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A contraption endorsed Indian pulse seed recognition system with quality

determination prioritizing compound imaging techniques


H.SalomeHemaChitra1, Dr.S.Suguna2
1

Associate Professor, Dept of Computer Science, Sri Meenakshi Govt. Arts College
for Women (A),
Madurai 625 002, Tamil Nadu
salomechitra_2@yahoo.com

Assistant Professor, Dept of Computer Science, Sri Meenakshi Govt. Arts College for
Women (A),
Madurai 625 002, Tamil Nadu
kt.suguna@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Image processing has been utilitarian to different development of agricultural engineering in regulating to attain
expeditious and accurate process. Seed recognition is presently being achieved individually. The seed tester is to
frequently explore throughout several seed images prior to finding the preferred seed. Seed examination and
categorization can afford extra acquaintance with additional knowledge in the production, seeds superiority control
and impurity identification before planting the seed is to find genuinity of variety identification. The main objective
of presenting this context is to identify and verify the quality of the seed for future fertilization in the field of
agriculture. This research paper proposes a novel image processing technique that includes two phases depicts an
optimized selection of feature extraction and classification algorithm that enhances the quality, exactness of the seed
variety and realization of the most excellent classification production percentage of 98.9%. In this investigation, the
image processing techniques pertains to efficient pulse seed image representation. In the identification and
classification phase, image representation of the pulse seed varieties is pre-processed to enhance the seed image by
Gray-scale with S-component Conversion, background blare removal, smoothening etc. The escalated seed image is
processed to detect the outer boundary of the seed to extract the shape features of the pulse seed image and also the
inner region of the pulse seed image is extracted for the more accurate and closed boundaries to detect and fill the
inner holes of the pulse seed image. The feature extraction technique for employed for classifying the pulse seed
varieties by evaluating the shape, color, texture and seed specialized features. The feature selection is included in
this phase as the dimensionality reduction to attain significant features selection by weighting and ranking
techniques for the particular varietal classification. This feature selection is evaluated to reduce the features
representation and the huge feature extraction time. In the second phase, the quality determination of the pulse seed
is established to find good viability condition of seed using thermal imaging techniques. The quality aspects are
estimating water content in the seed, germination level, and vigorness of the seed and trueness of the seed for the
good harvesting. These compounded imaging techniques could make the identification and classification with
quality determination of Indian Pulse seed for good cultivation. Essentially, the average utilization time for
processing of identification and classification for each seed is 0.21s. This proposed algorithm is efficient in
extracting the features for high-resolution images of Indian Pulse seeds and these feature parameters are used for
classification that afford accurate categorization.
Keywords: Pulse seed identification, image analysis, optimized segmentation, Feature extraction, feature
selection with ranking, pulse seed quality, pixel compose for moisture level identification, pulse seed germination
index, classification of pulse seed.
1. INTRODUCTION
Pulse Seed examination and categorization are researched to acquire information regarding seed category,
selection, feature and the production. Disease-free, insect-free and unpolluted seeds can be distinguished as quality
pulse seeds. Purpose of the category, variety and feature of seeds, are required for certification events. And also, it is

the initial step of the seed dealing out operation in the seed partition machines. Utilization of qualified seeds raises
the superiority and magnitude of yield. Naturally, for the qualifications, the analysis and categorization progression
are prepared by seed specialists using visual distinctiveness of the seeds. These predictable methods are extremely
time-consuming, awfully dull and depend on an individual and expensive. In the seed partition machines, the
fortitude of the pulse seeds belongs to process, recognition of the seed category, assortments and detection of
unhealthy and structural malformed seeds procedures are carried out. In the present seed dispensation machines,
these developments are used involuntary process as well as visual, chromate graphic and spectrographic techniques
based on facts of colors.
In such machineries, the seeds are sequentially forced to go direct for the examination. Thus, the control
facility is an essential restriction in the practice. For rising rapidity and accurateness of the development, to establish
the category and ailment of the seeds are also most important in provisions of invention merchants and beneficiaries.
Therefore, in the segregation procedure, classification of varieties, and resolve of diseased and structural distorted
pulse seeds are preferred for rich cultivation and harvesting. For these motives, in modern years, several functions in
agriculture have been mechanized and made use of image processing systems turned into very significant. Also, in
this function the use of image processing techniques for pulse seed regarding further predictable schemes has
numerous imperative advantages. There is no expenditure included for classification of pulse seed and in the
conventional practices. In addition to these procedures, in seed exemption mechanism and image processing
techniques will enlarge the accuracy of the seed.
Computer aided system for pulse seed varietal identification is one of the significant sophisticated technical
fields indicates where major growth has been completed. And this system of seed evaluation endeavors the
pretention by sensory observation of human beings viz. shape, color, size, moisture etc. Efforts by contraption for
pulse seed are being stuffed towards an alternate procedure for established human sensory board with computerized
systems, as human process is quite inconsistent and less efficient. This research has been focused also on
determining the quality of pulse seed is quite essential to mechanization need of high quality and security values
attained with exact, high-speed and cost effective of seed identification. Traditionally quality of food product is
determined based on from its objective and compound properties of pulse seed by human evaluation that has been
time consuming process with varying statistical results and also found to be expensive.
The prominent goal of this research is to recognize and categorize the Indian Pulse seed with the quality
determination using significant feature extraction and feature selection algorithm in image processing. The pulse
seed identification and quality determination are established in this research context using two important phases that
includes the novel segmentation techniques for extraction of morphological features of seed varieties and feature
selection to reduce irrelevant and redundant data from the feature set. This system could be adapted for minimizing
the human visual assessment of pulse seed involved in seed identification and quality verification for the expected
outcome of the plantation. Because the pulse seed cannot be cropped without steady supply of quality that decreases
the good level of harvesting. And the endeavors of this research would provide an exact resolution in identifying the
seed variety and conclude the quality of that particular variety seeds for prospective cropping. Fig.1 shows the
varieties of Indian pulse seed considered in our work.

Fig.1. Indian Pulse Seeds

1.1 Context Structure


In this context, the following chapters describes of the seed identification and quality determination
process:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

In section 2, the Review of Literature is represented.


The Motivation is discussed in section 3.
The section 4 describes the proposed methodology for this context.
In section 5, the algorithms designed to implement this system is explained.
The results and discussions are evaluated in section 6.
In section 6, the performance evaluation is illustrated.

