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SCIENCE

What is Matter
Three states of matter

Solid

Liquid

Gas
Effect of Temperature and Pressure on matter
Change of States of Matter From one to another
Matter is substance but all substance need not
be matter

Subdivision of Matter
Elements, compound, mixture
Particulate nature of Matter
Atom,molecule
Indivisibility of atom-Daltons Theory
Plasma_ ionised state of matter

Nucleus

Bonding-nuclear,atomic,Molecular

Bonding in solid liquid, gas

Matter and energy


Einsteins break through.
Convertibility of mass into energy
e= mc2
Interconversion of states of matter

Meltingpoint,freezing point
Boilingpoint,Condensation
Anomalous behaviour of water
Ice(solid) is lighter than water
Effect of pressure on various states
Effect of temperature on various states

Elements
Basic building blocks
Unit level of Matter
Like an embryonic cell_Stemcell
Like Dna
Characterized by Atomic number
114 elements

About 90 are naturally occurring


Rest are Synthesized
Hydrogen
and Helium-90% of mass of universe
Just 2 elements oxygen and silicon Make up 3
quarters of the Earth crust
In the human body oxygen (65%) and carbon
(19%) are pre dominant

Compounds are molecules made by chemical


combination of two or more elements
The chemical combination is in a definite
proportion by mass
Combination is also by definite number of
each of the combining atoms called valency
The compound has properties vary different
from the combining elements

Mixtures
Mixtures_physical mix of two or more pure
substances
Homogenous mixtures-Completely MixedSame composition throughout_air,seawater
tea,coffee
Heterogenous remain separated and
composition not same
throughout_sand,ore,mineral

Solutions
Alloys
Solid+Liquid=Sugar in water
Liquid+liquid=alcohol in water
Gas+liquid =Soft drink
Gas+Gas = Air
Solid+solid=brass,bronze

Heterogenous mixtures
Suspension muddywater
Gel - fruit jelly (liquid trapped in solid
Emulsion tiny droplets of one liquid
suspended in another_milk
Aerosol droplets of liquid/solid dispersed
in a gas =Rain bearing Clouds
Foam - bubbles of gas trapped in liquidshaving foam

Solvent Water
Solute - salt, dissolved gases
Solution sea water
Soluble
Insoluble
Universal Solvent

Concentration of solution

Mass of solute per 100gms of solution

Saturated solution

Unsaturated solution

Effect of temperature on solubility

Suspensions Particles are larger-fog,digene

Colloids_particles are smaller-milk

Separation of mixtures

Evaporation salt pans

Filtration filtrate

Crystallization Sugar

Distillation

Fractional distillation

Magnetic separation

What is measurement
Unless we measure we cannot define,
control,transact
Measurement is by defining a unit
Unit is a Smallest defined System of
measurement to scale

Initial Units were inexact based on adhoc


ideas
Renaissance,Industrial Revolution
French Revolution 1790
International Bureau of weights and
Measures-Paris
National Physical Laboratory

Cgs_Cm,Gm,Sec

Mks_Mtr,Kg,Sec

Fps_Foot,Pound,Sec

SI-french abbreviation

SI-began in 1960

Based on 7 base units


Each base unit corresponds to a base physical
quantity
Length - l, metre, m
Mass - m, kilogram, kg
Time t, second, s
Electric Current I, ampere, A

Temperature T, Kelvin, k
Amount of Substance n, mole, mol
Luminous Intensity l, Candela, cd

Base Units are fundamentals units


Derived Units are a combination of base units
Area (l x l)=m
Force (Mass x l/t)
Velocity (l/t)
Acceleration (l/t

Area= square metre

Volume= cubic metre

Velocity= metre per second

Density= kg per cubic metre

Wave number= reciprocal metre

Frequency = Hertz

Force = Newton

Pressure = Pascal

Energy = Joule

Power = watt

SI prefixes

Tera-10

Giga-10

Mega-10

Kilo-10

Pico-10
Nano-10
Micro-10
Milli-10
Radius of sun6.96 x 10m = 696 x 10m = 696 mega metre
Radius of proton
1.2x10-15m= 1.2x10-12 = 0.0012 pico metre

1000

It can also be expressed as 1.2 femto metres

Human blood cell


3.7x10-6m = 3.7 micro metre
3.7x10-9x103 = 3700 nano metre
Radius of our galaxy
6x1019 m = 6x1015x104 m
6x1018x10
60 exa metres

Historical perspective

Indian tradition-paramanu

Greek philosophy-Democritus 5th B.C coined


the word Atom meaning indivisible
Dalton, Ruther fords contribution

Law of chemical combination

Antoine Lavoisier-18th century

Law of conservation of mass

Mass of all reactants = Mass of all products

Law of constant proportion


French chemists-Berthollet and Proust
Combining proportions of elements in a
compound are constant in weight
In water ratio of hydrogen(by mass) to
oxygen is always 1:8
9gms of water when decomposed will always
give 1gm of hydrogen and 8gm of oxygen.

Daltons Atomic Theory-1803

Matter consist of individual atoms

All atoms of an element are identical

Different chemical elements have different


kind of atoms having diff masses

Atoms are indestructible


Atoms retain their identify in chemical
reaction
Atoms/combine in definite whole numbers to
form a compound
Daltons postulates-law of multiple
proportions

Size of an atom A, nanometre

Atomic Mass

Daltons concept of relative atomic mass

Hydrogen was considered the base

Later replaced by oxygen

Further replaced by carbon

C-12 is arbitrarily assigned a mass of 12 amu

1 amu = 1/12 of mass of a carbon atom

Atomic Mass

Protons neutrons Electrons

Atom is electrically neutral

Protons and Neutrons reside in the nucleus

Electrons are orbital

Atomic nuclear=
It is equal to the number of protons in the
nucleus
Oxygen has 8 protons hence =8
Hydrogen has 1 proton hence =1
Proton has a positive charge
Neutrons are neutral particles

Nuclear mass
Equals = Mass of protons+mass of Neutrons
This is called mass number (A)
Notation 1H 12 16 17
1
6 c, 8 o 8 o
What is unique to an element is atomic
number z

Isotopes
Atoms of an element having same atomic no
but diff atomic mass

12

14

1H 2
1

c ,8 o

16

3
1

17
8

Average atomic mass

What is Molecule?
Molecule is an aggregate of two or more than
two atoms of the same or different element
in a definite arrangement .
An atom is the smallest particle of a
substance but cannot necessarily exist freely.
Molecule is the smallest particle of an
element or compound which can exist freely.
Molecule shows all chemical properties of
that substance.
H2, Cl2, Br2, O2
Some are complex P4 , S8.

H2, Cl2, Br2, O2


Some are complex P4 , S8.
Molecules can also be composed of more
than one kind of atoms.
H2O, CH4, Co2, NH3
Molecular mass is the sum of atomic masses
of all atoms present in the molecule.

Mole is counting unit for atoms and


molecules
1 mole of any substance contain 6.023*1023
elementary entities.
This is called Avogadro number

Molar mass is the mass of one mole of the


substance.
One mole of a substance is equal to atomic or
molecular mass of that substance expressed
in gms.
Unit is g/mol
N2=28g/mol
O2=32g/mol

Combining capacity of an element is called


valency.
H=1, O=2, C=4, Ca=2
Variable valency

+ve and ve ions held together by


electrontative attraction.
Substance is electrically neutral