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Review of Related Literature

Conceptual Literature
Compressive Stength
According to Standard Test Method for Compressive Strength of Cylindrical Concrete
Specimens1 (C 39/C 39M 013), this method must be used to determine the compressive
strength of cylindrical concrete specimens but is limited to concrete having unit weight larger
than 50 lb/ft 3 [800 kg/m3]. In summary of the method, it consists of applying a compressive
axial load to cylindrical concretes at the standard rate prescribed until failure occurs. Having
those datas, the compressive strength can be calculated by dividing the maximum load attained
during the test by the cross-sectional area of the cylinder.
Slump test method
According to the Standard Test Method for Slump of Hydraulic-Cement Concrete1 (C
143/C 143M 00) of the ASTM Methods, this covers the determination of slump of hydrauliccement concrete, both in the laboratory and in the eld. This method also was developed to
provide a technique to monitor the consistency of unhardened or freshly mixed concrete. This
method is applicable only to a plastic concrete having a coarse aggregate size of 1 in
(37.5mm), but if the aggregate increase in size, it must be reduce by using the 37.5mm size of
sieve. Summary of this method says that a freshly mixed concrete must be placed and compacted
by rodding in a mold shaped like the frustum of a cone. The must be raised and the concrete is
allowed to subside. The vertical distance between the original and displaced position of the
center of the top surface of the concrete is measured and reported as the slump of the concrete.
Setting time method
According to the Standard Test Method for Time of Setting of Concrete Mixtures by
Penetration Resistance1 (C 403/C 403M 99) of the ASTM Methods, this covers the
determination of the time of setting of concrete, with slump greater than zero, by means of
penetration resistance measurements on mortar sieved from the concrete mixture. This method is
applicable under laboratory and field conditions. For the summary of this method, a mortar
sample must be obtained by sieving a sample of fresh concrete. It must be placed in a container
and store at an ambient temperature as specified. The resistance of the mortar to penetration by
standard needles must be measured according to the given time intervals. From a plot of
penetration resistance versus elapsed time, the times of initial and nal setting are determined.
For the significance of this study, the time/s required for the mortar to reach the specified values
of resistance to penetrate are used to define the time/s of setting. This method can be used in the
determination of the effects of variables, such as water content; brand, type and amount of
cementitious material; or admixtures, upon the time of setting of concrete. Also, this can be used
to determine the required specified time-of-setting of concrete. However, when the setting time is

desired, test shall be performed on mortar sieved from the concrete mixture and not on a
prepared mortar intended to simulate the mortar fraction of the concrete. This is because it has
been shown that when using a prepared mortar, the initial and final setting may increase.
Saturated Density
According to Standard Test Method for Density, Relative Density (Specic Gravity), and
Absorption of Fine Aggregate1(C 128 01e1) of the ASTAM Methods, this method is used to
determine the average density of a quantity of ne aggregate particles (not including the volume
of voids between the particles), the relative density (specic gravity), and the absorption of the
ne aggregate. For the summary of the method, set of sample is immersed in water for 24 4 h
for filling the pores. After removing to the water, make it towel dried and then weigh.
Subsequently, the sample (or a portion of it) is placed in a graduated container and the volume of
the sample is determined. Take it to the oven to make all the pores dried and determine its mass.
After determining the masses, the density, relative density (specic gravity), and absorption can
be determined.