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LCM14

Version:
Issue Date:
Review By Date:
Owned By:
Authorised By:

1.1
August 2006
June 2008
Engineering Manager D & P
Executive Manager D & P

LINE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL LCM14

POLE TESTING
REVISION TABLE
Version No

Date of Revision

1.0

June 2006

1.1

August 2006

Details of Amendment
Initial Release
Numbering changed to represent previous version

The above table lists in summary the amendments which have been made with most recent issues of this standard.
The table is updated with each re-issue. The latest amendments within the documents are marked with a change
indicator (|) in the outer margin.

CONTACT
This standard is the responsibility of the
Development and Projects Division, ElectraNet.
Please contact the indicated owner of the standard
with any inquiries.

ElectraNet
52-55 East Terrace, Adelaide, South Australia 5000
PO Box 7096, Hutt Street Post Office,
Adelaide, South Australia 5000
Ph (08) 8404 7966, Fx (08) 8404 7104

LI M I T AT I O N O F L I A B I LI T Y A N D
D I S C LA I M E R O F W A R R AN TY
ElectraNet makes no representation or warranty as
to the accuracy, reliability, completeness or
suitability for particular purposes of the information
in this document. ElectraNet and its employees,
agents and consultants shall have no liability
(including liability to any person by reason of
negligence or negligent misstatement) for any
statements, opinions, information or matter
(expressed or implied) arising out of, contained in or
derived from or for any omissions from the
information in this document, except in so far as
liability under any statute cannot be excluded.

2006 ElectraNet Pty Limited trading as ElectraNet. No part of this document may be reproduced
or copied in any form or by any means (graphic, electronic, mechanical, including photocopying,
recording, taping or information retrieval systems) without the prior written permission of ElectraNet.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
CONTACT ............................................................................................................................................................1
14.1

SCOPE ....................................................................................................................................................3

14.2

TESTING OF POLE STRUCTURES OR ELEMENTS ....................................................................3

14.2.1
14.2.2
14.2.3
14.2.4
14.2.5
14.3

GENERAL ...........................................................................................................................................3
STOBIE POLES ....................................................................................................................................4
STEEL TUBULAR POLES .....................................................................................................................4
CONCRETE POLES ..............................................................................................................................4
CROSSARMS .......................................................................................................................................4
STRUCTURE TESTING.......................................................................................................................4

14.3.1
14.3.2
14.3.3
14.3.4
14.3.5
3.5.1
3.5.2
3.5.3

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GENERAL REQUIREMENTS .................................................................................................................4


TEST STRUCTURE ...............................................................................................................................5
TESTING PROGRAMME AND TESTING PROCEDURE .............................................................................5
FAILURE OF TEST STRUCTURE ...........................................................................................................6
VARIATIONS TO TEST PROGRAMME AND DEFERMENT OF TESTS. ......................................................6
Stand Down Charges.........................................................................................................................6
Supply of Reinforced Steel.................................................................................................................6
Additional Labour .............................................................................................................................6

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14.1 SCOPE
This section relates to testing of transmission pole structures.
Transmission pole structures may be single pole structures or portal frame arrangements comprising
poles, phase conductor crossarm and earthwire crossarm structural elements.
Pole types shall comprise any of the following forms:

Stobie pole;
Steel tubular pole;
Concrete pole.

14.2 TESTING OF POLE STRUCTURES OR ELEMENTS


14.2.1

General

Structure elements including poles, crossarms or other structural elements not complying with
AS4100 or AS4065 and Stobie poles that exceed geometric limits given in clause 14.3.2 below shall
be tested in accordance with requirements specified herein.
Structure strength & serviceability criteria shall be confirmed by development of theoretical model(s)
& type-tests. Type-tests comprise either: A single test of each structure or element type together with advanced analysis using
finite element computer modelling techniques to support theoretical model;

Single/multiple tests incorporating appropriate load factor given in AS4100 Table


17.5.2.
Minimum test loads shall not be less than the ultimate design operating load or combination of loads
applied to the structure element. In general, the distribution and duration of test loads shall be
representative of actual operating conditions. Equivalent pole-top test loads may be applied that
equate to the distribution of forces applied at conductor attachment points on a pole.

