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U nit III- Natural Resources

Part- A (2 marks)
1. What are renewable and non-renewable resources?
The renewable resources are those resources which have the inherent capacity to reappear, or
replenish themselves by quick recycling , reproduction, and replacement within a reasonable time ,and to
maintain themselves. Example; air, water, soil (land), and plants, and animals
The non-renewable resources are those that do not have the ability for recycling and replacement within
a reasonable period of time. Example; minerals, coal oil, natural gas, ground water
2. What is meant by deforestation?
Deforestation is the process of removal of (or) elimination of forest resources due to many natural or
man-made activities. in general deforestation means destruction of forests.
3. Mention the effects of deforestation.
Soil erosion occurs because of deforestation as the roots of the trees doesnot hold the roots rigidly.
Global warming also occurs as trees are the main source to maintain the temperature.
4. State the need for public awareness for solving environmental problems.
Awareness can be created in colleges and schools as the future generation should understand the
seriousness so that they can come up with the solution.
By advertising in social networking sites and media so that people can be aware of the problems and try to
prevent it. If one starts then in future a society will follow
5. What is geothermal energy?
The energy we get from the heat inside the earth is geothermal energy.
6. Write any four functions of forest.
The forest act as a main property of flora and fauna of the country. It act as a green canopy and main
habitat for the wild life and birds.
7. What are landslides?
Landslides are the downward and outward movement of a slope composed of earth materials such as
rock,soil etc.
8. What is soil leaching?
The process in which materials in or on the soil gradually dissolve and are carried by water seeping
through the soil. Effects: 1.It removes valuable nutrients from the soil.
2. It may carry buried wastes into ground water and contaminates it.
9.Define desertification.
It is a progressive de3struction or degradation of arid or semi arid lands to desert. Reasons:
Deforestation,over grazing, mining.
10. Write the consequences of Timber extraction.
It causes deforestation. 2. It reduces thickness of forests 3. It leads to loss of tribal culture and extinction
of tribal people.
I1. Define overgrazing. What are the effectsof overgrazing?
It is the process of eating away the forest vegetation without giving chance to regenerate.
Effects: 1,Land degradation 2, soil erosion 3, Loss of useful species.

12. Define water logging .


Water logging is the land where water stand for most of the year. Problem: Mechanical strength of the
soil decreases and crop yield falls.
13. Define environmental impact statement.
Environmental concern arises from the extraction and processing of the minerals during mining,
melting,roasting.
14.List the categories of minerals.
There are 3 categories.1. Identified Resourses 2. Undiscovered resources 3. Reserves.
15. Define sustainable forestry.
It is the optimum use of forest resources, which meet the needs of the present without compromising the
ability of future generations to meet their own needs
16.Write the merits and demerits of Dams.
Merits:1.Dams are built to control flood and store flood water. 2. Dams are built for generating
electricity
Demerits: 1. Displacement of tribal people. 2. Loss of forests, flora and fauna.
17.What is Eutrophication.
A large proportion of nitrogen and phosphate fertilizers in crop fields is washed off by the run off water
and reaches the water bodies causing over nourishment of the lakes.
18.What is a biogas? Give its compositon .
Bio gas is the mixture of various gases formed by the anaerobic degradation of biological matter in the
absence of free oxygen. Composition of Bio gas: Methane,carbon dioxide, Nitrogen, Hydrogen, Hydrogen
sulphide, Oxygen.
19. Give the types of biodegradable pollutants with an example.
There are 4 types. 1. Very easily degradable eg: simple sugars
2. Easily degradable eg: proteins
3. potentially degradable eg: fats
4. very slowly degradable eg: organo chlorides.
20. What are xenobiotics.
Biochemistry used in environmental science to understand the effects of environment on living
organisms as they interact with environmental pollutants.
Part- B (16 marks)
I. Discuss briefly the ill-effects of deforestation. Pg no:5.8
2. What are the effects of modem Agriculture? Pg no:5.38
3. What are the causes of soil erosion & deforestation? Explain in detail. Pg no:5.71
4 Discuss the consequences of overutilization of surface and Ground water. Pg no:5.19

5. Write the effects of extracting and using mineral resources Pg no:5.29


6. Discuss the causes of land degradation. Pg no:5.69
7. Explain how the alternate energy sources play an important role in environment impact. Pg no:5.63
8. Write a note on solar production of electricity. Pg no:5.46
9. Explain the role of an individual to converse natural resourses. Pg no:5.76
10. Explain the methods of harnessing wind and ocean thermal energy. Pg no:5.49,5.52
11. Compare nuclear power with coal power. Pg no:5.61
12. Write briefly on the Hydrologic Cycle. Pg no:5.15
13. Discuss the effects of dams on forestand tribal people. Pg no:5.14
14. Explain various steps involved in anaerobic digestion. Pg no:5.65
15. Explain the production and uses of biogas. Pg no:5.67
16. Write notes of bioconversion of pollutants and degradation of proteins. Pg no:5.81
UNIT 4 SOCIAL ISSUES AND THE ENVIRONMENT
PART A
1.Define the term sustainable development.
Sustainable development is defined as meeting the needs of the present without compromising the
ability of future generations to meet their own needs
2. Explain the needs for water conservation .
i. The quality and reliability are not high due to changes in environmental factors.
ii. As the population increases, the requirement of water is also more.
iii. Due to deforestation ,the annual rainfall is also decreasing.
iv. Over exploitation of ground water ,leads to drought.
3.Explain the factors affecting watershed
i. The watersheds are degraded due to uncontrolled ,unplanned and unscientific land use activities
ii.Overgrazing ,deforestation ,mining,construction activities also affect and degrade various watersheds
iii. Droughtly climates also affects watershed.
4.Define the term environmental ethics .
Environmental ethics refers to the issues, principles and guidelines relating to human interactions with
their environment.

