than 0.02mm.
10.3.3 The air gap between stator and rotor shall be uniform. Four gap values for each magnetic pole
shall be measured (with the rotor at 90 intervals) to take the arithmetic mean; The gap difference
between various magnetic poles shall not exceed the average gap by more than 8%.
10.3.4 The axial centers of stator and rotor shall be adjusted so that the stator offsets toward the rear
bearing relative to the rotor with the deviation as the manufacturer specified, which is normally ranged in
1.0mm-1.5mm, or considered to be a half of the elongation of the generator shaft caused by heat
expansion during the full-load operation of the generator.
10.3.5 After coupling the main shaft, check the swing of various parts by turning to meet the following
requirements:
a) The swing at various journals shall not exceed 0.03mm;
b) The end run-out of thrust disc shall not exceed 0.02mm;
c) The swing of coupled flanges shall not exceed 0.1mm;
d) The swing at slip ring shall not exceed 0.2mm,
10.3.6 Installation of fan
a) The fan surfaces shall be neat, free of crack or other mechanical damage;
b) For the fan required to be installed on the site, the bolts shall be tightened and locked according to the
manufacturers requirements. Spring washer shall not be used, and gas welding or electric welding shall
not be allowed on the fan;
c) The gap of fan blades and wind guide device shall be uniform, and the deviation shall not exceed
20% of the actual average gap;
d) The end surface distance between fan and wind guide device shall meet the design requirements. If

no specified value is given in the design, it shall be no less than 5mm.


10.3.7 The end cap of generator shall be installed after the internal cleaning of generator, the installation
of various parts within the end cap, and the checking of fitting gaps. The jointing surface between end
cap and housing shall be sealed to meet the design requirements.
10.4 Examination of various bearing parts and gap adjustment
10.4.1 After adjusting the axes, the contacting condition of guide bearing shoe shall be checked by
turning to meet the following requirements:
a) The contact surface between main shaft and lower guide bearing shoe shall meet the requirements
specified in 10.1.2 b);
b) The contact surface between thrust bearing shoe and thrust disc shall meet the requirements
specified in 10.1.3a).
10.4.2 The bearing clearance shall meet the following requirements:
a) The top gap and side gap between journal and guide bearing shoe shall meet the requirements
specified in 10.1.2a);
b) The axial gap between the two ends of guide bearing shoe and the shaft shoulder shall be adequate
considering the condition that the main shaft is expanding by 0.011mm per meter for every degree of
temperature rise in the case of the fastest temperature rise of the rotor operation, thus to ensure the free
expansion of rotor during operation.
10.4.3 The axial gap of thrust bearing shoe (run-out of main shaft) shall normally be ranged in
0.3mm-0.6mm (larger values for shaft with larger diameter).
10.4.4 The fitting between guide bearing shoe and bearing housing shall meet the following
requirements:
a) For cylinder-shape guide bearing shoe, no gap shall remain between the upper guide bearing shoe
and the bearing cap, and 0.05mm tightening capacity shall be provided; the contact between guide
bearing shoe and bearing pedestal shall close and the load-bearing surface shall reach above 60%;
b) For spherical guide bearing shoe, the contact surface between the sphere and the sphere frame shall
occupy about 75% of the whole sphere; after tightening the bearing cap, the gap between the bearing
shoe and the sphere frame shall meet the manufacturers requirements.
10.4.5 The gap between seal ring and shaft shall meet the requirements in relevant design drawings,
generally around 0.2mm; In the installation, the gap between halves shall not be more than 0.1mm, and
shall be free of staggers.

11 Installation of Bulb Hydraulic Turbine Generator


11.1 Assembly of stator
11.1.1 The preassembled stator as delivered shall meet the following requirements:
a) The stator roundness shall be measured to satisfy the requirements specified in Clause 9.3.2;
b) Regarding the concentricity between the circle for distributing fitting holes on the side tubular saddle
at the downstream of stator and the stator iron core, the deviation shall not be more than 1mm in the
case of stator without deflecting or eccentric structure, and in the case of stator with deflecting or
eccentric structure, the stator eccentricity and inclination between the circle for distributing fitting holes
on the side tubular saddle at the downstream of stator and the stator center line shall meet the drawing
requirements.
11.1.2 For the stator to be closely assembled on the site, the fitting of stator pedestal, close assembly of
stator iron core, and the mounting of stator winding shall comply with the relevant requirements given in
Clause 9.3; For the stator with deflecting or eccentric structure, the stator iron core shall be assembled
according to the requirements specified in the manufacturers technical documents.
11.2 Assembly of rotor
11.2.1 After erecting the rotor field spider, the levelness of central body shall be adjusted to be no more
than 0.03mm/m;
11.2.2 Magnetic pole shall be installed as required in Clause 9.4.11 and 9.4.12. After the installation of
magnetic pole, the polar distance between the two ends of magnetic pole shall meet the requirements
given in the design drawings and the relevant technical documents.
11.2.3 The brake ring shall be installed according to Clause 9.4.7.
11.2.4 Measure the rotor roundness, and the diameter deviation of various rotors from the average
diameter shall not be more than 4% of the air gap. The integral eccentricity of rotor shall meet the
requirement given in Clause 9.4.13.
11.2.5 The installation of lead-out line of rotor, connecting line between poles and the connection line of
damping ring shall meet the relevant requirement given in Clause 9.4.
11.3 Assembly of main shaft and combined bearing
11.3.1 After placing the main shaft in the installing position, the levelness of main shaft shall be adjusted
to be no more than 0.05mm/m.
11.3.2 The check and grinding of the front and rear sides of thrust bearing shoe shall meet the relevant
requirements given in Clause 9.2.
11.3.3 After assembling the sectioned mirror plate or thrust ring onto the main shaft, the jointing surface
between the mirror plate or thrust ring and the main shaft rabbets at two ends, and the fitting surface of
mirror plate or thrust ring shall leave no gap, checked with a 0.05mm feeler; The staggers at the joints of
working surface of sectioned mirror plate shall be smaller than 0.02mm, and the next section shall not
protrude the former section in the rotation direction.
11.3.4 Adjust the gap between the positive thrust bearing shoe and the mirror plate. The gaps shall be
ranged in 0.03mm of the average gap.
11.3.5 Adjust the gap between the negative thrust bearing shoe and the mirror plate. the gaps shall be

ranged in 0.05mm of the average gap.


11.3.6 After assembling the positive and negative thrust bearing shoes with the main shaft, the overall
gap between the positive and negative thrust bearing shoe and the mirror plate shall be ranged in
0.3mm-0.6mm. Adjust the gap according to the manufacturers requirements. Otherwise, control the
deviation not exceeding 0.10mm.
11.3.7 The assembly of radial bearing shall meet the following requirements:
a) The radial bearing shoe shall be checked according to 5.6.1 a), if grinding is required, the Clause
10.1.2 shall be complied with;
b) The gap between guide bearing shoe and journal shall meet the manufacturers design requirements;
c) For the radial bearing supported by sphere pedestal, the gaps between spherical pedestal with
bearing case, and bearing case sphere with spherical pedestal shall meet the manufacturers design
requirements.
11.3.8 The sealing gap at the end surface of combined bearing shall be adjusted according to the design
requirements.
11.4 General assembly of generator
11.4.1 The installation of main shaft and combined bearing shall meet the following requirements:
a) After determining the position of axes, adjust the center of bearing support according to the design
requirements; the gap between the bearing support and the spherical pedestal of radial bearing shall
meet the design requirements;
b) The overall gap between the mirror plate and the positive and negative thrust bearing shoes shall
meet the requirements specified in Clause 11.3.6. The gap of radial bearing shall meet the design
requirements;
c) The oil head or bearing insulation shall meet the requirements specified in Clause 10.2.5.
11.4.2 The high-pressure oil lifting device of radial bearing shall be installed and adjusted according to
Clause 9.5.8.
11.4.3 After coupling the main shaft and the rotor, the swing of various parts shall be checked by turning
to meet the following requirements:
a) The swing at various journals shall be smaller than 0.03mm;
b) The run-out of end surface of mirror plate shall not be more than 0.05mm;
c) The swing of coupled flange shall not be more than 0.10mm;
d) The swing at slip ring shall not be more than 0.20mm.
11.4.4 The jointing surface between stator and tubular saddle shall be cleaned as installing the stator,
and the seal packing shall be placed strictly according to the design requirements. The air gaps between
stator and rotor shall be adjusted to make various gaps deviate from the average air gap within 8%.
11.4.5 The axial magnetic center between stator and rotor shall be adjusted taking the axial center line
between the turbine runner and the runner chamber as the reference. In the case of the length of stator
iron core smaller than 1.5m, the deviation in the axial magnetic center between stator and rotor shall be

smaller than l mm; In the case of the length of stator iron core larger than 1.5m, the deviation in the
axial magnetic center between stator and rotor shall be smaller than 2 mm.
11.4.6 As installing the bulb holder and the cooling cone, the jointing surfaces between bulb holder,
cooling cone and stator shall be cleaned completely, and the seal packing shall be installed strictly
according to the design requirements; If the bulb holder requires welding, rigorous technological
measures shall be taken to ensure the welding quality.
11.4.7 The supporting structure shall be installed according to manufacturers requirements on different
structural models. The sinking of stator at the downstream side caused by the weight of bulb body shall
be measured and recorded.
11.4.8 Relevant requirements in Chapter 9 shall be complied with for the arrangement, installation and
test of the piping in oil pressure system, lubricant system, cooling water system, elevation system and
brake system.
11.4.9 The radial and axial gaps between windshield and rotating parts shall meet the design
requirements, with the deviation not exceeding 20% of the designed value.
11.4.10 All the seals shall be installed according to manufacturers requirements. Following the seal
installation, tightness breakdown test shall be conducted on all jointing surfaces according to the
manufacturers requirements.

