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Alekhine'sDefence
FromWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

Alekhine'sDefenceisahypermodernchessopeningthat
canbeginwiththemoves:

Alekhine'sDefence

1.e4Nf6
BlacktemptsWhite'spawnsforwardtoformabroad
pawncentre,withplanstoundermineandattackthe
whitestructurelaterinthespiritofhypermoderndefence.
White'simposingmassofpawnsinthecentreoften
includespawnsonc4,d4,e5,andf4.GrandmasterNick
deFirmianobservesofAlekhine'sDefenceinMCO15
(2008),"Thegameimmediatelylosesanysenseof
symmetryorbalance,whichmakestheopeningagood
choiceforaggressivefightingplayers."[1]

TheEncyclopaediaofChessOpenings(ECO)hasfour
codesforAlekhine'sDefence,B02throughB05:
B02:1.e4Nf6
B03:1.e4Nf62.e5Nd53.d4(includingthe
ExchangeVariationandFourPawnsAttack)
B04:1.e4Nf62.e5Nd53.d4d64.Nf3(Modern
Variationwithout4...Bg4)
B05:1.e4Nf62.e5Nd53.d4d64.Nf3Bg4
(ModernVariationwith4...Bg4)

Moves

1.e4Nf6

ECO

B02B05

Origin

AlexanderAlekhine,Budapest1921

Namedafter AlexanderAlekhine
Parent

King'sPawnGame

Contents
1 History
2 Use
3 Variations
3.1 FourPawnsAttack:3.d4d64.c4Nb65.f4
3.2 ExchangeVariation:3.d4d64.c4Nb65.exd6
3.3 ModernVariation:3.d4d64.Nf3
3.4 BaloghVariation:3.d4d64.Bc4
3.5 TwoPawnsAttack:3.c4Nb64.c5
3.6 TwoKnightsVariation:3.Nc3
3.7 Minorsidelinesafter2.e5Nd5
3.8 Alternativesto2...Nd5
3.9 Alternativesto2.e5
4 Seealso
5 References
6 Furtherreading
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History
TheopeningisnamedafterAlexanderAlekhine,whointroduceditinthe1921Budapesttournamentin
gamesagainstEndreSteiner[2]andFritzSmisch.[3]Fouryearslater,theeditorsoftheFourthEditionof
ModernChessOpenings(MCO4)wrote:
Nothingismoreindicativeoftheiconoclasticconceptionsofthe'hypermodernschool'thanthe
bizarredefenceintroducedbyAlekhine....Althoughopposingtoalltenetsoftheclassical
school,BlackallowshisKing'sKnighttobedrivenabouttheboardintheearlystagesofthe
game,intheexpectationofprovokingaweaknessinWhite'scentrepawns.[4]
InadditiontoAlekhine,anotherearlyexponentofthedefencewasErnstGrnfeld.

Use
ThepopularityofAlekhine'sDefencewaxesandwanescurrentlyitisnotverycommon.DeFirmian
observes,"Thefashioncouldquicklychangeifsomechampionoftheopeningtakesupthecause,asthe
resultsBlackhasobtainedinpracticearegood."[1]Theopening'scurrenthighestratedproponentis
GrandmasterVassilyIvanchuk,althoughLevAlburtplayeditatgrandmasterlevelalmostexclusively
duringhiscareerandwasresponsibleformanycontributionsinboththeoryandpractice.DeFirmian
writes,"CurrentlyGrandmastersShabalovandMinasianusetheopeningwithregularity,whileAronian,
Adams,andNakamurawilluseitonoccasion.Inthepast,greatplayerssuchasFischerandKorchnoi
includedthedefenseintheirrepertoire,leadingtoitsrespectablereputation."[1]

