Anda di halaman 1dari 27

STRUCTURES Online

Steel Detailing

STRUCTURES Online

ST
R

TU

ES

nl
in
e

STEEL DETAILING

STEP BY STEP GUIDE


ON AISC STANDARD
Moti Lal
Md. Azharul Haque
By: Moti Lal & Md. Azharul Haque

STRUCTURES Online

Steel Detailing

nl
in
e

WORK FLOW
a) Project Crew

c) Detailing Process

ES

d) Activity Type

b) Post Pyramid

a) Project Crew

TU

OWNER

GENERAL
CONTRACTOR

ARCHITECT

ST
R

CONSULTANTS

CIVIL

SUB CONTRACTOR STEEL FABRICATOR

SUB CONTRACTOR R.C.C.

MEP
LANDSCAPING

CONSULTANT - STEEL
DETAILING COMPANY

STRUCTURAL
By: Moti Lal & Md. Azharul Haque

STRUCTURES Online

Steel Detailing

2
b)

FPS System

c)

Contract Documents

d)

RFI

e)

ABM

f)

Auto CAD, CNC, DXF, BIM, KSS

g)

Steel Detailing Stages

h) ! Scale, Drawing Standard

Steel Detailing, Fabricator & Detailer

ES

a)

nl
in
e

GENERAL TERMS

a) Steel Detailing, Fabricator & Detailer:

Any kind of building or structure may have steel skeleton. Such Steel

skeleton is built up of steel

The General

TU

components like column, beam, braces etc. These components are made up of raw materials of the
steel. The raw steel is produced at a rolling mill by steel manufacturing organizations.

contractor of the project awards the structural steel subcontract to a fabricator. The

responsibility of the fabricator is to fabricate the various structural steel components for on time
delivery to the job site to meet the contractors construction schedule.
A person who prepares shop drawings for a steel fabrication is known a Steel

detailer. Steel detailer

ST
R

follows the design drawings & specifications prepared by the structural engineer & Architect to prepare
the Erection & shop drawings.
The design documents are normally not in the format, which can be utilized by fabricator or General
contractor. So here Steel

detailer translates the design data into information that the fabricator &

erector need to actually build the structure.

Fabrication shop, where structural steel is cut, punched, drilled, bolted & welded into shipping
pieces for subsequent field erection. Steel erector, who receives the shipping pieces from Steel
fabricator on the Job site to place them at proper location in the building.

The

By: Moti Lal & Md. Azharul Haque

STRUCTURES Online

Steel Detailing

nl
in
e

SPATIAL ABILITY

Spatial ability is the mental manipulation of objects and their parts in 2D and 3D space.
It will provide an accurate and complete picture for every object in terms of shape and
size.

ES

Gaspard Monge when he started as an Engineer in the French Military. He devised a system that could be used to communicate an object to anyone across the world. This system is called Orthographic Projection and was quickly adopted by army engineers.

Orthographic view means representing a 3D object in 2D drawing by projecting all edges


with each other.

TU

on a plane so that all projection lines are ortho (Perpendicular) to the plane and parallel

ST
R

Are these two objects dierent or identical by merely rotating?

Which figures at rights side matches with the extreme left side by rotating?
By: Moti Lal & Md. Azharul Haque

10

Steel Detailing

nl
in
e

STRUCTURES Online

ES

ELLIPSE ORTHO PROJECTION

TU

Outside/Self-Rotation Outside/ArrayRotation

Figure 1.1
The Four Transformation Types.
Spatial Relation

Spatial Visualization

Imagining the rotation


od 3D, 3D objects as a
whole body

Imagining the rotations


of objects and their part
in 3D Space in a
holistic as well piece by
piece fashion

ST
R

OBJECT ROTATION & RELATION

Inside/Self-Rotation Inside/Array-Rotation

ORTHO VIEWS ON HORIZONTAL AND


VERTICAL PLANE
By: Moti Lal & Md. Azharul Haque

11

STRUCTURES Online

Steel Detailing

nl
in
e

RAW 2 BUILDING MATERIALS

CMU means concrete masonry unit using in the wall system. Pilaster are also made up of

CMU and used as column.