2. REVIEW OF LITERATURE
The paper [1], presents a resolution for the difficulty of quality evaluation and grouping of Rice in a
farming industry through computer vision, image study. This manuscript suggests parametric advantage technique
for quality assessment which is non-destructive and cost-effective technique. The paper also offers one computerized
method for including the amount of Oryza sativa L (rice seeds) from the distant essentials with a high degree of
quality and then quantifies the same by introducing Q-curves for quantification and assessment of the rice seeds.
The paper [2], constructs an automated system for identifying and classifying the rice grains using neural network.
The morphological features are extorted from the image are specified to the Neural Network Recognition Tool. The
rice grain samples are pre-processed to smoothing with gray-scale conversion. The background subtraction is
applied to detect the foreground which is used to detect the foreground objects. Then the detected objects are
simplifying the representation of the image using image segmentation and the features are extracted using
regionprops function. Finally the extracted set of the features for the set of rice grain samples is specified to the
neural network recognition tool to verify the variety and for the classification. In the paper [3], proposes a seed
identification system by applying image processing for Malt-barley seed collection is the key method in beer
manufacture. Malt manufacturing has been engaged and educated experts to make possible the selection method;
still though, those proficient do not exertion efficiently due to exhaustion and partiality. In this study an endeavor
has been prepared to extend malt-barley seed variety identification representation using ANN(Artificial Neural
Network), KNN(K-Nearest Neighbor) and their assembly model based on morphological, texture and color as fine
as by merging them utilizing chronological Forward Feature Selection (SFFS) technique.
The paper [4], illustrates identification and detecting infected seed of Glycine max (Soyabean) using Image
Processing. In this context, the image set is classified as registered set and input set. Both the set of images are preprocessed for background removal, noise removal, etc and the feature extraction is applied for both the set of image.
The feature extraction is applied for the registered set of images and stored in the database. When the input image is
pre-processed and the feature extraction is applied then the feature values are matched with the registered image set
values in the database and evaluates the matching score for identifying the infected seed. The paper [5], proposes an
approach based on the distinction of local fractal dimension (DLFD) for seed recognition of gramineous grass,
relatively than shape and color of the seeds. Being a significant fake type of grassland, gramineous grass has been
hardly ever examined for the mechanized identification charge by the researchers. Three major steps are implicated
in the removal of DLFD. At initial, the ROI image is uniformly separated into confined blocks and the fractal
measurement of the separations are intended. Based on the standard fractal aspect of all the blocks, the DLFD can
then be achieved by deducting the being fractal dimension and the regular, expanding the compare of the identity
comparison of the images. Euclidean Distance and the nearest neighbor classifier are lastly used for resemblance
dimension and categorization.
The paper [6], recommended various pattern identification methods for categorizing and ordering cereal
grains. This scheme deferred 100% exact prediction for the illustrations used in the study. The model attained is
preferred away of a grand amount of probable ones. These are achieved through individual conclusion and by means
of assessment and inaccuracy approach. The particles measured here were Corn, Wheat, Soyabean and Sorghum.
The paper [7] shows the exploit of image examination to distinguish among wheat and non-wheat mechanism in a
grain trial. They offered two techniques, multivariate separate and a structural archetype process for pattern
detection. The key anxiety in this scheme is the misclassification of unevenly formed stones as wheat. The

restrictions in the future system are the prerequisite to manually regulate the nub. This paper [8] argues the Digital
Image Processing implement which procedures the assorted constraints of rice samples and then evaluates the
premeditated parameters with presented values as affords by Indian Government to categorize the rice samples as
unusual, Grade A and Grade B trials. The paper [13] presents Watershed technique for the evaluation of rice granules
as Busted, Stained, Scratched and Chalky grains. The intended factors are granting as effort information to Neural
Network for categorization of rice grains.
The paper [11] intends a method to spot the color of rice particles based on Image Processing Technique
and Color forms i.e. RGB color model and HIS color model. In [12], have developed a Neural network approach to
organize distinct grain seed of dissimilar grains like maize, wheat, groundnut, blackgram, redgram and greengram
based on color, region covered, height and width. The least and highest categorization accuracies are 80% and 90%
correspondingly. The paper [16] offers an algorithm to recognize the broken rice granules and Normal rice granules
regarding Color, Morphological and Textural features using instruction and testing by Neural Network method. The
paper [14] demonstrates an algorithm for detection and organization of comparable looking granules images using
artificial neural networks. It illustrates that exactness of 78-84% is accomplished by means of moreover entity color,
quality aspects, and precision is detects when equally the features are pooled. In paper [15] projected a mechanism
algorithm to evaluation the rice nub using Multi-Class SVM. Highest variation scheme was functional to extort the
rice essence from background, then, after the chalk has been extort from rice. The proportion of Head rice, broken
rice and Brewers in rice models were determined using ten numerical features. Multi-Class SVM classified the rice
kernel by probing the contour, Chalkiness and proportion of broken seed. The SVM order correctly more than
86% .Regarding the consequences, it was accomplished that the structure was adequate to utilize for organizing and
evaluating the special varieties of rice crumbs based on their internal and external worth.
In this [17] paper, projected that the technique illustrated here will be appropriate to other purposes employing color
images that cannot be confined in repeatable approach, for value control and evaluation intentions. In this paper
[18], reviews basics in computer aided image analysis, which are contributing to improving insight of seed
morphology and biology, in terms of seed quality and germination and various aspects of seed image analysis like
image acquisition and pattern recognition. This research [21] is aimed at evaluating the shape and color features
using the most commonly used neural network architectures for cereal grain classification. An evaluation of the
classification accuracy of shape and color features and neural network was done to classify four Paddy (Rice) grains,
viz. Karjat-6, Ratnagiri-2, Ratnagiri-4 and Ratnagiri-24. The most suitable feature set from the features was
identified for accurate classification. The Shape-n-Color feature set outperformed in almost all the instances of
classification. In [22], proposed system uses content based image retrieval (CBIR) technique for identification of
seed e.g. wheat, rice, gram etc. on the basis of their features. CBIR is a technique to identify or recognize the image
on the basis of features present in image. In this system we are extracting color, shape feature extraction. After that
classifying images in two categories using neural network according to the weights and image displayed from the
category for which neural network shows maximum weight.
The main objective of this research [23] is to develop a methodology for identifying different varieties of paddy
seeds using morphological features. This methodology consist of several steps image acquisition, segmentation
using mean shift segmentation that is based on color merge over the space, binarization using otuss threasholding
method, feature extraction and classification. Six morphological features are extracted from paddy seed images and
they are area, diameter, major axis, minor axis, compactness, roundness. All three verities that are classified in this
paper vary according to all morphological features. More numerical results are presented in this paper. The paper
[24] depicts the zero tolerance for live insects in grain received from farmers, and shipped to domestic and export
buyers, has necessitated the development of an accurate insect detection method. An infrared thermal imaging
system was developed to detect infestation by six developmental stages (four larval instars, pupae and adults) of
Cryptolestes ferrugineus under the seed coat on the germ of the wheat kernels. Miller B. analysis seed requires
specific evaluation skills such as a thorough knowledge of crop and weed seed morphology for a purity test and an
ability to discriminate normal and abnormal seedlings in a germination test. The paper [27], represents an approach
to investigate the effects of dehydrating on some apparent characteristics of raisin comprising shape, color and
texture which are interpretable by machine vision systems. The correlation between the time and the image based
characteristics were correlated in raisin drying. The paper [28] represents an approach to determine the quality of
rice seed by identified the impurities in the rice seed with texture analysis and linear binary pattern. The paper [29]
presented evaluation of moisture content of cereals by texture analysis in image processing. The paper [30]
represented an approach for quality determination by evaluating germination emergence by color and morphological
measurement.

3. MOTIVATION
In agricultural production feature evaluation of pulses seed is a major difficulty. At present, the quality of
Indian Pulse seed has been resolved physically during image assessment by practiced technicians. So it involves
high quantity of precision to convince consumer requirement of high quality of intensity as well correctness for a
consistent quality estimation technique that is projected based on image processing.
The motivation for this proposed technique is the key issues occur in the field of agriculture and for good
harvesting. The following aspects are the major issues arise during cropping of pulses:

The seeds variety must be identified for the exact harvest of a particular variety. Thus in existing processes
every stage of variety identification needs manual contribution.
Separate human resources and other resources are required to find the exact seed category.
The seed identification in existing techniques doesnt outcome complete segmented image to extract the
feature.
Existing techniques are applied in the field of agriculture with image processing in cereal varieties such as
wheat, barley, etc. but it doesnt identify the trueness of the seed.
The seed tester must report that the seed is good for cropping in accordance with the feature like color, seed
strength, undamaged seed, etc. These features would be evaluated by various testers. This would increase
consumed time.
The major issue is we couldnt verify that the seed tester provided report is exactly accurate or not.