12 Installation of Pipelines and Fittings


12.1 Fabrication of pipelines and fittings
12.1.1 The curvature radius of pipe shall not be less than 3.5 times of pipe diameter in the case of hot
bending, 4 times of pipe diameter in the case of cold bending, and 1.5 times of pipe diameter in the case
of hot bending by pipe bender.
12.1.2 As hot bending, the heating shall be even and the temperature rise shall be slow, the heating
shall not exceed 3 times in general. Refer to Table 36 for the typical hot bending temperature and heat
treatment process for pipes.
Table 36 Typical Hot Bending Temperature and Heat Treatment Process for Pipes
Material

Steel code

Heat treatment process

Temperature
range for hot
bending,

Temperature

Time of constant
temperature

Cooling
method

Carbon
steel

10, 20

750~1050

Not required

Not required

Not required

Stainless
steel

1Cr18Ni9Ti

900~1200

Quenching,
(1050~1100)

0.8 min for every


mm of wall
thickness

Quick water
cooling

Nonferrous
metal

Copper

500~600

Copper
alloy

600~700

Not required

12.1.3 as bending seamed pipe, the vertical seam shall be plated at 45 between the horizontal and
vertical direction.
12.1.4 The quality of bended pipe shall meet the following requirements:
a) Free of defects like crack, scaling or overburns;
b) The diameter difference between the max. and min. pipe sections shall generally not exceed 8% of
pipe diameter;
c) The bending angle shall comply with the template;
d) The height of wave or corrugation inside the bended pipe shall generally be no more than 3% of pipe
diameter, the wave spacing shall not be smaller than 4 times of wave height;
e) The bended annular pipe shall be pre-assembled. The diameter deviation shall not exceed 2% of the
designed value. The pipe shall be located at the same plane, with the deviation no more than 40mm.
12.1.5 The quality of pipe cut shall meet the following requirements:
a) The cut surface shall be flat and smooth, with local convex or concave no more than 3mm.
b) The vertical deviation between the cut surface at pipe end and the pipe center line shall generally not
exceed 2% of outer diameter of pipe and be not more than 3mm.

12.1.6 -shape expansion joint is normally made of a straight pipe by roast bending , the joint shall be
located in the same plane.
12.1.7 The curvature radius of welded elbow is normally no smaller than 1.5 times of the pipe diameter;
A 90 elbow shall normally be made of no less than four sections; the axial angle of welded elbow shall
comply with the template.
12.1.8 The vertical deviation of branches for making T bend by welding shall not exceed 2% of the
height.
12.1.9 The length of fabricated conical pipe shall normally be no less than 3 times of the outer diameter
difference between two pipes, the diameter and roundness at two ends shall meet the design
requirements, the deviation shall not exceed 1% of the designed diameter and be not more than 2mm.
12.1.10 The fabrication mode, material, size and precision of hanger and support shall meet the
requirements of relevant design drawings, and the holes on hanger and supports shall be bored
mechanically.
12.1.11 As fabricating flange shims, the shim material shall be selected according on the medium type
and medium pressure to be transported by the pipe. The shims should be cut into full rounds to avoid
joints. In the case of shims of large diameter required to be jointed, bevel lap joint or labyrinth connection
shall be applied, but not flat butt joint. The shim dimensions shall fit with the sealing surface of flange.
The inner diameter is allowed to be larger by 2mm-3mm, and the outer diameter is allowed to be smaller
by 1.5mm-2.5mm.
12.2 Pipe welding
12.2.1 The groove type and size of pipe connector shall be selected based on the thickness of pipe wall.
In general, in the case of wall thickness no more than 4mm, I-shape groove shall be selected and the
end clearance shall be ranged in 1mm-2mm; in the case of wall thickness more than 4mm, V-shape
groove of 70 angle shall be applied, and both the end clearance and blunt edge shall be ranged in
0mm-2mm. The stagger at pipe ends shall not exceed 20% of wall thickness, but be no more than 2mm.
12.2.2 As butt welding the steel pipe in the oil and gas systems and the water pipe system of special
requirements, hydrogen arc welding shall be applied for sealing welding, and arc welding shall be
applied for surface covering; For the butt welding of pipes of outer diameter D50mm, hydrogen arc
welding should be applied all through the process.
12.2.3 The butt welding of copper pipe and the welding between copper pipe and carbon steel pipe
should be applied after the connector being plugged in by beating.
12.2.4 The technological requirements on pipe welding
a) The material of welding rod shall be determined according to the chemical composition and
mechanical performance of the base material, the crack resistance of welding joints, the service
condition and construction condition. The effectiveness of welding process shall be guaranteed;
b) In the position welding, the welding rod and technology identical to the root welding bead shall be
applied, and the length, thickness and gap of position weld shall ensure the weld not crack during the
formal welding process;
c) Arc strike or current test shall not be conducted on base material surface outside the groove, and
measures shall be taken to protect the base material against arc damage;
d) As argon-arc welding for sealing in the butt welding of stainless steel pipe, the inside of weld shall be
filled with argon or other protective gases, otherwise, other measures shall be taken to prevent the metal
inside the weld against oxidation;

e) Proper welding method and sequence shall be applied in welding. The arc starting and stopping
quality shall be guaranteed in the welding, and the craters shall be filled before stopping arc. The
interlayer joints in multi-layer welding shall be staggered;
f) Within the scope specified in the welding instruction, on the premise of satisfying the weld penetration
and fusion, small current, short arc, fast welding, multi-layer and multiple-bead welding shall be applied
and the interlayer temperature shall be controlled.
12.2.5 Quality of welding seam
a) The reinforcing height of weld surface shall be ranged in 1mm-2mm; the width of covering layer shall
be ranged in 5mm-6mm for I-shaped groove, and the groove shall be covered around 2mm at each side
for V-shape groove;
b) The welding surface shall be free of defects like crack, slag blister or pore. The undercut depth shall
be smaller than 0.5mm; the undercut length shall not exceed 10% of the weld length and be less than
100mm;
c) Except the pipeline bleeding the medium out of gravity, the pipe welds shall be checked by water
pressure test, no leakage or crack shall occur. The pressure test shall be conducted according to Clause
4.11;
d) For butt welding the pipes of the rated working pressure more than 8MPa, besides the water pressure
test, the sampled ray detection shall also be conducted. The sampling proportion and quality class shall
meet the design requirements. If no requirements specified in the design, the sampling proportion shall
not be lower than 5%, and the quality shall be no inferior to Grade III.
12.3 Pipe installation
12.3.1 As installing the pipes, the position of welds shall meet the following requirements:
a) The clearance of two ring welds in a straight pipe section shall be no smaller than 100mm, but be
larger than 2 times of the outer diameter of pipe;
b) The distance from the butt weld to the starting point of elbow shall be no smaller than 100mm, and no
smaller than the outer diameter of pipe;
c) the clear distance between ring weld to hanger or support shall not be smaller than 50mm; no crater
shall exist on the pipe penetrating through or within wall or floor;
d) No hole shall be bored on the pipe welds. If necessary, nondestructive examination shall be
conducted on the bored weld for qualification.
12.3.2 The straightness of the pipe ends for jointing shall be inspected, the deviation measured at the
position 200mm from the joint center shall be no more than 1mm; the tolerance in the overall length shall
not exceed 10mm.
12.3.3 The burying of pipelines shall meet the following requirements:
a) The deviation in the position of pipe outlet shall be no more than 10mm; the length of ends extending
out of the concrete surface shall be no less than 300mm; the distance from the pipe to the concrete wall
shall not be less than the installing size of the flange; the pipe ends shall be sealed reliably;
b) The pipe should not be connected by thread or flange;
c) The bends shall be kept as few as possible and the curvature radius shall be large on the pipes for