Test loads shall be applied in stages (rigging loads, 25%, 50%, 75%, 90%, 95%, 100%) and each
stage held for sufficient time to monitor behaviour two minutes is usually sufficient. For
serviceability tests of concrete poles, the long-term load shall be held for sufficient time to
demonstrate cracking behaviour. This may be up to 24 hours, and periodic checking of the test pole
shall be carried out at intervals not exceeding six hours.
Tests shall be continued until failure of the structure element is reached. Component material
strengths shall be checked after completion of pole testing. Where component strengths are
significantly higher than standard, a rational assessment of its impact on pole strength shall be made.
Test results may/shall be factored by the ratio of standard strength grade for the particular material
and the actual material strength obtained from material test certificates to determine a rated load
capacity for the structure element.
Test equipment shall be designed to achieve the failure test load within appropriate safe-load margins.
The layout of test equipment, barriers and test structure shall provide safe working conditions for staff
conducting the test. Loading and deflection measurement equipment shall be calibrated in accordance
with standard industry specifications.
Criteria for Acceptance:

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Strength: the structure, element or connection tested is deemed to comply if it is able


to sustain design test load for not less than 15 minutes;

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Serviceability: maximum deformation under serviceability loads are within limits
specified in ElectraNet work instruction LDM 231 Pole Structure Design.

Test reports shall provide:

Description of test objectives and criteria for acceptance;

Test conditions/procedures; detail of test equipment and calibration;

Method of loading & measurements;

Analysis of test results to demonstrate performance in relation to acceptance criteria;

Detail of test element including material test certificates.

14.2.2

Stobie Poles

Geometric arrangements of current Stobie pole designs comply with certain constraints based on
empirical working strength design models proven by a limited range of full-scale tests. These
constraints include:

Up to 24m overall length for strain/brace poles or 26m overall length for line poles;

Ratio of strength about the strong to weak axes < 4:1.


Pole-type load tests shall be conducted to confirm ultimate load capacity of Stobie poles, should
proposed designs exceed the geometric constraints listed above.
Load tests shall be conducted in accordance with AS4100.

14.2.3

Steel Tubular Poles

Testing of steel tubular poles shall be conducted in accordance with AS4100.

14.2.4

Concrete Poles

Concrete poles shall be type-tested in accordance with AS/NZS 4065.

14.2.5

Crossarms

If testing of crossarms & attachments are deemed necessary, load testing shall be conducted in
accordance with AS4100.

14.3 STRUCTURE TESTING


14.3.1

General Requirements

Structure designs of this Specification or as otherwise determined by the Superintendent may be


required to be tested at the Contractors testing station or such other testing station as may be
approved by the Superintendent.
If the Tenderer has the facilities to suitable test structures he will state the facilities for testing that he
proposes to use and shall include with his Tender a description of such facilities.
All materials, equipment and personnel necessary for the assembly, erection, test and disassembly of
the test structure shall be supplied by the Contractor.
When tests are carried out the Superintendent shall be entitled to witness the tests and the Contractor
shall give reasonable notice in order that the Superintendents representation may be arranged.
The test structures shall remain the property of the contractor and components may be used in general
production provided they are not deformed or damaged in any manner, the galvanising is intact, and

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bolt holes are not elongated. Bolts, nuts and washers may also be used in production towers provided
they are not deformed and the galvanising is intact. The use of these members, connections, and
fastenings shall be subject to inspection and approval by the Superintendent.
If the Superintendent decides to test the structures at other than the Contractors nominated test
station, the Principal will arrange for and meet the costs of such tests, and the Contractor shall supply
and deliver the structure components required to such testing station or other places as directed. An
amount shall be agreed upon for the delivery. The Superintendent will if possible, arrange that a duly
authorised representative of the Contractor shall be entitled to witness any such tests, and reasonable
notice given, in order that such representation may be arranged.

14.3.2

Test Structure

The height of each structure to be tested shall be the maximum design height unless otherwise
nominated, and shall include if possible, any special design features such as long slender leg
extensions and/or wide portal bays in the case of tower structures. All members and component parts
of the test structure shall be manufactured to the same tolerance and from the same material specified
for the structures to be supplied under this Contract. (Step bolts, working access and rest platforms
shall be provided on the test structure.) All steelwork comprising the test structure shall be
galvanised before tests commence.
The bolt used for the assembly of the test structure shall be identical with the bolts that will be
supplied for field erection. High tensile members of test towers shall be stamped with a
distinguishing mark.

