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Persons (CSPs) for Modeling

Personal Microenvironments:

Comparison and Case Studies

Wei Yan

Xudong Yang

Member ASHRAE

ABSTRACT

Different computer simulated persons (CSPs) have been

developed to represent occupants for indoor airflow simulation using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Simple CSPs

are preferred in order to avoid very fine grids and long computing time. However, how CSPs with different complexity affect

the accuracy of CFD simulation is not well studied yet. This

paper intends to investigate quantitatively the simulation

accuracy due to CSP simplification. A detailed, human-like

CSP and three different simplification strategies including an

overly simplified rectangular box CSP, a simple CSP using

several cuboids to represent different parts of a person, and an

improved one in which the total heat of different parts (head,

body, arms, legs) matches that of the detailed CSP are

proposed. The simulation results using simplified CSPs are

compared with the benchmark experimental data and simulated results using the detailed CSP in a displacement ventilation case. Results show that all the CSPs, simple or complex,

yield acceptable simulation results for the global field study.

For the micro-environment around the person, there seems no

significant benefit by adopting very complex CSP geometry

either. Instead, attention should be paid to ensure the heat and

pollutant source consistence of the simplified CSP over the

actual human (detailed CSP).

INTRODUCTION

Different computer simulated persons (CSPs) have been

developed to represent occupants for indoor airflow simulation using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). These CSPs

range from very complex, human-like configuration to very

simple, box-like shape. Complicated CSPs usually require

large number of computational grids and long computing

Ming Shan

time. On the other hand, overly simplified CSPs may significantly influence the simulation accuracy of personal microenvironment, especially for non-mixing type ventilation such

as personal or displacement ventilation. A guide to properly

simplify CSPs is urgently necessary for current research.

In the past, different CSPs have been used in room airflow

or indoor air quality models. He and Yang (2005) compared

the contaminant removal by displacement ventilation (DV)

and mixing ventilation based on experiments and CFD simulations. Cubic box was used to represent the persons and

equipment in their study. Zhang et al. (2005) also used cubic

CSPs to evaluate the thermal comfort and indoor air quality in

classrooms, retail shops, and industrial workshops. Hayashi et

al. (2002) adopted a person-like CSP to investigate the effect

of inhalation under DV chamber. The CSP, though more

complex than cuboid box, is still a simplified one. Later, the

same CSP was applied by Zhang et al. (2005) to study the

respiration area caused by unsteady breathing. Besides these

simplified CSPs, very complex, detailed CSPs were also used

in previous research. Bjorn and Nielsen (2002) developed

detailed CSPs to investigate the dispersal of exhaled air in DV

rooms. The simulation results of a seated detailed CSP and a

cuboid CSP were compared by Topp and Nielsen (2002) and

Sideroff and Dang (2005). They concluded that a simple

geometry was sufficient for studying global airflow, but

detailed geometry should be applied to assess the local flow

condition. However, they did not mention to what complexity

the CSP must be in order to accurately assess local flow near

the person. Murakami (2004) developed a standing detailed

CSP to analyze microclimates around the human body. This

CSP was generated according to a real human body, thus it is

supposed to be more accurate than pervious simplified CSPs.

Wei Yan is a doctoral student at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Ming Shan is a research assistant and Xudong Yang is the

Chang-Jing Professor in the Department of Building Science, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.

2009 ASHRAE

473

laser scanning technology. They applied it to investigate the

performance of a personal ventilation system. A seated

detailed CSP was adopted by Sorensen et al. (2003) to study

the radiative heat transfer at different parts of the CSP. They

divided their CSP into foot, leg, thigh etc. There were totally

10 different parts. The heat transfer coefficient of each part

was estimated based on their simulation result.

Detailed CSPs require fine, and usually unstructured

grids to mesh the geometry accurately. A very simple case

such as a cubic room with a single occupant may need more

than 105-106 grids to ensure the accuracy. And the calculation

time can be up to several days for a single node personal

computer (for example, the detailed CSP case with 400,000

grids running on a P4 2.6GHz PC with 1G memory). Therefore, it is usually too time consuming to use such detailed

CSPs. Simple CSPs are always preferred if they would not

significantly affect the accuracy of simulation. Under what

circumstances such simple CSPs could be used, and how to

simplify the CSPs? These problems have not been well studied yet.

The objective of this paper is to investigate quantitatively

the simulation error due to CSP simplification. Different CSP

simplification strategies are proposed. The simulation results

by applying these strategies are compared with those by using

the detailed CSP in a displacement ventilation case, the latter

being validated by the benchmark experimental data (Kato

and Yang, 2003).