pressure measurement, draining measures shall be taken; the holes for pressure measurement shall
meet the design requirements;
d) The gradient of draining pipelines for water and oil shall be consistent with the flow direction and meet
the design requirements. If no requirements specified in the design, the gradient shall be kept between
2%~3% in the construction;
e) The oil pipelines shall be buried generally in sleeves;
f) As the pipe passing through a concrete expansion joint, the measures for crossing shall meet the
design requirements.
12.3.4 The installation position of open pipes shall meet the following requirements:
a) The deviation in the installation position (coordinates and elevation) of pipes shall generally no more
than 15mm for outdoor installation, and no more than 10mm for indoor installation;
b) The bending of horizontal pipe and the horizontal deviation shall not exceed 0.15%, and no more than
20mm; the vertical deviation of vertical pipe shall not exceed 0.2%, and no more than 15mm;
c) Rake manifold shall be installed on the same plane, with the deviation no more than 5mm; the
clearance deviation between pipes shall be kept within 0mm~+5mm;
d) The free-flow water draining pipe and the oil draining water shall be inclined consistently with the flow
direction, with the gradient normally within 0.2%~0.3%.
12.3.5 The flange connection shall meet the following requirements:
a) The sealing surface and sealing gasket of flange shall be free of defects that impacting the sealing
performance. As for the thickness of gasket, that of rubber plate for low-pressure water pipe can reach
4mm, all others shall be ranged around 1mm~2mm, and the gaskets shall not exceed two layers;
b) After positioning the flanges, the parallelism deviation shall not exceed 1.5/1000 of the outer diameter
of flange, and no more than 2mm. the specification and installation orientation of tightening bolts shall be
consistent, the tightening force on bolts shall be even, and the bolts shall extrude the nut for 2~3 pitches;
c) For jointing the pipe and the flat flange, both inside and outside shall be welded. The inside weld shall
not protrude the working plane of flange, and all flanges and pipes after welding shall be vertical with the
deviation not exceeding 1%;
d) No flange shall be arranged at bends of pressure pipe;
e) Reinforcing flange or other reinforcing methods shall be taken for the branches welded onto the main
pipe or the penetrated parts on the main pipe.
12.3.6 Welding bends shall not be applied in oil system pipes. As hot-pressed bends are used, the wall
thickness of bends shall not be smaller than the wall thickness of the straight pipe.
12.3.7 The distance from the installed positions of yoke and ferrule adaptors to the hanger or support
shall meet the design requirements.
12.3.8 For the pipes using ferrule adaptor, the material, roundness, and the deviation in outer diameter
of pipes and the length protruding the ferrule shall meet the design requirements. After tightening the
press nuts, the pipe top shall not contact with the adaptor, and the center deviation of butt-jointed
adaptor shall not be more than 2% of the pipe diameter.

12.3.9 The sealing materials for pipe screwed joint should apply Teflon tape or sealant. As tightening the
screw, the sealing materials shall not be extruded into the pipe.
12.3.10 Internal cleaning shall be conducted before installing the pipes, fittings and valves, and
measures shall be taken against dirt entry in installation.
12.3.11 As installing the pipe, the hanger and support shall be fixed and adjusted timely. The hangers
and supports shall be positioned correctly, and the installation shall be orderly, firm and contacted well
with the pipe.
12.3.12 For the heat insulation of pipe, the strength, unit weight, thermal conductivity, thermal endurance,
moisture content and specification shall meet the design requirements.
12.4 Inner wall treatment of pipe
12.4.1 Before installing the pipes in oil system or speed-governing system, the inner walls shall be acid
washed, neutralized and passivated according to the design requirements. Without specified design
requirements, Appendix D can serve as reference.
12.4.2 Before using the pipes in oil, water and gas systems and speed-governing system, the inner walls
shall be washed and inspected according to the design requirements and standard. Without specified
design requirements, Appendix D can serve as reference.
12.5 Test on pipes and fittings
12.5.1 For the pressure vessels fabricated on the site and the fittings of working pressure above 1MPa,
pressure test shall be conducted according to Clause 4.11. For the atmospheric vessels fabricated on
the site, leakage test shall be conducted according to Clause 4.12.
12.5.2 For the valves of working pressure above 1MPa and those below 1MPa but positioned at
important points, tightness breakdown test shall be conducted according to Clause 4.11.
12.5.3 For the embedded pressure pipe or fittings, tightness breakdown test shall be conducted before
concrete laying according to Clause 4.11.
12.5.4 After installing the pipes and fitting in oil, water and gas system, generally the corresponding oil,
water or gas test shall be conducted. The test pressure shall be increased gradually to the rated working
pressure, no leakage shall occur.

13 Installation of Butterfly Valve and Globe Valve


13.1 Installation of butterfly valve
13.1.1 The sealing of butterfly valve shall be checked before installation. For inflatable type rubber seals,
air-tightness test in water shall be conducted by inputting compressed air of pressure 0.05MPa, no air
leakage shall occur. Solid rubber seals and metal seals shall be examined according to the design
requirements.
13.1.2 For the butterfly valves required to be decomposed, cleaned and assembled on the site, the
assembled valves shall meet the following requirements:
a) The bearing clearance shall meet the design requirements, and no leakage shall occur at bearing
seals.
b) The gap between various jointing planes shall meet the requirements specified in Clause 4.7;
The two ends of rubber packing on the jointing surface of sectioned valve body shall extrude 1mm-2mm
out of the bottom of packing slot on the downstream and upstream flanges of valve body.
13.1.3 The assembled valve body and disc shall meet the following requirements:
a) Before installing the seal, check the evenness of gaps between disc and body at closed position,
ensure the deviation not to exceed 20% of the actual average gap;
b) With the disc at the closed position, the sealing gap of the uninflated inflatable rubber seal shall meet
the design requirements, and the deviation shall not exceed 20% of the designed gap; under the
working air pressure, no gap shall remain in the rubber seal;
c) With the disc at the closed position, no gap shall remain from the solid rubber seal and metal seal to
the jointing surface of valve body. The sealing shrinkage shall meet the design requirements.
13.1.4 The deviation in the installation position of butterfly valve shall meet the following requirements:
a) For the steel penstocks at the upstream and downstream sides of butterfly valve and the nozzles on
spiral case, the length exposed out of the concrete wall shall ensure sufficient room reserved for part
installation and welding;
b) As installing the butterfly valve, the center line in the flow direction shall be determined according to
the actual centers of spiral case and steel pipe, and the deviation from the designed position shall not be
more than 3mm. The deviation of horizontal center line (at upstream and downstream positions) from the
designed center line shall generally not be more than 10mm; the levelness and verticality of butterfly
valve measured after flange welding shall not deviate more than 1mm/m; for the butterfly valves of
diameter larger than 4m, the deviation shall not be more than 0.5mm/m;
c) For facilitating the movement of butterfly valve towards expansion joint in maintenance, the foundation
bolts and the screw holes shall leave adequate distance, which shall not be smaller than the diameter of
the rubber packing between flanges.
13.1.5 After installing the butterfly valve, the following examination shall be conducted:
a) The deviation in the openness of butterfly valve at full open position shall not be more than 1;
b) Tightness test under the maximum hydrostatic head shall be conducted on butterfly valve. Keep the
head for 30min, the leakage in the front and rear seals shall not exceed the allowed value. If its unlikely
to conduct the test under the maximum hydrostatic heat, the actual hydraulic head can be applied in the

test, in which the leakage shall be converted to the value under the maximum hydrostatic heat and shall
meet the design requirements;
c) The correctness of mechanical lock, hydraulic lock and limit switch shall be examined and ensured.
13.2 Installation of globe valve
13.2.1 For the globe valves required to be decomposed, cleaned and assembled on the site, the
assembled valves shall meet not only the requirements specified in Clause 13.1.2, but also the following
requirements:
a) The contact of the working seal and the stand still seal with the water seal surface shall be tight.
Check the joints with a 0.05mm feeler, which shall not pass through, otherwise, grind the seal surfaces;
b) The stroke and fitting size of seal rings shall meet the design requirements; the actual stroke shall not
be less than 80% of the designed value, and the movement of the rings shall be flexible.
13.2.2 The disc of globe valve shall rotate flexibly, and have adequate clearances with the stationary
parts, which shall not be smaller than 2mm.
The maximum clearance between seal rings and sealing gaskets shall be smaller than the actual stroke
of sealing gland.
13.2.3 The tolerance for the installation position of globe valve shall meet the relevant requirements
specified in Clause 13.1.4.
13.2.4 Tightness test on globe valve shall be conducted according to the requirements of 13.1.5b).
13.3 Installation of expansion joint
13.3.1 The gap of inner and outer sleeve of packing type expansion joint shall be adjusted to be even
and free of blocking; the width tolerance of packing groove shall not be more than the gap between the
sealing gland and the outer sleeve.
13.3.2 The shrinkable distance of packing type expansion joint shall meet the design requirements. The
welding of compensation joint shall consider the weld shrinkage. The shrinkable distance after welding
shall be checked, with the deviation not exceeding 30% of the designed value.
13.3.3 The bellows piece of the bellows type expansion joint shall be checked before installation
according to the design requirements; after the welding of compensation joint, the distance of bellows
pieces, and the roundness and stagger of nozzles at two sides shall meet the design requirements.
13.3.4 After the welding of compensation joint and bellows, nondestructive examination shall be
conducted on the welds according to the design requirements; If no requirements specified in the design,
the examination shall be carried out according to the requirements given in 5.1.8 a) and b).
13.4 Installation of hydraulically-controlled valve and air valve
13.4.1 The movement of hydraulically-controlled valve shall be flexible, the sealing shall be well proved,
and the stroke shall satisfy the design requirements without oil leakage.
13.4.2 Compensation section shall be designed for bypass pipe; As the hydraulically-controlled valve,
manual gate valve and bypass elbow are connected together, tightness breakdown test shall be
conducted according to Clause 4.11.
13.4.3 The action of air valve shall be correct. With the spiral case placed at full open position without

water, fill in with water, the case shall be able to close automatically, and no water leakage shall occur.
Kerosene leakage test shall be conducted on the water seal surface of air valve according to Clause
4.12.
13.5 Installation of operating mechanism
13.5.1 The oil pressure unit in the operation system shall be installed according to the relevant
requirements given in Clauses 8.1.1~8.1.8.
13.5.2 The servomotor for controlling the valve shall be installed according to Clause 5.5.4, and shall
meet the following requirements:
a) The installation of foundation plate and pedestal of swing servomotor shall be installed referring to the
actual position of connecting dowel holes on regulating lever as the disc set at full close position; the
position deviation of foundation plate shall not be more than 3mm. The levelness or verticality of the
installed servomotor shall not be more than 1mm/m, the elevation deviation of the pedestal shall not
exceed 1.5mm, and the dowel connection shall be flexible;
b) The limit position of annular servomotor shall be adjusted to ensure the deviation not to exceed
1.5mm under the condition with the valve at full open or full close position.
13.5.3 On the condition of steel penstock without water, the action of disc and bypass valve controlled by
oil pressure unit shall be stable; write down the operating oil pressure; the opening and closing time shall
meet the design requirements.
13.5.4 For the valves with closing heavy hammer, the closing test of heavy hammer shall be conducted
on the condition of steel penstock without water or with static water according to the design requirements;
write down the closing time.

