hujan yg turun

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43 tayangan

hujan yg turun

© All Rights Reserved

- Blue Book Cross Sections
- test sok
- Lab 2 Updated1
- Skirt Design
- Bamboo as a Permanent Structural Component
- horizontal_tank.pdf
- Bending of Curved Beams
- Mechanics of Solids November Am Rr211402
- U 6 X 3 X 3.00
- End disc and shell thickness.docx
- Structral Deisgn Computer
- Padeye Design
- Torque & Drag
- Pipe Stress Analsis
- is.816.1969
- 89-92
- Pier P2 Fix Wo Scr Sangam Final
- Plastic Design of Laterally Patch Loaded Plates for Ships
- Design Analiysis - Stress Review (1)_2
- Strength of Materials

Anda di halaman 1dari 30

1.0 Introduction..........................................................................................................................2

1.1 Problem Statement............................................................................................................3

1.2 Design Objective..............................................................................................................4

2.0 Methodology........................................................................................................................5

2.1 Mathematical Equation.....................................................................................................5

2.2 Steps In Hyperwork..........................................................................................................6

2.2.1 Creating Analysis Model...........................................................................................6

2.2.1.1Deciding Which Element to Use..........................................................................6

2.2.1.2Creating Materials and Load Collectors..............................................................8

2.2.1.3 Removing Unnessesary Details of Model...........................................................9

2.2.1.4 Creating Tetramesh...........................................................................................13

2.2.1.5 Creating Concentrated Mass.............................................................................14

2.2.1.6 Creating Constrain, Load, Control Card and Load Step...................................15

2.2.1.7 Running Analysis using Optistruct....................................................................17

2.2.2 Creating Optimisation Model..................................................................................18

3.0 Result..................................................................................................................................23

4.0 Discussion..........................................................................................................................26

5.0 Conclusion..........................................................................................................................27

6.0 References..........................................................................................................................28

1.0 Introduction

The Finite Element Analysis (FEA) is a numerical method for solving problems of

engineering and mathematical physics. FEA is useful for problem with complicated

geometries, loadings, and material properties where analyical solutions can not be obtained.

While FEA systems usually offer many analysis areas, the most relevant to this course

(and the most commonly used in engineering generally) are linear static structural, linear

steady-state thermal, linear dynamic and, to a lesser degree, non-linear static structural. As

has been mentioned, quite often, areas of analysis are coupled. For example, a common form

of coupled analysis is thermal stress analysis, where the results of a thermal load case are

transferred to a stress analysis. Perhaps a loaded component is subject to heat and prevented

from expanding because of its physical restraints, which results in a thermally induced strain

and consequent stresses within the component.

The number and type of elements chosen must be such that the variable distribution

through the whole body is adequately approximated by the combined elemental

representations. After model discretisation, i.e. subdividing the model domain into discrete

elements (the mesh), the governing equations for each element are calculated and then

assembled to give system equations. Once the general format of the equations of an element

type (e.g. a linear distribution element) is derived, the calculation of the equations for each

occurrence of that element in the body is straightforward. Nodal coordinates, material

properties and loading conditions of the element are simply substituted into the general

format. The individual element equations are assembled into the system equations, which

describe the behaviour of the body as a whole. For a static analysis, these generally take the

form

stiffness matrix,

is the vector of unknown nodal displacements (or temperatures in

analysis). The equation

is directly comparable to the equilibrium or load

a force F produces or results from a deflection u in a spring of stiffness k. To find the

displacement caused by a given force, the relationship is inverted, i.e. u = k1f.

A military tank carries projectiles in tubes. To protect the projectiles, a flap closes the exit of

the tube. When ready to fire the flap opens, leaving the exit clear for the projectile. Each flap

is controlled by an actuator, which is an electromechanical device consisting of a motor, a

cam, a gear train, and a few other components. All components are mounted inside a housing,

which is then sealed. The housing itself is bolted to the tank body. In the current design the

housing is machined from an Aluminum casting. The housing-manufacturer has been

informed that the units have developed cracks near the mounts. No data on conditions

causing the failure, pattern of failure, etc are available. No changes can be made to the

mounting points on the tank. The internal components (i.e. the actuator) also cannot be

modified or relocated. The design problem is: How would you redesign the housing? The

supplier wants to change the housing material from Aluminum to Steel. One option is to

maintain the same dimensions and switch the material to Steel. The student should be asked

to consider that since the forces that cause stresses are due to the deadweight, increasing the

stiffness will not help if the mass also increases. Steel is stiffer than Aluminum, but is also

heavier.

