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Personal Information Systems

Applications and Goals

Pendahuluan
Sistem informasi adalah gabungan yang terorganisasi dari
manusia, perangkat lunak, perangkat keras, jaringan
komunikasi dan sumber data dalam mengumpulkan,
mengubah, dan menyebarkan informasi dalam organisasi
Sistem informasi manajemen (SIM) adalah sistem
perencanaan bagian dari pengendalian internal suatu bisnis
yang meliputi pemanfaatan manusia, dokumen, teknologi,
dan prosedur oleh akuntansi manajemen untuk
memecahkan masalah bisnis seperti biaya produk, layanan,
atau suatu strategi bisnis.

Sistem informasi manajemen dibedakan dengan


sistem informasi biasa karena SIM digunakan
untuk menganalisis sistem informasi lain yang
diterapkan pada aktivitas operasional organisasi.
SIM umumnya digunakan untuk merujuk pada
kelompok metode manajemen informasi yang
bertalian dengan otomasi atau dukungan terhadap
pengambilan keputusan manusia, misalnya sistem
pendukung keputusan, sistem pakar, dan sistem
informasi eksekutif.

Sistem informasi bisnis adalah penggunaan dan


pengembangan sistem informasi yang efektif
dalam organisasi bisnis untuk mencapai tujuan
bisnis.
Dalam organisasi bisnis terdapat:
enterprise information systems (revenue generation
system),
personal information systems (sales analysis systems),
workgroup information systems (customer call system)

Personal and Work Group Information Systems


pada umumnya dibangun menggunakan teknologi
dan software PC.

Personal information systems dirancang untuk


memenuhi kebutuhan single user. Bertujuan untuk
meningkatkan produktivitas individu.
Work group information systems dirancang untuk
memenuhi kebutuhan work group. Bertujuan untuk
meningkatkan produktivitas kelompok,

Personal Information System


PIS digunakan secara individu untuk
memfasilitasi pekerjaan
Terdapat banyak aplikasi Personal MIS
Dikelompokkan menjadi 3 fungsi utama:
Communications
Analysis
Tracking and Monitoring

Communications
Digunakan untuk komunikasi sesama
manusia dan manusia--komputer
Sistem informasi memberikan nilai tambah
komunikasi individu dengan cara
memfasilitasi penyiapan, editing, dan
pencetakan dokumen.

Communications
Contoh aplikasi :
Word processing: untuk pengolahan teks,
contoh: MSWord, Latex.
Desktop publishing (DTP): untuk integrasi teks
dengan grafik shg menghasilkan layout
halaman yang berkualitas
Graphics and Presentation applications:
menyiapkan grafik statistik dan presentasi
misal: Powerpoint, Coreldraw, Macromedia,
Havard Graphics.

Analysis
Aplikasi Personal MIS digunakan untuk
memfasilitasi analisis: data keuangan, hasil
survey, umpan balik, dan data operasional.
Hasil analisis digunakan untuk planning,
budgeting, dan forecasting.
Contoh aplikasi:
Aplikasi Spreadsheet : calculation, graphics,
e.g. Excel, Lotus, Quatro Pro.

Analysis
Statistical and Operations Research Applications:
Mathematical oriented
Aplikasi statistik digunakan untuk analisis data dengan
prosedur formal : regresi analisis, analisis varian,
statistical tests, seperti Minitab, SPSS, S+, Matlab
Aplikasi Riset Operasi untuk membuat pemodelan bisnis
menggunakan model matematik. Model dianalisa
menggunakan optimasi tujuan seperti Lindo, QSB.

Tracking and Monitoring


Aplikasi Personal MIS untuk mengelola
fakta terkait entitas bisnis yang sangat
penting bagi para profesional bisnis
Diperlukan untuk menyimpan rekaman
data.
Ada 2 tipe:
Database applications
Project management applications

Tracking and Monitoring


Personal Database Applications
Merupakan aplikasi basisdata yang digunakan
oleh individu untuk menyelesaikan pekerjaan
Komponen: database (sekumpulan tabel), dataentry forms, report, query language, and
processing menus.
Diproses menggunakan DBMS (Database
Management System) based on the query
language.
Contoh: DBaseIV, Oracle, Rbase, MSAccess.

