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NASH-E-MAN IQBAL HOUSING SOCIETY

Sewerage system
Design report
Submitted by: Muzna Manzoor(2011-EN-16)

2013

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Table of Contents
Introduction: ..............................................................................................................
............................
Land use:
..........................................................................................................................
.............
2.1
the report :
...................................................................................................................
..........
3
Scope of
Importance: ...............................................................................................................
............................
4
...................................................................................................................
............................
5
Location:
Geography: ................................................................................................................
............................
6
Related Theory:
.................................................................................................................................
....
7
Waste water and engineering
........................................................................................................
7.1
Sewage system:
..........................................................................................................................
...
7.2
Purpose: .......................................................................................................
7.2.1
.........................
Principles Of Sanitation:
7.2.2
.......................................................................................................
Public Health Engineering department design criteria for Sewerage System
7.2.3
.......................
Important terms used in sewerage
system:............................................................................
7.2.4
Essential Components of sewerage system:
..................................................................................
7.3
Disposal works:
..................................................................................................................
.
7.3.2
Treatment works:
................................................................................................................
7.3.3
Design Periods Of Components Of Sewerage System:
......................................................
7.3.4
Sources Of Sewage:
....................................................................................................................
7.4
Types and Systems of Sewers:
....................................................................................................
7.5
Types of
sewers:........................................................................................................
7.5.1
..........
Sewer systems:
..................................................................................................................
7.5.2
..
2

4
4
4
4
5
5
5
5
6
6
6
7
7
8
11
12
13
13
14
14
15

7.6
7.7
7.8
7.9
7.9.1

7.9.2
7.9.3
7.9.4
7.9.5
7.9.6

Sewer appurtenances:
..................................................................................................................
Design considerations:
................................................................................................................
Sewers flowing partially full :
.....................................................................................................
Sewer Construction :
...................................................................................................................
Laying of sewers:
................................................................................................................
Sewer Pipes:
..................................................................................................................
......
Choice of Pipe
Material ....................................................................................................
...
Corrosion Protection
...........................................................................................................
Structural Design of Gravity
Pipelines .................................................................................
Types of
pipes: .......................................................................................................
.............

16
19
21
22
22
23
23
23
24
24
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Sewer
bedding .......................................................................................................
7.9.7
............. 25
Load Factor:
..................................................................................................................................
...... 25
Sewer joints:
......................................................................................................................
.. 26
7.9.8
Invert level:
............................................................................................................................
..... 26
7.10
Pumping station:
.........................................................................................................................
26
7.11
Pumps for Sewage
7.11.1 ............................................................................................................... 27
Components of sewage pump stations
................................................................................ 27
7.11.2
Design of wet well and pump selection:
............................................................................. 27
7.11.3
Pump Selection:
..................................................................................................................
28
7.11.4
7.12 Steps For Design Of Sewer :
....................................................................................................... 28
Procedure for design of sewer system:
7.12.1
................................................................................ 28
Design criteria:
..................................................................................................................................
8
.. 29
Results and calculations:
9
..................................................................................................................... 30
For sewer line MH1MH3
9.1
............................................................................................................ 30
Calculation of pumping station:
9.2
.................................................................................................. 30
Cost Analysis:
...............................................................................................................................
10
.. 31
Longitudinal profiles:
11
...................................................................................................................... 32
Comments: ...............................................................................................................
12
....................... 33
Recommendations: .....................................................................................................
13
..................... 33
Reference: ................................................................................................................
14
....................... 35

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INTRODUCTION:
Nashemane-e-Iqbal Co-operative Housing Society Ltd. Lahore was registered in 1979
by Roti Corporation. It has two phases which are not join together. Phase-I is more popular and
situated on a road front of Shaukat Khanam Cancer Hospital. This is the active phase of
Nasheman-e-Iqbal where families live. Other phase is far away on College Road which doesnt
have Sui Gas there at the time. People are not living in Phase-II.

2.1

Land use:

1 Nasheman-e-iqbal
2 Schools: 1
3 Graveyards : 3
4 Mosques : 2
5 Unoccupied area : 1
6 Disposal station : 1
7 Open spaces : 7
8 Commercial area : 4
9 Area of scheme : 17.64 acres

Scope of the report :


The main area of focus in this report is the design of NASHEMEN E IQBAL
HOUSING SOCIETY , its cost analysis, limitations, design criteria , design calculations ,
conclusions and recommendations regarding the design.

Importance:
History reveal that health of people remained top priority. An efficient sewerage system
helps to protect public health and environment. Sewerage system conveys wastewater from
homes , industries , hospitals and commercial institutes to treatment facilities for safe disposal.

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Any interruption of sewerage system can have dramatic sequence on public health and health
of environment

Location:
It is located on a road front of Shaukat Khanam Memorial Cancer Hospital & Research
Centre which joins to Raiwind Road. As, this society is in Lahore which is a plan area city thats
why the map is on the same elevation.