Variations
Aftertheusual2.e5Nd5,threemainvariationsofAlekhine'sDefenceuse3.d4,butthereareotheroptions
forWhiteatthispoint.TwoofthemostcommonversionsaretheExchangeVariationandtheFourPawns
Attack.TheExchangeVariationcontinues3.d4d64.c4Nb65.exd6.Whitehassomespaceadvantage.
Blackcancapitaliseonthehalfopencentrewith...g6,...Bg7with...Bg4eventuallybeingplayed.TheFour
PawnsAttackcontinues3.d4d64.c4Nb65.f4.Whitehasasomewhatlargerspaceadvantagethoughthe
centreisnotfixed.Blackhasanumberofoptions.Blackcanplay...Qd7with...000and...f6putting
pressureonWhite'sdpawn.Blackcanplay...Nb4with...c5hopingtoexchangethedpawn.Finally,Black
canplay...Be7with...00and...f6attackingthecentre.MinorvariationsincludeO'Sullivan'sGambit,3.d4
b5(intending4.Bxb5c55.dxc5??Qa5+),and3.d4d64.Bc4,theBaloghVariation.

FourPawnsAttack:3.d4d64.c4Nb65.f4
TheFourPawnsAttackisWhite'smostambitioustry,andthevariationwhichperhapsillustratesthebasic
ideaofthedefencebest:BlackallowsWhitetomakeseveraltempogainingattacksontheknightandto
erectanapparentlyimposingpawncentreinthebeliefthatitcanlaterbedestroyed.Thegamecanbecome
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verysharpsinceWhitemusteithersecurehisadvantageinspaceor
makeuseofitbeforeBlacksucceedsinmakingasuccessfulstrikeat
it.Blackmustalsoplayvigorouslybecausepassiveplaywillbe
crushedbytheWhitecentre.TheFourPawnsAttackisnot
particularlypopularbecausemanyWhiteplayersarewaryofentering
asharptacticallinewhichBlackmayhaveprepared.Themainline
continues5...dxe56.fxe5Nc67.Be3Bf58.Nc3e69.Nf3
AnalternativeisthesharpPlanincVariation,5...g5!?.Blackhopesfor
6.fxg5?dxe5,wreckingWhite'scentreandleavinghimwithweak
pawns.ThelineisnamedaftergrandmasterAlbinPlaninc,who
championeditinthe1970s.Itwasthentakenupinthe1990sby
correspondenceplayerMichaelSchirmer,whosegameswerenotedin
arecentbookonAlekhine'sDefencebynotableBritishGMand
AlekhineexponentNigelDavies.

1
a

FourPawnsAttack3.d4d64.c4
Nb65.f4

ExchangeVariation:3.d4d64.c4Nb65.exd6
TheExchangeVariationislessambitiousthantheFourPawns
Attack.Whitetradespawns,acceptingamoremodestspatial
advantage.Black'smaindecisioniswhethertorecapturewiththe
solid5...exd6,whichwillleadtoafairlystrategicposition,orthe
moreambitious5...cxd6whenBlackhasapreponderanceofpawnsin
thecentre.Thethirdrecapture5...Qxd6isalsopossiblesincethefork
6.c5canbeansweredby6...Qe6+,butthelineisconsideredinferior
sinceBlackwillsoonerorlaterneedtodealwiththisthreat.[5]
Inthesharper5...cxd6line,Blackusuallyaimstoattackand
underminethewhitepawnond4,andpossiblyc4aswell.Todothis,
ausualplaninvolvesafianchettoofthekingbishoptog7,playing
theotherbishoptog4toremoveaknightonf3whichisakey
defenderofd4,whileblackknightsonb6andc6beardownonthe
whitepawnsonc4andd4.CoxgavethegameJainyGomesvs.
GuillermoSoppe[1](http://www.chessgames.com/perl/chessgame?
gid=1487270)toillustrateBlack'sintentions.