Since we have no information on the variation of the actual loads with time, we will use an

equivalent static analysis. In this approach, we use a factor of safety to allow the static design

to mimic the dynamic conditions. Interested students can look up the MIL-Standard for shock

loads to be rigorous. Since the unit has worked for a substantial amount of time before

failing, failure is likely to be either because of a special-case overload, or due to fatigue. The

latter is probable, since Aluminum does not have an infinite fatigue life. Steel is a better

choice from this point of view. Our approach, for optimization, will be to reduce the stresses,

regardless of the permissible stress. This is a fair approach to take since we do not know the

original factors of safety. To achieve this, we first perform a baseline analysis - an FEA of the

initial design to establish stresses for the given load. Since we are performing linear analysis,

the actual value of the load does not matter. We then run the optimization with the goal of

reducing the stress to less than that in the baseline analysis, under the same loads, using steel.

To sum up, build an Analysis Model, calculate the stress in the component, and build an

Optimization Model using the existing design as the design space. We constrain the stress to

be 0.75*baseline stress, and our objective is to minimize the mass.

2.0 Methodology

2.1 Mathematical Equation

1. To determine whether the model is shear dominates or bending dominates.

L/T ratio (Length/Thickness ratio)>1, bending dominate-PSHELL property

should be used.

should be used.

Assumption:

Thus, beams deflection and maximum stress can be determined using Element

Stiffness Matrix method for beam. The formula is as below.

1.

2.

Deflection

determination

2.2.1 Creating Analysis Model

2.2.1.1Deciding Which Element to Use.

2. Then, measure the height. This is crucial because the ratio of thickness and height can

be used to determine whether the model is shear dominant or bending dominant.

2.2.1.2Creating

Materials and Load

Collectors

3. Then, create two different materials which are aluminum and steel.

The specification are as below;

4. Next,create two load collecters which are gravity force and SPC. The detail for

gravity force load collector is as below.

7.

9. Then, perform the tetramesh on the model. For this 1st time, use element size of 2 while

for the 2nd time, use element size of 4. This is for the purpose to study how thesize of

elements would affect the result of optimisation.

10. Create a new property with a name of concentrated load as would be assigned with

concentrated mass.

11. After that, create concentrated mass on each holes inside the model.

12. Make sure the tetra property is assigned with PSOLID propeety and any two materials,

aluminium or steel.

14. After that, create the loadstep that combining both the SPC and gravity force load

collectors.

15. Then, create a control card for SPCF which stands for single point constrain force.

16. After that, run the optistruct to analyse the stress and deflection of the model. Repeat the

analysis to the model of steel material.

1. Firstly, in order to minimise the stress on steel housing, reducing the volume of the

housing is one of the method. Therefore, it is important to do the optimisation so the part

of housing that is removable can be identified.

2. Thus, create a new property with a name of Non-Design as below.

3. The important parts of the housing should be identified first and then move it into the

Non-Design so these parts would be changed its material or density.

5. Through this topology analysis, the design variable or design space would be created.

6. Next, create the two optimisation response for mass and deflection as below.

3.0 Result

Analysis Model Result

1. Result of aluminium analysis is as below.

4. In order to analysis where highest stress and displacement on the model, use Deform

command in hyperview.

1. Below the result shows that where the parts of housing which is removable.

2. The result of maximum stress and deflection for this steel housing is as below.

The outer edge of surface are turned into fillet to reduced the material.

The inner edge of surface that with fillet are deleted so the material can be

reduced.

4.0 Discussion

Based on baseline analysis done on both aluminum and steel, it can be seen that the

maximum displacement and maximum stress of aluminum housing are lower compared to steel

housing. This is because the steels property of stiffer and denser compared to aluminum. Thus,

this creates problem as higher mass provides higher stress on the housing.