Geography:
Lahore Geography comprises of the various features relating to the land and climate of
Lahore. Situated along the banks of the river Ravi the city experiences extremes of temperature.
The climate is quite healthy. The Climate of Lahore is tropical. The people of Lahore have to
experience extremes of temperature. The summers are really hot and the winters are very cold.
There are five main seasons in Lahore, namely, summer, winter, autumn, spring and rainy
season. During the summers Lahore experiences heat waves. The months of May, June and July
are considered to be the hottest months. During this time period the mercury at times reaches
around 45 degree Celsius. The months of July and August experience the heaviest rainfall. The
months of December, January and February are the coldest months when sometimes the
temperature falls below -1 degree Celsius. Sometimes there is a little amount of rain during the
month of December.

RELATED THEORY:

7.1

Waste water and engineering


It is that branch of environmental engineering in which basic principles of science and
engineering are applied to the problems of water pollution control.
Water supplied to community ultimately become waste water i.e. almost 99.9% water is waste
water rest is solid.

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7.2

Sewage system:
A system that is designed for proper collection, disposal and treatment of waste water.
Sewerage system conveys the waste water by gravity to treatment plant or on disposal station.

7.2.1

Purpose:

1
To transport water or waste water from one location to another by means of
2connecting
pipes through
gravity.
To provide
a hygienic
and healthy environment.
3

7.2.2

Increases the aesthetics and property value.

Principles Of Sanitation:

1
2
3
4

Waste materials like sewage should be removed as early as possible

Sewage after collection should be treated within four hours.


Effluent should be disposed off immediately
Building should be damp proof
Water supply should be regular & sufficient so that the lavatories may be done properly

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7.2.3

Public Health Engineering department design criteria for Sewerage System

Following design criteria has been proposed by Punjab Public Health Engineering Department in
1998.
1
disposal station should be located at a place where sewge from sewerage system can be
disposedThe
off safely.

2
3

The sewers must be designed as a partially combined system allowing a surcharging of the
system for
some arrangement
time.
By-pass
at the disposal station must be planed where level permits.

Outfall sewer in the village to be provided if otherwise economical and safer as compared to
Punjab Standard Drain Type 1/11.(PHED, 1998)
5
Design Periods:

Civil works
Machinery

20 years
10 years

Sufficient area for the disposal station should be acquired to accommodate further extension for
next 40 years.

Master plan for sewerage scheme should be prepared and phasing out to be done according to
priority of work/area. (PHED, 1998).

7.2.4

Important terms
system: Sewage:

used

in

sewerage

Sewage is water-carried waste, in solution or suspension, that is intended to be removed


from a community. It is the Liquid Waste of Wastewater produced as a result of water use. It is
more than 99.9% water and 0.1% solid waste and is characterized by volume or rate of flow,
physical condition, chemical constituents and the bacteriological organisms that it contains.
Sewer:
It is a Pipe or Conduit for carrying sewage. It is generally closed and flow takes place
under gravity.
Sewerage:
It is a comprehensive term. This term is applied to the art of the collection of wastewater
and conveying it to the point of final disposal with or without treatment

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Septicity:
Septicity occurs when the residence time of sewage is long, the temperature is high and
there is a lack of air exchange. The deposition of sediments in the sewers also facilitates the
formation of sulfide. This frequently occurs in gentle gravity sewers in which the flow is too
slow. In addition, sulphide formation will be more serious with saline sewage as seawater
contains a high level of sulphate.
The adverse effects of septicity in gravity sewers can be mitigated by suitable design to shorten
residence time, minimize sediments deposition and adopt corrosion resistant construction
materials
Sewage Flow relation to water consumption:
Sanitary and industrial sewage is derived from water supply, so it has a relationship with
amount of water consumption. Generally 70 130% of water consumption is taken as sewage
flow.
Variation In Sewage Flow:
Like water supply, sewage flow varies from time to time. Since sewers must be able to
accommodate the max flow, the variation in sewage flow need to be studied.
AverageFlow (m3/day)
< 2500
2500-5000
5000-10000
10000-25000
25000-50000
50000-100000
100000-250000
>500000

7.3

Essential Components of sewerage system:


1
2

Collection system (network of sewer pipes)

Disposal Works (Sewage pumping stations)


Treatment works (render treatment)

PeakFactor
4
3.4
3.1
2.7
2.5
2.3
2.15
2

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7.3.1.1 Collection works:

1
1
There are two methods of collection of sewage
Water carrying system

Dry system

A sewage system may convey the wastewater by gravity to a sewage treatment plant.

Where pipeline excavation is difficult because of rock or there is limited topographic relief
(i.e., due to flat terrain), gravity collection systems may not be practical and the sewage must be
pumped through a pipeline to the treatment plant.

Community sewage can also be collected by an effluent sewer system, also known as a
STEP
system (Septic Tank Effluent Pumping). Effluent sewer systems, also called septic tank
effluent drainage (STED) or solids-free sewer (SFS) systems, have septic tanks that collect
sewage from residences and businesses, and the effluent that comes out of the tank is sent to
either a centralized

sewage treatment plant or a distributed treatment system for further

treatment
Types of Sewage Collection Systems

Separate System:
If storm water is carried separately
from domestic and industrial waste, the
system is called separate system. It is favored
when there is an immediate need for
collection of sanitary sewage but not for
storm sewage and where here sanitary
sewage need treatment but storm water does
not.
Advantages of Separate System:
Load on treatment units become less.