CSP SIMPLIFICATION METHODOLOGY

Both the CSP geometry and heat source distribution may

affect the airflow and temperature field when using simplified

CSPs, especially for the personal microenvironment studies.

Four kinds of CSPs are compared in this paper: (1) Laser

scanned CSP (Detailed CSP); (2) Geometry consistent CSP.

(Simple CSP); (3) Rectangular box CSP (Rectangular CSP),

and (4) Both geometry and heat source distribution consistent

CSP (Improved CSP). These CSPs are illustrated in Figure 1.

The detailed CSP (Figure 1a) is obtained by laser scanning technology based on the real manikin used in the experiment. Its geometry is exactly the same as the manikin used in

the benchmark experiment (Kato and Yang, 2003), and it is

reasonable to assume that the heat flux is uniformly distributed

on the CSP surface.

The simple CSP (Figure 1b) uses several cuboids to represent different parts of a person (head, arms, body, legs etc). It

tries to represent the human body but with simplified way in

terms of the geometry consistency. The heat flux is also

assumed to be uniformly distributed on the CSP surface.

The rectangular CSP (Figure 1c) is the most simplified

manikin by using a single rectangular box to represent the

whole person, and also assuming uniform heat flux distribution on the CSP surface. It does not look like a real person

geometrically, and the heat distribution on different body

parts (thus the thermal plume) is not the same as a real person

474

modeling work very easy, it has been widely applied by many

researchers.

The improved CSP has exactly the same geometry as the

simple CSP (Figure 1b), but the heat flux distribution on the

CSP surface is re-calculated so that the total heat of different

parts (head, body, arms, legs) matches that of the detailed CSP.

In other words, the heat flux on the CSP surface is not uniform

any more. The intension is trying to match with the detailed

CSP in terms of both geometry (in a simplified way) and buoyancy (in a consistent way). By doing so, higher simulation

accuracy would be expected than a simple or rectangular CSP.

COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS

METHODOLOGY

Computational Grids

The simulation cases are based on the experiments done

by Kato and Yang (2003) shown in Figure 2. Commercial CFD

software Gambit 2.1 is used to generate the grids shown in

Figure 3. The CSP is put in the center of the chamber. Since the

chamber is symmetrical, only half of the chamber is simulated.

The entire chamber is divided into two computational

domains: (1) The inner domain is rectangular volume

surrounding the geometry of the CSP. The grids in this region

are tetrahedrons; (2) the outer volume is meshed with structured cuboids. The surface connecting these two domains is

defined as grid interface. The total number of grids in the

outer region for all cases is 97362. The numbers of grids in

inner region are 315397, 212374 and 181636 respectively for

(a) Detailed CSP, (b) Simple and Improved CSPs,

(c) Rectangular CSP.

ASHRAE Transactions

improved CSP has the identical grids with the simple CSP. Our

previous studies (Yang et al., 2004; He et al., 2005) show that

such grid distributions are sufficient to reach grid independence status for the displacement ventilation case.

Turbulence Model

Sorensen and Nielsen (2003) and Chen and Srebric

(2002) gave good recommendations on how to control the

quality of CFD for indoor air quality simulation. Proper turbulence model should be selected according to the airflow situ-

room airflow, Chen (1995, 1996) compared the performance

of several commonly used turbulence models and recommended the Re-Normalization Group (RNG) k- model

(Yokhot et al. 1992). This model produced good simulation

results for indoor airflow, temperature, and contaminant distributions in several previous studies (Yuan et al. 1999; Srebric

and Chen 2002; Gao et al 2004; He et al 2005). Encouraged by

these results, RNG k- model together with logarithmic wall

functions (Launder and Spalding 1974) is used in current

study to simulate the airflow field

Boundary Conditions

The benchmark experimental setup (Kato and Yang,

2003) is shown in Figure 2. The dimension of the chamber is

3.0m3.5m2.5m. The air is supplied from the bottom of the

wall with the opening size of 0.4m0.2m. The exhaust opening is located at the top of the opposite wall, and the size is

0.3m0.3m. Detailed parameters and boundary conditions of

this experiment are listed in Table 1.

The boundary condition about thermal radiation for this

case was discussed by Srebric et al. (2008).They recommended that the ratio of convection to radiation (C:R) is 30:70.

Table 1.

(Kato and Yang, 2003).