1
a

ExchangeVariation3.d4d64.c4
Nb65.exd6

ApopularsetupfromWhitetopreventBlack'splanistheVoronezhVariation(namedaftertheRussiancity
Voronezh,wherethelinewasinvented,byplayerssuchasGrigorySanakoev).TheVoronezhisdefinedby
theopeningsequence1.e4Nf62.e5Nd53.d4d64.c4Nb65.exd6cxd66.Nc3g67.Be3Bg78.Rc100
9.b3.White'ssetupdelayskingsidedevelopmentsothatBlackhastroubledevelopingpiecesinafashion
thatharassesWhite'spiecesandassailsthecentrepawnsforinstancethereisnoknightonf3whichcan
becomeatargetafter...Bg4,andnobishopond3whichmaybeatargetafter...Nc6e5.While9...Nc6?!is
Black'smostcommonreplyaccordingtoChessBase'sdatabase,after10.d5Ne5Black'sknightlacksa
target,andwillsoonbechasedoutwithf2f4,andthislinehasscoredverypoorlyforBlack.[5]Themain
lineintheVoronezh,andthesecondmostcommonreply,is9...e510.dxe5dxe511.Qxd8Rxd812.c5N6d7
(Thisretreatisforcedsince12...Nd5??losestheknightduetothe13.Rd1pin)whenBlackmustplay

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carefullytounentangleandchallengetheWhitepawnonc5.OtherlinesagainsttheVoronezhinclude9...f5
leadingtosharpplay.Othersolidmovessuchas9...e6,...Bd7,...Bf5,and...a5arepossibleaswell.
AccordingtoJohnCox,the9...e5lineisadequate,butBlackneedstoknowthelinewell.[5]
TheVoronezhwasrecommendedbyJohnEmmsandnotedasabigproblembyNigelDavies,[6]leading
manyplayerstooptforthemoresolid5...exd6line.
However,thelineoffersBlacklessopportunityforcounterplay.InthislineBlackusuallydevelopstheking
bishopvia...Be7and...Bf6,becauseBg5canbebothersomeagainstafianchettosetupwith...g6and...Bg7,
e.g.6.Nc3g67.Nf3Bg78.Bg5.[5]

ModernVariation:3.d4d64.Nf3
TheModernVariationisthemostcommonvariationoftheAlekhine
Defence.AsintheExchangeVariation,Whiteacceptsamoremodest
spatialadvantage,andhopestobeabletohangontoit.Therearea
numberofpossibleBlackresponses:

4...Bg4,pinningtheknightisthemostcommonresponse,
5
5
whichWhiteusuallyparrieswith5.Be2.Blackwilloften
4
4
voluntarilysurrenderthebishoppairby...Bxf3becausethe
3
3
whiteknightisafairlystrongpiece,andcapturingit
underminesthewhitecentrepawns.Championsofthisline
2
2
includeLevAlburt,VlatkoKovaeviandthelateVladimir
1
1
Bagirov.
a b c d e f g h
4...g6,preparingtofianchettoabishoptoopposeWhite's
ModernVariation3.d4d64.Nf3
centralpawnmass,isalsooftenseen.Thisvariationwas
playedinthethirteenthgameoftheMatchoftheCentury
betweenBorisSpasskyandBobbyFischer.(Thenineteenthgameofthesamematchfeaturedthe
morecommon4...Bg4.)Alburthasalsoplayedthislinefrequently.[7]Whiteusuallyreplieswith
5.Bc4,theKeresVariation.
4...dxe5(theLarsenVariation)isanotherpossibilitywhichcanleadtothesharpsacrificialline
5.Nxe5Nd76.Nxf7!?Kxf77.Qh5+Ke6.Thesacrificeis,attheveryleast,goodenoughtodrawafter
8.Qg4+Larsentriedthesuicidal8...Kd6?againstFischerduringtheSantaMonicaBlitztournament
in1966,andlostquicklyafter9.c4.[8]Blackshouldthereforeacquiescetotheperpetualcheckwith
8...Kf79.Qh5+Ke6etc.Instead,8.c4canbeplayedifWhiteisaimingtowin.[5]Whitecanalso
simplyretreattheknightwith5.Nf3.IfBlackdoesnotwanttoallowthesacrifice,otheroptionsafter
5.Nxe5are5...g6(theKengisVariation)and5...c6(theMilesVariation).Theideabehindbothmoves
istochallengethee5knightwithNd7onlyafterthesacrificeonf7hasbecomeunsound.TheKengis
variationlooksmorenaturalbutwhitehasseveralsharpideassuchas6.c4andthewild6.Qf3!?.
Therefore5...c6hasbecomemorecommondespitethepassivelookthiswaitingmovediscourages
whitemostambitiouscontinuations.Now6.c4canbemetwiththeveryinteresting6...Nb4!?while
6.Bc4caneithertransposetoquieterlinesoftheKengisorgiverisetoindependentvariationsin
whichblackavoidstheking'sbishopfianchetto.White'smostpopularmoveis6.Be2(6.Bd3!?)when
blackcontinueswitheithertheimmediateNd7of6...Bf5.Againstthelatteranaggressivepossibility
(introducedbyKasparovagainstShortandthenimprovedbyJudithPolgar)is7.g4!?.[5]Intoplevel
chess,thelinewith5...c6haslargelydisplaced4...Bg4asthemainline.[9]
4...c6ispassivebutsolid,creatingapositionwhichisdifficulttoattack.
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Inmostvariations,Blackcanplay...Bg4totransposeintothe4...Bg4line.