Therefore, optimisation using hypermesh is important in order to reduce the mass while

using the steel material for the housing. The main requirements in optimisation includes

determining the crucial parts of housing that should not be removed such as the flap and all the

holes. Through the result of topology optimisation, It can be determined which parts of housing

that needs no material and which needs material. This can recognized because the result would

shows values that vary between 1 and 0 for the elements of housing. The value of density 1

means that the element should be filled with material and its the opposite for value of density, 0.

Knowing this information, then housing design can be trimmed or changed on the particular

elements such as its fillets and surfaces.

Thus, after changing the design of housing, it can be seen that the maximum stress by

steel housing can be changed to 0.75*baseline value.

5.0 Conclusion

Based on the mini project given, we know that OptiStruct uses an Optimization Model,

the Analysis Model just can be adequate. In this mini project, we need to perform the baseline

analyses with at least two different element-sizes to confirm that the solution is fineenough. The

housing poses a couple of challenges from the point of view of meshing. The first, of course, is

which elements to use. The second is in the details to keep.We deciding to use solid elements

since we believe shear dominates (the walls are thin, but thelength: thickness ratio is fairly

small). We was neglected the lip that's grooved into the top face. We also omit the fastening

holes. Hex elements are better than tetrahedral elements but are harder to create. It's a trade-off

between spending more time meshing and more time solving. On optimization, tetrahedra are

adequate, it has verified that the results are adequately captured. Solid elements have only 3

degrees-of-freedom pernode (the x, y and z components of deformation). Since we were define

the density of the material, the FE solver was calculated the mass of each element. We also

define special elements called masselements to represent the masses of the internal components since they are not being designed, we will not model the components themselves.

Once these properties are assigned, we define the acceleration due to gravity (direction

and magnitude) so that the inertial forces can be calculated. After the analysis, we review the von

Misesstress and record this for use as the design constraint for the optimization model. In the

Optimization Model, stress as a response requires special attention. Since sharp corners can

cause stress to be singular, OptiStruct uses an average measure of the stress. This is why stress as

a constraint, unlike displacement, is specified for the complete modelrather than at specific

points.

Topology optimization decides an equivalent elementdensity for each element in the

design space. A density of 1 means material must fill the element, while a density of 0 means

the element needs no material. For most elements, this value will vary between 1 and 0.

6.0 References

- Blue Book Cross SectionsDiunggah olehstavros_sterg
- test sokDiunggah olehFirzan
- Lab 2 Updated1Diunggah olehFeezah Hanimoon
- Skirt DesignDiunggah olehJeebee Logroño Alo
- Bamboo as a Permanent Structural ComponentDiunggah olehEngineers Without Borders UK
- horizontal_tank.pdfDiunggah olehhamadani
- Bending of Curved BeamsDiunggah oleh007kruno
- Mechanics of Solids November Am Rr211402Diunggah olehNizam Institute of Engineering and Technology Library
- U 6 X 3 X 3.00Diunggah olehWalter David Marcos Chipana
- End disc and shell thickness.docxDiunggah olehsigit
- Structral Deisgn ComputerDiunggah olehPaul Chacko
- Padeye DesignDiunggah olehFabio Okamoto
- Torque & DragDiunggah olehAman Ullah Khan
- Pipe Stress AnalsisDiunggah olehVivekanandan Mahendran
- is.816.1969Diunggah olehksshashidhar
- 89-92Diunggah olehOliver
- Pier P2 Fix Wo Scr Sangam FinalDiunggah olehJakir Hussain Syed
- Plastic Design of Laterally Patch Loaded Plates for ShipsDiunggah olehKurt Zarwell
- Design Analiysis - Stress Review (1)_2Diunggah olehmarchelmaradona
- Strength of MaterialsDiunggah olehGracielle Nebres
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- PVP2012-78161-0Diunggah olehMilton Dong
- NAGGAR, H. E.; HINCHBERGER, S. D. - An Analytical Solution for Jointed Tunnel Linings in Elastic Soil or RockDiunggah olehRicardo10985
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- Chapter 3 - Material Property Characterization of Ultra-High Performance Concrete, August 2006 - FHWA-HRT-06-103Diunggah olehlivia_lim_2

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- MC113 API FFS Dave ThorntonDiunggah olehMiguel Serrano
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