1
2

The natural water is not unnecessary polluted.

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1
2

The sewers are small in size.


The storm water can be discharged into natural streams without any treatment.

The system proves to be economical when pumping is required for the lifting of sewage.
Disadvantages of Separate System:

4
5

The cleaning of sewer is difficult, as they are of small size.

The maintenance cost is high.

They self-cleaning velocity is not easily achieved.


The system requires two sets of sewer end hence; it may prove to be costly.

The storm water sewers will come into operation during monsoon only. Hence, they may
become the dumping places for garbage during summer and winter and may thus be chocked.

Combined System:

A system in which sewer carry both sanitary


as well as storm sewage. It is favoured when
combined sewage can be disposed off with out
treatment and when both need treatment and when
streets are narrow and two separate sewers cannot be
laid.

1Advantages of Combined Sewer System:


is easy to clean a combined sewer as it is of
largeIt size.
2
The maintenance costs are reasonable

3
4

The storm water reduces the strength of sewage by dilution.


This system requires only one set of sewers and it may thus prove to be economical.

Disadvantages of Combined Sewer System:


5

During ordinary heavy storms, the combined sewers may overflow and it may thus put
public health in danger.
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1
combined sewer, if not properly designed, gets easily silted and it may even become
2foulThe
in
dry
weather.
The load
on treatment plant increases.
3
4

The sewers are huge in diameter.

The storm water is unnecessary polluted:


The system proves to be uneconomical when pumping is required for the lifting of sewage.

Partially Combined system/ partially separate system:


If some portion of storm or surface run off (from roofs, roads, open spaces etc) is
allowed to be carried along with sanitary sewage, the system is known as partially combined
system. In urban areas, mostly, partially combined system is used.

1Advantages of partially Separate System:

It combines the advantages of both the above systems.

2
3

The entry of storm water avoids silting in sewers.

The problem of disposing storm water from houses is simplified.


The sewers are of reasonable size.

Disadvantages of Partially Separate System:


5

The quantity of storm water admitted in sewer may increase the load on pumping &
treatment unit.
6
The velocity of flow is low in dry weather.

7.3.2

Disposal works:
It is a group of engineering works by which the treated , partially treated or untreated

sewage is finally disposed off either on land or on water. Sewage is discharged into natural soil
or land by irrigation or by intermittent sand filtration.
If sewage is discharged into some river or stream then following points must be
considered for design of outfall works

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The hydrology of receiving stream or river

Required standards of water quality for receiving river or stream.

Design and location of outfall works

7.3.3

Treatment works:
Sewage Treatment is a process of removing contaminants from sewage.

1Objectives :
reuse

to produce an environmentally safe treated effluent and sludge suitable for disposal or

2endangering
Discharge toaquatic
the environment
organisms,must be accomplished without transmitting diseases or
Sewage treatment generally involves three stages, called primary, secondary and tertiary
treatment.

Primary treatment
It consists of temporarily holding the sewage in a quiescent basin where heavy solids can
settle to the bottom while oil, grease and lighter solids float to the surface. The settled and
floating materials are removed and the remaining liquid may be discharged or subjected to
secondary treatment.

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Secondary treatment
It removes dissolved and suspended biological matter. Secondary treatment is typically
performed by water-borne micro-organisms in a managed habitat. Secondary treatment may
require a separation process to remove the micro-organisms from the treated water prior to
discharge or tertiary treatment.

Tertiary treatment
sometimes defined as anything more than primary and secondary treatment in order to allow
rejection into a highly sensitive or fragile ecosystem (estuaries, low-flow rivers, coral reefs,...).
Treated water is sometimes disinfected chemically or physically (for example, by lagoons
and microfiltration) prior to discharge into a stream, river, bay, lagoon or wetland, or it can
be used for the irrigation of a golf course, green way or park. If it is sufficiently clean, it can
also be used for groundwater recharge or agricultural purposes.

7.3.4

Design Periods of Components of Sewerage System:

Collection Works: Period of design is Indefinite as the system is designed to


case for the maximum development of the area.
2
works:
Design flow
period
is usually
10infiltration.
years. Rates of flow required are:
averageDisposal
daily, peak
and minimum
rates,
including
3

peak.

Treatment Works: Design period is 15 to 20 years, flow rates required are average and

7.41Sources of Sewage:
Domestic/sanitary:
It is waste water from residential buildings, offices, other buildings and institutions etc. It
includes household waste liquid from toilets, baths, showers, kitchens, sinks

Industrial:
It is liquid waste from industrial processes like dying, paper making, fertilizers, chemical.

Storm water:
It include surface run off generated by rainfalls and street wash.

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Infiltration
This may be due to poor joints, crack pipes and valves of manhole. High rates are
noted when sewers are below the water table and poorly constructed.
Water and Sanitation Agency (WASA) Lahore uses the following infiltration rates for the design
of sewer system.
Pipe dia. Up to 600mm =5% avg. sewage flow
for greater than 600mm=10% avg. sewage flow

Inflows:
It enters through perforated manholes, and roofs of drains.
Some key points to remember are:

Sanitary sewers have limited capacities and are not designed to dispose of storm
water (i.e., rainwater) from your property.