Thus the removal of low-quality seed and obtain an accurate variety with quality of the seed is very significant
aspect for cropping. Therefore this paper establishes a novel technique which includes an encapsulated tool to
identify the pulse seed variety and also determine the quality of the particular variety seed. This system will
mechanically choose some significant feature to classify the varieties instead of testing entire features for a single
variety classification. This will minimize the time required and storage allocation for the categorized seed varieties. .
4. PROPOSED METHODOLOGY
The physical recognition of Indian pulse seeds is based on the lead established image feature assessment
achieved by seed tester that is tedious, slow with reduced proficiency and inconsistency. The aforesaid procedure
that is adapted is considered to be one of disputes and constraints. Pulse quality examination by a traditional seed
practitioner found to be with less accuracy in competency. Identification and classification of pulse seeds are need to
be a practice based on features like exterior, color, contour and sizes of the pulse seed. In the analysis of this,
mechanized pulse seed quality assessment using computer vision could be advantageous to achieve prompt and
feature measurement.
This research paper would encompass the image processing aspects of identifying and classifying the
quality seeds for a good cropping and harvesting. This proposed methodology possesses two different phases that
would implement the entire recognition and quality fortitude. The Fig.2 illustrates the encapsulated architecture for
our proposed system Encapsulated Indian Pulse Recognition System (EIPRS) which includes the following
structure:

Phase-I: Identification and Classification of Indian Pulse Seed


Phase-II: Quality Determination of Indian Pulse Seed.

Fig.2. Encapsulated Indian Pulse Recognition System (EIPRS) Architecture


4.1 PHASE-I: IDENTIFICATION AND CLASSIFICATION OF INDIAN PULSE SEED
PhaseI includes different layers that depict various processes of this first phase that includes Mapping and Pixel
Composing Layer, Similarity detection and Isolation Layer, Region Descriptive and Selection Layer, Statistical
Estimation and Pattern Matching Layer. Image pre-processing can significantly increase the reliability of an optical
inspection. The goal of the pre-processing is to enhance the visual appearance of images and to improve the
manipulation of datasets. The detection of outer region includes edge detection methods that could be appropriate
for pulse seed images that are simple and noise free as well often produce missing edges or extra edges on complex
and noisy images. The proposed method locates object and boundaries. Further this phase has an image
segmentation through detection of inner region is typically used to locate objects region of interest in images. The
segmented image is further used for extracting the features for classifying the variety of the pulse seeds. The feature
extraction is the main objective to find the variety of the pulse seed. Prior to the process of classification of seeds,
feature selection is included in this phase to minimize the computational complexity of the feature extraction. Thus
the best set of feature of the seeds to be adapted accurate classification of seed varieties.
4.1.1 Mapping and Pixel Composing Layer
This layer includes the image possession process that makes the preparation set for the training of the
image acquisition and the pre-processing is employed for the image enhancement and further processes of the image
manipulation for the identification.

(i) Image Acquisition of Indian Pulse Seed


. India has over 60 varieties of pulses which provide a primary source of protein for her millions of
vegetarian and many health benefits. Ten pulse varieties are adapted for this research. The pulse seed imaging unit
was constructed to acquire digital image for seeds. This unit consists of digital CCD camera and illumination unit
consisting of two lamps adjusted at angle with respect to a seed position for correct field view of camera and a base
covered with black cloth for placing seed samples. All images are 300dpi resolution and 240 x 218 pixels in PNG
format. The resulted images show relatively bright with dark background. Sample set includes 100 images for each
of ten varieties. The Fig.3 shows a real dataset of acquired image. Fig.4 shows subset of sample varieties of Indian
pulse seeds

Fig. 3. Real Dataset Test Images of Indian Pulse seed Varieties

Fig.4. Sample Varieties for Test Image Dataset


Defected and infected pulse seeds are also taken for the research in quality determination of pulse seed. The
following Fig.5 shows a defected pulse seed.

Fig.5 sample defected Pulse seed


(ii) Pulse Seed Image Enhancement

Image pre-processing preserves extensively and enhances the reliability of a visual inspection. At this stage
Gray-scale with S-component conversion is performed in order to convert an image to grayscale image. The HSV
color space representation of an image is selected for its invariant properties. The reason for performing image
enhancement techniques on Scomponent is for accessing less sensitive nature to lightening variations. Here RGB
(Red, Green, and Blue) is key object to HSV (Hue, Saturation and Lightness value) conversion is required and
enhanced for further process. The proposed method, a hybrid of Wiener and Median Filter with Enhancement that is
used to eradicating the noise in the seed image, because it conserves edges of the image throughout noise deduction.
The grayscale function transforms the image into grayscale image. This function weighted the RGB colors in the
image and make sum of the weighted significance to renovate it to gray-scale image. The Equ.1 gives a grayscale
transformed image. Fig.6 illustrates components of image enhancement for Indian pulse seeds. Fig.7 shows the
result set for our proposed HWIME algorithm depicted in Fig #.

R' = G' = B' = 0.299R + 0.587G + 0.114B

(1)

Fig.6. Proposed Architectural design of Pulse Seed Enhancement Process

Fig.7. Enhanced image result sets based on Fig.6 for EIPRS


This phase-I indicates the enhancement processes for the seed images to maintain a common format. The
following are the image enhancement process:

The background blares of the seed image are removed that in extracting exact pulse seed image from the
unnecessary blare.
Resizing the seed image dimension for further process. The resizing of the image dimension assists to
maintain a common sizing for all training set data images.
Noise reduction, Smoothening and Contrast adjustment are also incorporated.
It enhances the quality of the seed image for further process.

4.1.2 Similarity Detection and Isolation Layer


This detection layer consists of the edge detection stage and Seed Segmentation process of the enhanced
seed image for the identification phase. This layer focuses on detecting the outer and inner boundary of the seed
image for the similarity detection of the edges and isolating the pathetic edges.
(i) Outer Region Detection of Pulse Seed
The key need of the edge detection process is to attain the object boundary regions that minimizes the
quantity of inadequate data whereas defending significant formation attributes in an image and after it facilitates to
aid for image segmentation. An edge detection method requires a balance between detecting accuracy and noise
immunity. If the intensity of detecting precision is moreover high, blaring could carry in fake boundaries building
the sketch out of seed images is difficult and if the level of blare exception is too unnecessary, some component of
the image outline may get unnoticed and the spot of objects may be incorrect. The proposed method OORDM
(Optimized outer region detection method) depicted in Fig.# explains improvement of edge detected image by
specifying and classifying the edges by estimating the gradient mask and according to their edge trait. Grouping the
less density edges and enhances them with Gaussian membership function on input image of a seed and polynomial
based membership function like s-z applied on output image. The optimized edges as shown in Fig.8 are computed
by the double membership function such as sigmoid and spline based formula shown in Eqi.(2) and Eqi.(3).

