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Articulators

Introduction
Terminology
Function
Advantages
Requirements
Classification
1.
Class I simple holding
instrument
2.
Class II mean value articulator
3.
Class III adjustable condylar
path articulator
Semi adjustable
Fully adjustable

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An articulator is a mechanical device


used in dentistry to which casts of the
maxillary (upper) and mandibular
(lower) teeth are fixed,
reproducing recorded
positions of
the mandible in
relation to the maxilla.
An articulator assists
in the fabrication of
removable prosthodontic appliances
(dentures), fixed prosthodontic
restorations (crowns, bridges, inlays
and on lays) and orthodontic
appliances.

Build of articulator
:The articulator is formed of many parts
I. the upper member: it is a triangular
frame to which the upper cast is
attached, this member is attached
posteriorly
through
the
condylar
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guidance of the lower


member.
II. The lower member: it
is an L-shaped frame
with horizontal and
vertical arm.
The vertical arm
contains the condylar
guidance, while the horizontal arm
.carries the incisal guidance
III. Incisal guiding table: it is the part of the
articulator that maintains the incisal
guide angle as the incisal pin should rest
on the center of
incisal guide table
during articulation.
IV. Incisal pin:
it helps to keep
a fixed distance
between
the
upper and lower member of the
articulator at the anterior end.
The tip of incisal pin provides an
anterior reference for the articulator
It helps in the setting of the teeth
symmetrically

V. Mounting plate: it
is found in the
upper and lower
momber of the
articulator, where
the upper and
lower casts are
attached to the
articulator .

VI. A face-bow is a dental instrument that is


attached to the articulator, its purpose is
to transfer f the relationship of maxillary
arch and temporomandibular joint to the
cast that aids in mounting maxillary cast
on
the
articulator.

Functions of articulators:
2- To act as a patient in the absence of the
patient
3- Articulators can simulate but not
duplicate all the possible
mandibular movements
4- Hold opposing casts in
predetermined fixed
relationship
5- Mounting dental casts for diagnosis and
treatment planning
6- Arrangement of artificial
teeth for complete and
partial denture
7- Wax up and refining the
occlusion for dental
restorations

8- Help ful in studying and teaching


occlusion and mandibular movements

Advantages of articulators
1) Visualization of the patient's occlusion
especially from the lingual side.
2) Less chair time and patient
appointment time.
3) Patient cooperation isn't a factor once
the inter occlusal records are obtained
from the patient.
4) To plan the dental procedures based on
the relationship between opposing
natural and artificial teeth.
EX: evaluation of the
possibility of balance
occlusion.
5) Mounting dental cast
fot diagnosis and
treatment planning.
6) Arrangement of
artificial teeth for
complete and partial denture.

7) Wax up and refining


the occlusion for dental
restorations because
the refining in the
mouth is extremely
difficulty because of
shifting denture bases
resiliency of the supporting tissue.
8) The patient's saliva, tongue, and cheeks
are not limitation factors when using an
articulator.
Ideal Requirements of Articulator:
1. It should hold casts in correct horizontal
and vertical relationships.
2. It should provide a positive
anterior vertical stop (incisal
pin).
3. It should accept a face bow
transfer record.
4. It should open and close in a hinge
movement.
5. It should allow protrusive and lateral
motion.
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6. The moving parts should move freely


and be accurately machined.
7. The non-moving parts should be a rigid
construction.

Additional Requirements of Dental


Articulators:
1. Adjustable horizontal and lateral
condylar guide elements.
2. The condylar elements as a part of lower
frame and condylar guides as a part of
upper frame.
3. A mechanism to accept a third reference
point from a face bow transfer record.
4. A terminal hinge motion
locking device.
5. Removable mounting
plates that can be
repositioned accurately.
6. An adjustable incisal guide
table.
7. Adjustable intercondylar width of
condylar elements, when graphic tracing
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be used to set and/or select condylar


guidance.

Classification
1st-CLASSIFICATION
Depends on the location of the condyles
whether in the upper or lower member of
the articulator:
1-Arcon Articulator (condyle is in lower
member as TMJ)
2- Non- Arcon Articulator (condyle is in
upper member)
2nd- Classification
According to the accuracy of reproduction
of mandibular movements.
The classification system is as follows:
1.

