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PAPER-1

1.BLOOD

Erythrpoiesis
Describe clotting factor and Mechanism of blood clotting by extrinsic and intrinsic pathway
Blood group ABO and Rh and a note on cross matching
Anticoagulnants

Fibrinoyltic system
Triple response of lewis- it is a

Prothrombin time
cutaneous response that occur from
Rh incompatibility
firm stroking of the skin, which
IMMUNITY as whole question and comes in special heading produce an initial red line followed
o Humoral immunity
by a flare around that line and then
o Cellular immunity
finally a wheal. The triple response
o B lymphocyte
of lewis is due to release of
o T lymphocyte
histamine. Histamine elicits the
o Opsonisation and immunological memory
triple response consisting of .red
o Immunoglobin
spot-due to capillary dilation, flare
o Cell which express MHC-2
redness in the surrounding areadue
Blood coagulation and explain role of platelets in it
to arteriolar dilation mediated by
Haemophilla
axon reflex, wheal-due to exudation
Haemoglobin
of fluid from capillaries and venule
Importance of glycosylated haemoglobin
Difference between adult haemoglobin and foetal haemoglobin
Degradation of haemoglobin (jaundice) and define kernicterus
Anaemia and different type of investigation to confirm anaemia
Blood transfusion specially mismatch
o Reaction due to incompatible blood transfusion and what is autologous transfusion
Erythroblastosis foetalis
Leucocyte
Leukemia
Polycythemia and complication due to this condition
Haemostasis
Function of plasma protein
Morphology and function of blood platelets
Function of blood
Formation and circulation of lymph
Formation and function of immnoglobin
Short note on purpura ,plasma cell ,heparin, albumin globulin ratio , fibrinolysis ,
Landsteiners law , sickle cell anaemia, colloid oncotic pressure and its importance, function
of macrophage , red cell indices, E.S.R(erythrocyte sedimentation rate) and its clinical
significance

2. C.V.S

E.C.G
o Describe three bipolar limb node of E.C.G and describe significance of P-R interval,
o

QRScomplex and S-T segment of E.C.G


Myocardial infraction and state one change in E.C.G in this condition

Recording of E.C.G

Heart sound

Venous return
Total peripheral resistance in vascular system
Vasomotor centre ? what are input ,output and its function?
Angina pectoris

Cardic output
o

Factor affecting cardiac output and atleast one method of determination and what
is significance of ejection fraction in ventricular functioning
Regulation of cardic output specially heterometic regulation of cardic output and short term
regulation
Define B.P , give normal value and discuss various factor and give Baroreceptor mechanism
for regulation of B.P
ST Regulation of B.P
Regulation of B.P by kidney
Short term regulation of B.P

Cardiac cycle

P-V graph during cardiac cycle


Structure and function of the conducting system of the heart
Spread of cardiac impulse
Cardiac Pacemaker potential
Regulation of heart rate
Haemorrhage shock
Achalasia cardia
Coronary blood flow and its regulation
Describe typical local vascular bed (microcirculation)
Pulmonary circulation and its regulation
Foetal circulation
Splanchnic circulation
Short and long term regulation of arterial of blood pressure
SHOCK, hypovolemic shock
Short answer type-sino aortic mechanism, E.C.G in limb lead 2,Einothoven law, cerebral
circulation, cardiac index, ficks principle, Frank Starling law of heart, SA node as
pacemaker,AV nodal delay, define arterial blood pressure , pulse pressure, mean arterial
pressure, pulmonary circulation, isometric contraction phase of ventricle, Effect of exercise
on C.V.S ,windkissel effect, pre load and after load in heart, Reynolds number, korotkoff
sound

3.Respiration

Chloride shift and HCO3 shift


Periodic breathing
Haldane effect

Hypoxia

Regulation of respiration

Surfactant
Herring breuer reflex
Mechanism of oxygen transport in body and Oxygen haemoglobin dissociation curve and
also define P50
Mechanism of breathing
Cyanosis
Carbon dioxide carries in blood
pH regulation of blood
Bohr effect
Pulmonary capacities
Cassions disease
Dyspnoea, dysbarism, intrapleural pressure, j receptor,distinguish between two type of
respiratory failure, oxygen toxicity, muscle of respiration
Vital capacities
Decompression sickness
Cheyne stokes respiration
Compliance of lung

Acclimatisation at high altitude


Respiratory change during moderate exercise
Artificial respiration
Definition and measurement of functional residual capacity
Non-respiratory function of lung
SCUBA diving
Respiratory distress syndrome
Functional residual capacity ,residual volume and minimal volume?how measure? And its
clinical significance
Ventilation-perfusion ratio
Dead space
Discuss two pulmonary functional test which can detect obstructive lung disease
Air way resistance