Storm drainage flows are generally not treated and therefore should not contain any
pollutants that could affect our streams and ocean.

Rubbish should not be thrown down sewers or storm drains. Because sewage is treated,
sewers can handle sewage as well as certain types and limited amounts of "toxic" materials such as
household cleaners.

7.5
7.5.1

Types and Systems of Sewers:

Types of sewers:
Sanitary Sewer:
Sewer which carries sanitary sewage, industrial sewage and infiltration i.e., wastewater
originating from a municipality including domestic and industrial wastewater.

Storm Sewer:
It carries storm sewage including surface run off and street washes.

House Sewer:
It is a pipe conveying wastewater from an individual structure/plumbing system of a
building to a common sewer or some other point of imediate disposal.

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Common sewer/ muncipal sewer:


sewer in which all the abutting properties have equal rights of use.

Lateral Sewer:
It has no other common sewer discharging into it.

Sub main sewer:


It receive discharge from one or more laterals.

Trunk Sewer or main sewer:


Receive discharge from one or more sub mains.

Force Mains :
these are pressurized sewer lines which convey sewage from a pumping station to
another main or to a point of treatment or disposal.

Outfall Sewer:
Receive discharge from all collecting system and convey it to treatment plant(e.g., a
water body etc) or to the point of final disposal

Relief sewer:
it is one that has been built to relieve an existing sewer of inadequate capacity.

Intercepting sewer:
the sewer that intersects other sewers to separate the dry weather flow from storm water
flow which they may carry.

7.5.2

Sewer systems:
Combined Sewer:
It carries sanitary, industrial and commercial land storm sewage and infiltration.
Separate sewers:
Sewers which are designed separately, in which storm sewage is not mixed with sanitary
sewage.
Partially combined sewer:
it is modification of separate sewer , in which you allow portion of storm sewage
into sanitary sewage , that portion is the sewage that comes from roofs and cortyards.

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7.6

Sewer appurtenances:

1 Lampholes:
An opening or hole constructed in a sewer for the purpose of lowering a lamp inside.
Purpose
1 Flushing device
2 Fresh air inlet

Oil and grease trap:


Provided on the sewer line to exclude grease and oil from sewage before it enters the sewer
line.

Catch Basins:
It is a structure in the form of a chamber which is provided along the sewer line to admit or
allow the clear rain water free from silt, grit, debris etc. into the combined water
Purpose

1 To prevent the entry of silt, grit, debris, etc. contained in the rain water.
2 To prevent the sewer gas

Ventilators in sewers:
Various gases are produced in the sewers due to decomposition of organic materials of
sewage that cause harm to human health and corrode the sewers reducing their life, Highly
explosive .Ventilation is provided to the sewers lines at every 80-100 m.

Storm water inlets/street inlets :


Opening through which storm water and surface wash flowing along the streets are admitted
and conveyed to the storm water sewer by means of pipe

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Inverted siphon:
It is a sewer section which is constructed lower than the adjacent sewer sections and which
runs full under gravity with pressure greater than the atmosphere. It will be more appropriate to
refer it as a depressed sewer or a sag pipe.
Purpose:

To carry the sewer line below obstructions such as ground depression, streams, rivers,
railway etc.

Flushing tanks :
It is a device or an arrangement which is made to hold and then to through water into the
sewer for the purpose of flushing.

Storm water regulators:


The structures constructed to divert part of sewage in case of combined sewers are known as the
storm water regulators and they come into operation when discharge exceed certain value.

Purpose:

To divert the excess storm


water to natural stream or river.

Decrease in load on the treatment plant.

Manholes :
It is an opening constructed on the
alignment of sewer for facilitating a
person access to the sewer treatment
units or pumping stations. These are the
vertical openings provided in sewerage
system. It is protected by a cover.

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Purpose:
1

Cleaning

Inspection

House connection

Need:
1

Change in sewer direction

Change in slope

Change in diameter

At the junction

Locked Manholes
Manholes shall be locked when:

1
2

Not located on a roadway.

Located in crosswalks or along a public pathway.

Located in proximity to an area that will be generally accessible to the public.

Backdrop Manholes
Backdrop manholes are used to connect sewers at significantly different levels, and
should be used where the level difference is greater than 600 mm.
The backdrop can be provided by means of:

A vertical drop in the form of a downpipe constructed inside/outside the wall of a


manhole
2
A gradual drop in the form of cascade.

Access Openings
Access openings are generally of two types, one for man access and the other for
desilting purposes. Desilting openings should not be smaller than 750 mm by 900 mm, and
should be placed along the centerline of the sewer to facilitate desilting. Man access opening
should not be smaller than 675 mm by 675 mm. If ladders are installed in the manhole,
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minimum clear opening should be 750 mm by 900 mm. Man access openings should be
placed off the centerline of the sewer for deep manholes and along the centerline of the sewer
for manholes shallower than 1.2 m.