Equ (2)

Equ (3)

Existing method of edge detection is not properly practiced and beneficiaries to show quality of a seed
image. Our proposed algorithm OORDM furnishes a well quality edge detected image based on double membership
function to extract an optimized outer boundary region of a pulse seed image. This increases an accuracy of
segmentation process for our sample images.

Fig.8. Architectural design of Optimized Outer Region Detection Method (OORDM)

Fig.9. Optimized Outer region detected Image of Pulse


Seed with threshold value 0.6 and influence parameter b=0.7, w=0.9
Thus, edge detection methods are appropriate for images that are simple and noise-free as well often
produce missing edges or extra edges on complex and noisy images. The existing methods like canny doesnt
exertion with the low-contrast regions images, but our proposed method can apply with low-contrast regions. This
technique includes outer boundary region detection with a above steps in Fig. 8 and results which shows optimized
broken edges of the pulse seed images with threshold and performance parameter setting in which performance of
the boundary is depended as shown in Fig.9.
(ii) Inner Region Detection of Pulse Seed
The objective of segmentation of pulse seed image is to make simpler and transform the illustration of an
image into impressive that is further to be significant and easier to evaluate. Image segmentation is academically
used to set objects and restrictions in images. More accurately, image segmentation is the method of conveying a
label to every pixel in an image such that pixels with the same label split definite visual distinctiveness. In this work,
morphological features and color features (RGB features) are essential to be extorted. So the image must retain the
shape information of the seed varieties when segmentation is processed
The proposed algorithm SBIRD (Similarity based inner region detection) depicted in Fig.17 starts with a
seed pixel and develops the region by accumulation the adjacent pixels based on automatic threshold value. When
the growth of a region stops, another seed pixel which does not fit in to every other region is preferred and the
process is repeated. This segmentation is stopped when all pixels belong to some region. In the proposed
segmentation technique, that segments the entire seed image from the inner boundary region and doesnt require any
threshold value and doesnt take more iteration for the segmentation. This inner and outer region detection increases
the accuracy of a feature extraction process. Fig.10. shows components of a SBIRD algorithm and Fig.11. shows a
resultant images of segmentation algorithm.

Fig.10. Architectural design for SBIRD Method

Fig.11. Indian pulse seed variety segmented image


Based on SBIRD algorithm with (intensity) =09.877
4.1.3 Region Descriptive and Selection Layer
The main objective of this layer is to extract the feature for the identification of the seed images by means
of the region description to wrap up the variety of the pulse seed and also focuses on the selection procedure to
formulate the feature for the particular variety of the pulse seed image. This description and the selection would
make the classification of the variety of the seed in the optimized comportment.

(i) Feature Extraction of pulse seed image


A feature of the pulse seed can be intensity value, color, texture, shape and seed species etc. In this study,
the classification of the seed points considers feature of the input image. Moments as an invariant feature vector has
been used to recognize the test object from a database. The use of moment invariant provides a unique identification
for each object irrespective of its transformations i.e. translation and rotation. For this purpose suitable features
should be selected so that an assessment production system can suitably classify achievable pathological regions
from healthy ones. Feature extraction plays a fundamental and important role in many pattern recognition tasks. The
criterion for the feature selection is regarded to be morphological variations among abrasion and healthy regions.
In the Phase-I, the key objective is extracting the features of the seed images to conclude the exact variety
of the pulse seed and to verify the quality of the particular variety seeds for the further classifications using our
proposed feature extraction algorithm GCTS(Geometrical ,color, texture, special features) for Indian pulse seed
depicted in Fig 18. The feature extraction includes nearly 236(color+ geometrical+ texture+ seed specialized)
features to identify the seed variety. Some of the feature extraction aspects are described below:
Color Feature
The color feature is extracted from the confined image of the seed that extract the color range from the input
image to classify the good quality and exact seed variety. Color is a widely used important feature for image
representation. This is especially significant as it is invariant with deference to extending, transformation and
replacement of an image. Color space, color quantification and connection dimension are the key mechanism of
color feature extraction. The mean, variance and standard deviation of an image are recognized as color instants.
Following Eqi (4), Eqi (5) and Eqi (6) define the mean, variance and standard deviation of an image of size mxn.

Where Xij is the Pixel value of the ith row and jth column.
Shape Feature
Shape Feature extraction plays a major role in this application of identifying the seed variety. The shape of
objects plays an important responsibility among the different features of visual information. Therefore, it is a very
powerful feature when used in similarity search and retrieval. The exact shape from the input image is extorted to
determine the exact pulse variety which separates the good quality seeds and maintain a common shape feature for
the particular seed variety from the training set. Some of the shape features like size of seed, Axis of least inertia,
Eccentricity, Elliptic variance, Circularity ratio, Convexity, Rectangularity, Solidity, Euler number, Profiles,
Hole area ratio, Major axis length, Minor axis Length, aspect ratio etc has been extracted.
Axis of least Inertia: The axis of least inertia is exclusive to the shape. It provides as a distinctive suggestion line to
defend the direction of the shape. The axis of least inertia (ALI) of a shape is distinct as the line for which the
integral of the square of the distances to points on the shape boundary is a minimum.
Eccentricity: Eccentricity is the assess of aspect ratio. It is the ratio of the extent of major axis to the
length of minor axis. It can be considered by major axes method or least bounding rectangle method.

Solidity: Solidity describes the extent to which the shape is convex or concave and it is defined by where, As is the
area of the shape region and H is the convex hull area of the shape. The solidity of a convex shape is always
1.

Fig.12. Eccentricity with low and high length chord of pulse seed
The maximum length b of all chords that are perpendicular to the longest chord can give us additional shape
information. The eccentricity (sometimes called elongation) of an object is defined by the ratio a, b of the lengths of
the longest and longest perpendicular chord. Fig.12 shows an objects with high and low eccentricity of seed.
Texture Feature
Texture is an extra feature that can help to sector images into areas of concentration and to sort out those
regions. In some images, it can be the essential attribute of regions and critical in attaining a precise investigation.
Texture gives us information about the spatial understanding of the colors or intensities in an image. Texture features
like contrast, entropy, homogeneity has been extracted.

Texture information contained in this matrix and texture features are calculated from the above formulae.
M(i,j) is a symmetric formulation for texture calculations.
(ii) Feature Selection
In this component, the feature extracted is represented in a Matrix format. We extracted and represented
nearly 236 features for the pulse seed to identify the variety. But it holds little more storage space and time
consumption for identification. Thus the other decision is to formulate the factor of Feature Selection. The Feature
Selection is the key objective of this proposed technique that implements a prototype based identification scheme
and to minimize these issues of storage consumption. This feature selection seizing that it mechanically selects the
significant features to identify the variety of seed. Only the best features are chosen from the feature set that would
minimize the time consumption and this would identify the exact variety of the seed. Mainly it minimizes the
irrelevant and repeated value in a matrix. The best features are selected to identify the particular variety is
maintained in the training set of features. This would help in finding the variety of the seed for the classification
within less time consumption and this would provide exact seed variety. Morphological Parameters were extracted
from segmented image. The selected parameters were Area, Minor Axis length, Major Axis length, Eccentricity,
Solidity etc. The parameters are fused and then ranked and weighted. The significant features are ranked by their
weightage are obtained by that the more relevant to the seed as per our proposed algorithm OFSRW (Optimal

feature selection algorithm based on ranking and weighting) depicted in Fig. 19. The following Fig.13 shows the
components of significant feature dimensionality reduction.

