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LTE Load Control Feature

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LTE Load Control Feature

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LTE Load Control Feature

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LTE Load Control Feature

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LTE Load Control Feature

Load control aims to maintain system stability while maximizing resource usage by
rejecting admission requests or releasing some admitted services. Load control ensures
their quality of admitted services by controlling the cell load. In addition, load control
provides the required QoS scheme for individual radio bearers to achieve maximal cell
capacity.

Load control consists of four functions, which are load monitoring, admission control, load
balancing, and congestion control. Above figure shows the relationship between the four
load control functions.

Admission control, load balancing, and congestion control are performed based on the
results of load monitoring. In addition, congestion control provides the overload indication
and overload relief indication for admission control and load balancing. The related
parameters include timers and thresholds (for example, admission threshold, load
balancing threshold, and congestion threshold) that are defined for admission control, load
balancing, and congestion control.

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LTE Load Control Feature

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LTE Load Control Feature

Load monitoring checks the usage of cell resources, such as Physical Resource Block (PRB)
usage, QoS satisfaction rate of Guaranteed Bit Rate (GBR) services, and resource limitation
indications. Load monitoring evaluates the current cell status based on the usage of cell
resources, and the evaluation result serves as the necessary reference for admission control,
load balancing, and congestion control. Based on data measurements, load monitoring
tracks the activation, modification, and release of each radio bearer in the cell, calculates
the usage of time-frequency resources, and checks the cell load status

Load monitoring provides the monitoring results, namely, PRB usage, QoS satisfaction rate
of GBR services, and resource limitation indication for the eNodeB to determine whether to
admit GBR services. Load monitoring also provides the PRB usage, hardware load, and
transport network layer load for the eNodeB to determine whether to perform load
balancing.

When the UE RX capability is limited or the downlink transmit power is limited due to poor
downlink channel quality, the UEs may use only part of the time or frequency resources.
When only a small number of UEs camp on the cell, the QoS satisfaction rate of GBR
services is determined based on these UEs. As a result, new services will not be admitted
although there are many idle PRBs. To solve this problem, the monitoring of downlink PRB
usage is introduced. When the downlink PRB usage is low and the transmit power is not
limited, new services are directly admitted. In other cases, admission decision must be
made first according to the QoS satisfaction rate of GBR services based on QoS Class
Identifier (QCI).

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LTE Load Control Feature

The calculated PRB usage is compared with the uplink and downlink PRB usage thresholds
DlRbHighThd, DlRbLowThd, UlRbHighThd, and UlRbLowThd. In the downlink, for
example, if the PRB usage is higher than DlRbHighThd, it indicates that the downlink PRB
usage is high; if the PRB usage is lower than DlRbLowThd, it indicates that the downlink
PRB usage is low. The purpose of using both the upper threshold and the lower threshold
is to prevent the possible ping-pong effect.

Related command

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LTE Load Control Feature

The QoS satisfaction rate of GBR services reflects the QoS conditions of admitted GBR
services in a cell. It is used for evaluating the cell load.

The QCI of a service reflects the QoS requirements of the service, and each QCI has its own
QoS parameters. The uplink and downlink QoS satisfaction rates of GBR services are
calculated based on QCIs, and the admission thresholds are set for each QCI. That is, the
admission differentiation between QCIs is achieved through different admission thresholds.

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LTE Load Control Feature

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LTE Load Control Feature

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LTE Load Control Feature

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LTE Load Control Feature

The eNodeB rejects the admission requests of GBR services (new services or handovers) if
the uplink or downlink is congested.

The eNodeB determines whether to admit a non-GBR service based on the rules of nonGBR service admission.

If preemption is enabled in the cell, new services can preempt other services.

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LTE Load Control Feature

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LTE Load Control Feature

The process of admission control for all services (including new services or handovers) is
described as follows:

The eNodeB checks the UE capability. If the UE capability is low, it will not be
admitted. If the UE capability is high, the eNodeB proceeds to the following step.

The eNodeB checks whether the required resources are limited

If the PUCCH resource or sounding resource is limited, services will not be


admitted.