BaloghVariation:3.d4d64.Bc4
ThefirstrecordeduseofthisvariationwasonAugust13,1929,in
Carlsbad,Bohemia.EstebanCanalwaswhiteandEdgardCollewas
black.WhiteresignedafterBlack's40thmove.[10]
Unlikeseveralothersidelines,4.Bc4isfairlypopular.Theline
containssometrapsthatcansnaretheunwary.Forexample4...dxe5
5.dxe5Nb6??losesthequeento6.Bxf7+!.Instead,themainlineis
4...Nb65.Bb3,whenBlackhasusuallyplayed5...dxe56.Qh5e6
7.dxe5(the"oldmainline"accordingtoCox)or5...Bf5whenWhite
canamongotherthingstrytheobstructivepawnsacrifice6.e6.In
eithercase,Whiteobtainsattackingchances,andsoTaylor
recommends5...d5followedby6...e6toreachapositionakintothe
FrenchDefense.[11]

1
a

BaloghVariation3.d4d64.Bc4

TwoPawnsAttack:3.c4Nb64.c5
TheTwoPawnsAttack(alsoknownastheLaskerAttackorthe
ChaseVariation[12][13])isalsoanambitioustry.Whitemaygain
attackingprospects,butitmightcostapawntodoso.[14]White's
pawnsonc5ande5secureaspatialadvantage,butthed5squarehas
beenweakened.UnliketheFourPawnsAttack,theWhitecentreis
notasfluidandthegametakesonamorestrategiccharacter.
Aesthetically,4.c5lookspositionallysuspect,sinceWhite'spawn
advanceshaveseverelyweakenedthed5square.[15]White'sintention
istograbspaceandmobilitysothatthosestrategicdeficienciesareof
littleconsequence.

1
a

TwoPawnsAttack3.c4Nb64.c5
Blackmustplay4...Nd5,whereuponWhitewillusuallychallengethe
knightwithmoveslikeBc4andNc3.Blackcandefendtheknight
with...c6or...e6,sometimesplayingboth.Typically,BlackthenchallengesWhite'spawnsone5andc5
withmoveslike...d6and...b6.

ThestatisticspresentedbyCoxshowthisvariationscoringpoorlyforWhite,withallofBlack'smain
defensesscoringatleast50%.[5]

TwoKnightsVariation:3.Nc3
TheTwoKnightsVariationisavariationwhereWhiteimmediatelyacceptsdoubledpawnsafter3...Nxc3
forsomecompensation.After4.dxc3thiscompensationisrapidpiecedevelopment.Althoughthelineafter
4...d6,challengingtheepawnoftencanleadtofairlydullpositions,thepositionremainsopenandBlack
canquicklysuccumbwithpoordefense,forexampleafter5.Bc4dxe5??6.Bxf7+!,Whitewinsthequeenon
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d8.After4.bxc3White'scompensationforthedoubledpawnsisabig
centrethatcanbeusedasabasisforakingsideattack.Theresulting
pawnstructureleadstopositionsimilartothatoftheWinawer
variationoftheFrenchDefense.[5]
IfBlackdoesnotwanttodefendagainstWhite'sattacking
opportunitiesagainst3...Nxc34.dxc3,then3...e6isareasonable
alternativethatwasAlekhine'schoicewhenmeetingtheTwo
Knights,andthisdefensehasbeenadvocatedbyTaylor.[16]IfWhite
plays4.d4,then4...Nxc3forcesWhiteintothebxc3linereminiscent
oftheFrench.If4.Nxd5exd5,Blackwillquicklydissolvethe
doubledpawnswith...d6,andtheresultingpositionwilltendtobe
drawish.