Fig.13. Architectural Design for optimal feature Selection by OFSRW Method.


The identified variety of the seeds is further classified in the matrix representation. This representation
includes the variety of the seed, quality of the seed and the features that satisfy the variety identification. Fig.13.
shows an architectural component to find a significant feature selection for object recognition. .
4.1.4 Statistical Estimation and Pattern Matching Layer
The best features selection is completed in the selection layer of Phase-I which prepared separate estimated
statistical information regarding the training set and testing set of pulse seed images. After the statistical estimation
is prepared as matrix format is matched with this information to classify the variety of the seeds. This would classify
the trueness of the variety of seed.
(i) Pulse Seed classification
Image classification is an area in image processing where the primary goal is to separate a set of images
according to their visual content into one of a number of predefined categories. It is the problem of finding a
mapping from images to a set of classes, not necessarily object categories. Each class is represented by a set of
features and the algorithm that maps these feature vectors to a class uses machine learning techniques. The ability to
perform multi-class image classification as an automatic task using computers is increasingly becoming important.
This is due to the huge volume of image data available, which are proving to be difficult for manual analysis. The
difficulty arises due to lack of human experts, time complexity and poor quality images. Classification, a task of
computer aided algorithms, is used for this purpose. Recently, publications that combine different machine learning
algorithms to form hybrid models have also been proposed. Most of these hybrid models combine two or more of
predictive or descriptive algorithms in order to improve the performance of identification and recognition. The best
features are selected to identify the particular variety is maintained in the training set of features.
Assigning images to pre-defined categories by analyzing the contents is defined as Image classification or
Image categorization. The process of image classification allows users to find desired information faster by
searching only the relevant categories and not the whole information space. The neural networks are quite famous to
be well adapted for problems of classification, where the task of recognizing the pulse seed image for seed
identification is addressed as a multi-class classification problem among various seed species, in a given feature
space. A Support Vector Machine is a concept in computer science for a set of related supervised learning methods
that analyze data and recognize patterns that are mainly used for classification and regression analysis. Our proposed
algorithm TCPS depicted in Fig.20, used SVM based classification and it hybrid with back propagation neural
network (BPNN). It would help in finding the variety of the seed for the classification within less consumption of
time and this would provide exact seed variety. The feature set of the pulse seed is processed to classify the pulse
seed variety and classifies the good seed and the bad seed of the particular variety.

PHASE-II: SEED QUALITY DETERMINATION LAYER


4.1.1

Aspects of computer aided system in quality determination of Indian pulse seed.

The seed is the first determinant of the future plant development and it is the master key to success with the
good crop productivity with increase in the economical profits. Benefits from the breeding can only be transferred to
the farmer if good quality seed is released. And farmers expected outcome is achieved through only by quality
trueness of seed varieties. Presently, the seed quality determined by involving the seed into various stress tests and
immerses the seed into various chemical solutions that could distort the originality of seed. To overcome these
disputes, the seed varietal identification involving an image analysis techniques to avoid distortion of a pulse seed.
The variety testing of pulse seed may be aimed to identify variety, to discriminate different varieties, to check the
genetic purity or to provide a characterization of the variety. Germination capability and seed vigor are the key
objective to achieve good cropping. Table 1 shows the aspects in image analysis in pulse quality detection

Table.1. Aspects in Quality determination of pulse seed in proposed method


This research adapted the computer aided techniques for monitoring germination and vigorness of pulse
seed to reduce the routine seed vigor testing and also increases the accuracy of these measurements. Moisture
content (MC) of the pulse seed is the most vital factor influencing physical and mechanical properties of cereal crop
seeds. MC is determined in computer aided system by texture based analysis and LBP methods. But this procedure
has a limitation such as noise sensibility and it affected by rotational transform. And also this method needs large
number of extensions to be need for complex seed images . This research adapted a thermal imaging technique to
determine the MC with high level of accuracy. The following Table 2 shows image analysis parameters used in this
research for quality determination of pulse seed.

Table.2. pulse seed image analysis parameters in quality determination


The next juncture of our architecture is phase-II, to determine the quality of the seed by verifying the quality
metrics of the seed. The quality of the seed is one of the important aspects of this paper which depicts the good
cropping. Thus in this context, the some of the quality metrics namely vigorness, germination emergence and purity
are evaluated to determine its quality. The quality determination of seed has various levels. The trueness of seed is
the first level has been obtained in phase-I. The following factors such as germination emergence, vigourness, purity
of seed are another quality metrics which are evaluated in Phase-II. Consider an algorithmic flow of Quality
Determination and Trueness (QDT) of pulse seed Image. Standard germination tests support the seed vigor testing
process. Vigor tests are designed to mimic poor seeding conditions to find out how the seed lot will
perform under stress. It is the exact opposite of a germination test, where seed is grown under optimum conditions.
4.2.1 Purity of seed by color depiction:
Color characterization is one of the physical characterizations of seed to determine the purity of seed. Infected or
damaged seeds are identified by seed color as shown in Fig14. In this figure infected seeds color changes from good
and healthy green into green-brown, white-black spotted coat, brown- dark brown. Usually the physical
characterization of seed is defined poorly on a basis of visual observation such by color comparisons. This visual
classification lowers the grade of seed acceptance test. In order to attain the quality results, our proposed computer
aided system will be performed. All the pulse seed image of healthy and defected are converted into rgb and hsv
color indexed image. Color pixel intensity for RGB, HSV is evaluated from the healthy sample seed images. It can
be compared with color pixels intensity values for defected image and the color characterization for seed purity was
analyzed. The color pixel mean intensity histogram is computed for both normal and abnormal seed as shown in
Fig.15.

Fig.14.Color variance of Indian Pulse Seed for seed purity determination

Fig.15.Pixel intensity quantification Histogram for Normal and Abnormal Seed

Vigorness by Seed roundness factor: Seed can be represented by its swelling and growth, which can be measured
by means of ROI property in image analysis techniques. The morphology shape of the seed is elongated in
corresponding dimensions. Swelling process could be measured the increase in size (area, perimeter, length, width)
and shape. Seed water uptake resembled by QDT pattern in our proposed algorithm. The size of the seed increased
at 4h and completed at 15h of imbibitions. The rapid increases of seed size changes characterized by the projection
of seed coat. The following Fig.16 shows the effect of the seed size by water uptake and this will be used to evaluate
the germination quality of the seed. Water uptake or moisture content determines the germination emergence rate.

