Anda di halaman 1dari 5

DEPARTMENT OF PURE AND APPLIED CHEMISTRY

Visayas State University, Baybay, Leyte


CHEM 31 Biochemistry
Laboratory Report
Name: Loise Mariel C. Bibera

Date Performed:

Lab. Schedule: M-F 7:00-10:00

Date Submitted: 06/03/15

Group No: 4

Score:
Experiment No. 12
Energy Production in the Living Cell

I.
II.

Objective:
1) Observe the reaction of glucose in glycolysis and fermentation.
Results

A. Fermentation
Test Tubes
1
2
3
4

B. Glycolysis
Time (min)

0
20
40
60

Solution
10 mL yeast suspension
filled with water
10 mL yeast suspension
filled with glucose solution
10 mL yeast suspension
filled with starch solution
10 mL boiled yeast
suspension filled with
glucose solution
10 mL yeast suspension
filled with sucrose solution

Observations
Test Tube
1
(Water + Yeast
Solution)
Blue
Blue
Deep Blue Green
(bottom)
Light Blue Green
(bottom)

Rank
4
2
3

2
(Glucose + Yeast
Solution)
Blue
Deep Blue Green
(bottom)
Deep Blue Green
(all)
Light Blue Green

3
(Glucose + Boiled
Yeast Solution)

80

Light Blue Green


(Bottom)
Light Blue

120
III.

Light Blue Green

Colorless

Discussion

In order to keep cells functioning they require a constant supply of energy to


generate and maintain their biological order. This energy in the form of ATP
(Adenosine triphosphate) is derived from the chemical bond energy in food
molecules, which thereby serve as fuel for cells. These functions include
replacement of cell parts, growth and cell division, and special functions (such as
secretion, absorption, contraction, or signaling).
Sugars are particularly important fuel molecules, and they are oxidized in small
steps to carbon dioxide (CO2) and water. In this part we trace the major steps in the
breakdown, or catabolism, of sugars and show how they produce ATP, NADH, and
other activated carrier molecules in animal cells. In the laboratory procedure the
class had concentrated on glucose breakdown, since it dominates energy production
in most animal cells and will tackle the two main catabolic reactions, glycolysis and
fermentation.

A. Fermentation

Fermentation is a process adopted, typically, by anaerobic organisms to obtain ATP


without the use of oxygen. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, or bakers yeast, is a
unicellular fungus that uses both fermentation and respiration when needed. When
yeast is in the presence of oxygen it performs cellular respiration, but when oxygen
is absent it undergoes alcohol fermentation. In alcohol fermentation, the sugar is
converted intotwo 3-Carbon sugars known as pyruvate. The pyruvate is then
converted intoethanol alcohol in two steps. In the first step, it is converted into
acetaldehyde with the release of carbon dioxide (CO2), the independent variable of
the experiment. Next the acetaldehyde is reduced to ethanol. In this lab alcohol
fermentation of conducted.

The fermentation procedure required 5 test tubes with 5 varying mixtures of yeast
suspension and carbohydrates such as glucose, starch and sucrose having one test
tube as control (which consist of yeast suspension and water. The fourth mixture
which consisted of a boiled yeast suspension filled with glucose was not conducted
due to the inadequate time to bring the yeast suspension to a boil. After the
preparation of the indicated mixtures the test samples were heated in a water bath
with a constant temperature of 37oC. The summary of results was tabulated in the
first part of this laboratory report. Based on the table the test tube sample that
provided the fastest rate of CO2 formation was test tube 5 containing yeast and
sucrose followed by test tube 2 (yeast + glucose) third was test tube 3 (yeast +
starch) and lastly the control (yeast + water).
Upon examining the structures of each of the sugars it suggests that the
test tube containing glucose would ferment the most because it would require less
work to break down into pyruvate and acetaldehyde. Sucrose would evolve the next
highest amount of CO2, because its structure was a bit more complex, being
a disaccharide (two sugars) made up of glucose and fructose. I seemed that it may
take more energy to break down the sugar. Considering the fact that a 6-Carbon
sugar attached to a 5-Carbonsugar would limit production of CO 2 . The third in rank
would be starch since it is a long chain of polysaccharide making it even harder to
break. However, there is a discrepancy in the results of glucose and sucrose.
Instead of glucose being the fastest it showed that sucrose fermented first. It is
possible that yeast has enough enzymes to break down the sucrose, allowing for
rapid fermentation of the sugar. The result with the control (yeast suspension +
water) was expected since it does not contain any carbohydrate to ferment with.

B. Glycolysis

In this exercise you will observe fermentation in yeast cells. Oxidation of glucose
during this process yields hydrogens which must be "picked up" by hydrogen
acceptors. Methylene Blue (oxidized) will accept hydrogens to become Methylene
Blue (reduced). The oxidized form of methylene blue has a definite blue color,
whereas the reduced form is colorless.

Cellular respiration is a process that most living organisms undergo to createand


obtain chemical energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Theenergy is

synthesized in three separate stages of cellular respiration: glycolysis,citric acid


cycle, and the electron transport chain. Glycolysis and the citric acid cycleare both
anaerobic pathways because they do not need oxygen to form energy. Theelectron
transport chain however, is aerobic due to its use of oxidativephosphorylation.
Oxidative phosphorylation is the process in which ATP moleculesare produced with
the assistance of oxygen molecules. (Campbell et al 2008)
IV.

Conclusion

Cells need energy to accomplish the tasks of life. Beginning with energy
sources obtained from their environment in the form of sunlight and organic
food molecules, eukaryotic cells make energy-rich molecules like ATP and
NADH via energy pathways including photosynthesis, glycolysis, the citric acid
cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation. Any excess energy is then stored in
larger, energy-rich molecules such as polysaccharides (starch and glycogen)
and lipids.

V.

Answers to Questions

C6H12O6

VI.

2 Ethanol + 2 CO2 + Energy (2 ATP + Heat)

References

Energy Production In A Cell


http://www2.sunysuffolk.edu/czuraa/BIO130LectureMaterials/BIO130Chapter25Hand
out.pdf
How Cells Obtain Energy from Food
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK26882/
FERMENTATION OF VARIOUS SUGARS IN
BAKERS YEAST
http://www.academia.edu/5434410/Fermentation_Formal_Lab_Report
Alcoholic Fermentation in Yeast
http://www.instruction.greenriver.edu/kmarr/biology%20211/Labs%20and
%20ALEs/B211%20Labs/B211%20Labs/5%20_Lab%205_Alc%20Ferm%20in
%20Yeast_F2009.pdf