If the resource for semi-persistent scheduling is limited or a congestion


indication is received, the eNodeB makes a decision based on the status of
a preemption switch.

If all resources are not limited, the eNodeB proceeds to the following step

The eNodeB makes uplink admission decision and downlink admission decision
based on the service type (GBR or non-GBR services). Admission is successful when
services can be admitted in both the uplink and the downlink

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LTE Load Control Feature

Service Priority

When a radio bearer is set up, the Evolved Packet Core (EPC) determines the
Allocation and Retention Priority (ARP) of the radio bearer and sends the ARPs
together with other QoS parameters to the eNodeB.

Allocation and Retention Priority (ARP): the primary purpose of ARP is to decide
whether a bearer establishment / modification request can be accepted or needs to
be rejected in case of resource limitations. In addition, the ARP can be used by the
eNodeB to decide which bearer(s) to drop during exceptional resource limitations
(e.g. at handover).

The eNodeB categorizes services based on their ARP values. The ARP values are
mapped onto three service priorities: gold, silver, and copper.

The ARP values beyond the range of the preceding two ARP thresholds indicate
copper services. A small ARP value indicates a high priority level.

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LTE Load Control Feature

Admission control decides whether to admit a non-GBR service based on the number of
radio bearers used for non-GBR services in the cell, rather than the evaluated QoS
satisfaction rate or predicted resource usage. The MaxNonGBRBearerNum parameter
indicates the maximum number of radio bearers used for non-GBR services in the cell. If
the number of radio bearers used for non-GBR services after the admission of a non-GBR
service is smaller than MaxNonGBRBearerNum, the non-GBR services can be admitted in
the cell.

IMS services are directly admitted without evaluation on the QoS satisfaction rate. In
addition, IMS service admission is not restricted by MaxNonGBRBearerNum.

When the value of MaxNonGBRBearerNum is reached and preemption is enabled, a new


non-GBR service can preempt an admitted non-GBR service with a low priority.

Related command for MaxNoNGBRBearerNum, recommend value: 3000

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LTE Load Control Feature

The following figure show the downlink admission process of GBR service

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LTE Load Control Feature

Upon receiving a new service or handover request, the cell checks whether to use the
admission method based on resource prediction depending on dlCacPredictSwitch and
ulCacPredictSwitch

In the downlink

If the requirements of admission based on resource prediction are met, admission


control checks the PRB usage and the transmit power.

Otherwise, preemption is implemented if preemption is enabled. If preemption fails


or preemption is disabled, admission control performs a redirection procedure for
the new service.

In the uplink, if the requirements of admission based on resource prediction are met,
admission control does not check whether the transmit power is limited.

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LTE Load Control Feature

If the GbrUsedPRbCheckSwitch is set on the eNodeB determines whether to admit new


GBR services based on the number of PRBs used by the admitted GBR services. For
handovers, however, the eNodeB does not make such decisions.

When the proportion of PRBs used by the admitted GBR services is higher than
GbrRbUseHighProportion, the eNodeB rejects the requests for new GBR services. If
preemption is enabled in the cell, a new GBR service can preempt an admitted GBR service.

When the proportion is lower than GbrRbUseLowProportion, the eNodeB admits GBR
services

Command for switch selection

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LTE Load Control Feature

Command for threshold setting

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LTE Load Control Feature

In downlink:

If the PRB usage is low and the transmit power is not limited, the new service or
handover is admitted

If the PRB usage is high or the transmit power is limited, the eNodeB checks
whether to use the admission method based on QoS satisfaction rate depending
on whether the LCEM_RAC_ALG_DL_SWITCH(dlCacSwitch) is on. If it is setting
on, perform QoS satisfaction rate evaluation, if it is setting off, then perform
admission accept

In the uplink, admission control does not need to check whether the transmit power is
limited.

Command for switch selection

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LTE Load Control Feature

Command for switch selection

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LTE Load Control Feature

The admission threshold for handovers is lower than that for new services. The eNodeB
defines four handover thresholds QcixHoThd (x = 1-4) for each QCIs.

