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Sistem visi sintetis (SVS) adalah sistem komputer-dimediasi kenyataan untuk kendar

aanudara, yang menggunakan 3D memberikan pilot dengan cara yang jelas dan intu
itifmemahami lingkungannya terbang.
Visi sintetis ini dikembangkan oleh NASA dan Angkatan Udara Amerika
Serikat di1970-an dan 1980-an untuk
mendukung penelitian lanjutan kokpit, dan pada 1990-ansebagai bagian dari Progra
m keselamatan penerbangan. Pengembangan transportasikecepatan tinggi (HST) ber
bahan bakar NASA penelitian di 1980-an dan 1990an. Padaawal 1980an, USAF mengakui adanya kebutuhan untuk meningkatkan kesad
aransituasi kokpit untuk mendukung mengemudikan pesawat yang semakin komplek
s, danmengejar SVS (kadang-kadang disebut avionik bergambar format) sebagai tek
nologiyang mengintegrasikan untuk kedua berawak dan jarak
jauh dipiloti sistem. NASAmemprakarsai keterlibatan industri pada awal tahun
2000 dengan produsen utamaavionik. Peneliti seperti E. Theunissen di Delft Universit
y of Technology di Belandamemberikan
kontribusi besar terhadap perkembangan teknologi SVS.
Visi sintetis menyediakan kesadaran situasional ke operator dengan menggunakanM
edan, hambatan, database geo-politik, hidrologis dan lainnya. Penerapan SVS khasm
enggunakan database yang disimpan di pesawat, gambar generator komputer danla
yar. Solusi navigasi yang diperoleh melalui
penggunaan GPS dan referensi intertialsystems.
Highway di The Sky (HITS), atau Path-In-The-langit, sering digunakan untukmenggam
barkan jalan yang diproyeksikan pesawat dalam perspektif pandangan. Pilotmemper
oleh pemahaman yang seketika saat ini serta keadaan masa
depan pesawatsehubungan dengan Medan, menara, bangunan dan fiturfitur lingkungan lainnya.

Sebuah sistem visi sintetis yang diuji oleh NASA pada jet bisnis Gulfstream GV padat
ahun 2004.
NASA juga digunakan sintetis visi untuk jarak
jauh dipiloti kendaraan (RPVs), sepertitinggi Maneuvability udara Testbed atau HiMAT
(Lihat Sarrafian, 1984). Menurutlaporan oleh NASA, pesawat diterbangkan oleh pilot
di kokpit terpencil, dan kontrolsinyal up-yang terhubung dari kontrol penerbangan da
lam kokpit terpencil di tanahpesawat, dan pesawat telemetri downlinked untuk mena
mpilkan terpencil kokpit (Lihatfoto). Kokpit remote dapat dikonfigurasi dengan hidun
g baik kamera video ataudengan tampilan 3D visi sintetis. SV juga digunakan untuk s
imulasi HiMAT. Sarrafianmelaporkan bahwa tes pilot menemukan tampilan visual aka
n sebanding denganoutput dari kamera di RPV.
Penelitian serupa dilanjutkan dalam Layanan militer AS, dan di Universitas di seluruh
dunia. Pada 1995-1996, North Carolina State University terbang skala 17,5% F-18 RP
Vmenggunakan Microsoft Flight Simulator untuk menciptakan lingkungan tiga

dimensiproyeksi Medan. Namun, penggunaan rekreasi sintetis visi untuk RPVs didah
ului inisecara substansial. Sebagai contoh, pada tahun
1980 Flight Simulator diperkenalkanoleh Bruce Artwick. Tetapi paling langsung, simul
asi RC Aerochopper RPV digunakansintetis visi untuk membantu calon RC helicopter
pilot belajar terbang.
Menurut "RC Aerochopper pemilik Manual" diterbitkan pada tahun
1986 olehAmbrosia Microcomputer Products, Inc, sistem termasuk joystick kontrol pe
nerbanganyang akan terhubung ke Amiga komputer dan menampilkan. Perangkat
lunak initermasuk database Medan tiga
dimensi untuk tanah serta beberapa objek buatan
manusia. Database ini adalah dasar, mewakili daerah dengan relatif kecil jumlah poli
gonmenurut standar sekarang. Program simulasi posisi tiga
dimensi yang dinamis dansikap pesawat menggunakan database Medan untuk mem
buat layar proyeksiperspektif 3D. Realisme layar ini pelatihan pilot RPV ditingkatkan
denganmemungkinkan pengguna untuk menyesuaikan simulasi kontrol sistem penun
daandan parameter lainnya.
Setelah bertahun-tahun penelitian, pada tahun
2005 NASA "Berubah gol ke realitas"program, sistem visi sintetis yang dipasang pad
a sebuah pesawat uji Gulfstream Vsebagai bagian dari proyek GVSITE. Banyak yang
berpengalaman didapat selamaprogram tersebut secara
langsung menyebabkan pengenalan SVS bersertifikat padapesawat masa depan.
FAA pertama bersertifikat penerapan sistem visi sintetis (2009) yang tersedia sebaga
ibagian dari dek penerbangan Gulfstream PlaneView dalam bentuk visi sintetis tampilan penerbangan utama (SV-PFD) yang menggantikan tradisional biru-overcoklat buatan cakrawala dengan medan yang dihasilkan
komputer dilapisi normal PFDsimbologi. Sejak itu, banyak kaca kokpit sistem baru se
perti Garmin G1000 danRockwell Collins Pro Line Fusion menawarkan sintetis Medan.
Sejumlah sistem avionikrendah
biaya "eksperimental" kelas juga menawarkan sistem visi sintetis. Sejumlahpengemb
ang app - seperti ForeFlight, Garmin dan Hilton Software - telahmengembangkan sist
em visi sintetis untuk iPad dan Android Tablet.

