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Table of Contents

1.0 Introduction..........................................................................................................................2
1.1 Problem Statement............................................................................................................3
1.2 Design Objective..............................................................................................................4
2.0 Methodology........................................................................................................................5
2.1 Mathematical Equation.....................................................................................................5
2.2 Steps In Hyperwork..........................................................................................................6
2.2.1 Creating Analysis Model...........................................................................................6
2.2.1.1Deciding Which Element to Use..........................................................................6
2.2.1.2Creating Materials and Load Collectors..............................................................8
2.2.1.3 Removing Unnessesary Details of Model...........................................................9
2.2.1.4 Creating Tetramesh...........................................................................................13
2.2.1.5 Creating Concentrated Mass.............................................................................14
2.2.1.6 Creating Constrain, Load, Control Card and Load Step...................................15
2.2.1.7 Running Analysis using Optistruct....................................................................17
2.2.2 Creating Optimisation Model..................................................................................18
3.0 Result..................................................................................................................................23
4.0 Discussion..........................................................................................................................26
5.0 Conclusion..........................................................................................................................27
6.0 References..........................................................................................................................28

1.0 Introduction
The Finite Element Analysis (FEA) is a numerical method for solving problems of
engineering and mathematical physics. FEA is useful for problem with complicated
geometries, loadings, and material properties where analyical solutions can not be obtained.
While FEA systems usually offer many analysis areas, the most relevant to this course
(and the most commonly used in engineering generally) are linear static structural, linear
steady-state thermal, linear dynamic and, to a lesser degree, non-linear static structural. As
has been mentioned, quite often, areas of analysis are coupled. For example, a common form
of coupled analysis is thermal stress analysis, where the results of a thermal load case are
transferred to a stress analysis. Perhaps a loaded component is subject to heat and prevented
from expanding because of its physical restraints, which results in a thermally induced strain
and consequent stresses within the component.
The number and type of elements chosen must be such that the variable distribution
through the whole body is adequately approximated by the combined elemental
representations. After model discretisation, i.e. subdividing the model domain into discrete
elements (the mesh), the governing equations for each element are calculated and then
assembled to give system equations. Once the general format of the equations of an element
type (e.g. a linear distribution element) is derived, the calculation of the equations for each
occurrence of that element in the body is straightforward. Nodal coordinates, material
properties and loading conditions of the element are simply substituted into the general
format. The individual element equations are assembled into the system equations, which
describe the behaviour of the body as a whole. For a static analysis, these generally take the
form
stiffness matrix,

, where, in structural problems, [k] is a square matrix, known as the global


is the vector of unknown nodal displacements (or temperatures in

thermal analysis) and


analysis). The equation

is the vector of applied nodal forces (or heat flux in thermal


is directly comparable to the equilibrium or load

displacement relationship for a simple one-dimensional spring we invoked previously, where


a force F produces or results from a deflection u in a spring of stiffness k. To find the
displacement caused by a given force, the relationship is inverted, i.e. u = k1f.

1.1 Problem Statement


A military tank carries projectiles in tubes. To protect the projectiles, a flap closes the exit of
the tube. When ready to fire the flap opens, leaving the exit clear for the projectile. Each flap
is controlled by an actuator, which is an electromechanical device consisting of a motor, a
cam, a gear train, and a few other components. All components are mounted inside a housing,
which is then sealed. The housing itself is bolted to the tank body. In the current design the
housing is machined from an Aluminum casting. The housing-manufacturer has been
informed that the units have developed cracks near the mounts. No data on conditions
causing the failure, pattern of failure, etc are available. No changes can be made to the
mounting points on the tank. The internal components (i.e. the actuator) also cannot be
modified or relocated. The design problem is: How would you redesign the housing? The
supplier wants to change the housing material from Aluminum to Steel. One option is to
maintain the same dimensions and switch the material to Steel. The student should be asked
to consider that since the forces that cause stresses are due to the deadweight, increasing the
stiffness will not help if the mass also increases. Steel is stiffer than Aluminum, but is also
heavier.

1.2 Design Objective


Since we have no information on the variation of the actual loads with time, we will use an
equivalent static analysis. In this approach, we use a factor of safety to allow the static design
to mimic the dynamic conditions. Interested students can look up the MIL-Standard for shock
loads to be rigorous. Since the unit has worked for a substantial amount of time before
failing, failure is likely to be either because of a special-case overload, or due to fatigue. The

latter is probable, since Aluminum does not have an infinite fatigue life. Steel is a better
choice from this point of view. Our approach, for optimization, will be to reduce the stresses,
regardless of the permissible stress. This is a fair approach to take since we do not know the
original factors of safety. To achieve this, we first perform a baseline analysis - an FEA of the
initial design to establish stresses for the given load. Since we are performing linear analysis,
the actual value of the load does not matter. We then run the optimization with the goal of
reducing the stress to less than that in the baseline analysis, under the same loads, using steel.
To sum up, build an Analysis Model, calculate the stress in the component, and build an
Optimization Model using the existing design as the design space. We constrain the stress to
be 0.75*baseline stress, and our objective is to minimize the mass.

2.0 Methodology
2.1 Mathematical Equation
1. To determine whether the model is shear dominates or bending dominates.
L/T ratio (Length/Thickness ratio)>1, bending dominate-PSHELL property
should be used.

L/T ratio (Length/Thickness ratio)<1, shear dominate-PSOLID property


should be used.

2. To determine the maximum deflection and stress.


Assumption:

Load of 100g on each seven boltsholes. The total is 700g.

Each of the housings bracket are fixed supports

Thus, beams deflection and maximum stress can be determined using Element
Stiffness Matrix method for beam. The formula is as below.
1.

2.

