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Fluid dynamics is "the branch of applied science that is concerned with the movement of

liquids and gases," according to the American Heritage Dictionary. Fluid dynamics is
one of two branches of fluid mechanics, which is the study of fluids and how forces
affect them. (The other branch is fluid statics, which deals with fluids at rest.)
Scientists across several fields study fluid dynamics. Fluid dynamics provides methods
for studying the evolution of stars, ocean currents, weather patterns, plate
tectonics and even blood circulation. Some important technological applications of
fluid dynamics include rocket engines, wind turbines, oil pipelines and air
conditioning systems.

What is flow?
The movement of liquids and gases is generally referred to as "flow," a concept that
describes how fluids behave and how they interact with their surrounding environment
for example, water moving through a channel or pipe, or over a surface. Flow can be
either steady or unsteady. In his lecture notes, "Lectures in Elementary Fluid
Dynamics" (University of Kentucky, 2009) J. M. McDonough, a professor of
engineering at the University of Kentucky, writes, "If all properties of a flow are
independent of time, then the flow is steady; otherwise, it is unsteady." That is, steady
flows do not change over time. An example of steady flow would be water flowing
through a pipe at a constant rate. On the other hand, a flood or water pouring from an
old-fashioned hand pump are examples of unsteady flow.
Flow can also be either laminar or turbulent. Laminar flows are smoother, while
turbulent flows are more chaotic. One important factor in determining the state of a
fluids flow is its viscosity, or thickness, where higher viscosity increases the tendency of
the flow to be laminar. Patrick McMurtry, an engineering professor at the University of
Utah, describes the difference in his online class notes, "Observations About
Turbulent Flows" (University of Utah, 2000), stating, "By laminar flow we are generally
referring to a smooth, steady fluid motion, in which any induced perturbations are
damped out due to the relatively strong viscous forces. In turbulent flows, other forces
may be acting the counteract the action of viscosity."
Laminar flow is desirable in many situations, such as in drainage systems or airplane
wings, because it is more efficient and less energy is lost. Turbulent flow can be useful
for causing different fluids to mix together or for equalizing temperature. According to
McDonough, most flows of interest are turbulent; however, such flows can be very
difficult to predict in detail, and distinguishing between these two types of flow is largely
intuitive.
An important factor in fluid flow is the fluid's Reynolds number (Re), which is named
after 19th century scientist Osborne Reynolds, although it was first described in 1851 by
physicist George Gabriel Stokes. McDonough gives the definition of Re as, "the ratio
of inertial to viscous forces." The inertial force is the fluid's resistance to change of
motion, and the viscous force is the amount of friction due to the viscosity or thickness
of the fluid. Note that Re is not only a property of the fluid; it also includes the conditions
of its flow such as its speed and the size and shape of the conduit or any obstructions.

At low Re, the flow tends to be smooth, or laminar, while at high Re, the flow tends to be
turbulent, forming eddies and vortices. Re can be used to predict how a gas or liquid will
flow around an obstacle in a stream, such as water around a bridge piling or wind over
an aircraft wing. The number can also be used to predict the speed at which flow
transitions from laminar to turbulent.

Liquid flow
The study of liquid flow is called hydrodynamics. While liquids include all sorts of
substances, such as oil and chemical solutions, by far the most common liquid is water,
and most applications for hydrodynamics involve managing the flow of this liquid.
That includes flood control, operation of city water and sewer systems, and
management of navigable waterways. [Gallery: Dreamy Images Reveal Beauty in
Physics]
Hydrodynamics deals primarily with the flow of water in pipes or open channels.
Geology professor John Southard's lecture notes from an online course, "Introduction
to Fluid Motions" (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2006), outline the main
difference between pipe flow and open-channel flow: "flows in closed conduits or
channels, like pipes or air ducts, are entirely in contact with rigid boundaries," while
"open-channel flows, on the other hand, are those whose boundaries are not entirely a
solid and rigid material." He states, "important open-channel flows are rivers, tidal
currents, irrigation canals, or sheets of water running across the ground surface after a
rain."
Due to the differences in those boundaries, different forces affect the two types of flows.
According to Scott Post in his book, "Applied and Computational Fluid Mechanics,"
(Jones & Bartlett, 2009), "While flows in a closed pipe may be driven either by pressure
or gravity, flows in open channels are driven by gravity alone." The pressure is
determined primarily by the height of the fluid above the point of measurement. For
instance, most city water systems use water towers to maintain constant pressure in the
system. This difference in elevation is called the hydrodynamic head. Liquid in a pipe
can also be made to flow faster or with greater pressure using mechanical pumps.