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Basic Networking Concepts

Basic Networking Concepts

Basic Networking Concepts

Basic Networking Concepts

Basic Networking Concepts

Basic Networking Concepts

Basic Networking Concepts

Basic Networking Concepts

Basic Networking Concepts

Basic Networking Concepts

Basic Networking Concepts

Basic Networking Concepts

Basic Networking Concepts

Basic Networking Concepts

Basic Networking Concepts

Basic Networking Concepts

Basic Networking Concepts

Basic Networking Concepts

Basic Networking Concepts

Address Resolution
Protocol
A protocol liaison between
the layers data-link and
network.
ARP Table in the router is a
list of hosts which is
connected directly and
contains information of
MAC address and IP address

MAC = Media Access Control


Used as the unique identity of each hardware
interface, which is an identity for
communication at OSI layer 2.
Most of the bit is the identity of the
manufacturer s hardware
48-bit hex. Example: * AA: BB: CC: DD: EE: FF *
If a router has three physical interfaces, then
will have 3 pieces mac address
For virtual interfaces (VLANs, EoIP) then added
virtual mac address.

Is the addressing system of each host connected


to the network
Currently widely used IP address is IP version 4
(32 bits / 4 bytes) - 4,294,967,296 hosts

IP Address Provider
Internet Assigned Numbers Authority ( IANA )
Oversees Global IP Address Allocation
Regional Internet Registries ( RIR )
Delegated by IANA to administer & register
IP Address space and Autonomous Systems
(AS) numbers within a define region
Asia Pacific Network Information Center (APNIC)
Asia, Australia, New Zealand & other neighboring
countries
Reseaux IP Europeens Network Coordination Center
(RIPE-NCC)
Europe, Russia, Middle East, & Central Asia

Example: 192.168.0.0/25
Netmask: 255 255 255 128
Prefix: / 25

Network IP: 192.168.0.0


First Host IP: 192.168.0.1
Last Host IP: 192.168.0.126
Broadcast: 192.168.0.127
Host IP: total IP in the subnet (-) minus 2

Example: 192.168.0.0/25
Netmask: 255 255 255 128
Prefix: / 25

Network IP: 192.168.0.0


First Host IP: 192.168.0.1
Last Host IP: 192.168.0.126
Broadcast: 192.168.0.127
Host IP: total IP in the subnet (-) minus 2

Public IP Address
IP addresses can be accessed on the Internet.
We can get a Public IP Address from:
Loaned from ISP
Allocation of APNIC / RIPE (for Asia-Pacific area)

Private IP Address
IP Address that is destined for the local network
(cannot be accessed on the Internet)

Public IP Address
IP addresses can be accessed on the Internet.
We can get a Public IP Address from:
Loaned from ISP
Allocation of APNIC / RIPE (www.idnic.net)

Private IP Address
IP Address that is destined for the local network
(cannot be accessed on the Internet)

Special Use IP Addresses

New system IP Addressing scheme , an


improvement of IPv4 which is expected to
be depleted.
Using 128bit

New system IP Addressing scheme , an


improvement of IPv4 which is expected to
be depleted.
Using 128bit

Computers that one can send messages /datagram


to other computers on the network, without first
performing a hand-shake * * (Connectionless
communication)
Typically used for services that send little data to
multiple hosts
No flow control or other mechanisms to maintain
the integrity of the datagram
The most common applications using UDP is DNS
and various online games

Is the most widely used protocols on the internet.


Working with addressing port
Port 1-1024: low port (standard service port)
Port 1025 ...: high port (for advanced
transmission)
Examples of applications: http, email, ftp, etc.
Working Principle:
Connection Oriented, Reliable Transmission,
Error Detection, Flow Control, Segment Size
Control, Congestion Control