14 Electrical Tests on Hydraulic Turbine Generator Unit


14.1 Before inserting the stator winding on the site, the single bars shall be sampled inspected, the
sampling proportion shall be 5% of the total quality of bars in each case. If unqualified bars detected in
the sampling inspection, the sampling proportion for the involved case shall be increased. The tests shall
include:
a) Insulation resistance test, by a 2500V megohmmeter; the insulation resistance shall generally no
lower than 5000M;
b) Corona test of single bar, the corona onset voltage shall not be lower than 1.5U", otherwise,
anti-corona treatment shall be performed again. In the case the altitude exceeding 1000m, the test
voltage for starting corona shall be corrected according to JB/T 8439;
c) AC voltage withstanding test, the test shall be carried out according to the criteria given in Table 37.
14.2 In the installation of stator winding, the standard JB/T 6204 shall be complied with. AC voltage
withstanding test shall be carried out according to the criteria given in Table 37.
Table 37 AC Voltage Withstanding Criteria for Stator Winding
Winding type

Test phase

unit: KV

Rated voltage
2UN6.3

6.3<UN24

Test criteria
Ring type

Strip type

1. Before insertion

2.75 UN +1.0

2.75 UN +2.5

2. After insertion (with


slot wedge driven in)

2.5 UN +0.5

2.5 UN +2.5

1. Before insertion

2.75 UN +1.0

2.75 UN +2.5

2. After insertion of
lower coil

2.5 UN ++1.0

2.5 UN +2.0

2.5 UN +0.5

2.5 UN +1.0

3. After insertion of
upper coil (with slot
wedge driven in)

Note: UN refers to the rated line voltage of the generator, kV.


The continuous time after reaching the rated test voltage, without specified otherwise, shall be 1
min.
14.3 The test items and criteria for stator shall meet the requirements of Table 38.
Table 38 Test Items and Criteria for Stator
No.

Item

Criteria

AC voltage
withstanding test
for single stator
winding

According to Table 37

Notes

Measurement of
insulation
resistance,
absorption ratio
or polarization
index of stator
winding

(1) According to Clause 9.3.18;

Measurement of
DC resistance of
stator winding

DC resistances of different
phases and branches, after
correcting the errors caused by
different length of lead line, the
mutual difference shall not be
more than 2% of the minimum.

Tested by a megohmmeter no lower


than 2500V

(2) Unbalanced factor of insulation


resistance at different phases
shall no be more than 2.

(1) To measure in code state, the


temperature difference between
winding surface and ambient air
shall not be more than 3K;
(2) As applying decreasing voltage
method, the input current shall not
exceed 20% of the rated current;
(3) Find out the reasons for the
values beyond the criteria.

DC voltage
withstanding test
of stator winding,
and
measurement of
leak current

(1) The test voltage shall be 3.0


times of the rated line voltage;
(2) The leak current shall not
increase along with the time;
(3) Under the specified test
voltage, the difference of leak
current at different phases shall
not be more than 50% of the
minimum.

AC voltage
withstanding test
of stator winding

(1) For the assembled stator as


delivered, the testing AC voltage
of stator winding in the test shall
be 0.8 time of the voltage in
pre-delivery test;
(2) For the stator to be assembled
on the site, the test voltage shall
be 3kV plus 2 times of the rated
line voltage in the case the rated
line voltage no more than 20kV;
(3) The corona onset voltage of
the whole unit shall not be smaller
than 1.0 time of the rated line
voltage.

(1) Generally in code state;


(2) The test voltage shall be
increased by steps at intervals of
0.5 time of rated voltage, hold for 1
min at every step, read the leak
current;
(3) Find out the reasons for those
nonconforming the criteria in either
(1) or (2) and remove the causes.
Before lifting the rotor, withstanding
voltage test shall be carried out
according to the standard; No AC
voltage withstanding test shall be
conducted before increasing the
voltage of the generator unit.
(1) AC voltage withstanding test
shall be conducted at different
phases; the starting voltage before
increasing voltage shall not exceed
1/3 of the test voltage, which then
shall be increase to the test voltage
gradually and keep for 10-15s
preferentially;
(2) All temperature measuring
resistances in the stator winding
shall be grounded by short circuit
before test;
(3) Insulation resistance and
polarization index shall be
measured before withstanding
voltage test; and DC voltage
withstanding test shall be conducted

firstly;
(4) During withstanding voltage test
under the rated line voltage, no
obvious golden yellow bright spots
or continuous corona shall occur at
the ends. In the case of altitude
exceeding 1000m, the test voltage
value for corona onset test shall be
corrected according to 1B/T8439.
6

Magnetization
test of stator iron
core

Magnetic induction shall be


converted according 1T, the
continuous time is 90 min.
(1) The maximum temperature of
iron core shall not exceed 25K;
the maximum temperature
difference shall not exceed 15K;
(2) The temperature difference
between iron core and pedestal
shall meet the manufacturers
requirements;

(1) The test shall be conducted for


the stator to be closely assembled
on the site; for stator closely
assembled by the manufacturer and
supplied with pre-delivery test
record, the test is skippable;
(2) In the test on hydraulic turbine
generator stator of larger diameter,
the errors caused by the
unevenness of magnetic flux density
shall be corrected.

(3) Unit iron loss shall meet the


manufacturers requirements;
(4) No abnormal condition shall
occur on the stator iron core.
14.4 For the rotor to be assembled on the site, AC voltage withstanding test and insulation resistance
examination shall be conducted on the single magnetic pole, collector ring, lead line and brush holder
according to the criteria given in Table 39.
Table 39 Criteria for AC Voltage Withstanding Test and Insulation Resistance Examination on Single
Magnetic Pole, Collector Ring, Lead Line and Brush Holder
Part name
Single
magnetic
pole

Voltage withstanding criteria, V

Insulation
resistance, M

Before mounting

10Ut + 1500, but no lower than 3000

After mounting

10Ut + 1000, but no lower than 2500

Collector ring, lead line, brush holder

10Ut + 1000, but no lower than 3000

Note: Ut refers to the rated exciting voltage of generator rotor, V.


14.5 The test items and criteria of rotor winding shall meet the requirements given in Table 40.
Table 40 Test Items and Criteria of Rotor Winding
No.

Item

Criteria

Notes

Measurement of insulation
resistance of rotor winding

Generally no smaller
than 0.5M

(1) 2500V megohmmeter shall be


applied in the case of the rated
voltage of rotor winding above

200V;
(2) 1000V megohmmeter shall be
applied in the case of the rated
voltage of rotor winding below
200V.
2

Measurement of DC
resistance of single
magnetic pole

The mutual difference


shall not exceed 2%.

The input current shall not exceed


20% of the rated current.

Measurement of DC
resistance of rotor winding

Convert the measured


value and the
calculated value in
pre-delivery test to the
same temperature and
make comparison

To measure in cold state, the


difference in the surface
temperature of winding and the
ambient temperature shall not be
more than 3K.

Measurement of AC
impedance of single
magnetic pole winding

No obvious difference
shall occur by
comparison

To measure respectively before and


after mounting.

AC voltage withstanding
test of rotor winding

(1) For the assembled


rotor as delivered, the
test voltage shall be 8
times of the rated
exciting voltage and no
lower than 1200V;

(1) For the rotor to be assembled on


the site, the test shall be conducted
on the whole assembly before being
lifted into the pit;

(2) For the rotor to be


assembled on the site:
10Ut, but no lower than
1500V in the case of the
rated exciting voltage
500; 2Ut + 4000V in
the case of the rated
exciting voltage > 500
Note: Ut refers to the rated exciting voltage of generator rotor, V.

(2) After the rotor lifted into the


position or before the voltage
increasing on the generator unit, the
test is generally skipped.