Based on the handover thresholds, the service differentiation can be achieved by setting
the admission offsets for new gold, silver, and copper services, depending on the mapping
between ARP values and service priorities. The admission offsets are NewGoldUserOffset,
NewSilverUserOffset, and NewCopperUserOffset. These offset values apply to both
uplink and downlink.

For GBR services whose QCIs range from 1 to 4, the admission thresholds for handovers
and new services corresponding to a QCI are as follows:

The admission threshold for handovers is QcixHoThd.

The admission threshold for new gold services is QcixHoThd plus


NewGoldUserOffset.

The admission threshold for new silver services is QcixHoThd plus


NewSilverUserOffset.

The admission threshold for new copper services is QcixHoThd plus


NewCopperUserOffset.

The relation between these thresholds is as follows:

QcixHoThd QcixHoThd + NewGoldUserOffset QcixHoThd +


NewSilverUserOffset QcixHoThd + NewCopperUserOffset 100%

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LTE Load Control Feature

Assume that SQCI=x (x = 1-4) represents the QoS satisfaction rate. Then, the rules of
downlink admission decision are as follows:

For SQCI=x QcixHoThd + NewCopperUserOffset

If the QoS satisfaction rates of all QCIs except QCI x are higher than the
corresponding handover admission thresholds, then new gold, silver, and
copper services and handovers corresponding to QCI x are admitted.

If the QoS satisfaction rate of a QCI is lower than the corresponding


handover admission threshold, then new gold, silver, and copper services
corresponding to QCI x are rejected but handovers corresponding to QCI x
are admitted.

For QcixHoThd + NewCopperUserOffset > SQCI=x QcixHoThd +


NewSilverUserOffset

If the QoS satisfaction rates corresponding to all QCIs except QCI x are
higher than the corresponding handover admission thresholds, then new
gold and silver services and handovers corresponding to QCI x are admitted
but new copper services are rejected.

If the QoS satisfaction rate of a QCI is lower than the corresponding


handover admission threshold, then new gold, silver, and copper services
corresponding to QCI x are rejected but handovers corresponding to QCI x
are admitted.

For QcixHoThd + NewSilverUserOffset > SQCI=x QcixHoThd +


NewGoldUserOffset

If the QoS satisfaction rates corresponding to all QCIs except QCI x are
higher than the corresponding handover admission thresholds, then new
gold services and handovers corresponding to QCI x are admitted but new
silver and copper services are rejected.

If the QoS satisfaction rate of a QCI is lower than the corresponding


handover admission threshold, then new gold, silver, and copper services
corresponding to QCI x is rejected but handovers corresponding to QCI x
are admitted.

For QcixHoThd + NewGoldUserOffset > SQCI=x QcixHoThd

New gold, silver, copper services corresponding to QCI x are rejected but
handovers for QCI x are admitted.

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LTE Load Control Feature

For QcixHoThd > SQCI=x

Both new service and handovers corresponding to QCI x are rejected.

The rules of uplink admission decision are similar to the rules of downlink admission
decision.

Related command

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LTE Load Control Feature

Preemption is enabled by setting the MainPreemptionSwitch parameter to ON(On) and


selecting the LCEM_RAC_ALG_PREEMPTION_SWITCH(PreemptionSwitch) check box
under the RacAlgoSwitch parameter. Note that the SRBs, IMS signaling, and emergency
calls cannot be preempted.

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LTE Load Control Feature

A service can preempt other services only if its ARP IE "pre-emption capability" is "may
trigger pre-emption". If a service does not have the preemption capability, it cannot be
admitted

The preemption cannot be successful if any one of the preceding conditions is not met. If a
new service fails to preempt other service during initial access, the UE is redirected when
redirection is enabled. If a handover service fails to preempt other services, relevant
operations are performed based on the actual situations.

Related command

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LTE Load Control Feature

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LTE Load Control Feature

In a wireless network, a variety of services runs on UEs, and the locations of the UEs
change randomly. In such situations, there is a possibility that one cell is heavily loaded
whereas another is lightly loaded. To solve this problem, load balancing is applied. It
distributes load between neighboring cells, that is, it transfers part of the load of a heavily
loaded cell to a lightly loaded cell. In this way, the access success rate increases and the
maximal resource usage is achieved.