1
a

TwoKnightsVariation3.Nc3

Minorsidelinesafter2.e5Nd5
InEndreSteinerAlexanderAlekhine,Budapest1921,thefirsthighlevelgamewiththeAlekhineDefense,
Whiteplayed3.d4d64.Bg5.Coxrecommends4...h65.Bh4dxe56.dxe5Bf5,followedby...Nc6and
...Ndb4,targetingc2.
Anotherrareline,butonethatscoreswellinpracticeis3.d4d6
4.Be2,preventingBlackfromplaying4...Bg4whileretainingthe
optionofmakingthepawnadvancef2f4.[5]

6
6
After3.c4Nb64.a4,WhiteaimsatchasingtheBlackknightaway
followedbyapawnsacrificethatimpairsBlack'sdevelopment,for
5
5
exampleby4...d65.a5Nd76.e6.ItispossibleforBlacktoallowthis,
4
4
butitissimplertopreventitby4...a5.White'smaincontinuationisto
3
3
deploythequeensiderookfordutiesonthekingsidewith5.Ra3,
2
2
followedbyRg3atsomepointwhentheattackong7issupposedto
1
1
tieBlackdownfromdevelopingthebishoptoe7.However,after
a b c d e f g h
5...d66.exd6exd67.Rg3Bf5,Blackcancarrythroughwith8...Be7
4.Bg5fromSteinerAlekhine
anyway,sinceafter9.Rxg7therookwouldbetrappedandlostto
[5]
9...Bg6and10...Bf6. Theideaforthisunusualearly"rooklift"
probablyoriginatedwiththewellknownAmericanInternationalMasterEmoryTate.[17][18]Women'sWorld
ChampionGrandmasterMariaMuzychuk,WorldJuniorChampionGMLuShangleiandGMNazarFirman
haveexperimentedwiththislineandachievedsomesuccesswithit.[19]

Alternativesto2...Nd5
After2.e5,the2...Nd5isalmostuniversallyplayed.Thetwootherknightmovesthatdonothangittothe
queenond1are2...Ng8and2...Ne4.
2...Ng8,undevelopingtheknightimmediately,wasnamedthe"BrooklynDefense"inhonourofhis
hometownbyGrandmasterJoelBenjamin,whocallsthishis"petline".[20]AlthoughBlackmightbe
saidtobegivingoddsofthreemoves,Whiteonlyhasasmall

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saidtobegivingoddsofthreemoves,Whiteonlyhasasmall
advantageaccordingtotheory.[21]Thefirstrecordeduseofthe
BrooklynVariationwasin1905inViennawhereAron
NimzowitschwithWhitecheckmatedAdolfAlbinonthe34th
move.
Verydubiousis2...Ne4?,whichJohnL.WatsonandEric
Schillerdubthe"MokeleMbembe".Theyanalyze3.d4f6
4.Bd3d55.f3Ng56.Bxg5fxg57.f4!g6!8.Nf3!g4(theyalso
analyze8...gxf49.Ng5!e610.Qg4!Qe711.00and8...Bg4
9.h3,bothleadingalargeadvantageforWhite)9.Ng5Bh6
10.Nxh7Rxh711.Bxg6+Rf712.Qd3Bf813.f5e614.f6Qd7
15.h3!g316.Qxg3,withawinningadvantageforWhite.[22]
Nunn'sChessOpeningsconcludesthatWhitegetsalarge
advantagewith3.d4f6(or3...e64.Nh3h65.Qg4d56.f3h5
7.Qf4g58.Nxg5Nxg59.Qxg5Be710.Qg7)4.Qh5+g65.Qh4
d56.Bd3.[23]