15 Trial Run of Hydraulic Turbine Generator Unit


15.1 General
15.1.1 The trial run shall be conducted according to DL/T507, DL/T827, GB/T18482 and this
specification. The trial run program or guideline of generator unit, the test and inspection items and the
safety measures shall be prepared taking the actual situation of the power station into consideration.
For the generator unit required to be carried out type test, the test contents and items shall be described
in the special technical agreement.
15.1.2 The generator unit and relevant auxiliary equipment shall be cleaned and inspected thoroughly to
ensure the qualified installation quality and pass the acceptance test.
Turbine, generator, speed-governing system, excitation system and relevant auxiliary equipment and
systems shall be ready for startup at any time.
15.1.3 The gates and valves in water delivery system and tailwater system (including tailwater surge
chamber) shall be tested to be qualified. They shall be placed at the closed position, the intake holes and
bulkheads shall be plugged reliably.
15.1.4 The relay protection, automatic control, measurement instruments and relevant electrical
equipment in the hydraulic turbine generator unit shall be tested to be qualified according to the relevant
specifications and codes.
Various safety measures for the startup of the generator unit shall be ready to ensure the safety
operation of the generator unit.
15.2 Water filling test of generator unit
15.2.1 Fill water into the tailwater surge chamber, draft tube and spiral case to balance the pressure, and
examine various parts, no abnormal condition shall occur.
15.2.2 Fill water into the draft water system and water delivery system by steps according to the design
requirements, monitor and examine the changes in various parts, no abnormal condition shall occur.
15.2.3 After pressure balancing, the manual and automatic opening and closing tests shall be conducted
under static water on the service gate or working gate, or butterfly valve, globe valve, or cylinder valve at
water inlet. The opening/closing time shall meet the design requirements.
15.2.4 Examination and commissioning shall be conducted on the water supply systems of spiral case
and draft tube in the generator unit to ensure the normal operation. The water pressure and flow at
various parts in the process water supply system of the generator unit shall be normal.
15.3 No-load trial run of generator unit
15.3.1 Mechanical operation examination of generator unit:
a) In the startup process of the generator unit, monitor various parts to avoid abnormal condition;
b) Measure and record the water level at upstream and downstream, and the no-load opening of the
generator unit under the water head;
c) Observe the bearing oil surface to be at the normal position, and the oil sump cause no oil splashing.
Monitor the bearing temperature of various parts, no sharp rise shall occur. The stable temperature shall
not exceed the designed value after the operation temperature has been stabilized;

d) Measure the operating swing of the generator unit (double-amplitude), the value shall not be more
than 75% of the overall bearing clearance;
e) Measure the vibration of the generator unit, the value shall not exceed the limits specified in Table 41.
If the vibration of generator unit exceeds the limit specified in, dynamic balance test shall be conducted;
f) Measure the residual voltage and phase sequence of generator, the phase sequence shall be correct;
g) Clean the surface of slip ring.
Table 41 Vibration Tolerance at Various Parts of Hydraulic Turbine Generator Unit
Type of
generator
unit

Item

Vertical
generator
unit

Turbine

unit: mm

Rated rotational speed, n, r/min


n<100

100n<250

250n<375

375n<750

Horizontal vibration of
head cover

0.09

0.07

0.05

0.03

Vertical vibration of head


cover

0.11

0.09

0.06

0.03

Vertical vibration with


thrust bearing support

0.08

0.07

0.05

0.04

Horizontal vibration with


guide bearing support

0.11

0.09

0.07

0.05

Horizontal vibration of
pedestal at stator iron
core

0.04

0.03

0.02

0.02

Vibration of stator iron


core (100Hz,
double-amplitude)

0.03

0.03

0.03

0.03

Horizontal
generator
unit

Vertical vibration of various bearings

0.11

0.09

0.07

0.05

Bulb
through
flow
generator
unit

Axial vibration of thrust truss

0.10

0.08

Radial vibration of various guide


bearings

0.12

0.10

Radial vibration of bulb holder

0.12

0.10

Hydraulic
turbine
generator

Note: The vibration value refers to the double-amplitude value of generator unit under various table
operating conditions except over-speed operation.
15.3.2 Adjustment and test of governor:
a) Examine the vibration of electro-hydraulic switch or electro-hydraulic servo valve piston to be
normal;
b) With the generator unit under manual operation mode, examine the swing of rotational speed
of the generator unit within 3min, the average of three measured values shall not exceed
0.2% of the rated value;
c) Automatic and manual switching test shall be conducted on the governor, which shall operate
normally, with the servomotor without obvious swing;

d) No-load disturbance test on the governor:


With the generator unit operating automatically under no load, impose it with step disturbance
signal equal to 8% of the rated rotational speed, record and figure out the transition process
of the rotational speed of generator unit and the stroke of servomotor etc. The maximum
overshoot of the rotational speed shall not exceed 30% of the disturbance quantity on the
rotational speed; the overshooting shall not exceed two times. The adjusting time from the
starting of disturbance to the time right before the rotational speed of the generator unit
exceeding the specified value shall meet the design requirements. A group of adjusting
parameters shall be selected to be used in the no-load operation of the generator unit;
e) With the generator unit operating under no-load with the selected parameters, the relative
swing of the rotational speed shall not exceed 0.15% of the rated rotational speed.
15.3.3 In the shutdown period and after the shutdown, the following items shall be examined:
a) Record and figure out the relation curve of the rotational speed during shutdown versus the time;
b) Examine the operation of the tachometric relay;
c) Monitor the bearing temperature at various parts, no abnormal phenomenon shall occur at various
parts of the generator unit;
d) After shutdown, examine various parts of the generator unit, no abnormal phenomenon shall occur.
15.3.4 The overspeed test of generator unit shall be conducted at the setting value of overspeed
protection device according to the design requirements, and the following items shall be examined:
a) Measure the swing and vibration of various parts in operation;
b) Monitor and record the bearing temperature at various parts;
c) No oil splashing occurs in the oil sump;
d) Adjust the operation quantity of overspeed protection device;
e) Examine the internal of the generator unit after overspeed test.
15.3.5 In the automatic startup of generator unit, the following items shall be examined:
a) Record and figure out the relation curve of rotational speed versus time from the startup pulse to the
time as the generator unit reaching the rated rotational speed;
b) Check the operation and oil pressure of the high-pressure oil lifting device on thrust bearing;
c) The startup process of generator unit and the operation of automation elements shall be normal.
15.3.6 In the automatic shutdown of generator unit, the following items shall be examined:
a) Record and figure out the relation curve of rotational speed versus time from the shutdown pulse to
the time as the rotational speed of generator unit reduced to zero;
b) As the rotational speed of generator unit reduces to the specified rotational speed, the high-pressure
oil lifting device of bearing shall be able to put into operation automatically;
c) As the rotational speed of generator unit reduces to the specified braking rotational speed, the

operation of the tachometric relay shall be normal, and the braking of the generator unit shall be
examined;
d) During shutdown, the operation of governor and various automation elements shall be normal.
15.3.7 As the steady-state short circuit current of the generator is increasing, the following items shall be
examined:
a) As the current of generator is increasing gradually, various secondary current circuits shall not open,
and the connection and operation of various relay protection devices and the indication of electrical
measuring instruments shall be correct;
b) Record and figure out the short-circuit characteristic curve of the generator;
c) With the generator at its rated current, trip out the field circuit breaker, the field discharge shall be
normal. Record and figure out the field discharge oscillogram of the generator, and work out the time
constant;
d) Examine the excitation adjustment polarity of CT in the field system, and adjust the current of
manually-controlled unit rotor.
15.3.8 The voltage stepping up test of generator shall meet the following requirements:
a) The voltage shall be increased in steps until the rated voltage, during which the energization of the
generator and its voltage device shall be normal;
b) The voltage, phase sequence and instrument indication of the secondary circuit in voltage transformer
shall be correct. The relay protection device shall work normally;
c) Trip out the field circuit breaker at 50% and 100% of the rated voltage respectively, the filed charge
shall be normal. Figure out the field discharge oscillogram of the generator at the rated voltage, and work
out the time constant;
d) Measure the shaft voltage of the generator under the rated voltage;
e) The swing and vibration of the generator unit in operation shall meet the stipulations in Clause 15.3.1.
15.3.9 Record the no-load characteristics of the generator at the rated rotational speed. When the
exciting current of the generator is increased to the rated value, measure the maximum voltage of the
generator stator. For the generator with turn-to-turn insulation, the continuous time at the maximum
voltage shall be 5min. During the test, the voltage of stator shall not exceed 1.3 times of the rated
voltage.
15.3.10 The adjusting test on the excitation system under no-load working condition shall meet the
following requirements:
a) Starting of the excitation system shall be normal;
b) Examine the voltage adjusting range of the excitation system, which shall meet the design
requirements;
c) Examine the stability and overshoot of the excitation regulator in various conditions, including, normal
operation, upper/lower limit adjustment, mutual/automatic switching, channel switching, 10% step
disturbance, and startup/shutdown with the excitation regulator. The overshooting shall not exceed 2
times, and the overshoot in voltage shall generally not exceed 10%, and the adjusting time shall not
exceed 5s;