5.What are the advantages of rain water harvesting ?


1.Mitigating the effects of droughts and achieving drought proofing.
2.Increasing the availability of water from well &.Rise in ground water levels.
3. Minimizing the soil erosion and flood hazards.
4. Future generation is assured of water.
6. what is meant by environmental audit
Environmental audits are intended to quantify environmental performance and environmental position.
In this way they perform analogous function to financial audicts. It also aim to define whaqt needs to be done to
improve on indicators of such performance and position.
7. What is meant by ISO14000?
ISO14000 is the environmental management standards which exist to help organizations minimize how their
operations negatively affect the environment and comply with applicable laws and regulations.
8.List the objectives of watershed management .
1. To minimize the risks of floods ,droughts and landslides.
2. To develop rural areas in the region with clear plan for improving the economy of the region.
3. To manage developmental activities like domestic water supply,Irrigation, hydropower generation etc.
4. To promote social forestry and horticultural activity on all suitable areas of land.
9. What are bio-medical wastes?
Bio-medical wastes are one type of biowastes generated from health care (hospitals, nursing homes,
health centres , laboratories, research centers ,blood banks etc) They may be solid or liquid in nature.
10. What are the various types involved in the management and handling of bio-medical wastes?
1. Generation and Accumulation
2. Handling and Storage
3. Transport and Disposal
11. What is ECO mark?
Environmentally friendly products are generally indicated by the symbol called Eco-mark. Eco-mark is
a certification mark issued by the Bureau of Indian Standard to the products.
12. What are the objectives of ecomark
1. To improve the quality of the environment and encourage sustainable management of resources.
2. Provides incentive to importers and manufactures to reduce the adverse environmental impact of their
products & to reward genuine initiatives by companies for reducing the adverse environmental impact of their
products

13. Define disaster.


Disaster is a geological process and is defined as an event,concentrated in time and space in which a society
or sub-division of a society undergoes severe danger and causes loss of its members and physical property.
14. Define floods.
Whenever the magnitude of water flow exceeds the carrying capacity of the channel within its banks , the
excess of water over flows on the surroundings causes flood.
15. How does earthquake occurs?
The earth crust has several tectonic plates of solid rock. These plates move slowly along their boundaries .when
friction prevents these plates from slipping ,stress develops and results in sudden fractures along the fault lines
within the plates.
16. Define the term Tsunami
A tsunami is a large wave that are generated in water body when the sea floor is deformed by seismic
activity .This activity displaces the overlying water in the ocean.
17. What are landslides?
The movement of earthy materials like coherent rock, mud, soil, and debris from higher region to lower
region due to gravitational pull is called landslides.
18.What are the harmfull effects of landslides?
1. Landslides block the roads and divert the passage.
2. Erosion of soil increases.
3. Sudden landslides damage the houses, crop yield, live stock etc.,
19.Explain cyclone management.
1. Satellite images are used by meteorological departments forecasting the weather conditions, which revel
the strength and intensity of the storm.
2. Radar system is used to detect the cyclone and is being used for cyclone warning.
20. What are the role of NGOs.
1. To protect environment resources and their economical use by organising lectures and seminars
3. To protect the rights of the citizens to a healthy environment and the consumers rights to clean
environment .
4. To vigil in the surrounding area ,well, river, lake, land air against pollution and reporting to state
board/central board.
5. To publish the notified restricted areas where industries, industrial operations should not be carried out.

PART B
1. What is rain water harvesting ? Name and discuss the types of rain water harvesting. Pg no:6.8-6.10
2. What is watershed management? What are the components of integrated watershed management? Pg no:6.116.13
3. Write a note on wasteland reclamation Pg no:6.32-6.4
4. write a note on disaster management. Pg no:6.49-6.61
5. state the different natural calamities and explain any one in detail. Pg no: 6.49-6.61
6. Describe the measures to conserve water. Pg no:6.8-6.13
7. Discuss briefly on Environment Protection act. Pg no:6.33
8. Explain the following (i)Wild life protection Act (ii)Forest Preservative Act. Pg no:6.38-6.40
9. Write short notes on National policy on Resettlement and Rehabitation for affected families. Pg no:6.14-6.17
10. What is sustainable development and explain its concepts? Pg no:6.1-6.28
11. Explain the principles of green chemistry. Pg no:6.22-6.23
12. Write a note on nuclear holocaust . Pg no:6.24-6.26
13. What are biomedical wastes?explain the steps involved in management of biomedical waste? Pg no:6.416.44
14.Explain the role of NGOs? Pg no:6.18-6.19
15.Explain the scheme of labeling of ECO-MARKS? Pg no:6.44-6.46

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