ES

Their actual sizes are 3/8 less than nominal sizes. Design mentions nominal sizes.
Central segment width is 1 and perimeter wall is 1 1/4 thick. 8 nominal size CMU is

ST
R

TU

widely used and below are the pic:

Concrete wall can be either Cast-in-situ or Precast. Precast wall are also called as
Concrete panel, which are usually casted in the workshop and transported to the site for
erection. In either case nominal thickness is equal to actual thickness.
GA Materials means Gage plates, which are usually less than 1/4 thickness. Following
are generally used thicknesses:
8GA=0.1644, 9GA=0.1495, 10GA=0.1345, 11GA=0.1196, 12GA=0.1046,
13GA=0.0897, 14GA=0.0747, 15GA=0.0673, 16GA=0.0598
By: Moti Lal & Md. Azharul Haque

18

SSMA (Steel stud


manufactures association) provides the guidelines for all type
of studs.

ST
R

TU

ES

nl
in
e

STRUCTURES Online
Steel Detailing
Metal
Stud is used to make wall, column, roof and they are in C shape picture
below:

Gypsum board of 5/8 thick are generally used to both or one side of the stud wall.
By: Moti Lal & Md. Azharul Haque

19

ANCHORAGE TO MASONARY
SEE SJI SPECIFICATION 5.3 (a) AND
5.6

CEILING EXTENSION

BOTTOM CHORD STRUT

BOLTED CONNECTION*
TYPICALLY REQUIRED AT COLUMNS

HEADERS
Note: If header does not bear at a Joist Panel Point
add extra web in field as shown.
EW or Panel Point by Vulcraft

TU

K SERIES OPEN WEB STEEL JOISTS

ES

ACCESSORIES AND DETAILS

ANCHORAGE TO STEEL
SEE SJI SPECIFICATION 5.3 (b) AND
5.6

Steel Detailing

nl
in
e

STRUCTURES
K SERIESOnline
OPEN WEB STEEL JOISTS

HORIZONTAL BRIDGING
SEE SJI SPECIFICATION 5.5 AND 6.

BRIDGING ANCHORS
SEE SJI SPECIFICATION 5.5 AND 6.

NOTE: DO NOT WELD BRIDGING TO JOIST WEB MEMBERS.


DO NOT HANG ANY MECHANICAL, ELECTRICAL, ETC. FROM BRIDGING. ACCESSORIES AND DETAILS

ST
R

LH & DLH SERIES LONGSPAN STEEL JOISTS

ANCHORAGE TO STEEL
SEE SJI SPECIFICATION
104.4 (b) AND 104.7 (b)

CEILING EXTENSION

ANCHORAGE TO MASONRY
SEE SJI SPECIFICATION
104.4 (a) AND 104.7 (a)

BOTTOM CHORD EXTENSION


*If bottom chord extension is to be bolted or
welded the specifiying professional must
provide axial loads on structural drawings.

BOLTED CONNECTION
See Note (c)
Typically required at columns

TOP CHORD EXTENSION


See Note (a)

By: Moti Lal & Md. Azharul Haque

27

STRUCTURES Online

Steel Detailing

nl
in
e

WELDING

Definition: Welding is a process in which two pieces of metal are melted and fused to-

gether to form a joint. In structural welding this is accompanied by the addition of filler
metal from an electrode.

ES

The functions of welds in structural connections are similar to those of fasteners. Welds
are used to transfer shear, tension and compression forces to and from structural joints,

ST
R

TU

and to transfer calculated forces from one part of a built-up member to another.

WELDING PROCESSES
Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW): Shielded metal arc welding is an important welding
procedure in both shop and field. An electric arc is produced between the end of a coated
metal electrode and the steel components to be welded.
By: Moti Lal & Md. Azharul Haque

39

STRUCTURES Online

During the welding process the electrode coating serves two purposes:

Steel Detailing

It forms a gas shield to prevent absorption of impurities from the atmosphere, and
The flux in the coating purifies the molten metal.

nl
in
e

Submerged Arc Welding (SAW): Submerged arc welding is an important process. This
method is used in only the flat or horizontal position. The process is similar in principle to
shielded metal arc welding. However, a continuous bare wire electrode is used instead of a
coated stick electrode and the
flux is supplied in granular form
(Loose flux).

ES

Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW):


The gas metal arc welding process
is important in structural shop applications because of its adaptability
to all-position work. This process,
which may be automatic or semiautomatic, utilizes an uncoated
solid wire electrode with arc and

weld metal shielding provided by a stream of gas.