Tracking and Monitoring


Spreadsheet vs Database Application
Spreadsheet program:
Making repetitive calculations on interrelated variables.
Provide a very elementary set of commands for querying data
in row and column.
Tidak bisa untuk query basisdata

DBMS:
Merekam fakta yang terkait entitas
Menyediakan cara untuk creating, modifying, and displaying
values in the database
Setiap baris tidak berhubungan
Tidak bisa untuk perhitungan spreadsheet

Tracking and Monitoring


Project Management Applications
Digunakan untuk menyimpan rekaman tugas2 dan
sumberdaya dalam proyek
Yang dilakukan user:
Mendefinisikan tugas yang akan diselesaikan dalam proyek
Menetapkan waktu awal dan penyelesaian tugas
Menggunakan tool : Critical Path Graphs (CPM, PERT)

Karakteristik: mampu melihat ketergantungan antar


tugas, misal: tugas tidak dapat dimulai sebelum tugas
lain selesai; atau sebaliknya

Integrated Applications
Ada 2 arti:
Aplikasi yang memiliki kemampuan wordprocessing,
spreadsheet, dan database dalam satu produk.
Sistem yang terdiri dari beberapa aplikasi yang
mampu berbagi data, serta keluaran yang dihasilkan
oleh aplikasi lain

Integrated Applications
Two types of application integration:
Static integration
Passes static result files to other applications
Changes in produced files do not affect the static files

Dynamic integration:
Linkage between programs that shared data so that current
data is always available
Very useful
DDE (Dynamic Data Exchange) is a facility that provides
dynamic integration for many application

Nilai tambah Personal MIS


Ada 3 nilai tambah :
Facilitating personal processes
Enhancing personal product
Increasing personal quality

Value Added by Personal MIS


Facilitating personal processes
Operations: involve execution of specific tasks to accomplish ones assign
job
Management: involve acquisition and use of assets by an individual
Strategic planning: involve setting and adjusting personal objectives

Enhancing product
Improve product characteristics

Improve product delivery

Increasing quality
Improve process quality
Improve product quality

Komponen PIS
Hardware
Programs

Data
People
Procedure

Hardware
Personal Computers
Digunakan oleh individu, baik jaringan maupun
standalone
Misal: Desktop, Laptop, Notebook, Palmtop
computer

Workstations
High performance microcomputer systems
Awalnya dikembangkan untuk engineering
applications seperti CAD.
Sangat cepat untuk komputasi numerik

Hardware
Karakteristik Microcomputers
Consists of microprocessor, RAM, ROM, and data
bus to connect microprocessor with memory or
external devices: printers, disks, monitors, other
computers.

Spesifikasi
Based on personal needs
Consider: operating system, capacities: memory,
storage, devices
Various price

Hardware
Input/Output hardware
Physical facilities for users to interact with the
computers
Input devices: keyboard, mouse, camera, microphone, light pen
Output devices: monitor display, printer, speaker

Storage hardware
To store data permanently
Example: magnetic disk (diskette, fixed disk), optical
disk (CD)

Program
Operating Systems
Program for basic interaction between user and computers
E.g. MS-Dos, Macintosh, UNIX, Windows, X-Windows

Application programs
Horizontal market: can be used in many different industries in
different ways
Vertical market: for particular type of business or business
function
Custom-developed program: macros, personal application
language, database application program

Data
Ada 2 cara struktur dan pemrosesan data
file-processing
database processing

File-processing data: name, directories


Database Processing: database design, database
files

People
Diperlukan untuk input data, produce results, or
responding to the computers in some otherway.
Terdiri dari:
Users: using the system
Operation personel: running h/w, starting and
stopping programs
System development personel: building information
systems, consists of system analysts, programmers

Procedures
Prosedur adalah Instruksi untuk personil
Prosedur untuk operasi normal
Mengarahkan bagaimana menyelesaikan pekerjaan
sesuai dengan waktu yang ditetapkan
User harus paham bgmn dan kapan menghidupkan
h/w, memulai program, dan mengirim request for
work, interaksi dengan computer programs, dan
mengartikan error messages
Misal: tutorials, user manual, reference manual

