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aspires to Tanyas hand, accuses him of witchcraft.

Everyone except Tanya recoils from Ivan, and Fyodor challenges him to a duel. At this point magical
forces come into play, and the snow maidens return and dance around. The
leader of the snow maidens announces to Fyodor that his nal hour has come,
and then the maidens submerge him in snowdrifts. A love duet and an ensemble
conclude the opera.
Rubinstein informed his mother that the performance of the opera had been
so successful that Dingelstedt had asked him for another which could be performed during the spring. He was already thinking about the Caucasian opera
Vengeance, but, before this, he had a second trip to Leipzig ahead of him and
the Gewandhaus premiere of his Ocean Symphony. As on his earlier trip, the
welcome he received was rather cool, and he expressed his unhappiness at the
paralysis of social life in a letter to Fredro. If he had not previously steeled himself against such setbacks, he told Fredro, there would have been no alternative but to return to accompanying nightingales and delight in the society of
nymphsan allusion to his musical duties as musician to Yelena Pavlovna. But
instead he concludes, be patient and the cossack will become an ataman.

The Ocean Symphony at the Leipzig Gewandhaus


Julius Rietz, during his term as director, had attempted to turn the
Gewandhaus into a bulwark against tastelessness,40 a position that was keenly
perpetuated by his successor, Carl Reinecke. Yet, despite the extreme conservatism of Leipzig audiences during the 1850s, the Gewandhaus had maintained
a tradition of special concerts in which contemporary composers were allowed to appear with their own compositions. It was under the banner of this
tradition that the long-awaited performance of the Ocean Symphony took place
on 16 November 1854. On the very same day Rubinstein wrote to Liszt:
I have just returned from the Gewandhaus where my symphony was performed. I
suggested that Rietz, who has become very friendly toward me of late, conduct it.
He and David are the principal artists of the orchestra, and even certain local composers who were at the rehearsals predicted a great success for me. This evening,
before the concert, the greater part of these gentlemen congratulated me beforehand, and said that I would be called out to take a bow. I replied to everything
with the kind of smile that is distinctive of any composer when the performance
of one of his works is about to take place. This smile says: do you want to make
fun of me? Or must I make fun of you? At last they startthe rst movement is
played well and people applaud; the second movement is played superbly and the
applause is louder; the third movement is a miracle of execution and the applause
is much less; the last movementthe orchestra is delirious [bat la campagne] and
there is no applause at all. So, I do not know whether this is a failure, or whether
the Leipzig audience is doing me the honor of failing to understand meit is all
the same. I am just curious about one thing: before the concert Gurkhaus met me
in the concert hall and said that he would come to see me tomorrow on business; if
he does not come the rst of my suppositions about the symphony is correct, if he
does come then it is the second. I hope that this will not stand in the way of my

56 Anton Rubinstein