Fig.16. Seed Development stage for water uptake


Invasive Seed Vigourness fortitude:
In this quality aspect, the moisture content level of the seed is measured. It would helps in set up the life
span of the seed. The moisture content level would held nearer to 9%, it determines that the seed will growth
vigorous and also verify whether the seed contains more moisture content than the range then it conclude that the
seed may be decomposed or doesnt grow. The moisture level doesnt be very low and as well as high, if it is so then
the seed becomes dry or decomposed seed. Observation of the moisture content of the seed can be used to reduce the
seed dryness cost while it may have more percentage of MC (Moisture content).
Thermal images of seed samples were taken with the IR camera (SC7600; FLIR Systems) that had a
resolution of 320x240 pixels. Thermal image system can record the temperature. Depict the uneven temperature
impingement of seed is quickly discovered y thermal camera. Because normal germination needs suitable
temperature measurement and water content under various conditions. Moisture content of standard data can be
analyzed in thermal imaging system by our proposed algorithm which has preprocessing a thermal seed image and it
have a capable of catching the moisture content through color estimation. To detect the accurate level of the
moisture content of the pulse seed, the moisture meter is used existing system. The proposed system allows us to
increase accuracy level of the measuring moisture content in the seed. It is acquired by analyzing the thermal image
of the pulse seed using analysis the pixel based regression color intensity value from the seed samples. If it exceeds
or goes below the moisture level it leads to awful harvesting. Thus in our proposed system, the thermal image of the
seed is analyzed to detect the moisture level. The moisture content level was assessed for some sample seeds are
illustrated in the Fig.17. These thermal images are analyzed with the mean color intensity value with corresponding
temperature value. The mean color intensity (RGB) value is evaluated from the thermal images and the B (Blue)
color mean intensity is measured to increase the accuracy of finding moisture level in the seed. It can be predicted
that the seed quality is obtained by this way of computing the temperature and moisture for germination. Thermal
image for pulse seed with cool and hot spot determination with temperature as shown in Fig.18. Cool spot color
pixel represents the moisture seed and less cool spot represents a less moisture seed and yellow spot shows dry seed
with lesser than 5% of moisture of pulse seed.

(a)

(b)
(c)
Fig.17. Thermal imaging system of Indian pulse seed
a) Thermal region for moisture pulse seed with thermal parameters T oC at cool and hot spot b) Thermal
region for Dry seed with less cool spot c) Thermal region for complete dry seeds with no cool spot.

Fig.18. The visual output of the thermal data measurement to check moisture content (Image of FLIR system,
Thermal Camera) Yellow radiation indicate dry seed and blue radiation shows the presence of moisture.
(a)(b)(c)(d): Thermal image of a moisture seeds
(e)(f)(g)(h): Thermal image of a dry seed
Germination Emergence: The germinated seed is analyzed to predict the seedling growth. This would be handled
by verifying the length of the germination root that met a particular range. If the germination seed root is less than
the particular range, then it concluded that the seed doesnt germinate. This would help in determine the quality. The
seed must have superior level of growth quality. The quality of germination is measured through the following
factors namely water, air and light. In this type of germination, the epicotyls elongate and the cotyledons remain
below the soil. The portion of seedling between the cotyledons and the radicle measured through our proposed
algorithm QDT. The portion of seedling observed as normal germinant, abnormal germinant and ungerminant
seedling by measuring the radicle length L by finding binary length of the radicle region. Our proposed algorithm
observed the seed emergence by the following steps like seedling image is cropped inorderto separate the hypocotyls
and radicles. After separation of length of radicle by image analysis process. Length of the radicle is calculated
according to their germination growth rate and seed counting. Our proposed method considers that seed with 20% of
germination is quite poor. 80% of germinated seed considered too good for viability and seed with no seedlings
represented by UnG. Fig.19.shows the resultant image output of a proposed algorithm QDT as depicted in Fig.26
which shows the various kinds of radicle development in germination emergence Fig.19. shows morphological
operations performed on germinated seed to find a germination emergence for an healthy seed whereas the d ,t, g
represents number of day counts for germination at room temperature and a germination percentage for normal
seed, abnormal seed and ungerminated seed. Fig.19 shows a germination of healthy seed with a radicle length
measurement.

NORMAL
SEED

d=4

d=6

d=8

d=10

t=30

d=2

t=30

t=30

t=30

t=30

g=30

g=40

g=56

78%

g>85

%
F

%
G

%
H

%
J

ABNORMAL
SEED

d=4

d=6

d=8

d=10

t=30

d=2

t=30

t=30

t=30

t=30

g=45

g=43

g=45

g=45

g=45

%
K

%
L

%
M

%
N

%
O

UNGERMINAT
ED
SEED

UnG
UnG
UnG
UnG
UnG
Fig.19. The visual output for morphological development analysis of pulse seed for various days and temperature by QDT
algorithm in quality determination

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

Fig.20. a) Gray Image with Radicle Emergence B) Germinated Binary Image c)Germination binary image with
morphological operations d)Radicle Measurement with more than 80% of germination emergence for healthy pulse seed.

Fig.20 germination growth of seed

The above Fig.21 shows the observed sample seed development stages with good moisture and temperature
conditions
5. ALGORITHMS
This section of the context includes algorithms exposed the proposed methodology for the identification and
classification of Indian Pulse Seeds. The novel algorithmic approach is designed for this architecture is detailed in
the following algorithms. The algorithms are separated regarding the scenery of the process. The phase-I and phase-

II are deliberated as two separate algorithms which depicts that the identification and categorization is implemented
in phase-I and the quality determination aspects are satisfied with the phase-II algorithm.
Input Parameters:
I
- Image set
P
- Partitioning Image
M
- Gradient Mask
G
- Gaussian Membership Function
R
- Rule Strength
M, N - Control Performance Parameter 1,Parameter 2.
SSM, ZSM - S-Shaped, Z-shaped membership function.
T
- Tolerance
S
- Pixel Point
H
- Group Neighboring Pixel Based on Homogeneity of a pixel.
C
- Mean Intensity
V
- Reducing Value
Output Parameters: SEG - Segmented Image
Algorithm: SBIRD (Similarity Based Region Detection)
Begin
1: Read Image(I) from the Image Set I
2: The Input Image I is enhanced
3: I=P(I) // Partitioning Image
4: Applying Gradient Mask M (I)
5: I=G(I) // Apply Gaussian Member Function
6: I=R(I, M, N)x
7: Locating control parameters
8: Pertaining Edge Detection with S & Z shaped Member Function SSM (ZSM(I ))
9: S=Random (Pixel)
10: For K from 0 to Region boundary
11: Group neighbor pixel H(I)
12: Evaluate Mean Intensity C= (intensity(K))
13: If C<T&& C>S then
14: SEG=C
15: End If
16: End For
17: Return SEG
End Algorithm

Fig.22. Similarity Based Seed Region Detection and Isolation


The algorithm implemented as the Phase-I, efforts in the spatial transformation that openly works with the
pixels. The algorithm gets the set of images to enhance the dataset for further operation. The input image is
delighted as S-component image that enhancing the images using Image Enhancing Techniques such as cropping and
background removal. The S-component images are processed to extort the RGB color attributes to apply for the
Gray-scale transformation. The gray-scale transformation attempts for the Edge detection. The Canny algorithm is
applied to detect the edges, but it is lack in the exactness and accuracy of providing the edge information. Thus the
probability-based solution is included and pooled to afford the margin correction possibilities with S and Z
membership functions.
Input Parameters: I-Image Set,
SEG-Segmented Image Array
Output Parameters: A- Feature Value Array
Algorithm: GCTS (Geometrical, Color, Texture, Seed Special based Feature Extraction)
Begin
1: Let I be an Image Array
2: Initialize color feature array A.
3: A[]=(x) such that x= RGB;HSV;L*a*b; YUV; //the mean of color values

4: A [] =(x) such that x= RGB;HSV;L*a*b; YUV;//the standard deviation of color values


5: Find the morphological features from Shape feature values with SEG stored in to A [].
6: Find the textural features from Texture feature values stored in to A [].
7: Return array A.
End Algorithm