Class I Articulator (Non-Adjustable)


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2. Class II Articulator (Mean Value)


3. Class III Articulator (Semi-Adjustable)
4.

Class IV Articulator (Fully Adjustable)

Other classifications:
1- According to
occlusion:
a- Bonwill articulator
based on theory of
equilateral triangle
b-Hall articulator based
on conical theory of occlusion
lower teeth move over lower teeth
generating an angle 45 degree with
central axis of cone
is
tipped 45 degree
with the occlusal
plane.
c- Spherical theory: lower teeth move
over upper with a sphere of 8 inch 20
cm diameter with its centre is in the
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glabella and its surface pass through


glenoid fossa
2- According to the record
used:
A -graph record
adjustment
b- interocclusal record
adjustment

3According to acceptance of
dimensional dynamic registration and
ability of producing path way for each
patient
a-TMJ articulator
b-Gnathoscope
c-Stuart instrument
4According to ability to receive and
reproduce pantograph and graphic
tracing
5-

Acceptance of facebow

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Class l articulators (Non-Adjustable


Articulators)
Plaster slap articulator
Simple hinge articulator
-

This class is a simple hinge instrument


that is capable of accepting a single
static registration, vertical motion may be
possible.
- The first articulator was a plaster slap
articulator followed by a simple hinge
articulator
- we use it in cases where tentative jaw
relation is done, for crown and bridges
and operative instruments
Plaster slap articulator (Relater):
-

It was first described by Philips pfaff


(1756)
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A
plaster extension on distal portions of the
mandibular cast were grooved to serve as
a guide for plaster extension of the
maxillary cast
Simple hinge articulator (Plane line):

It is

the
simplest
type, it produce the simple hinge opening
and closing movements of TMJ, so it
accept only centric relation records, no
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lateral or protrusive or retrusive


movements.
-

It consists of 2 bows upper and lower,


united by a hinge and a posterior screw
that decrease or increase distance
between the bows.

wear may occur in the hinge,


introducing lateral deflection. some
articulators incorporate means for
adjustment to accommodate wear, and
those devoid of this adjustment should be
discard once wear develops in the hinge.

The upper and lower bows should be


parallel to each other when mounting the
cast so the cast must be trimmed. After
mounting the locking nut should be
tightened to prevent screw movement.

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Class lI mean value articulators


Why is a mean value articulator called
so?
Because it has 3 fixed mean values

*intercondylar distance 10 to 11cm


*condylar guidance 33 degrees
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*Incisal guidance 9 to12 degrees


-Permits horizontal and vertical
movements to the TMJ
-The condylar guidance equivalent to
the glenoid fossa is attached to the
lower member and condylar element
equivalent at mandibular condyle
equivalent to mandibular condyle is
attached to the upper member
*The condylar path is fixed in the order
of 30 degrees
-Has the incisal pin guide which helps
to hold the articulator open at the
definite position
Suitable for patients having condylar
path around 30 degrees
-These articulators have two jaw
members,
Joined by two joints representing the
TMJ.
Allow a limited range of protrusive and
lateral
movements.
-Sagittal Condylar angle fixed at 30
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Lateral condylar angles (Bennett


Angle).
-fixed at average 15inclination.
Fixed incisal guidance.at
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Upper member
Triangular frame
Two condylar elements
Vertical incisal post with thumb scrow.
Vertical Rod or Incisal Post:
Helps to keep a fixed distance between
the upper & lower member at anterior
end. The tip of incisal post should rest
on the center of incisal guide table.
Incisal guide pin:
It helps to keep a fixed distance
between the upper and the lower
members at the anterior end.

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Present at the mid-point of vertical rod


(incisal post).
The incisal edge of
the maxillary incisors
at the midline of the
occlusal rim should
touch the tip of
incisal pin during
articulation.
It presents the anterior reference point.
Lower member
L Shaped frame with horizontal base
and 2 vertical arms.
Horizontal base is triangular and its
apex contains incisal guide
table.
Vertical arms containing
condylar
guidance slot at upper
portion.
Condylar guidance
Represent by a slot (condylar track)
Condylar element of upper member
passes through this track.
A spring is mounted within this track to
establish the Condylar element
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Face Bow
Is a caliper like device that is used to
record the
relationship of the maxilla to the TMJ.
And transfer this relation to the
articulator. Modern face-bows are
absolutely essential for producing
consistently predictable outstanding
aesthetic restorations, and they have
become extremely accurate and easy to
use.
Recants of face bow
The older face-bows were flimsy and
difficult to use. Labs would even
occasionally discard the face-bow and
mount the case on the articulator just to
placate the dentist. Even when the case
was meticulously mounted, often the
restorative case functioned no better
than one fabricated on a hinge
articulator. It was a lot of effort for very
little results. That has changed!