Procedures
Prosedur pemulihan kegagalan sistem
Apa yang harus dikerjakan bila terjadi kegagalan
sistem dan bgmn memulihkannya
Aktivitas :
Deteksi kegagalan sistem
Menghentikan aktivitas
Identifikasi dan penyelesaian masalah

Developing PIS

Proses pengembangan sistem


Pengembangan dengan Prototyping
Pengembangan aplikasi DTP
Pengembangan aplikasi sphreadsheet

Proses pengembangan sistem


Jenis pengembangan sistem
Custom programming
Diadaptasi dari SDLC: planning, analysis, design,
programming, installation
Mahal, lama, beresiko
Perlu perhatian khusus untuk definisi kebutuhan
yang lengkap dan akurat

Licensed programs
Program is licensed
Lebih cepat dikembangkan

System Development Processes


Prototyping
Menggunakan teknologi modern dalam
pengembangan prototype secara cepat
Perlu evaluasi kebutuhan tambahan
Perlu refined and redesigned
Repeated until no further additional requirements
and refinement
Implemented as final version.

Role in the development


Various: user, developer, operator, even
manager

Development using Prototyping


5 tahap :

Defining problems
Classify Solution
Create System Platform
Design Application
Implement System

Development using Prototyping


Defining the Problem
Problem statement development: what is, what should be
Feasibility assessment: cost, technology, schedule
Create project plan: stages and tasks, personel, cost,
schedule

Classifying solution
Application types: communications, analysis, tracking and
monitoring, and integrated.
Application size: amount of data to store, volume and
frequency of I/O, executable program
Constraint: from needs of the applications, users, or
organisations
Future use: expected future use of the application.

Development using Prototyping


Creating system platform

Programs: based on users, operating systems


Hardware: types of personal computer to use
Data
Procedures: how to use, how to develop
People: developer, experts

Designing applications with prototyping


Is an iterative process
Allowing many more alternatives to be
considered and evaluated

Development using Prototyping


Implementing the System
Testing and made it operational
Determining cutover point
Can develop another prototyping using the
existing one

Development DTP Applications


Challenge and Opportunity of DTP
Creating press release, producing reports,
making public presentation
Can develop a consistent design for the
organisation andn use it in all activities

Hardware platform definition


Required GUI: Windows, Macintosh
High memory
More sophisticated printers

Development DTP Applications


DTP concepts
Types of characters
Arts and graphics: mixing (still and motion)
pictures and texts
Page Layout: artistic process, needs artistic
talent.
Template: sample design created for a particular
use.

Development Spreadsheet Applications


Purpose of spreadsheets
Record keeping: accounting data
What if analysis: financial impact of changing price
Sensitivity analysis: to determine the impact of changes in
a single variable on output results
Goal-seeking: use financial model to work backward from
a desired result to determine the input that would generate
that results.

Spreadsheet criteria

Accuracy
Ease of use
Ease of changing
Standardisation and consistency

Development Spreadsheet Applications


Spreadsheet System Platform
Available for almost every computer
With or without GUI

Spreadsheet Organisation
Using blok design
Consists of

documenttation about spreadsheet


table of content
Input/process/output cycle
Variables that changed from one analysis to the next
Section fro calculation: formula

Development Spreadsheet Applications


Spreadsheet Testing

Examining the output


Verifying the input
Checking for reasonableness
Stresstest the spreadsheet
Involve other

Developing Personal Database


Applications
Building a Data Model
Top-down data modeling
Proceeds from general to specific
Produce entities and their properties (attributes, keys),
and relationship (1:M, M:M, M:1) among entities
Entity-Relationship (E-R) Diagram
E-R set of tables

Bottom-up data modeling


Proceeds from specific to general starting with some
data example
Listing and grouping data which seem related with
some theme

Developing Personal Database


Applications
Transforming Data Model into a Database
Design
Table design based on entities in the E-R
Relationship representation use foreign key

Developing Database using Prototyping

Database Application System Platform


Developing Database Prototypes
Design Refinement
Database Application Implementation

Materi Minggu Depan


Workgroup Information System
Primary Characteristic of workgroup MIS
Must support the controlled sharing data,
information, knowledge, and other resources

Hardware sharing
Allowing member to share access to computer
devices printers, cameras, HDD
Computers are ususally connected via LAN