Load balancing can be classified into the following types: intra-frequency load balancing,
inter-frequency load balancing, and inter-RAT load sharing. When a cell is configured with
intra-frequency, inter-frequency, and inter-RAT neighboring cells, the type of the
neighboring cells to which the load should be transferred is determined by the settings of
the associated switches and load balancing thresholds. If all switches for the three types of
load balancing are turned on, the three types can co-exist. The thresholds for triggering
intra- and inter-frequency load balancing can be set to smaller values than the threshold
for triggering inter-RAT load sharing so that intra- and inter-frequency load balancing take
precedence over inter-RAT load sharing.

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LTE Load Control Feature

The air interface load is calculated based on the PRB usage of services in the cell.

The transport network layer load is the usage of the S1 bandwidth.

The hardware load is the usage of hardware resources, such as the CPU usage and
memory usage.

The hardware load and transport network layer load can be in one of the following states:
LowLoad, MediumLoad, HighLoad, and Overload.

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LTE Load Control Feature

Load Measurement and Evaluation

The eNodeB obtains the air interface load of a cell by measuring the resources used by GBR
services and non-GBR services in the cell. In addition, the eNodeB obtains the hardware
resource usage and transport resource usage, based on the load indications from the
monitoring module. Load balancing is triggered when either of the following conditions is
met: (1) the air interface load of the cell reaches the sum of LoadOffset and the threshold
for triggering load balancing; (2) hardware or transport network layer reports the load
balancing indication.
Load balancing stops when both the following conditions are met: (1) the air interface load
of the cell falls below the threshold for triggering load balancing; (2) hardware or transport
network layer does not report the load balancing indication. If condition 1 is met but
condition 2 is not met, load balancing continues until condition 2 is met or there is no
available neighboring cell.

Load Information Exchange

If the load balancing switch is turned on for a cell, the cell sends a resource status request
to its neighboring cells when the load of the cell meets the triggering condition for load
balancing. In this way, the cell exchanges the load information with its neighboring cells.
The load information includes the air interface load, hardware load, and transport network
layer load.
The exchange involves only the intra- and inter-frequency load information, because load
information exchange is not supported between inter-RAT cells currently.

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LTE Load Control Feature

Procedure of Load Information Exchange

According to 3GPP TS 36.423, after determining the inter-eNodeB cells with which
a cell exchanges the load information, the eNodeB sends a RESOURCE STATUS
REQUEST message to all the associated eNodeBs. The message contains the IDs of
the inter-eNodeB cells whose load information is requested and the interval at
which the cell load information is reported. The interval is specified through the
LoadExchangePrd parameter. If the RESOURCE STATUS REQUEST message does
not contain the setting of the interval, the neighboring cells report the load
information at the default interval, which is five seconds in Huawei solutions.

The serving cell requests all candidate cells to report their load information. If the
serving cell receives a RESOURCE STATUS RESPONSE message from a neighboring
cell, the serving cell will receive RESOURCE STATUS UPDATE messages at intervals
from that neighboring cell subsequently. If the serving cell receives a RESOURCE
STATUS FAILURE message from a neighboring cell, the neighboring cell is not
considered as a qualified candidate cell for load balancing at present.

Load Balancing Decision

For intra- and inter-frequency load balancing, the eNodeB selects the best
candidate cell as the target cell, based on the load difference between the serving
cell and the candidate cells and the performance of handovers from the serving cell
to the candidate cells.

For inter-RAT load sharing, the eNodeB determines the target RAT (2G or 3G)
based on the UE capabilities, service information, and Subscriber Profile IDs (SPIDs).
Then, the eNodeB selects a target cell based on the information about the interRAT neighboring cells.

Load Balancing Execution

Intra-frequency load balancing involves both UEs in connected mode and UEs in
idle mode.

Inter-frequency load balancing involves only UEs in connected mode

Inter-RAT load sharing involves only UEs in connected mode.