Enhanced vision is a related technology which incorporates information from aircraft based
sensors (e.g., near-infrared cameras, millimeter wave radar) to provide vision in limited visibility
environments.
Night vision systems have been available to pilots of military aircraft for many years. More
recently business jets have added similar capabilities to aircraft to enhance pilot situational
awareness in poor visibility due to weather or haze, and at night. The first civil certification of an
enhanced vision system on an aircraft was pioneered by Gulfstream Aerospace using a Kollsman
IR camera. Originally offered as an option on the Gulfstream V aircraft, it was made standard

equipment in 2003 when the Gulfstream G550 was introduced and followed on the Gulfstream
G450 and Gulfstream G650. As of 2009, Gulfstream has delivered over 500 aircraft with a
certified EVS installed. Other aircraft OEMs followed, with EVS now available on some
Bombardier and Dassault business jet products. Boeing has begun offering EVS on its line of
Boeing business jets and is likely to include it as an option on the B787 and B737 MAX.
The Gulfstream EVS and later EVS II systems use an IR camera mounted in the aircraft's nose
to project a raster image on the head-up display (HUD). The IR image on the HUD is conformal
to the outside scene, meaning that objects detected by the IR camera are the same size and
aligned with objects outside the aircraft. Thus in poor visibility the pilot is able to view the IR
camera image and is able to seamlessly and easily transition to the outside world as the aircraft
gets closer.
The advantage of EVS is that safety in nearly all phases of flight are enhanced, especially during
approach and landing in limited visibility. A pilot on a stabilized approach is able to recognize the
runway environment (lights, runway markings, etc.) earlier in preparation for touchdown.
Obstacles such as terrain, structures, and vehicles or other aircraft on the runway that might not
otherwise be seen are clearly visible on the IR image.
The FAA grants some additional operating minimums to aircraft equipped with certified enhanced
vision systems allowing Category I approaches to Category II minimums. Typically an operator is
permitted to descend to lower altitudes closer to the runway surface (typically as low as 100 ft) in
poor visibility in order to improve the chances of spotting the runway environment prior to
landing. Aircraft not equipped with such systems would not be allowed to descend as low and
often would be required to execute a missed approach and fly to a suitable alternate airport.
Other sensor types have been flown for research purposes, including active and passive
millimeter wave radar. In 2009, DARPA provided funding to develop "Sandblaster", a millimeter
wave radar based enhanced vision system installed on helicopters which enables the pilot to see
and avoid obstacles in the landing area that may be obscured by smoke, sand, or dust.
The combination of dissimilar sensor types such as long wave IR, short wave IR, and millimeter
wave radar can help ensure that real time video imagery of the outside scene can be provided to
the pilot in all types of visibility conditions. For example, long wave IR sensor performance can
be degraded in some types of large water droplet precipitation where millimeter wave radar
would be less affected.
Enhanced vision is a related technology which incorporates information from aircraft based
sensors (e.g., near-infrared cameras, millimeter wave radar) to provide vision in limited visibility
environments.
Night vision systems have been available to pilots of military aircraft for many years. More
recently business jets have added similar capabilities to aircraft to enhance pilot situational

awareness in poor visibility due to weather or haze, and at night. The first civil certification of an
enhanced vision system on an aircraft was pioneered by Gulfstream Aerospace using a Kollsman
IR camera. Originally offered as an option on the Gulfstream V aircraft, it was made standard
equipment in 2003 when the Gulfstream G550 was introduced and followed on the Gulfstream
G450 and Gulfstream G650. As of 2009, Gulfstream has delivered over 500 aircraft with a
certified EVS installed. Other aircraft OEMs followed, with EVS now available on some
Bombardier and Dassault business jet products. Boeing has begun offering EVS on its line of
Boeing business jets and is likely to include it as an option on the B787 and B737 MAX.
The Gulfstream EVS and later EVS II systems use an IR camera mounted in the aircraft's nose
to project a raster image on the head-up display (HUD). The IR image on the HUD is conformal
to the outside scene, meaning that objects detected by the IR camera are the same size and
aligned with objects outside the aircraft. Thus in poor visibility the pilot is able to view the IR
camera image and is able to seamlessly and easily transition to the outside world as the aircraft
gets closer.
The advantage of EVS is that safety in nearly all phases of flight are enhanced, especially during
approach and landing in limited visibility. A pilot on a stabilized approach is able to recognize the
runway environment (lights, runway markings, etc.) earlier in preparation for touchdown.
Obstacles such as terrain, structures, and vehicles or other aircraft on the runway that might not
otherwise be seen are clearly visible on the IR image.
The FAA grants some additional operating minimums to aircraft equipped with certified enhanced
vision systems allowing Category I approaches to Category II minimums. Typically an operator is
permitted to descend to lower altitudes closer to the runway surface (typically as low as 100 ft) in
poor visibility in order to improve the chances of spotting the runway environment prior to
landing. Aircraft not equipped with such systems would not be allowed to descend as low and
often would be required to execute a missed approach and fly to a suitable alternate airport.
Other sensor types have been flown for research purposes, including active and passive
millimeter wave radar. In 2009, DARPA provided funding to develop "Sandblaster", a millimeter
wave radar based enhanced vision system installed on helicopters which enables the pilot to see
and avoid obstacles in the landing area that may be obscured by smoke, sand, or dust.
The combination of dissimilar sensor types such as long wave IR, short wave IR, and millimeter
wave radar can help ensure that real time video imagery of the outside scene can be provided to
the pilot in all types of visibility conditions. For example, long wave IR sensor performance can
be degraded in some types of large water droplet precipitation where millimeter wave radar
would be less affected.