Deflection
determination

2.2 Steps In Hyperwork


2.2.1 Creating Analysis Model
2.2.1.1Deciding Which Element to Use.

1. First, measure the thickness for model.

2. Then, measure the height. This is crucial because the ratio of thickness and height can
be used to determine whether the model is shear dominant or bending dominant.

2.2.1.2Creating
Materials and Load
Collectors

3. Then, create two different materials which are aluminum and steel.
The specification are as below;

Above is the steel material properties.

Above is the aluminum material properties.

4. Next,create two load collecters which are gravity force and SPC. The detail for
gravity force load collector is as below.

2.2.1.3 Removing Unnessesary Details of Model

5. Then, delete the holes of bolts on model by using delete surface.

6. Next, refill the hole by using surface filler.

7.

Then, suppress the lines existed after surface refill.

8. Repeat, the process to middle hole and upper grooves as below.

2.2.1.4 Creating Tetramesh


9. Then, perform the tetramesh on the model. For this 1st time, use element size of 2 while
for the 2nd time, use element size of 4. This is for the purpose to study how thesize of
elements would affect the result of optimisation.

10. Create a new property with a name of concentrated load as would be assigned with
concentrated mass.

2.2.1.5 Creating Concentrated Mass

11. After that, create concentrated mass on each holes inside the model.

2.2.1.6 Creating Constrain, Load, Control Card and Load Step


12. Make sure the tetra property is assigned with PSOLID propeety and any two materials,
aluminium or steel.

13. Next, create constraint for the SPC load collector.

14. After that, create the loadstep that combining both the SPC and gravity force load
collectors.

15. Then, create a control card for SPCF which stands for single point constrain force.

2.2.1.7 Running Analysis using Optistruct


16. After that, run the optistruct to analyse the stress and deflection of the model. Repeat the
analysis to the model of steel material.

2.2.2 Creating Optimisation Model


1. Firstly, in order to minimise the stress on steel housing, reducing the volume of the
housing is one of the method. Therefore, it is important to do the optimisation so the part
of housing that is removable can be identified.
2. Thus, create a new property with a name of Non-Design as below.

3. The important parts of the housing should be identified first and then move it into the
Non-Design so these parts would be changed its material or density.

4. Next, do the topology optimisation on the model.

5. Through this topology analysis, the design variable or design space would be created.

6. Next, create the two optimisation response for mass and deflection as below.

7. After that, create the optimisation constraint

8. Then, create the objective for this model.

9. The setting of objective is as below.

10. Next, the run optistruct for analysis.

3.0 Result
Analysis Model Result
1. Result of aluminium analysis is as below.

2. Result of steel analysis

3. Von Mises Stress

4. In order to analysis where highest stress and displacement on the model, use Deform
command in hyperview.

Optimization Model Result


1. Below the result shows that where the parts of housing which is removable.

2. The result of maximum stress and deflection for this steel housing is as below.

3. Below is example of redesigning the steel housing.

The outer edge of surface are turned into fillet to reduced the material.

The inner edge of surface that with fillet are deleted so the material can be
reduced.

4. Result of Redesigning the Steel Housing

4.0 Discussion
Based on baseline analysis done on both aluminum and steel, it can be seen that the
maximum displacement and maximum stress of aluminum housing are lower compared to steel
housing. This is because the steels property of stiffer and denser compared to aluminum. Thus,
this creates problem as higher mass provides higher stress on the housing.
Therefore, optimisation using hypermesh is important in order to reduce the mass while
using the steel material for the housing. The main requirements in optimisation includes
determining the crucial parts of housing that should not be removed such as the flap and all the
holes. Through the result of topology optimisation, It can be determined which parts of housing
that needs no material and which needs material. This can recognized because the result would
shows values that vary between 1 and 0 for the elements of housing. The value of density 1
means that the element should be filled with material and its the opposite for value of density, 0.
Knowing this information, then housing design can be trimmed or changed on the particular
elements such as its fillets and surfaces.
Thus, after changing the design of housing, it can be seen that the maximum stress by
steel housing can be changed to 0.75*baseline value.

5.0 Conclusion
Based on the mini project given, we know that OptiStruct uses an Optimization Model,
the Analysis Model just can be adequate. In this mini project, we need to perform the baseline

analyses with at least two different element-sizes to confirm that the solution is fineenough. The
housing poses a couple of challenges from the point of view of meshing. The first, of course, is
which elements to use. The second is in the details to keep.We deciding to use solid elements
since we believe shear dominates (the walls are thin, but thelength: thickness ratio is fairly
small). We was neglected the lip that's grooved into the top face. We also omit the fastening
holes. Hex elements are better than tetrahedral elements but are harder to create. It's a trade-off
between spending more time meshing and more time solving. On optimization, tetrahedra are
adequate, it has verified that the results are adequately captured. Solid elements have only 3
degrees-of-freedom pernode (the x, y and z components of deformation). Since we were define
the density of the material, the FE solver was calculated the mass of each element. We also
define special elements called masselements to represent the masses of the internal components since they are not being designed, we will not model the components themselves.
Once these properties are assigned, we define the acceleration due to gravity (direction
and magnitude) so that the inertial forces can be calculated. After the analysis, we review the von
Misesstress and record this for use as the design constraint for the optimization model. In the
Optimization Model, stress as a response requires special attention. Since sharp corners can
cause stress to be singular, OptiStruct uses an average measure of the stress. This is why stress as
a constraint, unlike displacement, is specified for the complete modelrather than at specific
points.
Topology optimization decides an equivalent elementdensity for each element in the
design space. A density of 1 means material must fill the element, while a density of 0 means
the element needs no material. For most elements, this value will vary between 1 and 0.

6.0 References