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# PHYSICS

INVESTIGATORY PROJECT
To study the variations, in current
flowing, in a circuit containing a ldr
(light depended resistor).

Name

: R.RISHIKESH

CLASS

: XII

EXAM Roll No

## KENDRIYA VIDYALAYA NO: 1

KALPAKKAM - 603102

CERTIFICATE

## This is to certify that RISHIKESH has

successfully completed her Investigatory Project
for Physics as prescribed for class XII by the
Central Board of Secondary Education, New
Delhi, in the Physics laboratory of this school in
the year 2016-2017.
DATE:

Teacher In-Charge
(S.KUMAR)
PGT (Physics)

Internal Examiner
(S.KUMAR)
PGT (Physics)

External Examiner

Acknowled
gement
I am grateful to Shri S.KUMAR, PGT Physics
for his able guidance and support in completing
my project.
I would like to extend my gratitude to
my principal Mr. SIVAJI for providing me with
all the facilities that were required in
satisfactorily completing my project.

CONTENTS
S.
NO.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

TOPIC
Objective
Apparatus
Theory
Diagram
Procedure
Observation
Conclusions & Precautions
Bibliography

PAGE
NO.
5
5
5
6
7
8
9
10

OBJECTIVE
To study the variations, in current flowing, in a circuit
containing a LDR, because of a variation.
(a)In the power of the incandescent lamp, used to
illuminate the LDR (keeping all the lamps at a fixed
distance)
(b)In the distance of an incandescent lamp, (of fixed
power), used to illuminate the LDR.

APPARATUS
A light dependent resistor (LDR), a battery of 6V, a source
of light (as lamps, 25 W, 40W, 60W, 100W) and a
multimeter (micro ammeter).

Theory
Light dependent resistor whose resistance change with
the intensity of light incident on it.
M (in full dark) and to about 10-4M (in day light). The
resistance of LDR decreases with increase in the intensity
of the light.

Diagram:-

Procedure

## 1. Arrange the apparatus according to the electric

circuit diagram.
2. Now set the knob of multimeter on the point marked
current.
3. Place a thick piece of black paper on the LDR, so that
no light fall on LDR. Record the current in
multimeter.
4. Remove the black paper from the LDR. Record the
current in multimeter in presence of normal light in
the laboratory and determine the resistance of LDR
by using RV I.
5. Now measure the resistance LDR by placing a lamp
of 25W over it.
6. Now measure the resistance for all lamp say 40W,
60W, 100W, and 200W by replacing 25W lamp, one
by one.
7. Now, select any lamp (say 60W) and move it towards
the LDR for a distance 10cm and note the electric
current in multimeter.
8. Move the same lamp towards the LDR to a distance
of 8cm and again record the current.
9. Similarly, record the current in multimeter for
distance 6 cm and 2 cm.

Observations
1
2
3
4

## The emf at battery volt.

Range of multimeter mA.
L-C of multimetermA.
Zero error multimetermA. Table 1 for different power
lamps.
5 The distance of all lamps from LDR 6cm.

S.N

Mode of incident

Electric

Resistance

light

current (I)

R=V\I

## With black paper

Lamp of 25 W
Lamp of 40W
Lamp of 60 W
Lamp of 100 W
Lamp of 200 W

(mA)
-------------------

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

-------------------

## Table 2 for a lamp placed at different distance

6.Power of lamp=.volt

S.n

Distance between

## source and LDR

Current
I(mA)

(cm)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

10
8
6
4
2

..
..
..
..

Resistance
R=V\I

CONCULUSIONS
1 From table 1, it is concluded that electric current flowing
through a circuit containing LDR increasing with the increase
in the power (Intensity) of the lamp. Hence resistance of LDR
decreases.
2 From table 2, it concluded that the electric current flowing a
circuit containing LDR increases with decrease in the
distance between source of fixed power and LDR. Hence,
with the distance light source and LDR increases the
resistance of the LDR decreases and vice-versa.

Precautions
1 The source of light must be adjusted so that light falls
normally on LDR.
2 Select suitable range of current in multimeter.
3 Source of light must radiate light continuously.
4 Connect LDR carefully to the voltage source.
5 The distance between source and LDR measured accurately.

Bibliography:
I.
II.

Books:
1.NCERT Physics, Part 2, for Class XII.
Websites:
1.http://www.tutorvista.com/content/physics/
physics-iv/semiconductor-devices/logicgates.php#
2.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Logic_gate
3.http://www.kpsec.freeuk.com/gates.htm