TU

Flux Cored Arc Welding (FCAW): This process also may be automatic or semi-automatic.
The electrodes are tubular and contain a flux-filled core, which provides shielding for the
arc and weld metal. It has the same applications as the gas metal arc process.
WELDING ELECTRODES Abbreviation for electrode.
this electrode is most commonly used in structural work
for shielded arc welding.

E 70 XX

represents various series or type of electrode in this


class.

ST
R

tensile strength in ksi.


stands for electrode.

E 70 XX LOW HYDROGEN

E 90 XX

A mineral coating on electrode which kept


the electrode very dry.

A type of electrode which is used to weld rebar to steel.

Note: Information for the electrode is given in General Structural Note (GSN) in
structural steel sections.
By: Moti Lal & Md. Azharul Haque

40

STRUCTURES Online

Steel Detailing

ST
R

TU

ES

nl
in
e

C JP

By: Moti Lal & Md. Azharul Haque

52

STRUCTURES Online

Steel Detailing

nl
in
e

STEEL DETAILING ANATOMY

F2280 High-strength heat treated steel-

1. HSB TYPES & LENGTHS

ASTM A490 bolt equivalent, Contains

2. HOLES, SLOTS, EDGE DISTANCE

spline (below)

4. WELD ACCESS HOLES

HSB TYPES & LENGTHS:

5. CAMBER, AESS, PAINT, GALV

ES

3. SHEAR TAB POSITION

TU

A325 High-strength medium carbon steel


(lower left) most common bolts used in
building construction

ST
R

A490 High-strength heat treated steel


(lower left)

High-Strength bolts are available in diameters ranging from 1/2 to 1-1/2


The most common sizes are 3/4, 7/8, and
1. High-strength bolts are commonly available in incremental lengths up to 8.

F1852 High-strength medium carbon

Note:-

steel- ASTM A325 bolt equivalent, Con-

A307 Low carbon steel, Not commonly


used, Only used for secondary members.

tains spline (below)

By: Moti Lal & Md. Azharul Haque

56

STRUCTURES Online

Steel Detailing

Washer

Washer
Face

Nut

Shank

Head

Thread

ST
R

TU

ES

Length

nl
in
e

Grip

Grip is the distance from behind the bolt head to the back of the nut or washer.
It is the sum of the thicknesses of all the parts being joined exclusive of washers.
Thread length is the threaded portion of the bolt.
Bolt length is the distance from behind the bolt head to the end of the bolt .

By: Moti Lal & Md. Azharul Haque

57

STRUCTURES Online

Steel Detailing

nl
in
e

ANCHOR BOLT

Each bottom threaded end need 1 HHN

Types of Anchor Bolt

or 2 HHN with one plate washer or 1

AB Plan (Field drawing)

HHN with one plate washer.

Anchor Bolt (Shop Drawing)


Template (Shop Drawing)

Design data extraction process

ES

AB Sectional Detail (Field drawing)

Types:

TU

1. J type: Top end threaded & bottom


end 2 standard hook.

2. Rod Type: Top & bottom end


threaded.

3. Bolt Type: Top end threaded & bottom


end Hex headed.
Each top threaded end requires

ST
R

1HHN(Heavy hex nut) with plain washer


or plate washer above base plate.

Each top threaded end requires


1HHN(Heavy hex nut) or Jam nut or Leveling nut with plain washer below base
plate.

By: Moti Lal & Md. Azharul Haque

69

STRUCTURES Online

Steel Detailing

nl
in
e

STEEL EMBED
Sub Structural

Embed plate ship mark.

Steel beam/joist connecting embed.

Hold down items for panels.

North direction near heading text.

Curb Angles for slab edges.

Structural drawing no. below heading.

ES

Panel to Panel embeds.

Title block with Drawing name & no., Revision no., Project name & Address, Field
notes with Finish floor levels.

Super Structure

Pipe bollard for fencing

TU

Vertical Embed Plate & Horizontal Embed Plate.

Embed Section: Show the following:


Steel beam/joist connecting the embed.
T.O. Embed PL.(See elevation)

Panel plan & Elevations

Embed plate horizontal locating dim.

Veneer ties & Lintel Beam.

Embed plate mark with description.

Embed Plan: Show the following:

Structural drawing no. below heading.

ST
R

Ledger Angle & Continuous plate.