Access Shafts
Access shafts should be sufficiently large for persons to be able to go down in comfort
and yet small enough that one can reach the shaft walls by hand while climbing down for feeling
a sense of security. Minimum size of access shaft should be 750 mm by 900 mm. The access
shaft should be orientated such that the step irons are provided on the side with the smaller
dimension. The access openings should be confined to one traffic lane.

Covers
Manhole covers should be sufficiently strong to take the live load of the heavy vehicle
likely to pass over them, and should remain durable in a damp atmosphere. Heavy-duty manhole
covers should be used when traffic or heavy loading is anticipated; otherwise medium duty
covers can be used.
Manhole covers should not rock when initially placed in position, or develop a rock with wear.
Split triangular manhole covers supported at three corners are commonly used to reduce rocking.
The two pieces of triangular cover should be bolted together to avoid a single piece of the cover
being accidentally dropped into a manhole.

Step-irons and Ladders


Step-irons should be securely fixed in position in manholes, and should be equally spaced
and staggered about a vertical line at 300 mm centers. Ladders should be used in manholes
deeper than 4.25 m or which are entered frequently. It is safer and easier to go down a ladder
when carrying tools or equipment. Step-irons and ladders should start within 600 mm of the
cover level and continue to the platform or benching.

7.7

Design considerations:

Design flow:
Design flows are different for partially combined, separate, combined system

Partially combined system:


Q design= 2x Peak sewage flow + Infiltration+ industrial and commercial sewage
Combined system:
Q design= Peak sewage flow + Infiltration+ industrial and commercial sewage+ storm sewage

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Separate system:
Q design= Peak sewage flow + Infiltration+ industrial and commercial sewage

Design Equation:
Sewers are designed on the basis of open channel flow and not under pressure.

Mannings Equation.
V =1/n(R
2/3 1/2
S )
n= mannings coefficient
S = slope
R = A/P = d/4
2continuity
Equation
Q=AV

of

Minimum Velocities:
Min velocities also called self cleansing velocities must be maintained in sewers to
avoid deposition of suspended solids and subsequent choking of sewers.

Sanitary sewers = 0.6 m/sec [organic particle sp. gs = 1.65].

Storm sewers = 0.75 to 1 m/sec [inorganic particle sp. gs = 2.65].

Partially combined = 0.7 m/sec.

Maximum Velocities :
A limit on higher velocity is imposed due to abrasive character of solids in wastewater. Max
velocity should not be more than 2.6m/sec

Min slope:
It is obtained by putting min velocity in mannings equation.
Minimum Permitted Sewer Slope at Full Flow
Straight Sewers
Sewer Size (mm)

Minimum Slope
(%)

200
250
300

0.35
0.28
0.22
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375
450
525 and greater

0.15
0.12
0.10

Min. Sewer Size :


9inch (225 mm) is taken as min sever size. [WASA, PHED] why: choaking does not take place
even with bigger size particles/substances which are usually thrown into sewer through
manholes etc. [Examples: shrubs, bricks etc]. for house sewers 6 inch dia is used to prevent from
clogging and blockage.

2 Min Cover:

11m is taken as min cover over sewers to avoid damage from live loads coming on sewers.
Direction of Sewer lines
Sewers should follow as far as possible the natural slope

7.8

Sewers flowing partially full :


It is necessary to determine velocity and depth of sewage in a pipe when it is flowing only
partially full. For this, use of the GRAPH will allow quick computation of the hydraulic
elements of partially filled circular sewer. For using this graph, it is necessary to find first the
conditions when a sewer is flowing full. Then by calculating the ratio of any two known
hydraulic dements, the others can be found.
Significance Of Partial Flow Study :
Conditions during partial flow, must frequently be determined in combined / partially
combined sewers due to the following reasons

1 to investigate velocities during dry weather flow to dominate possibilities of deposits


occurring in pipes
2 knowledge of depth of flow is of value in designing sewer inter sections.Large sewers should
be brought together at elevations so that water may not back up into the other.

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7.9

Sewer Construction :
Following are the steps :

Marking of sewer lines (done with chalks powder to demarcate the correct alignment of
sewers).

Excavation of trenches

Bracing of trenches (optional)

Dewatering (optional)

Pipe installation

Sewer appurtances

Chain and pulley

Back filling

compaction

7.9.1

Laying of sewers:
Excavate the trench to proper width and nearly to the desired depth.Place the bedding in
the trench (commonly sand). Place the batter boards(wooden pieces) across the trench at 10-15 m
intervals with the help of pegs, .The centerline of the sewer is marked on the batter boards by
nailing an upright cleat on it to indicate sewer alignment by measuring from the offset line .Place
the nail on each cleat at some even distance above the sewer grade(e.g 3 m) . Stretch a string
over the nails ,from cleat to cleat to indicate the slope of the sewer.. Transfer the sewer alignment
from the chord to the bedding surface by means of plumb bob..Transfer sewer slope by means of
boning rod marked with even increments. Check the grade by placing short piece of boning rod
on the invert level of each length of sewer and noting the proper mark(e.g 3m) touches the chord.