d) Measure the change in the terminal voltage of the generator as the rotational speed of generator unit
is changing. For every 1% change in frequency, the automatic excitation regulator shall guarantee the
change in generator voltage not exceeding 0.25% of the rated voltage;
e) The silicon controlled excitation regulator shall be set for the protection against breakdown or
over-voltage etc.; the simulation test shall be conducted to ensure its correct operation;
f) For the silicon controlled excitation system, the current balance factor and voltage balance factor of
bridge rectifier shall be examined with the generator under load and the rated rotor current, and the
measured values shall meet the design requirements. If no requirements specified in the design, the
current balance factor shall normally be no less than 0.85, and the voltage balance factor shall normally
be no less than 0.9. The adjustment and examination shall be conducted for the protection against under
excitation, over excitation and current balance, so that the operation can keep correct.
15.3.11 Depending on the grounding mode of neutral point, single-phase grounding test, compensation
of arc-extinguishing winding or checking of correction of protection actions shall be conducted on the
generator.
15.3.12 For the generator unit designed with electrical brake, the electrical braking test shall be
conducted. the rotational speed to launch into electrical brake, the rotational speed to launch into
combined brake and the overall brake time shall meet the design requirements.
15.4 Grid-connection test and on-load test of generator unit
15.4.1 The grid-connection test of generator unit shall meet the following requirements:
a) The steady-state short-circuit current test of generator on the high voltage side of main transformer
shall be normal;
b) The gradual voltage rise of generator on the main transformer and the impact reclosing test of system
on the main transformer shall be normal; Ensure the circuit line in the testing period to be correct;
c) The primary and secondary electrical equipments related to the unit commitment shall have been
tested of qualification.
15.4.2 In the on-load test of generator unit, the active load shall be increased gradually; and various
instruments shall indicate correctly; the temperature, vibration and swing at various parts of the
generator unit shall meet the requirements, and the operation shall be in order. Observe the operation
condition of the air replenishing device for draft tube under various working conditions, and the vibration
zone and the maximum load of the generator unit under the corresponding water heads.
15.4.3 The test of excitation system in the on-load unit shall meet the following requirements:
a) Under various load, the adjusting process shall be stable;
b) If possible, measure and calculate the quadrature current droop compensation of the generator, which
shall meet the design requirements; measure and calculate the static voltage droop of the generator,
which shall meet the design requirements;
c) For the silicon controlled excitation regulator, various limiters and protection devices shall be tested
and adjusted separately;
d) Power system stabilizer (PSS) test shall be conducted under small load.
15.4.4 The test of governor in the on-load unit shall meet the following requirements:

a) In automatic operation, the switching test of various control modes shall be conducted; the load of
generator unit and the stroke of servomotor during the test shall meet the design requirements;
b) Under small load, with different combinations of adjusting parameters, increase or reduce the
generator unit by 10% of the rated load gradually, record and figure out the transition process of
parameters like the rotational speed, water pressure and power of the generator unit and the stroke o f
servomotor; select the adjusting parameters under the on-load working condition, which shall meet the
design requirements. In the test, the vibration zone of generator unit shall be avoided.
15.4.5 The load rejection test of the generator unit shall be conducted respectively at 25%, 50%, 75%
and 100% of the rated load; and the values of relevant parameter shall be recorded.
Observe the stability of the automatic excitation regulator: as 100% load being rejected, the overshoot in
voltage of the generator shall not be more than 15% of the rated value, the adjusting time shall not be
longer than 5s, and the swing of voltage shall not exceed 3 times.
The regulating performance of the governor shall meet the following requirements:
a) As rejecting 25% of the rated load, record and figure out the transition process of automatic
adjustment. Measure the immobile time of servomotor, which shall not be more than 0.2s;
b) As rejecting 100% of the rated load, check the shutdown rule and time of the guide vane servomotor,
record the rate of water pressure rise in the spiral case and the rate of rotational speed rise in the
generator unit, both of which shall not exceed the designed values;
c) As rejecting 100% of the rated load, record and figure out the transition process of automatic
adjustment, check the sectioned closing process of guide vane. During the changing period of rotational
speed, the wave peak exceeding the steady-state rotational speed by 3% shall not occur for more than 2
times;
d) As rejecting 100% of the rated load, record the time from the moment that the servomotor initially
starts to move towards the opening direction to the time when the rotational speed swing of the
generator unit exceeds 0.5%, which shall not be longer than 40s;
e) In the inspection of load rejection, the on-cam relationship of the turbine with adjustable blade
propeller or the reaction turbine shall meet the design requirements.
15.4.6 Under the rated load, generally the following tests shall be conducted:
a) Guide vane closing test under low oil pressure;
b) Guide vane closing test of emergency control valve;
c) According to the design requirements and the actual situation of power station, dynamic water closing
test of the operating gate or the main valve (cylinder valve);
d) Hard shutdown test for the power station without emergency control valve;
e) Heavy hammer shutdown test of bulb through flow unit.
When the generator unit cannot be fully loaded under the restriction of the water head of power station
and the condition of the power system, the above tests can be conducted under the possible maximum
load according to the actual situation.
15.4.7 At the rated load, the generator unit shall continuously operation for 72 hours.

When the generator unit cannot be fully loaded under the restriction of the water head of power station
and the condition of the power system, the continuous 72h operation can be conducted under the
possible maximum load according to the actual situation.
15.4.8 For the generator unit required to conduct 30-day trial run according to the contract, the trial run
shall be started immediately after the 72h continuous operation has ended and all the defects found in
the following shutdown examination have been removed. During the 30-day trial run period of the
generator unit, the fault in the generator unit or its auxiliary equipment or the breakdown of equipment
caused by inferior quality of fabrication or installation shall be treated timely. After the problems have
been solved, the 30-day trial run continues to be conducted. If the operation time interrupted is shorter
than 24h, and the interruption hasnt not occurred for more than 3 times, the operation time before and
after the interruptions can be accumulated; Otherwise, the time for 30-day trial run shall be counted
starting from zero again.
15.4.9 The leading phase operation test on the generator unit shall be conducted according to the
design requirements. The depth of leading phase and the relevant protection setting shall meet the
requirements.
15.4.10 In the phasing operation test on the generator unit, the following items shall be checked and
recorded:
a) Record the active power consumed by the generator unit with the runner operating in the water after
the closing of guide vane;
b) Check the air charging under water pressure, and the operation of air replenishing device. Record the
active power consumed by the generator unit after the water level in the draft tube going below the
runner;
c) As the power generation and phasing condition are switching, the automatic control program and the
automation elements shall act correctly;
d) The adjustment of reactive power of generator within the design scope shall be stable. Record the
maximum output of reactive power with the rotor current at the rated value.
15.4.11 For reversible pumped-storage the generator unit, beside the above-mentioned requirements,
normally the following requirements shall be satisfied:
a) Check the air charging under water pressure, and the operation of air replenishing device, and record
the time of air charging under water pressure and the pressure drop of pressure vessel. The values shall
meet the design requirements;
b) Check the action of exhaust valve at the head cover; observe the vibration of exhaust pipe, the
exhausting and draining conditions at the outlet of exhaust pipe; record the time for the whole exhausting
process, the value shall meet the design requirements;
c) Record and figure out the curve of startup process of generator unit in frequency conversion and back
to back mode. For frequency conversion startup mode, the telephone harmonic factor at the high voltage
side of main transformer in the startup process of generator unit shall be measured and ensured not to
exceed the specified value. For the asynchronous startup mode, the parameters like system voltage,
generator/motor stator voltage and stator current shall be measured during the startup process of the
generator unit, and ensured to meet the design requirements;
d) Carry out the zero-flow working condition test on the water pump, and observe the pressurization
process of runner chamber. During the pressurization process, record the pressure between runner
guide vane, the pressure of spiral case and draft tube, and measure the vibration at various parts of the
generator unit to determine the optimum time for starting the guide vane. The transition from the
zero-flow working condition to the pumping condition shall be normal;

e) Pumping test shall be conducted under different heads in the specified scope of generator unit. The
measured head, flowrate, input power and the guide vane opening shall be consistent with the
comprehensive characteristic curve of pump/ turbine provided by the manufacturer. The swing and
vibration of generator unit in operation shall meet the requirements given in 15.3.1 d) and e);
f) Record and figure out the normal shutdown curve and emergency shutdown curve of generator unit
under pumping condition. The shutdown procedure shall be correct;
g) Switching test shall be conducted between various operation conditions such as power generation to
water pumping, and water pumping to power generation. The parameters in the transition shall meet the
design requirements, and the switching process shall be correct and reliable;
h) 30-day trial run shall be conducted on the generator unit, during which the power generation or water
pumping condition shall be determined based on the requirements of the power system. For the power
station required to fulfill initial filling for the reservoir, the 30-day trial run shall take the various
requirements in the initial filling into consideration.

APPENDIX A
(Informative appendix)
List of Hand-over Documentation
A.1 As-built drawings and data
a) As-built drawings for the installation in the scope specified in the standard;
b) Delivery records, certificates, technical specifications etc supplied along with the goods;
c) Design modification documents;
d) Summary of troubleshooting measures for main equipment, and technical data related to
troubleshooting.
A.2 Installation and test records
a) Turbine
1) Installation record of draft tube (elbow and cone) liner;
2) Installation record of stay ring;
3) Installation record of spiral case;
4) Weld examination record of spiral case;
5) On-site hydrostatic test record of spiral case;
6) Installation record of servomotor;
7) Annealing and examination record of welds on sectioned runner;
8) Assembly record of sectioned runner (after annealing);
9) Static balancing test record of runner;
10) Roundness record of upper and lower wearing rings on the monolithic runner;
11) Welding, annealing and fabrication acceptance test record for the monolithic runner to be
assembly-welded on the site;
12) Assembly and installation record of bottom ring;
13) Assembly and installation record of head cover;
14) Clearance record between the upper/lower ends and the vertical surface of guide vane;
15) Distance record between the two axle holes in guide vane link;
16) Pressing stroke record of guide vane servomotor;
17) Maximum opening record of guide vane, rotary angle scope record of propeller blade;

18) Clearance record between various wearing rings of turbine;