4.G.I.T

Composition and mechanism of secretion and regulation of gastric juice, effect of total
gastrectomy
G.I.T Hormone
Saliva and composition, function of saliva and regulation of salivary secretion
Pancreatic juice secretion and enzymes in it and function and hormone regulating this
Peristalasis
Enterohepatic circulation
Function of stomach
Regulation of food intake
Movement of small intestine
Brunner gland
Taste bud
Trypsin inhibition
Function of liver and write about jaundice also
Stages of Swallowing or deglutination
Protein energy malnutrition
Lipid storage disease
Scleroprotein and structure of protein
Cholesterol and vitamin B12
Succus entericus
Explain component and function of bile
Short note on gastric emptying, dietry fibre,lingual lipase,micelle formation,defecation
reflex, APUD cell of its secretion , peptic ulcer,steatorrhea
Describe the enteric and colonic movement ,role of enteric nervous system , note on
defecation

5.RENAL PHYSIOLOGY and SKIN

Urine formation
Juxtaglomerular apparatus ,function
G.F.R, factor affecting , regulation, substance used in it
Water absorption from kidney
Counter current mechanism
Clearance test
Functions of skin, role of sweat gland in Skin temperature of regulation
Nephron
PAH clearance
Micturition reflex
Filtration fraction
Acidification of urine
Renin angiotensin system
Tubular maximum for glucose
Vasa recta
Regulation of acid and base balance by kidney

Short note on- inulin and para amino hippuric acid, Tubuloglomerular feed back, kidney
function test, artificial kidney, cystometrogram,dieresis, abnormalities of micturition ,
Limiting pH of urine, dialysis, proximal tubular events, Atonic bladder

6. General physiology

Transport mechanism across cell membrane


Structure of cell membrane
Cell sharing intracellular structure
Endoplasmic reticulum
Mitochondria
peroxisome
Sodium potassium pump and its function
Carrier mediated transport
Golgi body
Diffusion
Resting membrane potential
Active and passive transport
Action potential
feedback mechanism
Resting membrane potential
Electrolyte , buffer system
Discuss the ionic basis of rmp and action potential
Classify fluid compartment of body, give normal value and two method determine E.C.F
Inter cellular connection
Apoptosis
Describe cAMP pathway with example
Concentration of sodium and potassium in intra and extracellular fluid
Membrane transporter involved in clearance of calcium from cytoplasm
Short note- Gap junction, aquaporin, macula densa

PAPER-2
7.Reproduction

Spermatogensis
How does temperature influence spermatogenesis
Function of sertoli cell
Action of relaxin and inhibin
Composition of seamen and its use as diagnostic tool
Cryptorchidism
Blood testis barrier
Puberty
Ovulation, indicator or tests of ovulation
Formation and function of corpus luteum
Role of oxytocin in female reproduction
Oral contraceptive, contraceptive for male and female
Pregnancy test
Sex differentiation
Mullerian regression factor
Parturition
Placenta function
Foetoplacental unit
Menarche
Menopause
Infertility in female

Test to fertility in male and female


Menstrual cycle and explain ovarian changes during it
LH surge and it physiological importance
Discuss the pituitary and ovarian hormone to support normal menstrual cycle
Why are ovarian cycles suppressed during lactation

8.Muscle and nerve physiology

Neuromuscular junction, neuromuscular blocking agent


Refractory period
Nernst equilibrium potential
Sarcomere, ultra skeletal muscle structure
Muscle contraction-excitation contraction coupling (sliding- filament theory)
Regulation of muscle tone
Define all or none law. How is this law applicable in the skeletal and cardiac muscle
Name the muscle proteins. What is the role of troponin c in muscle contraction
Muscle spindle
Physiological property of nerve fibre
Cardiac muscle
Mechanism of Contraction of smooth muscle
Action potential in cardiac muscle
Regulation of serum calcium,Tetany and how it is treated
Electric property of cardiac muscle fibre
Sarcotubular system
Mysthemia gravis
Rigor mortis
Slow muscle fibre
Isotonic and isometric contraction
Plasticity of smooth muscle

9.endocriniology

Mechanism of action of hormone on target cell


hormone releasing pituitary, action , different disease, Acromegely
Hypothalmo-hypophyseal portal system
Growth hormone and clinical disorder associated it
Insulin
Thyroid hormone, synthesis, action ,regulation, hypersecretion, hyposecretion, thyroid
function test, goitre, thyrotoxicosis
Adrenal cortex hormone secreted, action , regulation
Aldosterone escape
Testosterone
Parathormone
calcitonin
Placental hormone
Glucose regulation in blood or glucose homeostasis, explain GTT, diabetes mellitus and its
treatment
Milk ejection reflex
Hormone acting on the breast
Difference between creatinism and dwarfism
Cushing syndrome
Adrenogenital syndrome
Myxoedema
Chonns syndrome