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7.9.2

Sewer Pipes:
Qualities to look for sewer pipes are

Cheap

Durability for long life

Abrasion Resistant Interior to withstand Scouring

Impervious walls to prevent leakage

Adequate strength to resist failure under backfilling or traffic load.


7.9.3 Choice of Pipe Material
The following factors should be taken into account in selecting the type of pipe for a project:

Hydraulic design: gravity or pressure flows

Structural design: crushing test strengths (and pressure ratings in the case of pressure
pipelines) that are available

The nature of the fluid to be conveyed

Nature of ground water and external environment

Cost considerations: capital and maintenance costs

Pipe jointing system: ease of installation, past performance

Durability: resistance to corrosion and abrasion

Availability of pipe sizes, fittings and lengths in the market for construction and
subsequent maintenance

Ease of cutting and branch connections

10

Length and weight of individual pipes in relation to transportation and handling

11

Future operating procedure and system development

7.9.4

Corrosion Protection
In general, most of the pipes and fittings are susceptible to both internal and external attacks by
corrosion unless appropriate protective measures are adopted. The degree of attack depends upon
the nature of the soils, the characteristics of the fluid being conveyed and the type of pipe
protection used.

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To protect the pipe from corrosion, pipes made of corrosion resistant material or coated with
inert protective materials should be considered. For concrete pipes with protective liners, the
pipe joints should also be covered by linings and the lining must be subsequently jointed after
installation if the pipe diameter is large enough for man access. If the diameter is too small, the
pipes should be supplied with joint surfaces already safeguarded with lining.
7.9.5 Structural Design of Gravity Pipelines
Pipes can be categorized into rigid, flexible and intermediate pipes as follows:
1. Rigid pipes support loads in the ground by virtue of the resistance of the pipe wall as a ring in
bending.
2. Flexible pipes rely on the horizontal thrust from the surrounding soil to enable them to resist
vertical load without excessive deformation.
3. Intermediate pipes are those pipes, which exhibit behavior between those in (a) and (b). They are
also called semi-rigid pipes.
Concrete pipes and vitrified clay pipes are examples of rigid pipes while steel, ductile iron,
UPVC, MDPE and HDPE pipes may be classified as flexible or intermediate pipes, depending
on their wall thickness and stiffness of pipe material.
7.9.6 Types of pipes:
PVC,Abestos Cement,PCC, RCC, CI, Steel, Clay ,Cement Concrete Pipes
1. Polyvenyl Chloride Pipes:
They have more length, less joints , become completely air tight
2. Reinforced concrete Pipes:
They are used for collection purpose. They are manufactured with dimensions and
strengths specified by ASTM. Size : 225-4500mm diameter.
3. Cast iron :
Used in pumping station because of its corroision less nature.

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Sewer design requires prior knowledge of soil and site conditions in order to determine over
burden loads that will placed on pipes because are not ordinarily pressurized, are often more
deeply buried than water mains, and are normally made of brittle ,rather weak materials, the
effect of soil and other external loads are quite important.
7.9.7

Sewer bedding

The pipe will not be able to support a load significantly greater than the three edge bearing test if
the pipe is laid on flat bottom trench. Back fill material is carefully tempted around the sides of
the sewer, the supporting strength of the pipe significantly increases . Provision of proper
bedding is very important;
1

In developing the strength of the pipe

Assuring it is laid to the proper grade

Preventing subsequent settlement


Load Factor:
Load factor expresses the increase in strength of sewer by provision of proper bedding

1. Concrete Cradle:
Used under increased strength requirements. Load factor = 2.2-3.4
2. First class bedding:
L.F = 1.9
3. Ordinary bedding
L.F = 1.5
4. Flat bottom bedding:
L.F = 1.1

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7.9.8

Sewer joints:

Bell-spigot joint:

Employed for sewers from 225 mm to 610mm (tounge and groove joint can also be used for this)
Tongue and groove joint
Employed for sewers from > 610mm diameter

7.10 Invert level:


The pipe invert level refers to the base interior level in a trench, tunnel, or pipe. It is also
often known as the floor level and its opposite is the crown level, which refers to the top of the
trench, tunnel, or pipe. This is a civil engineering term that allows the pipe's slope to be set so
that gravity will help the fluid flow through the pipe. Invert levels are mostly necessary for
sewage or storm drain pipes where the water will flow through naturally.
7.11 Pumping station:
A pumping station , by definition , an integral part of a pumped storage hydroelectricity
installation . pumping station are facilities including pumps and equipment for pumping fluids
from one place to other.

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1They are used to transport and elevate wastewater when :

Continuation of gravity flow is no longer feasible.

2
3

Basement are deeper.

Any obstacle lies in the path of sewer.


Receiving stream is higher than sewer.

Sewage is to be delivered to an above ground treatment plant.