19) Installation clearance record of guide bearing;
20) Installation record of cylinder valve;
21) Installation record of air replenishing device at the central hole of main shaft:
22) Installation record of runner chamber for turbine with adjustable blade propeller;
23) Runner operation and voltage withstanding test record of turbine with adjustable blade
propeller;
24) Relation curve of rotary angle of blade versus the servomotor stroke on turbine with adjustable
blade propeller;
25) Clearance record between blade and runner chamber of turbine with adjustable blade
propeller;
26) Installation record of oil head;
27) Installation record of reaction turbine housing;
28) Installation record of reaction turbine nozzle;
29) Relation record between needle stroke and deflector opening of reaction turbine;
30) Voltage withstanding test and action test record of diagonal turbine runner;
31) Clearance record between runner blade and runner chamber of diagonal turbine;
32) Relation curve between rotary angle of blade and servomotor stroke of diagonal turbine.
b) Speed-governing system
1) Tightness breakdown test record on pressure vessels, oil pipelines and loading elements;
2) Trial run test of oil pressure unit;
3) Emergency shutdown and startup time record of guide vane;
4) Stroke and time record of guide vane in sectioned closing;
5) Emergency closing and opening record of impeller blade;
6) Time record of emergency control valve closing guide vane;
7) Record of comprehensive drift experiment;
8) Relation curve of guide vane opening versus servomotor stroke, relation curve of propeller
blade angle versus servomotor stroke;
9) Relation curve of the stroke of guide vane servomotor versus the stroke of impeller blade
servomotor under designed water head;

10) Relation curves between the input rotational speed of speed detector and output voltage and
current;
11) Static characteristic curve of electro-hydraulic or electro-mechanical switching device;
12) Static characteristic curve of speed-governing system.
c) Generator
1) Frame assembly record;
2) Inspection record of frame welds;
3) Frame installation record;
4) Gap record of joints between stator pedestal and iron core;
5) Stator installation record;
6) On-site closed assembly record of stator;
7) Assembly record of rotor field spider;
8) Inspection record of welds on rotor field spider;
9) Assembly record of rotor magnetic yoke;
10) Installation record of braking ring plate;
11) Installation record of magnetic pole;
12) Weight balancing record of rotor;
13) Assembly clearance record of thrust bearing shoe;
14) Stress adjustment record of thrust bearing;
15) Distance record between elastic bearing pedestal and mirror plate;
16) Distance record between journal and guide bearing shoe support;
17) Air gap record of stator and rotor;
18) Axes adjustment record of generator unit;
19) Clearance record of guide bearing shoe;
20) Voltage withstanding test record of braking device;
21) Installation elevation record of braking device;
22) Insulation resistance measurement record of bearing;
23) Voltage withstanding test record of cooler;

24) Pressure test record of high-pressure oil lifting device;


25) Installation record of bearing in horizontal frame;
26) Installation record of tubular saddle in bulb generator unit;
27) Installation record of vertical and horizontal supports in bulb generator unit.
d) Excitation system
1) Installation record of panels and cabinets in excitation system;
2) Installation and test record of exciting transformer;
3) Installation and test record of field circuit breaker;
4) Installation and test record of large power rectifier;
5) Installation and test record of pulse transformer;
6) Nonlinear resistance test record;
7) Installation and test record of silicon controlled bridge;
8) Cable laying and wiring record for panels, cabinets and parts in excitation system;
9) Inspection records of elements in the circuits of excitation system, including operation,
maintenance, monitor, signal, and interface;
10) Test record of circuits in excitation system, including operation, protection, monitor, signal and
interface;
11) Insulation inspection record of primary and secondary circuits in excitation system;
12) Dielectric strength test record of various parts in excitation system;
13) Test record of various basic units in automatic excitation regulator;
14) Test record of various auxiliary units in automatic excitation regulator;
15) Overall static characteristics test record of automatic excitation regulator;
16) Refer to A.2.h) for trial run of excitation system.
e) Butterfly valve and globe valve
1) Installation record of valve body;
2) Voltage withstanding test record of rubber water seal;
3) Clearance record of antipriming;
4) Hydrostatic test record of bypass valve;
5) Servomotor stroke record;

6) servomotor installation record of ;


7) Operation record under no-water or static water conditions;
8) Inspection record of welds on expansion joint.
f) Others
1) Elongation record of bolts with tightness requirements;
2) Oil quality analysis record;
3) Test record of air, water and oil system.
g) Electrical part of generator unit
Electrical test record shall be made according to the requirements of this standard.
h) Trial run
Test record shall be made according to the requirements of this standard.

APPENDIX B
(Normative appendix)
Installation requirements of mechanical hydraulic governor
B.1 The installation deviation of governor cabinet shall meet the requirements given in Table B.1.
Table B.1 Installation tolerance of governor cabinet
No.

Item

Tolerance

Notes

Center, mm

To measure the distance from the mark on the


equipment to the X and Y reference lines of the unit

Elevation, mm

Levelness of
mechanical cabinet,
mm/m

0.15

To measure the pedestal of pendulum motor (upper


clapboard)

Note: The combined governor shall be installed referring to the driving gear support of regulating shaft,
and the tolerance shall meet the design requirements.
B.2 The cleaning, assemble and adjustment of governor parts shall meet the following requirements:
a) The coupling between the pendulum motor and the eccentric pendulum shall be concentric, and rotate
smoothly. The swing of spring pedestal of lozenge eccentric pendulum shall not exceed 0.04mm either
axially or radially against the upper support of steel band.
b) As the piston of buffer moving up and down, the time needed to pass the last 1mm for resetting to the
middle position shall meet the design requirements; the difference between moving up and down to rest
shall not exceed 10% of the setting time.
Measure the resetting time of buffer bearing plate in the governor starting from the middle point and two
ends respectively. No gaps shall remain between the buffer supporting screws and the bearing plate.
The relay piston of buffer shall act stably, and the deviation of its resetting to the middle position shall
generally not exceed 1mm.
c) The indicators and levers in the governor mechanical cabinet shall be adjusted according to the
relevant drawing. The position deviation of the mechanism shall not exceed 1mm;
d) As the permanent speed droop (residual unbalancing disequilibrium degree) pointing to zero, the
reset mechanism shall act for a full stroke and the stroke of the droop mechanism shall be zero, with the
maximum deviation no more than 0.05mm.
B.3 Refer to relevant contents in Chapter 8 for others.

APPENDIX C
(Normative appendix)
Requirements on the drying of hydraulic turbine generator stator
C.1 No drying is required if the stator winding meets the following conditions:
a) The insulation resistance at each phase of winding shall meet the requirements given in 9.3.18 a);
b) At a temperature below 40, the measured insulation resistance absorption ratioR60/R15, shall be no
less than 1.3 for asphalt-mica insulation, and no less than 1.6 for epoxy-mica insulation; the measured
polarization index R10min/R1min of insulation shall not be less than 2.
C.2 For the stator required to be dried, the following items shall be noted as drying:
a) The assembled stator shall be dried by surface baking with external heating;
b) As drying the stator winding, the temperature shall rise gradually, generally 5K~8K rise per hour;;
c) The highest temperature of winding shall not exceed 70 if measured with alcohol thermometer; and
not exceed 80 if measured with embedded resistance thermometer;
d) The insulation resistance shall normally be kept stable for 4h~8h.

APPENDIX D
(Informative appendix)
Pickling, Passivation and Rinsing of Pipe
D.1 Pickling and passivation of pipe
a) Before installing the pipe, pickling and passivation shall be conducted for the inner wall by means of
vat leaching or system circulation;
b) The pickling of pipe inner wall shall remove any rust corroded parts, and ensure not to damage the
rust-free metal surfaces (i.e. over-pickling);
c) If there are obvious oil stains on the pipe inner wall, degreasing treatment shall be carried out before
pickling despite of the pickling method; organic solvents (dichloroethane, trichloroethane, carbon
tetrachloride and industrial alcohol etc), aqua fortis or alkaline liquor can be applied for degreasing the
pipe wall;
d) Before pickling by system circulation, air leakage test or water leakage test shall be conducted on the
pipe system;
e) For the pickling by system circulation, the general procedure sequence shall be leakage test,
degreasing (if required), rinsing, pickling, neutralization, passivation, rinsing, drying, oil painting, and
resetting;
f) The concentration and temperature of the acid solution shall be kept constant during pickling;
g) The proportioning of solutions for pickling, neutralization and passivation of steel pipe, if no
requirements specified in the design, shall apply those qualified in trial test and proved to be effective
and reliable by practical application and confirmed;
h) Visual appearance examination shall be conducted on the pipe after pickling. The inner wall with
metallic luster shall be considered qualified.
i) During the pickling, neutralization and passivation operation for steel pipe, the operators shall wear
safety ware like special protective clothing, goggles, and acid resistant gloves;
j) The pipe qualified in pickling, neutralization and passivation shall be sealed for protection if unable to
be reinstalled or put into operation immediately;
k) The waste water and exhaust liquid after pickling shall be treated before discharging to meet the
relevant regulations on environmental protection and prevent environment pollution.
D.2 Pipe rinsing
D.2.1 Rinsing of water system pipe
a) The parts inside the pipe system, e.g. orifice plate, strainer, thermometer, and valve core of check
valve, shall be removed before rinsing, and reassembled after qualified rinsing;
b) The rinsing shall be conducted at the possible maximum pressure and flow of the system. the rinsing
shall not be qualified until the water color and transparency at the outlet are visually examined to be
similar to those at the inlet.
D.2.2 Rinsing of gas system pipe

a) The gas system pipe is normally purged by compressed air at the flow rate ranged in 5m/s~10m/s.
Placing a plate attached with a piece of white paper or white cloth at the air outlet for 3min~5min, the
rinsing is qualified if no dirt or water can be found on the paper/cloth;
b) The gas system pipe can also be rinsed by water at the flow rate 0.8m/s until the water at outlet
becomes clean. The pipe can be put into operation after being dried by air blowing after water rinsing.
D.2.3 Rinsing of oil system pipe
a) After the qualified pickling and before filling with oil, the oil pipe shall be rinsed by the oil that
filtered through oil filter press and pumped into by oil pump;
b) Oil rinsing shall be conducted by oil circulation. During the oil circulation, the oil temperature
should rise and fall within the range of 40-70 for two to three times in every 8 hours;
c) After oil rinsing, the pipe shall be examined by a strainer of 200 mesh. The dirt residues
remained in every square centimeter shall not be more than 3 particles;
d) The rinsing oil shall be of the same grade to the oil used in the system. New oil can be filled in
the system only after the oil rinsing has been confirmed to be qualified and all rinsing oil has
been discharged.
D.2.4 The rinsing of speed-governing system pipe shall be carried out according to the design
requirements.