1
a

3.c4Nb64.a4

Alternativesto2.e5
InsteadofchasingBlack'sknight,Whitemaydefendthee4pawn,eitherdirectlyorthroughtacticalmeans.
2.Nc3isbyfarWhite'smostcommonalternativeto2.e5infactCoxnotedthathesawthismovein
overhalfhisgameswiththeAlekhine.Itisoftenplayedbyamateursandthosewishingtoavoida
theoreticalbattleonterritorymorefamiliartotheiropponents.Cox,however,wrotethatmanyWhite
playersarebluffing,andinfactknownothingabouteithertheViennaGameortheFourKnights
Game,towhichthegamecaneasilytransposeifBlackplays2...e5,citingonebookwhich
recommended2.Nc3whileassuringreadersthat2...e5isuncommon.[5]AnothertranspositionBlack
mayenteris2...d6,whichusuallyleadstothePircDefence.ButtheindependentAlekhinelineis
2...d5,knownastheScandinavianVariation.After2...d5,3.exd5Nxd54.Bc4Nb6or...Nxc3is
consideredroughlyequal,while4...e6issolidbutblocksinthelightsquaredbishop.3.exd5Nxd5
4.g3hasbeenplayedbytheDanishcorrespondenceplayerOveEkebjaerg,whenHaraldKeilhack
recommends4...Nxc35.bxc3Qd5!6.Qf3!(6.Nf3Qe4+isawkwardinlightof7.Be2Bh3or7.Qe2
Qxc2)Qe6+!7.Qe2("on7.Be2or7.Ne2,7...Bd7isunpleasant")Qxe2+8.Nxe2Bd7!9.Bg2Bc6
10.00Bxg211.Kxg2Nc612.d3g613.Rb100014.c4Bg7,when"Blackhasarathercomfortable
position",asinEkebjaergAlcantaraSoares,corr.1989.[24]Morecombativeis2...d53.e5,when
Blackcanchooseamong3...d4,3...Nfd7(transposingtotheSteinitzvariationoftheFrenchDefence
after4.d4e6,but4.e6!?isasharpalternative),3...Ne4!?,andeven3...Ng8.Whilemostgrandmasters
playthemainline2.e5,JonnyHectorregularlyplays2.Nc3againsttheAlekhine,andhasscoredwell
againstthe2...d5variation.HisideashaveleftWhitewithatheoreticaledge.Textbookauthorsofthe
AlekhineDefence,includingDavies,Cox,andTaylor,havethereforeencouraged2...e5over2...d5.
2.d3(theMaroczyVariation)islesscommon.Althoughplayable,2.d3blocksinWhite'slight
squaredbishop,sothevariationisconsideredsomewhatpassive.IfWhitefianchettoesthatbishop,
transpositiontoaKing'sIndianAttackislikely.LevAlburtandEricSchillercall2.d3"insipid"and
recommend2...d5(or3.Nd2e5withareversedPhilidor'sDefence)3.e5Nfd74.f4(4.d4c55.c3Nc6
leavesBlackatempoupontheFrenchDefence)c55.Nf3e66.g3!?Nc67.Bg2Be78.00b5with
equality.[25]
2.Bc4israrelyseen,sinceitallowsBlacktogainthebishoppairandseizespaceinthecenter.Alburt
andSchillerwritethatafter2...Nxe43.Bxf7+Kxf74.Qh5+Kg8or4...g65.Qd5+e66.Qxe4Bg7
7.Qf4Ke8!"Blackhasnothingtoworryabout."[26]IfBlackdoesnotwanthiskingchasedabout,
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playablealternativesare2...e5(transposingtotheBishop'sOpening),2...d5and2...e6.
2.f3isalsorare,butplayerswholiketoplaytheBlacksideoftheLatvianGambitcanineffectwind
upplayingitafter1.e4Nf62.f3e53.f4!?.[27]