Performance Monitoring and Adjustment

After the execution of load balancing, the eNodeB monitors the performance of
the source cell and the target cell.

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LTE Load Control Feature

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LTE Load Control Feature

Intra-frequency load balancing can be enabled by selecting the


IntraFreqMlbSwitch(Intra-Frequency Load Balance) check box under the
MlbAlgoSwitch parameter. Intra-frequency load balancing is triggered when either of the
following conditions is met: (1) the cell load reaches the sum of LoadOffset and
IntraFreqMlbThd (the threshold for triggering intra-frequency load balancing); (2)
hardware or transport network layer reports the load balancing indication. If the load
balancing switch is turned on for a cell, the cell initiates a resource status request towards
its candidate neighboring cells when the load of the cell meets the triggering condition for
load balancing. In this way, the serving cell exchanges the load information with the
candidate neighboring cells.

For the inter-frequency load balance, it has similar procedure as intra-frequency load
balance

From the obtained information of neighboring cells, the serving cell deletes the
information about the cells that do not meet the requirements of load balancing and then
obtains the candidate cell list for load information exchange. A deleted cell may be a
neighboring cell controlled by another eNodeB that is not configured with the X2
interface, or a neighboring cell with poor performance of history handovers. In addition,
the eNodeB collects statistics on the information and load of UEs at the cell edge..

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LTE Load Control Feature

Procedure of Load Information Exchange

According to 3GPP TS 36.423, after determining the inter-eNodeB cells with which
a cell exchanges the load information, the eNodeB sends a RESOURCE STATUS
REQUEST message to all the associated eNodeBs. The message contains the IDs of
the inter-eNodeB cells whose load information is requested and the interval at
which the cell load information is reported. The interval is specified through the
LoadExchangePrd parameter. If the RESOURCE STATUS REQUEST message does
not contain the setting of the interval, the neighboring cells report the load
information at the default interval, which is five seconds in Huawei solutions.

The serving cell requests all candidate cells to report their load information. If the
serving cell receives a RESOURCE STATUS RESPONSE message from a neighboring
cell, the serving cell will receive RESOURCE STATUS UPDATE messages at intervals
from that neighboring cell subsequently. If the serving cell receives a RESOURCE
STATUS FAILURE message from a neighboring cell, the neighboring cell is not
considered as a qualified candidate cell for load balancing at present.

Related command

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LTE Load Control Feature

From the candidate cell list obtained through load information exchange, the serving cell removes
the candidate cells that meet the following conditions:

The load difference between the candidate cell and the serving cell in both the uplink and
downlink is smaller than the sum of the load difference threshold and LoadOffset.
The hardware load or transport network layer load in the candidate cell is in highLoad or
overload state.
The load difference between the candidate cell and the serving cell in both uplink and
downlink is smaller than the sum of the load difference threshold and LoadOffset.

Then, the candidate cell list for load balancing is obtained. If there is no candidate cell meeting the
previous conditions, the eNodeB stops the evaluation on load balancing.

The candidate cells are then categorized into A, B, and C as follows:

A: neighboring cells whose uplink load and downlink load are lower than
IntraFreqMLBThreshold
B: neighboring cells whose uplink or downlink load exceeds IntraFreqMLBThreshold
C: neighboring cells whose uplink load and downlink load exceed
IntraFreqMLBThreshold

The best neighboring cell is selected from the candidate cells in the order of categories A, B, and C.
That is, the cells of category A are preferentially considered. If the best neighboring cell is
unavailable in category A, the cells of category B are considered. Likewise, if the best neighboring
cell is unavailable in category B, the cells of category C are considered. If there are multiple cells
meeting the requirements in one category, the cell with the maximum load difference with the
serving cell is selected as the target cell.

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LTE Load Control Feature

From the candidate cell list obtained through the load information exchange, the serving
cell removes the candidate cells that meet one of the following conditions:

The performance of handovers from the serving cell to the candidate cell is
relatively low.

The load difference between the candidate cell and the serving cell in both uplink
and downlink is smaller than the sum of the load difference threshold and
LoadOffset.