7.11.1 Pumps for Sewage

1
Manufacturers
specifies the sphere sizes which pump will pass
Smallest discharge pipe is 80 mm

Smallest suction pipe is 100 mm

Pump suctions are usually larger than the discharge by about 25%

Capacity of the pump=Maximum flow

Number of Pumps=2 (minimum)

7.11.2 Components of sewage pump stations


1. Screening chambers(for removal of solids)
2. Dry well (for installation of pumps)
3. Wet well (for receipt of wastewater)
4. Pumps

7.11.3 Design of wet well and pump selection:


Small pumping station where pump is sized to meet the peak or maximum flow, the following
consideration are made.
1

Pump must be run for at least 2 minutes

Cycle time must not be less than ( for smaller pumps) 10 minutes and for larger pumps
not less than 20-30 minutes

Detention time in the wet well at average flow should preferably be not more than 30
minutes to avoid sewage being septic.
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Cycle time is the time between successive start ups of the motor pump.
Cycle time = Time to empty + Time to fill
Cycle Time = T= V/ (P Q) + V/Q

1
2

Where
Time to empty = V/(P-Q)

Time to fill= V/Q

V = Operating Volume of Wet Wells.

P= Pumping rate (pumping capacity)

= Peak sewage flow

Q= Waste water flow

tmin = 4V/P
7.11.4 Pump Selection:
1

2 pumps for small stations(one as stand by),capacity : peak flow.

2 At least 4 pumps for large pumping stations

1Steps For Design Of Sewer :


7.12
Preliminary Investigations
2
3

Design consideration

Selection of design data and design criteria


Design of sewers

5
6

Preparation of contract drawings and specifications


Subsequent modifications

7.12.1 Procedure for design of sewer system:


1
survey, indication of bench marks and reduced level, levelling , and study of
2map of Topographic
that area.
Draw
a line to represent the proposed sewer in each street to be served .
3

Near the line indiacte by an arrow the direction in which sewerage is to flow .

4
In general the laterals connect the submains and these connect with the main or
trunk sewer which leads towards point of final discharge .
5
Locate the manholes giving the indication numbers to each .
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1
2

Sketch the limits of service area for each lateral.

Measure the service area.

Prepare the tabulation as such.

81Design criteria:
Design period = 25-50 years (we have used 30yrs)
2

Per capita water consumption = 300+16 = 316lpcd

Design sewage flow = peak sewage flow +infiltration +portion of storm flow+ industrial
and commercial
1= 2xpeak sanitary sewage + infiltration+ industrial and commercial
2=13443.01m

/d
4
5

0.5

0.5

Peak factor = 1+ (14/4+(p) ) = 1+(14/4+(9.36) ) = 2.98

Design equations

Mannings Equation.
2/3

V =1/n(R
S )
n= mannings coefficient
1/2

S = slope
R = A/P = d/4
Equation
of
6continuity Q=AV
Minimum velocity
For sanitary sewage=0.6m/s
For storm sewage = 0.75-1m/s

7
8

Maximum velocity = 2.6 m/s

Sewer sizes and materials

Dias of 225mm, 310mm, 380mm , 460mm, 530mm,610mm are used


RCC pipes are used and cast iron pipes fo pumping station.
9

Infiltration =10% of avg sewage flow= average sewage flow * 0.1 = 221.832m /d

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9 Results and calculations:


9.1

For sewer line MH1MH3


Design flow = peak sewage + infiltration +portion of storm flow
Average sewage flow = (no of plots*pop/plot*per capita sewage)
3

= (23*10*0.237) = 54.51 m /d
Design flow =(avg sewage *P.F) +(0.1*avg sewage)+(avg sewage *P.F)
3

=(54.51*2.98)+(0.1*54.51)+(54.51*2.98) = 330.3306m /d
Slope = ((Vfull*0.013*(4/commercial dia)^0.667))^2
= ((0.7*0.013*(4/0.225)^0.667))^2 = 0.00384m/m
Diameter = (4*area/3.14)= (4*0.005462/3.14) = 0.0832m=83.2mm
Velocity = Vfull*Va/Vfull = 0.7 *0.59 = 0.413m/s
Upper Invert level = elevation- thickness difference of dia earth cover = 252 0.05 1
1= 250.725m
Lower invert level = upper invert level (slope*distance) = 250.725 (0.00384*70) =250.4555m
9.2

Calculation of pumping station:


Cycle time = t =( V/P-Q) + (V/Q)
20 = V[{(24x60)/ (6610.5936-1109.16)} + ( 24x60/1109.16)
V = 12.82 m

tr = V/P-Q = 12.82x24x60/(6610.5936-1109.16) = 3.35min


V = Ad
A =V/d = 12.82/2 = 6.41m
d= (4x6.41/3.14)

0.5

= 2.85m
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10 Cost Analysis:
Cost of pipes:
all pipes of class 2 wall B are used
for pipe dia 225mm =2959x18 = 53262Rs for
pipe dia 310mm = 60x231 =13860Rs for pipe
dia 380mm =101x282 =28482Rs for pipe dia
460mm = 90x297= 26730Rs for pipe dia
530mm = 280x388 = 108640Rs for pipe dia
610mm = 79x471= 37209Rs

total cost = 0.26 million


for excavation:
for excavation of cost volume is to be calculated = V = LxWxH
for example :
if length =
4 width=6
depth=1.5
Digging (for 1 cubic meter) =500
Removal of soil (for 1 cubic meter) =200
Area of excavation: 24 square meter
The volume of excavation: 36 cubic meters
The cost of digging the pit: 18000
The cost of removal of soil: 7200
Total: 25200 Rs