APPENDIX E
(Informative appendix)
Standards Related to Nondestructive Inspection of Welds
E.1 Abstract of the standard GB/T3323-1987 Methods for radiographic inspection and classification of
radiographs for fusion welded butt joints in steel
E.1.1 Welds are classified into four grades based on the weld quality and quantity:
a) Grade I: free of crack, fusion, through welding or liquid carryover strips in the weld;
b) Grade II: free of crack, fusion or through welding in the weld;
c) Grade III: No crack or fusion in the weld; and no through welding in both sides welding and single side
welding added with back plate. The allowed unpenetrated length in the case of single side welding
without back plate shall be rated according to the Grade III criteria for length of slag stringer stipulated in
Table E.5;
d) All weld defects more than Grade III are Grade IV.
E.1.2 Weld defects can be round defects or slag stringer.
E.1.3 The defects with the length/width ratio smaller than or equal to 3 are round defects. Circular
defects may be round, ellipse or cone, also irregular shapes with tails (which shall be included into the
measured size), including pore, slag blister and tungsten inclusion.
E.1.3.1 Circular defects shall be rated by means of area of interest. Area of interest shall be selected in
the severest part. See Table E.1 for the size of area of interest.

Table E.1 Area of Interest of Circular Defects

unit: mm

Thickness of base
material

T<25

25T<100

T>100

Size of area of interest

1010

1020

1030

E.1.3 As rating circular defects, the defect dimensions shall be converted into the number of defect
points as per Table E.2.

Table E.2

Conversion Table of Number of Defect Points

Length of defect, mm

<1

>1~2

>2~3

>3~4

>4~6

>4~8

>8

Points

10

15

25

E.1.3 See Table E.3 for the defect dimensions not considering the point numbers.

Table E.3

Defect Dimensions not Considering the Point Numbers

unit: mm

Thickness of base material, T

Larger diameter of defect

T25

<0.5

50T>25

<0.7

T>50

<1.4%T

E.1.3.4 When the circular defect is jointing with the boundary of area of interest, the defect shall be listed
in the area of interest for counting the number of defect points.
E.1.3.5 When there are fewer defects around the area of interest, and it is considered that the size
division of the area of interest is improper, the size of area of interest can be expanded to its three times
along the welding direction after discussion. Work out the total number of defects, and to rate by 1/3 of
the value.
E.1.3.6 See Table E.4 for the rating of circular defects.
Table E.4 Rating of Circular Defects (determined according to the upper limit of defect points)
Area of interest,
mm
Thickness of base
material, T, mm
Quality
grade

1010

1020

1030

T<10

15T>10

25T>15

50T>25

100T>50

T>100

II

12

15

18

III

12

18

24

30

36

IV

The number of defect points exceeds the limit for Grade III

E.1.4 The slag blister with the length/width ratio of the defect more than 3 is slag stringer.
See Table E.5 for the rating of slag stringer.
Table E.5 Rating of Slag Stringer

unit: mm

Quality
grade

Length of single
slag stringer

Total length of slag stringer

II

4 when T12;

On a random straight line, select a random group of slag


blisters with the distance between two neighboring slag blisters
no exceeding 6L, the overall length of slag blisters in the length
of 12T doesnt exceed T.

1/3T when
12<T<60;
20 when T60
III

6 when T9;
2/3T when 9<T<45;
30 when T45

IV

Larger than Grade III

On a random straight line, select a random group of slag


blisters with the distance between two neighboring slag blisters
no exceeding 3L, the overall length of slag blisters in the length
of 6T doesnt exceed T.

Note 1: L in the table refers to the length of the longest slag blister in the group.
Note 2: The rating for the long holes with length/width ratio exceeding 3 is similar to that for slag
stringer.
Note 3: When the length of examined weld is shorter than 12T (Grade II) or 6T (Grade III), it can be
converted proportionally.
When the overall length of the converted slag stringer is smaller than the length of a single slag
stringer, it shall comply with the limits for single slag stringer.

E.1.5 When circular defects and slag stringers (or unpenetrated weld) coexist in the area of interest of
circular defects, they shall be rated separately, and the final grade is equal to the sum of obtained
grades minus 1.
E.2 Abstract from GB/T 11345-1989 Method for manual ultrasonic testing and classification of testing
results for ferritic steel welds
The defects shall be rated based on the indicating length according to Table E.6.
Table E.6 Classification of Defect Grades

unit: mm

Inspection grade

Sheet thickness

8~15

8~300

8~300

Raging
grade

2/3, min. 12

/2, min. 10, max. 30

/3, min. 10, max. 20

II

3/4, min. 12

2/3, min. 12, max. 50

/2, min. 10, max. 30

III

<, min. 20

3/4, min. 16, max. 75

2/3, min. 12, max. 50

IV

Exceeding Grade III

Note 1: refers to the thickness of base sheet at the side for bevel machining; In the case of base
sheets with different thickness, the thinner thickness shall govern.
Note 2: For the fillet welds on pipe saddle, is equal to the height of central line of weld cross-section.

APPENDIX F
(Informative appendix)
Requirements on Steam Turbine Oil Stipulated in GB11120-1989
Table F.1 Requirements on Steam Turbine Oil Stipulated in GB11120-1989
Item

Quality indexes
Best quality

Firsts

Test
method

Qualified

Viscosity grade

32

46

32

46

32

46

GB
3141

Kinematic
viscosity (40),
mm2/s

28.8~35.2

41.4~50.6

28.8~35.2

41.4~50.6

28.8~35.2

41.4~50.6

GB 265

Viscosity index a,
no less than

90

90

90

GB
1995

Pour point b, ,
no higher than

-7

-7

-7

GB
3535

180

180

180

GB
3536

Report

Report

Report

GB
1884

Flash point (open


end), , no lower
than
Density (20),
kg/m2

GB
1885
Acid number,
mgKOH/g, no
more than

0.3

GB 264

Report

Report

GB
4945

Mechanical
impurities

NA

NA

NA

GB 511

Moisture

NA

NA

NA

GB 260

Demulsification
number c,
(40-37-3) L, 54,
min, no more
than

15

15

15

GB
7305

Neutralization
value, mgKOH/g,
no more than

Air bubble test d,


ml/ml

SY
2669
450/0

450/0

600/0

24, no more
than

100/0

100/0

100/0

93, no more

450/0

450/0

600/0

than
Lower than 24,
no more than
GB
8119

Oxidation stability
e

Report
a. Total oxidation
products, %

Report

Report
SY
2680

Report

Report

Report

3000

2000

1500

No rust

No rust

No rust

GB
11143

GB
5096

SY
2693

precipitate, %
b. As acid
number after
oxidation
reaching
2.0mgKOH/g, h,
no less than
Liquid phase
corrosion test
(synthetic
seawater)
Copper strip test
(100,3h),
grade, no more
than
Air release value f
(50) min, no
more than

For the steam turbine oil produced from intermediate-base crude oil, the allowed viscosity index
of L-TSA qualified product shall not be lower than 70; and the viscosity index of the firsts no
lower than 80, unless otherwise agreed by manufacturer and user according to the experience
in actual production and application.

The index of pour point can be otherwise determined by manufacturer and user according to the
experience in actual production and application.

For military use, the demulsification number cam be determined by the army and the
manufacturer through negotiation.

In the air bubble test, if bubbles have not completely covered the oil surface, the test result shall
be 0.

As a guaranteed item, oxidation stability shall be spot-checked once per year.

For the firsts, air release value can be otherwise determined by manufacturer and user
according to the experience in actual production and application.

APPENDIX G
(Normative appendix)
Description on Standard Wording
The words used in the standard according to the strictness of the requirements include:
G.1 The words to represent the standard shall be strictly abided by and its not allowed to deviate from
the standard requirements
shall in the case of positive expression; and shall not in the case of negative expression.
G.2 The word to represent the requirements shall be abided under normal conditions
should in the case of positive expression; should not in the case of negative expression.
G.3 The word to represent its allowed to select the requirements within a specified range
can in the case of positive expression; need not in the case of negative expression.
G.4 The word to represent the possibility or the potential capability of the causality of the matter
can in the case of positive expression; can not in the case of negative expression.