The hardware load or transport network layer load is in HighLoad or Overload


state.

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LTE Load Control Feature

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LTE Load Control Feature

Since the intra-frequency handover measurement is default processing (no need trigger), so the load
balance for intra-frequency is realized by the automatic parameter adjustment.

Load balance for UEs in connected mode

CIO is adjusted in the serving cell and target cell at the same time to prevent the ping-pong
effect caused by CIO adjustment. When the serving cell and target cell determine to adjust
the CIO, the serving cell sends a parameter adjustment request to the target cell. Then, the
target cell and serving cell adjust the CIO at the same time.
The value of CIO should be increased so that UEs at the serving cell edge are easily handed
over to the neighboring cell. The CIO value cannot exceed the adjustment range. After
receiving a CIO adjustment request from the serving cell, the target cell compares the
requested CIO adjustment value with the allowed CIO adjustment range. If the requested
value exceeds the adjustment range, load balancing is not performed and the serving cell is
notified of the rejection.
If the target cell responds to the serving cell with a success message, the CIO is adjusted in
both the target cell and the serving cell. Then, the eNodeB makes the handover decision
based on the new CIO values.

Load balance for UEs in idle mode

The cell coverage is the same for UEs in idle mode and UEs in connected mode. Therefore,
the handover boundary for UEs in connected mode is generally the same as the reselection
boundary for UEs in idle mode. The Qoffset adjustment should be contrary to CIO
adjustment to keep the coverage consistent before and after the adjustment. That is, if the
target cell increases the CIO, the Qoffset should be decreased.

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LTE Load Control Feature

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LTE Load Control Feature

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LTE Load Control Feature

When the cell is congested, congestion control releases the GBR services with low energy
efficiency rate (EER) first to make some resources available. Thus, the quality of other
admitted services can be ensured. If the GBR service release is successful, the GBR service
rate downsizing is not required. If the GBR service release is unsuccessful or the service
release switch is turned off, the GBR service rate downsizing is required.

The release of low-EER services reduces the resource load effectively. In contrast, the GBR
service rate downsizing makes a limited contribution to reducing the resource load,
because the downsizing only reduces some scheduling data for the downsized GBR
services.

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LTE Load Control Feature

If congestion happened, the system should trigger the admission control algorithm and
also perform the congestion control algorithm, such as service release and rate
downsizing.

Related command

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LTE Load Control Feature

The EER depends on the following factors:

Total amount of data transmitted or received by the UE

Total number of PRBs used by the UE to transmit or receive data

Downlink power used for data transmission

The amount of data transmitted or received by each PRB can be calculated through the
total amount of data and the total number of occupied PRBs. In the downlink, the UE can
achieve a higher EER if each PRB carries more data with less power. In the uplink, the
consumed power need not be considered.

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LTE Load Control Feature

GBR service release should be setting through the following switch

The procedure for releasing a low-EER service is as follows:

The eNodeB selects the UEs whose service types are not IMS signaling and whose
MCSs are continuously lower than the related threshold.

The eNodeB calculates the EERs of the UEs whose ARP values of GBR services are
greater than or equal to LdcMeaArpThd.

Note: If the ARP value of a GBR service of a UE is greater than or equal to


LdcMeaArpThd, the EER of the UE is calculated. If the ARP value of each
GBR service in the cell is smaller than LdcMeaArpThd, no low-EER service
can be released.

The eNodeB releases the highest-rate GBR service that is selected from the services
of the UE with the lowest EER. If the EERs of UEs are equal, the eNodeB releases
the GBR service with the highest ARP value.

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LTE Load Control Feature

GBR service rate downsizing reduces the GBRs of GBR services (corresponding to QCIs 2-4)
based on the downsizing proportion. Services are downsized in the order of copper
services, silver services, and gold services. The downsizing proportions for these services
are specified through CopperGbrCongProportion, SilverGbrCongProportion, and
GoldGbrCongProportion respectively.

The relation between the three parameters is as follows:

GoldGbrCongProportion SilverGbrCongProportion
CopperGbrCongProportion

Related command

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LTE Load Control Feature

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