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e

11 Longitudinal profiles:
Profile 1:

leve
ls
251
250.5
250
249.5
levels

249
248.5
248
247.5
1 2

6 7

9 10 11 12 13 14

Profile 2:
251
250.5
250
249.5
Series1

249
248.5
248
247.5
1

10

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EN-16

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Profile 3:

levels

251
250.5
250
249.5
249

levels

248.5
248
247.5
1

9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25

12 Comments:
Partially combined system is used in design of this scheme , it is a residential area and also
commercial places are present and there are both sanitary and storm sewage and in partial
combined system these are separately collected and transported. Velocity obtained for some
sewers is less than 0.7m/s which should not be in partially combined system, it is due to actual
dia calculated is less. Longitudinal profiles of some routes have abrupt change that can be due
to large change in dia or due to inaccurate route selected. Designed sewerage system is partially
separated sewerage system, which is designed on the basis of maximum flow that includes peak
sewage flow, infiltration and storm flow. Topography of the whole scheme is highly flat. The
system is designed to flow under gravity therefore it is difficult to maintain minimum selfclearance velocity. Joints are bell and spigot or Tounge and Groove because the diameter of
sewer pipes is less than 760mm.Sewer type is class B. The Ratio d/D and V/Vfull is calculated
by using graph so there may be chances of less accuracy.
13 Recommendations:
1

Velocity obtained at some sewers is less than min velocity of partially combined
sewer, it can be adjusted by adjusting slopes.
2 Longitudinal profiles route should be carefully selected.

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You can reduce your treatment costs, if you ensure non-soiled wastewater does

reach the sewer network at all.

In a mixed sewer net (rain and wastewater) you can reduce your costs by building a
storm water tank at a quarter the distance from the start of the trunk sewer with a drain time
of
10 to 15 minutes in the channel.

At a minimum, sewers shall extend across the frontage of the property, at the
developers cost, such that a connection can be made with minimal disturbance in the future.

Systematically evaluate all options available to resolve the challenge


facing a municipality; so that an economical and efficient system can be
obtained.

Screen and select the most appropriate solution based on environmental and
safety concerns, long term service life, financial sustainability, and the ability to service
both the
current and future populations;

Consider all existing conditions, including the existing structures to be serviced


as part of the design solution;
7
Design
sound sanitary
wastewater
and ainfiltration
flows system capable of handling the current and future

Select the appropriate pipe material and installation method for the construction
situation;

Execute diligent inspection practices to ensure proper techniques should be used

10

11

In the event that the sanitary sewer main stubs are provided for future developments, they

shall be installed at as great a depth as possible to maximize flexibility when


the mains are extended.

12
The land slope, potential for flooding and surface water concentration,
13
amountAll
of suitable
area must
be evaluated.
liquid waste
and wash
water shall discharge into the septic tank.
14
The septic tank should be located where it is readily accessible for inspection
15
and maintenance.
A septic tank should be divided into two parts
1For sludge
2For waste water

16

Self-cleaning velocity must be achieved to avoid the settlement of suspended particles.

17

Install flushing tank where the velocity of sewage is less than 0.5 m/Sec otherwise
solid particles will settle down in sewers.

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1
2

Check the slope of bed before installing the sewer. This will be helpful if the slope is not
according
to design
Try to use
natural criteria.
slope which will be more favourable

Minclogging
sewer size
notproblem.
be less than 225mm and for house sewer not less than 6inch to
avoid
and should
blockage

4
5 Prior to design, the positions of all existing services should be ascertained as accurately as
possible.
Pipes must be joined crown to crown to avoid back flow.

6
7

No connection pipe should enter the manhole at an angle of greater than 90 in the
direction
of odour
the flow.
To avoid
problem in manholes, ventilation of the manholes shall be considered.

Proper bedding must be provided to improve the load carrying capacity of the sewer.

The maintenance
of the
system should
carried out at regular intervals. To carry out the job
effectively
there should
be sufficient
sewerbe
men.

10

Where
lateral
area to
be laidtank
at deeper
it may
be more velocity.
economical to lay
them
shallow
and sewers
installing
Flushing
there toslopes,
achieve
self-cleansing

11

Drawings
of the sewerage
system should be made and kept carefully, because it helps in
future
for its inspecting
and maintenance.

12 During heavy rainfalls, water accumulates around the manholes. Therefore, it is


suggested that inlets should be provided at the corners of major streets and walkways
and at the midpoints of blocks so that crosswalks are not flooded.

14 Reference:
1

"Report to Congress: Impacts and Control of CSOs and SSOs." August


2004,U.S. Environmental Protection Agency-

Wastewater Engineering (1972), Metcalf & Eddy, Inc.

3
4

Bartlett, Ronald E; "pumping stations for water and sewage"


Steel e.w. and terence.j.mcghee; "water supply and sewerage"

Wastewater engineering - treatment, disposal and reuse , 1991,Tchobanoglous and Burton-

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