Grids/Wall in the X & Y directions with


internal dimensions with the extent dimension.
Locate Top central point in the X & Y directions with dimensions from the nearest
grids.
Top of embed plate elevation with reference to 0-0 (Finish floor).

Field weld (if any)


Title block with Drawing name & no., Revision no., Project name & Address, Field
notes with Finish floor levels.
Embed Shop:

Show the following:

All dims, piece mark, ship mark, qty.


Bill of material, ASTM Designations.
By: Moti Lal & Md. Azharul Haque

79

STRUCTURES Online

Steel Detailing

Design section

nl
in
e

Hold down items for panels: The concrete panel are supported on the hold down plates.

Embed section

TU

ES

ST
R

edges:

Curb Angles for slab

By: Moti Lal & Md. Azharul Haque

80

STRUCTURES Online

Steel Detailing

Embed plate w/

ES

nl
in
e

Threaded stud:

Embed

plate w/

TU

U-shaped

ST
R

plate:

By: Moti Lal & Md. Azharul Haque

89

Steel Detailing

ST
R

TU

ES

nl
in
e

STRUCTURES Online

By: Moti Lal & Md. Azharul Haque

93

STRUCTURES Online

Steel Detailing

nl
in
e

STEEL TO STEEL CONNECTION

ported member. The supporting member al-

The beams, girders, trusses, columns and


other members that form a completed struc-

column.

Primarily, the single-plate connection used

ES

tural frame are design to resist the loads.

most always will either be a beam or a

Introduction:

to support gravity shear load. It has moder-

load through its connections to supporting

ate rigidity depending to some extent on the

members. For example: beams transmit

depth of the connection i.e., the number of

their loads to girder, girders transmit their

bolts and their size.

Each of these members must transmit its

loads to columns, columns transmit their

TU

loads to foundations and foundations transmit their loads to the ground. Each member

in this system must be provided with proper

connections to transfer its loads to other

members safely and economically, usually

through a combination, of bolts, welds and


connecting elements, such as angles,

ST
R

plates or tees.

Following are the typically used connections


as mentioned below:

Single-Plate connection (shear-plate


connection): A single-plate connection is

one with a plate shop welded to a supporting member and field bolted to the supBy: Moti Lal & Md. Azharul Haque

95

STRUCTURES Online

Steel Detailing

No. of bolts required in dierent beam profile. (Beam depth)


Hole type. (i.e., standard holes, short slot
etc.)
Plate size & grade.

nl
in
e

Weld & size.

There may be the following steps to be followed / adopted to develop beam to beam
and beam to column single-plate connections.

Step-I: Maintain -in standard steel to steel


clearance (i.e.,a)

ES

Step-II: Fix first bolt location at 3-in from


top of the beam (i.e.,b) regardless of bolt

TU

a = Steel to steel clearance.

insucient space available for provided bolt

Above nomenclature are as follows:

diameter. Incase of slopped beam condition,

b = First bolt location from top of the beam

c = Centre to centre bolt distance.

eh = horizontal edge distance.


ev = Vertical edge distance.

quantity (no. of bolt row), or may be the


other reasons, then this value may be increased or decreased by an increment or
decrement of 1/8-in. in a successive manner whichever value is suitable for particular
condition.
Step-III: The standard centre to centre bolt
spacing (i.e., c) 3-in. and varies in same
cases (reasons mention in step-II) but it

developed a single-plate connection as fol-

should not be less than 2 2/3d or 2.67d.

lows:

Where d is nominal diameter of bolt.

Beam & column profile & grade.

Step-IV: The standard horizontal edge dis-

ST
R

Information required from design drawing to

Top of beam elevation.


Bolt diameter, grade & type.

tance (i.e.,eh) in plate & beam is 1 1/2in.


and sometimes 1 1/4-in. but it should not be
less the edge distance per AISC TABLE J3.4
for corresponding bolt diameter and also
By: Moti Lal & Md. Azharul Haque

96

STRUCTURES Online

Steel Detailing

10

nl
in
e

COLUMN

13) OVER ALL DIMENSIONS

2) COLUMNS HEADING

14) LEVELS

3) TITLE BLOCK

15) PART LOCATING DIMENSIONS

ES

1) VIEWS

16) PART MARKS

4) SHOP NOTES

TU

5) BILL OF MATERIAL

17) WELDING
18)

7) DIRECTION

19) SLOTS IN HSS COLUMN

8) CHEVRON

20) BUCKET DIMENSION

9) R D SYMBOL

21) COLUMN SAMPLES

ST
R

6) FIELD BOLTS

COLUMN HEIGHT CALCULATION

10) SQUARE CUT


11) END PREPARATION
12) HOLE DIA
By: Moti Lal & Md. Azharul Haque 111

STRUCTURES Online

Steel Detailing

VIEWS:

1.