10.Brain

Regulation by hypothalamus
Saltatory conduction
Neurotransmitter

Classification of nerve fibres


Axoplasmic transport
Properties of receptor
Synapse,synaptic transmission, synaptic inhibition
What is summation? Mention its types
Medial lemniscus system, anterolateral system, lateral motar system
Name all descending tract .describe the corticospinal tract and mention the difference
between UMN and LMN lesion
Enumerate the ascending tracts in the spinal cord
Define muscle tone and discuss the phenomenon responsible for it.
What conditions lead to alterations of tone
Mechanism of speech
Adrenergic receptor
Classfication of Sensory receptor and explain their properties
Hypothalamus, thalamus , cerebellum (totally)
Temp. Regulation by hypothalamus functioun
Describe formation, circulation and functions of cerebrospinal fluid
Role of hypothalamus on hunger perception
Parkinsons disease
Syringomyelia
Reticular activating system, functions of Reticular activating system
Spinothalmic system
Reflex arc
Classify pain. What are the receptors for pain?
Describe the dual Pathways for pain. What is Analgesic system in the brain,role of dorsal horn in inhibition
of pain seensation
Refferd pain
Basal ganglia
Brown sequard syndrome
Pyramidal and extra pyramidal system
SLEEP (stages, different type, disorders),NREM sleep
Frontal lobe
Cerebellum
Role of purkinje cells of cerebellum.
Hemisection of spinal cord
Stretch reflex (myotatic reflex ),structure and function of muscle spindle and a note on
reciprocal inhibition, withdrawl reflex
Long term memory, mechanism of memory
Function of limbic system
Parasympathetic stimulation
Wernicke speech area, Wernickes aphasia
Speech mechanism
E.E.G , E.E.G changes during sleep
Classification of reflex with example and their clinical significance
Conditioned reflex
Withdrawl reflex
Neuroglia
Conditional learning
Gamma motar neuron
Internal capsule
Corticospinal tract origin , termination, function , hemiplegia
Effect of lateral hemisection of spinal cord
Name the function lobe of cerebellum, discuss the connection and function of
neocerebellum,clinical feature of cerebellar disease
Enumerate the NUCLEI of Hypothalamus. Explain the connections
and functions of hypothalamic obesity
Describe the pathway for fine touch. Add a note on sensory homoniculus
Babinski sign
Alpha block

Compare rem and nonrem sleep


C.S.F composition ,C.S.F secretion, flowing path , function
Phantom limb
Pupillary light. Reflexes
Sneezing reflex
Tympanic reflex
Blood brain barrier
Function of palaeostriatum
What is Stereognosis? Where is its centre ?
What are the mechanoreceptor? Give example
Thalamic syndrome
Name the nuclei responsible for hunger and satiety in human being
Conditions where Plantar response is extensor
Finding in Webers test in conduction deafness of the left side
vomiting

11.Special senses

Accomadation reflex
Dark adaptation
Draw the structure of rods & Cones
Middle ear
Internal ear
Taste sensation,taste bud
Organ of corti
Visual pathway and effect of lesion at various level along its course
Error of refraction
Otolith organ
Mechanism of hearing
Elucidate how pressure vibrations in the air are perceived as sound
Colour perception, trichromatic theory of colour vision
Deafness
Presbyopia
Nystagamus
Aqueous humour
Macula lutea
Taste pathway
Olfactory pathway
Night blindness and colour blindness
Travelling wave theory
Discuss the phenomena by which sound waves in air induce action potentials in the

cochlear nerve.
Visual acuity
Cochlea, Endo chochlear potential
Basilar membrane
Explain the role of vestibular apparatus in posture and equialibrium.add a note on meniers
syndrome
Explain the basic defect in astigmatism and its correction

12. not found correct palace

Caissons disease
Describe the mareys law. Describe the reflexs on which it is based
Heat stroke
Ataxia
Haemostasis of calcium
Gout
Down syndrome
Derivative of notochord

Thiocyanate space
Negative feed mechanism in hormonal regulation
Second messenger
Starling force and oedema
Endogenous pyrogen
Milieu interior
Steatorrhea
EMG
Neuro endocrinal reflex
Double Bhor effect
Laron dwarf
Myasthenia gravis
Extracellular edema

Chronaxie and Rheobase.


Stages of asphyxia
Endorphin
Spirogram
Dysbarism
Bergers rhythm
Rinnes Test
Decerebrate rigidity
Monroe Kellie Doctrine law
What is the difference between the Spasticity and Rigidity
Define histotoxic hypoxia
Dicrotic notch
Cog-wheel rigidity
Betz cells
Ocular dominance columns
Anomic aphasia
Kluver Bucy syndrome
Impedance matching
Mass Reflex
Peak expiratory flow rate

Papez circuit.
Nitrogen narcosis
M.V.V