Fig. 23. Stable Feature Extraction for seed recognition


User input image processed and parsed into an Image Array. Array has more Features which is used to for
classification. Feature extraction occupies tumbling the quantity of possessions necessary to illustrate a large set of
data. Features are categorized commonly into four stages. The first one is color feature. Extracting important color
value from image RGB, HSV, YUV and l*a*b* with mean and standard deviation Processed. Threshold calculation
is taken for categorizing the images into an associated eminence collection. Using the feature vectors, every image
color sensible means are calculated. In this method row and overall image mean are computed and stored into the
dataset. Second one is morphological feature extraction. A shape can be described by different aspects. These shape
constraints are Circularity ratio, Center of gravity, Eccentricity, Convexity, Axis of least inertia, Rectangularity,
Elliptic variance, Digital bending energy, Solidity, Euler number, Profiles, Hole area ratio etc. In addition, preferring
suitable features for a shape identification scheme must consider what types of features are appropriate for the task.
Texture study offers motivating potential to differentiate the structural heterogeneity of classes. The texture of an
image is associated to the spatial allotment of the strength values in the image, and as such encloses information
concerning contrast Consistency, reliability, etc. A significant amount of quantitative consistency features can be
extracted from images using dissimilar methodologies in regulate to illustrate these properties, and then can be used
to categorize pixels following equivalent processes as with spatial classifications.
Input Parameters:
D
KV
I
W
R
P
N

Dataset,
- Number of Features
-Best Feature Index
-Weighting
-Rank
-Image Pattern
-Division Point

Output Parameters: FSET-Reduced Significant Feature Set from Dataset

Algorithm: Optimal Feature Selection Algorithm based on Ranking and Weight (OFSRW)

Begin
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.

Read(D) from Dataset D


X= Divide Dataset from Starting to N D(1:n);
Y= Divide Dataset from Starting to N D(n:2);
I(X,Y)=Ey-Y Ex-X p(x,y) log (p(x,y)/p(x)p(y))
T(i)=sort(I(X,Y));
Base=Find Index of (KV);
Clu_Fea=Get length of (KV);
MA(i)=Find mean of (T(i),Clu_Fea);
I(X,Y)=MA(i:Base);
I(X,Y)=Ey-Y Ex-X p(x,y) log (p(x,y)/p(x)p(y))
I= Getting Feature Name from Index Values I(X,Y)
FSET = I
P = FSET
Return FSET

End Algorithm
Fig.24. Selection of optimal pattern association vectors
Feature weighting can be viewed as a generalization of feature selection. In feature selection, feature
weights are constrained to 0 or 1. Feature weighting allows finer differentiation between features by assigning each
a continuous valued weight. A suitable ranking criterion is used to score the variables and a threshold is used to
remove variables below the threshold. A feature ranking criteria based on Conditional Mutual Information for binary

data (Boolean data). A attain table is efficient as features are preferred to the subset using the provisional communal
information criterion which is to be exploited.
Input Parameters:
I
-Image set
A
-Image Array
CFA
-Color Feature Array
SFA
-Shape Feature Array
TFA
- Texture Feature Array
DS
-Dataset
SEG
-Segmented Image
CPP
- Closest Pair of Points
N
-Size of the Vector
V
-Break Pointer
S
- Structure Array
BF
-Best Feature
Output Parameters: R- Seed variety condition Classification Result.
Algorithm: Classification of trueness of seed.(TCPS)
Begin
1: Initialize Dataset D
2: For k :0 to length(I)
3: A[]= ReadImage (I(K))
4: SEG = Call SBIRD (A[])
5: D= Call GCTS (SEG)
6: End for
7: //feature selection
8: BF = Call OFSRW(D , KV)
9: Display (BF)
10: // classification
11: training_set= Best Feature Set (BF) in Image Collection Array.
12: Test_set = Test input image i.
13: // Classification
14: S = Store ( Training Set )
15: N= Size (S) // Finding Size Support S.
16: FPValues = Find FP(S) // Find Closet Pair Values in Support Vector S.
17: S = Add FPValues -> S // Add Closest Pair values in to Support vector S
18: V = (N-S)| S | // Finding Breaking Point in S
19: S= S U V // S union V
20: If ( < 0 ) then
21: S= S / P
22: End if
End

Fig.25. Pulse Seed category discrimination with Bi-level classification


The above algorithms illustrate the classification to determine the trueness of the seed. The classification is major
objective of this context to categorize the variety of the pulse seeds to minimize the resources for the examination.
This algorithm depicts that the classification is performed in the basis of best feature selection from the collection of
features used for identifying the exactness of the seed variety. The key image is specified as input for the
classification. The extracted features of the phase-I would be accumulated as vector form BF. The training_set is the
collection of best feature set in an image array. This training set is stored and the supporting size S for the trained
image set is evaluated. Then the input image is pre-processed to detect the edges and segmentation. Finally the
segmented image SEG is processed to discover the closet pair of values in the supporting vector, which means the
Test_set images are processed with training_set images by applying the Best feature (BF) to acquire the breaking
point for the classification. The seed variety is classified by satisfying the Best feature (BF) set for a particular
variety seed which reduces the more feature extraction rate.

Input Parameter:
I
Image Set
GI
-- Germination Image Set
W
Wave Length
R, G, B -Red, Green, Blue values
M
-Mask
P
-Pixel Mask
S
-Size
Output Parameter: MR -Moisture Ratio.
Algorithm: QDT
Begin
1: Read Image(I) from Image Set I , GI
2: R =GET R Value of (I);
3: G= GET G Value of (I);
4: B= GET B Value of (I);
5: M= Find Pixel Mask for (R,G,B);
6: M=Categorize (M)
7: S= Size(M)
8: for i : 1 to S
9: for j : 1 to S
10: P=Find(I[i,j]==W)
11: End for
12: End for
13: MR = P / 100;
14: G_I=Convert to Gray(GI);
15: GThresh=Get Threshold Value (G_I);
16: Binary=Convert to Binary(GThresh);
17: Axis Length=Find Length(Binary) | Dilation | Erosion;
18: Return MR, Axis Length
End Algorithm

Fig.26. Emergence and vigorness estimation


This algorithm is discovered to evaluate the level of moisture content in the seed. The wavelength of the particular
object is described and the moisture ratio is measured. This algorithm acquires Thermal image as input image for
measuring the moisture level. The thermal image is pre-processed to separate the RGB color values. These evaluated
color attributes are estimated to Mask and categorize the masked pixels. Then the masked pixel, Pixel Mask is
evaluated with the entire wavelength of the image pixels to identify the color attributes ratio from the masked pixel
values. Finally it retains the ratio of the moisture content in the input image.
6. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
The mainframe visualization for classification is premeditated for recognition and categorization of Indian pulse
seed. With 10 (TEN) pulse seed of singular quality, 1000 images are taken, 100 for each pulse seed from different
spot of pulse at different position from same distance using computer vision system is implemented for
identification and classification of pulse seed. Pulse seed samples used in this research are collected from Tamil
Nadu Agricultural University (TNAU), Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, and India. The experimental samples are 10 (TEN)
varieties of Indian pulses namely Rg6, Rg7, Co6, Co7, CoGr6, CoGr7, CObk5, Cobk6, CO4, CoCp4. For the
purpose of testing and verifying the techniques used, the subset of seed dataset is considered as shown in Table.3.
The algorithms are implemented in Matlab Version @14. All the experiments is done on Intel(R) Core(TM) i5 and
CPU at 2.60GHz with 4.0GB RAM, running windows 8.

