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CIV300 Terrestrial Energy


Systems
Water Vapour as a Major Energy Carrier
Lecture 11 - 12

How to Dene Humidity?


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Mixing or Humidity Ra1o = Mass of vapour / mass of dry air (g/kg or no


dims)

This is the absolute amount of water vapour in the air and we represent
this as a percentage of the total possible with the relaNve humidity (RH as a
%).

Atmospheric pressure varies with atmospheric humidity (Daltons Law of


ParNal Pressures)

E = Actual Vapour Pressure

E* = Saturated Vapour Pressure

SaturaNon Vapour Pressure Curve


E* is the saturated vapour pressure

Key Items
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Psychrometric chart has a bewildering range of potenNal measurements

Focus on dry bulb temperature, wet bulb temperature, relaNve humidity,


dew point, humidity raNo, enthalpy

The chart provides a graphic relaNonship for the condiNon of air over the
typical range of condiNons found

Psychrometric Chart

Y axis - Humidity RaNo (g/kg)

Wet bulb temperature

Enthalpy (kJ/kg of dry air)

Lines of relaNve humidity (%)

X axis - Dry Bulb Temperature

Wet Bulb Temperature Measurement


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These are the green lines on the chart



A direct measure of the ability to evaporate and therefore cool a
thermometer. The higher the relaNve humidity, the less the ability to
evaporate water and generate cooling

Wet Bulb
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Wet Bulb temperature relates the impact of the relaNve humidity to the dry
air temperature (Dry Bulb) via the energy, or Enthalpy (kJ/kg) - a measure of
how it feels

Air condiNoning designers use it to dene condiNons that you need to meet
in that specic climate (where you are)

Note: not a linear relaNonship between enthalpy and wet bulb

The drier the air the more rapid evaporaNon on a thermometer the lower
the wet bulb. OR the moister the air, the closer dry bulb to wet bulb.

Dry Bulb Temperature (deg C) = Web Bulb temperature at 100% RH


follow the green lines to the curve to read it.

Toronto Design Day


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ASHRAE states we need to meet 27oC dry bulb / 21oC


wet bulb

Equates to 27oC / 58% RH

Melbourne, FL Design Day


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ASHRAE states we need to meet 30oC dry bulb / 25oC


wet bulb

Equates to 30oC / 67% RH

How Air CondiNoning Works.


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Reading from the Chart.


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Air at 30oC/50%
RH?

22oC wet bulb
64 kJ/kg enthalpy
0.013 kg/kg dry air
moisture content

Real Life
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Dead of winter

Tropical
summer

Desert heat

Humidity in the
home

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Dew Point
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We can now see why we get dew and frost

AdiabaNc cooling forces RH to 100% condensaNon

Find the dry bulb and RH, follow the line horizontally as it cools, unNl it
meets the curve

If ambient temperature is <0C, you will get frost. Above it, you get dew.

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Dew point

Frost point

Reading from the Chart.


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Air at 30oC/50% RH?



22oC wet bulb
64 kJ/kg enthalpy
0.013 kg/kg dry air
moisture content
18oC dew point

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Which window got caulked?

Light Relief
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What is the Humidex?

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Humidex



So the humidex IS related to the wet bulb in laymans terms

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The humidex
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Types of Fog
1. Radia1on fog
Ground cools o at night. Reduces temperature of moist air which then
reaches the dew point. Fog.
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Why does fog burn o in sunlight?

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Types of Fog
2. Advec1on fog
Moist air blows across cold surface.
Welcome to Newfoundland.

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Catch the Fog


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Low Level Cloud FormaNon


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Warm moist air rises up e.g. summer over Lake Ontario

What happens on the chart?


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Air Mass and Mountains


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The moist wind approaches from the westor east in Nanaimo

Recall psychrometrics

What happens when it hits the dew point?

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How Air CondiNoning Chinook Works.


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