14.3.3

Testing Programme and Testing Procedure

The Principal shall supply a schedule of loads for up to 6 test assumptions, for each structure type.
The Contractor shall supply to the Principal for approval one month prior to the testing of each
structure, a schedule of test loads for all nominated test assumptions and a test programme for each
test or sub-test that specifies the magnitude, point of application and direction or each force to be
applied for that test or sub-test. In addition, the order and incremental application of each set of
vertical, transverse and longitudinal forces up to the maximum required will be given together with
the minimum duration of time for which each load increment is to be held. The Superintendent may
direct the Contractor to vary the test programme before or during testing.
The test programme shall include a diagram of the structure to be tested, showing the arrangement of
ropes, sheaves, spreader bars and load dividing yoke plates, plus dimensional and/or other details
necessary to check the proposed rigging.
When the test station facilities are such that longitudinal and/or transverse forces cannot be applied to
the test structure horizontally, then the vertical and horizontal components of the force in any inclined
ropes will be taken as the actual force on the test structure and if such arrangement produces
unavoidable vertical overloads, then the degree of overload is to be clearly indicated in the test
programme.
The structures shall be erected on firm foundations, and loads shall be supplied in accordance with the
schedule of test loads, all to the satisfaction of the Superintendent.
Testing of structures shall not necessarily be to destruction, and the Contractor shall ensure that
limiting devices are installed such that the tower will be adequately supported should a member or
component fail.
The instrumentation incorporated in the test station shall be sufficiently sensitive to enable incipient
failure to be detected before a general collapse occurs.
Before the application of loads, all rigging shall be inspected and approved by the Superintendent.
Such approval, however, shall not absolve the Contractor from the responsibility of ensuring that no

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fouling of ropes, members or guys occurs, that applied loads are in accordance with the Specification,
and that satisfactory provision is made to prevent a general collapse of the tower.
The Contractor shall be required to satisfy the Superintendent that the instruments used for testing are
accurately calibrated. Standard loads shall be applied to the load cells for calibration, before and after
the tests.
Should the Contractor cause any undue delay, the Superintendent may require an additional pre test
calibration to be carried out at no cost to the Principal.
For steel pole structure tests allowance shall be made for fitting and monitoring of output from an
array of 40 strain gauge sets fitted to the outer or inner wall of the pole as directed by the
Superintendent. These gauges shall be fitted to varying zones of the pole and the Contractor shall
ensure that a competent operator is provided for automatic scanning and recording of strain gauge
readings.

14.3.4

Failure of Test Structure

Should the test structure not withstand the specified loads due to the Contractors design and
detailing, the Contractor shall modify the structure at his own cost and shall repeat the tests to the
satisfaction of the Superintendent. Additional testing and stand-down charges shall then be borne by
the Contractor. Should the test structure not withstand the specified loads due to design modifications
directed by the Principal outside the scope of the Contractors responsibility, the necessary
modifications shall be made, and the test repeated to the satisfaction of the Superintendent.
Additional testing, members and stand-down charges shall in this case by the responsibility of the
Principal.

14.3.5

Variations to Test Programme and Deferment of Tests.

Should the Superintendent decide to alter the testing programme then any additional work beyond the
scope of the original tender will be paid for at the scheduled rats for variations.
Payment in this event will be made on the following basis:

3.5.1 Stand Down Charges


These will apply on an hourly basis for items when testing operations are suspended at the direction
of the Superintendent or his representative and shall include all labour and plant normally engaged on
the test facilities. Once a test has commenced this rate will apply to alterations to the test structure as
a result of failures determined as the responsibility of the Principal and include removal and
replacement of damaged components, removal and replacement where necessary or rigging

3.5.2 Supply of Reinforced Steel


Payment will be made at the scheduled rate for all replacement steel where this work is the Principals
responsibility.

3.5.3 Additional Labour


Should it be determined that additional labour is required to carry out the test, payment will be made
at the scheduled rate where this work is at he Principals responsibility.

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