Table. 3. Sample Dataset


The outcome of this structure is resultant in the following system. This encapsulated system is trained,
validated and tested on the parameters in the resultant tables. This shows the minimized products for the feature
extraction and the best feature selection in identifying the seed variety and the quality aspects of the classified seeds.
The seed sample set images are processed and provides a segmented images for further feature extraction and
classification. Table.4 shows an image result of a Phase-I (ICIPS) in our proposed system EIPRS.

Table. 4 Resultant Output of Phase-I in EIPRS


And the next stage is feature extraction. The following Table.5 shows the Stable GCTS features extracted
from the Indian pulse seed images.
1.

2.

3.

4.

Geometric Features
Eccentricity
Extent
Orientation
Colour
Mean
Standard Deviation
Skew
Kurtosis
Texture
Energy
Entropy
Homogeneity
Variance
Fractal Features
Average Fractal Dimension
Standard Deviation FD
Lacunarity

Specialized Features
1. Diameter
2. Physiological Length
3. Physiological Width
4. Area
5. Perimeter
6. Smooth Factor
7. Aspect Ration
8. Form Factor
9. Rectangularity
10. Narrow Factor
11. Perimeter ratio of Diameter
12. Perimeter ratio of PL and PW
13. Ripple
14. Vein features

Table .5: Sample GCTS Feature set for Indian Pulse Seed Varieties
Next stage is feature extraction. The columns are listed with few GCTS feature parameter variable of each
pulse seed variety. The proposed system extracted 256 features from the seed sample sets, but few sample feature
values are depicted in Table.6

Table. 6. Extracted Feature Values for Color, Shape and Texture and Seed
Table.7 illustrates the selection of significant feature set from the above retrieved features for recognizing seed
pattern. This forms a pattern association vector for accurate classification. Fig 27shows a fused features with ranking
according to their relevancy that is used as pattern for pulse seed.

Table: 7. Significant Feature Selection for Identified Seed model

Fig.27. Fused Feature Ranking


The quality determination parameter such as germination percentage, radicle length, and different temperature for
seed, moisture content and vigor index as tabulated in Table.

Table : 8. Seed Quality Determination parameter through germination and vigour Index.
Germination percentage in a period of time for pulse seeds at different temperature is determined by the proposed
algorithm QDT as shown in Fig.28.Germination at different temperature is occurred. The rate of germination is
monitored through the measurement of radicle length of the seed. The rate of germination is increased for the seed
variety namely COblk5, COblk6, COrg6, COrg7, COgr8, Cocp7 in the consistent temperatures.

Fig. 28. Germination Percentage in a period of time for Pulse seeds at different temperature

Fig.#: Relationship between Seed area and Radicle Elongation rate

Fig.#, depicts the rate of increase in seed area may be correlated with the corresponding radicle elongation
rate , for a single germinated seed, when visible germination can be assessed in a germination test.

Fig.29. Relationship of Indian Pulse seed for increase in seed area by water uptake in the
Time Hours
Water uptake emission is observed in thermal image of Indian pulse seed. In fully dried sample (less than 5% of
MC), a green emission was found where else in fully moisture seed samples blue emission was observed.
Temperature of a seed spot was also recorded. Green, blue, yellow emission was encountered in thermal images.
From this our proposed algorithm depict MC by determine blue intensity to retrieve percentage of MC. For
example, seeds of pulses will have a moisture content of 7% to 9% at higher time period. Mean intensity of the blue
emission (MC) is computed for various time factors as shown in Fig.28nd Fig.29.

Fig.30.Mean intensity of MC for different time factor

Fig.31.Effect on Moisture Content


Despite high final germination, a large variation in time of Phase II was detected by image analysis, which provided
useful information on single seed performance within a seed population. When the consumption of water process
was monitored using the roundness factor, its increase was not comparable to that of the area shown in fig.31.

Table.9. Final Resultant Report for EIPRS


The resultant report for the identification and classification structure would be provided in the Table 9. This Table
illustrates the variety of the seed, classification and quality determination.
7. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION
This encapsulated scheme for the Indian Pulse seed identification and categorization provides better
outcomes
during
its
performance
evaluation
phase
when
compared
to
the
ones. The Fig.32 illustrates the performance of the best feature selection employed in the selection; the proposed
scheme (OFSRW) provides best feature selection level when compared with various algorithms namely PCA,
dicriminant analysis and stepdisc systems. Our proposed algorithm shows good performance rate than other in case
of dimensionality reduction.

Fig.32. Performance rate for proposed Feature selection method.


In the Fig.33 the efficiency gain ratio is measured with response to the real dataset based on single and combined
feature set respectively.

Fig.33. Efficiency gain of real dataset using Proposed System

Fig.34. Speed of proposed classification with combined feature set


Fig.34 shows speed rate of proposed classification with combined feature set like seed special feature and color,
texture with color, geometrical with texture. Combined feature gave better classification rather than single feature
set.

Fig.35. Accuracy level for Proposed Classification System


The accuracy level of the classification system is evaluated in the above Fig.35. The accuracy level is measured with
response to the quantity of seeds. This figure illustrates the accuracy level comparison with other existing techniques
for the classification. This depicts that the proposed system SVM-BPNN provides good accuracy level for the
number of seeds.

Fig. 36. Recognition Rate of proposed System with combined feature set
The recognition rate is one of the essential metrics to measure the identification speed with the combined feature set
such as geometric, color, texture and specialized seed feature. The feature set is combined with seed to measure the
recognition rate for the features. The above figure 36 illustrates that the proposed system SVM-BPNN affords high
outcome of recognition rate. In the Fig.37, the error ratio for the combined feature set is provided. The combined set
of features consumes less error rate for the SVM-BPNN when compared with other existing techniques.

Fig.37. Error rate of proposed classification system

Fig.38. Seed category Classification result for EIPRS System.


Then the Fig.38 expresses the number of iterations required for the few amount of seed samples based on the time.
The Fig.39, defines that the time consumption is reasonable for the number of dataset using this proposed system
EIPRS (Encapsulated Indian Pulse seed Recognition System). It consume less time for the amount of dataset is
better than the other system.

Fig.39. Time estimation for EIPRS system


8. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK
This paper concluded that the seed would supply good quality for further cropping. This kind of verifying
the seed and identifying the particular variety would be the very tedious subject. Thus this context implements the
entire process into a single process. In this paper, we presented a new method for automatic quality seed
identification and classification by detecting seed points, and it is used to initialize the segmentation process. The
aim of this method is to detect automatically and identify the seed points in seed images of the same patient. The
feature vector implemented consists of moment interments. This encapsulated identification scheme has been
identify the exact pulse seed variety with quality determination and the feature selection is key impact of this paper
that selects best features to find the exact variety and classification. This would help in good cropping and
minimizing the overall processes time period and human resources.

In this context, we conclude the identification and classification of Indian Pulse seed variety which is
Monocotyledon. The Monocotyledon pulse seeds are recognized and classified as good quality seeds are performed
efficiently in this context but other than monocot seeds this wouldnt provide exact results. Thus in future work,
other than monocot pulse seeds will be taken as samples and implemented to provide these structure.
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