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Todays articulators with precision joint


mechanics are incredibly accurate, and
restorative cases fabricated on these
machines actually occlude and function
in the patients mouth just as they do on
the articulator. This certainly takes
much of the stress out of delivering a
large case. Modern face-bows allow the
dentist to present the case to the
technician on an articulator that sits on
the lab bench with the same horizontal
orientation that exists when the patient
is standing erect. This eliminates stick
bites and any compensation or guess
work on the part of the technician when
trying to achieve the correct vertical and
horizontal angles for the restorations.

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Bonwill Triangle
A 4- inch (10 cm) equilateral triangle
bounded by lines
connecting the mid
incisal
edge of mandibular
central incisor to each
condyle and from one
condyle to the other

Class III Semi-adjustable articulator


An articulator which is adjustable in one
or more, but not all of the following
areas: condylar angle, Bennett sideshift, incisal and cuspid guidance, and
shape of the glenoid fossae and
eminintiae. By nature, this sort of
articulator's use is only meaningful if the
position of the maxillae are duplicated
with respect to the hinge axis of the
mandibular condyles. The majority of
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these articulators again have straight


condylar paths, however the path angle
may be changed, allowing the patients
condylar angle to be programmed into
the articulator . This is still not a true
representation of the articular eminence
as it is a flat condylar pathway. Some
semi-adjustable articulators have
average value Bennett shift/movement
built into the condylar head element,
replicating the average head shape of
the condyle. This mimics the movement
of the condyles better than some ballshaped condylar heads found on other
articulators Normally this is achieved by
the use of a face-bow.
1-Accepts facebow transfer record to
mount upper cast

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2- Accepts
centric relation
record to mount
the lower cast.
3- Accepts
protrusive records
to adjust the
articulators
horizontal condylar
guidance.
(sagittal angle)

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4- The lateral condylar guidance is


adjusted according to the Hanaus

formula L= H /8+12
5- Adjustable incisal angle

6-Intercondylar
distance fixed at
110mm

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Class IV Fully Adjustable Articulator


Capable of being adjusted to follow the
mandibular movement in all direction.
Designed to
duplicate TMJ
features (Arcon)
They have
numerous
adjustable readings
which can be
customized for each patient.
They do not have a condylar guidance
instead they have receptacles, in
which acrylic dough can be contoured to
form a customized condylar
& incisal guidance.
Can accept the following
five:
1.
records Face bow
2.
protrusive
3.
lateral records

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4.
intercondylar
distance record
They are not commonly
used due to their
complexity.
Example
Denar D 4A

Gnathoscope

Simulator

Pantronic
acticulator
Dener (1982)
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Charls Stuart
Niles Guichet, 1968
Gnatholator
Modern day articulator: (disposable
articulator)
Through modern day plastics dental
articulators like the Spin NEO offer
strength and mandibular mobility.
Stone enhancers and quick
drying materials have
dramatically increased the
effectiveness of dental
articulators.
Plastics have the ability to mimic
natural mandibular movement because
of its strength
CADIAX articulator
Recording of mandibular
movements with CADIAX
Electronic registration of mandibular
movement is now a standard procedure
in many dental practices.
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offers individual
patient valuesettings for semiand fullyadjustable
articulators, thus
satisfying all of
needs, from joint-related reconstructions
to the diagnostics of dysfunction
Computer-supported incisal table
calculations

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References:
Text book of prosthodontics "Deepak
Nallswamy".
Text book of complete denture
prosthodontics "Sarandha D. L.".
Junior dentist website.

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Done by
Amir Nageeb "Leader"

5214071

Asmaa Mohamed Abdel-Mohsen 5214059


Omnia Osama

5214068

Amira Salama

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Ayman Saad El-Khawga

5214084

Ola Mohamed Salah Eldin

5214184

Ali Hatem Maray

5214187

Alia Mohasseb Hassan Mohasseb

5214189

Ghada Ashraf Elbessoumy

5214196

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