Main view Direction

nl
in
e

Secondary view direction


Sectional Views
a) Main view Direction:
Column need to be viewed from Bottom or

ES

right side of the column plan view.

TU

b) Secondary view Direction:

Column need to be viewed from the left or

All centered parts can be marked as

right side based on maximum parts visibil-

CTRD in main or secondary view.

ity. This view is not mandatory if most

items are shown in main view & or sec-

tional view.

c)Sectional views:

ST
R

Base plates top view need to be drawn below the main view or it can be separated
with section mark if there is no space left
below main heading.
Sectional top view is also important to be
drawn incase of shear plate & doubler
plate or any non-centered part.
By: Moti Lal & Md. Azharul Haque 112

Steel Detailing

ST
R

TU

ES

nl
in
e

STRUCTURES Online

WF COLUMN(SHT.1 of 3)
By: Moti Lal & Md. Azharul Haque 125

STRUCTURES Online

Steel Detailing

11

(3) SKEW BEAM:- A beam which has some


rotation in plan is termed as skew beam. A
skew beam can be a bull-eye or fitted
beam.

ES

As a rule, each beam in a system of floor or


roof framing makes a convenient shipping
and erection unit. The shop drawing seldom
pictures any of the adjacent members to
which the beam later will be connected in
the field. However, in preparing a detail drawing, all features that have a bearing on the
erection of the beam must be investigated.

(2) FITTED BEAM:- Beams having any kind


of plate or angle shop welded is termed as
fitted beam.

BEAM SHOP (FABRICATION) DRAWING:

nl
in
e

BEAM

(4) INCLINED/SLOPED BEAM:- A beam


which has some inclination or slope or having dierent elevation at ends is termed as
inclined or sloped beam. Draw all sloped
beam in flat position. A sloped beam can be
a bull-eye or fitted beam also.

ST
R

TU

The location of open holes in the beam connections must match the location of similar
holes in the supporting members. Proper
erection clearance must be provided and
possible interference must be eliminated, so
that the beam can be swung or lowered into
position for connecting to its supporting
members.

(5) BENT BEAM:- A beam having two or


more dierent slopes is termed as bent
beam.

There may be the following types of beam


depending upon their various characteristics
like; geometry, functions and end connections etc.

(6) CURVED BEAM:- A beam which is


curved in shape of any radius termed as
curved beam. The curved beams can be in
the elevation or in plan.

(1) BULL-EYE BEAM:- A beam, which is


having just holes & cutting (may or may not)
are termed as bull-eye beam.

(7) MOMENT BEAM:- A beam is said to be


moment beam when it has moment connection either at one end or both ends.
By: Moti Lal & Md. Azharul Haque 131

Steel Detailing

ST
R

TU

ES

nl
in
e

STRUCTURES Online

By: Moti Lal & Md. Azharul Haque 132

QTY

PCS
MRK

MATERIALS

LENGTH
IN
FT

BILL OF MATERIALS

SHOP NOTES

XXX STEEL INC.

nl
in
e

O
FOR APPROVAL ONLY

ES

NOTE:- ALL BOLTS ARE FIELD INSTALLED AND TENSIONED

TU

REMARKS

ST
R

BEAM

B2

STRUCTURES Online
Steel Detailing

By: Moti Lal & Md. Azharul Haque 135

STRUCTURES Online

Steel Detailing

ES

PART DRAWING

nl
in
e

12

1. Moment Continuity Plate

FLAT BAR: Use Standard Flat bar sizes as much as possible for all conditions except
the following for the clients using Flat bar:

3. Base Plates

TU

2. Architecturally Exposed Plates

REFERENCE BOX: Use this box to show up quantity for each Assembly mark.

ST
R

EDGE DIMENSION: It should not be shown as it doesnt play any role as long as we
had shown the connection side dimension.

It is standard NISD practice to not to detail Flat bar vertically around opening since
Decks are installed before openings are cut.

By: Moti Lal & Md. Azharul Haque 137