Seealso
Listofchessopenings
Listofchessopeningsnamedafterpeople

References
1.NickdeFirmian,ModernChessOpenings,FifteenthEdition,2008,p.159.ISBN9780812936827.
2.EndreSteinervsAlexanderAlekhine(http://www.chessgames.com/perl/chessgame?gid=1012060)at
ChessGames.com
3.FriedrichSamischvsAlexanderAlekhine(http://www.chessgames.com/perl/chessgame?gid=1012059)at
ChessGames.com
4.R.C.GriffithandM.E.Goldstein,ModernChessOpenings,FourthEdition,1925,p.1.
5.JohnCox(2005).Startingout:Alekhine'sDefence.EverymanChess.ISBN9781857443707.
6.Davies,Nigel(2002).Alekhine'sDefense.EverymanChess.ISBN9781857442533.
7.Burgess,Chapter9,AlburtVariation.
8.FischerLarsen(http://www.chessgames.com/perl/chessgame?gid=1044244)SantaMonicablitz,1966
9.Bogdanov,Valentin.PlaytheAlekhine.Gambit.ISBN1906454159.
10.http://www.chessgames.com/perl/chessgame?gid=1036753
11.Taylor,chapter8"Fourthorfifthmovesidelines"
12.Burgess,Graham,TheCompleteAlekhine,1992B.T.BatsfordLtd.,p.45.ISBN0805024255
13.Taylor,Chapter7,TheChaseVariationBacktotheCentre
14.DeFirmian,NickandWalterKorn,ModernChessOpenings,1990MMateChess.ISBN0812917308.
ReferredtoastheTwoPawnsAttackinlines2830.
15.Taylor,Page182.
16.Taylor,chapter9"ThirdMoveSidelines"
17.http://www.thechessdrum.net/palview5/tatevariation(selected).htm
18.http://www.chessgames.com/perl/chessgame?gid=1341122
19.http://www.365chess.com/opening.php?
m=8&n=4869&ms=e4.Nf6.e5.Nd5.c4.Nb6.a4&ns=3.11.42.76.754.894.4869
20.JoelBenjamin,AmericanGrandmaster:FourDecadesofChessAdventures,GloucesterPublishers,2007,p.
167.ISBN9781857445527.
21.Mostopeningtreatisesdonotmentionthisline.AccordingtoNunn'sChessOpenings,Whitegetsaslight
advantageafter3.d4d64.Nf3Bg45.h3.JohnNunn,GrahamBurgess,JohnEmms,andJoeGallagher,Nunn's
ChessOpenings,EverymanPublishers,1999,p.129n.30.ISBN1857442210.
22.JohnWatsonandEricSchiller,TheBigBookofBusts,HypermodernPress,1995,pp.12021.ISBN1886040
133.
23.JohnNunn,GrahamBurgess,JohnEmms,andJoeGallagher,Nunn'sChessOpenings,EverymanPublishers,
1999,p.129n.30.ISBN1857442210.
24.HaraldKeilhack,"KnightontheLeft:1.Nc3",SchachverlagKania,2005,pp.23940.ISBN3931192296.
25.LevAlburtandEricSchiller,TheAlekhinefortheTournamentPlayer,AmericanChessPromotions,1985,pp.
13031.ISBN0713415967.
26.AlburtandSchiller1985,p.131.
27.Taylor,chapter10AlekhineDeclined

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alekhine%27s_Defence

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Alekhine'sDefenceWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

Furtherreading
Bogdanov,Valentin(2009).PlaytheAlekhine.Gambit
TheWikibookChess
Publications.ISBN9781906454159.
OpeningTheoryhasapage
Davies,Nigel(2001).Alekhine'sDefence.EverymanChess.
onthetopicof:Alekhine's
ISBN1857442539.
Defence
Burgess,Graham(1992).TheCompleteAlekhine.B.T.
BatsfordLtd.ISBN0805024255.
Taylor,Timothy(2010).AlekhineAlert!.EverymanChess.ISBN9781857446234.
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