Boundary Condition

Values

Velocity=0.182 m/s

Temperature =21.8C

Turbulence intensity=30%

Scale length =0.1m

Heat source=76W

Figure 3 Geometry and mesh in computational domains. (a) Detailed CSP, (b) Simple and improved CSPs,

(c) Rectangular CSP.

ASHRAE Transactions

475

to the heat transferred through the wall. According to this

assumption, total heat load of this chamber is 86W. The

convection heat from the CSP is 22.8W. The radiation heat is

53.2W. Heat transferred from the wall is 10W.

COMPARISON METHODOLOGY

The only set of data available from the benchmark test

(Kato and Yang, 2003) is temperature distributions. The data

are used to validate the CFD simulation results. The validated

CFD model is further applied to compare quantitatively the

effect of different CSPs on the distributions of temperature and

pollutant near the CSP. In simulations, the pollutant is treated

as a passive scalar and has no effect on the airflow profile.

Both active and passive pollutant sources are considered

in the simulations. Active source is the pollutant associated

with heat source and in the simulation cases, pollutant that

comes from the CSP surface. Passive source is not associated

with heat release and in the simulation, pollutant that is generated from the floor surface.

Both global environment of the room and the micro-environment around the breathing zone are studied. The global

environment is defined as the location far away from the CSP.

There is no clear boundary for this definition. In current experiment, data are compared at 24 sampling points shown in

Figure 4. The breathing zone is defined as a spherical volume

centered at the mouth of the occupant (radius =0.3m).

Root mean square (RMS) residual is used as the criterion

to analyze simulation error. It is defined as:

2

RMS Residual =

x----N

(1)

where

N

x2

= variance. It is the sum of the squares of the residuals:

N

x = [ y mi y ei ]

(2)

i=1

ymi =

yei =

the expected value.

Error = y exp ected y simulated

(3)

yi Vi

y = --------------------V

(4)

Verifying Simulation Results by Measured

Temperature Field

In Kato and Yangs experiment, temperatures were

measured along four different poles in the chamber. Each pole

had six sampling points, as shown in Figure 4. L1 and L5 were

close to the wall, while L2 and L4 were near the manikin.

Figure 5 compares the measured and simulated temperatures

at these points. For the global temperature field, the simulation

predicted the trend of displacement ventilation and agreed

well with the experimental data. There is no significant difference among the simulated result using different CSPs. The

most obvious absolute temperature difference between simulation and measured data occurs near the inlet. Because velocity and temperature profiles at the inlet were not given in the

experiment, a uniform velocity and temperature profile was

assumed in simulations. This may affect the simulation accuracy at locations near the inlet (Figure 5a), but the overall

temperature profiles in other regions are well captured.

Comparing with experimental data, the overall RMS residual

of detailed CSP simulation is 0.41 oC, or 0.26 oC if we neglect

the inlet point of (0.2m,0.2m).

In the following analysis, the modeling result of the

detailed CSP will be used as the baseline data for comparison

purpose.

Comparing different CSPs for

Active Pollutant Cases

2003).

476

To determine how much the CSP simplification can influence the numerical simulation results, we compared the simulated temperature and concentration fields of the simple,

rectangular, and improved CSPs with the detailed CSP.

Figure 6, Figure 7 and Table 2 present the results. Notice that

the RMS residual results in Table 2 for different CSPs are

compared with those of the detailed CSP case (i.e., used as

baseline data for comparison).

ASHRAE Transactions

Figure 5 Comparison of measured and simulated temperature profiles. (a) Temperature profile at X=0.20m, (b) Temperature

profile at X=1.55m, (c) Temperature profile at X=1.95m, (d) Temperature profile at X=3.30m.

ASHRAE Transactions

477

Figure 6 Simulated iso-temperature contours for four cases. (a) Detailed CSP, (b) Simple CSP, (c) Rectangular CSP,

(d) Improved CSP.

478

ASHRAE Transactions

Figure 7 7 Simulated iso-concentration contours (dimensionless) for four cases (active source). (a) Detailed CSP, (b) Simple

CSP, (c) Rectangular CSP, (d) Improved CSP.

Different CSPs (Active Source)

X=0.2 m X=1.55 m X=1.95 m X=3.3 m

Total

Simple

0.064

0.124

0.141

0.139

0.121

Rectangular

0.083

0.247

0.222

0.237

0.208

Improved

0.065

0.093

0.127

0.142

0.111

Simple

0.061

0.054

0.082

0.088

0.073

Rectangular

0.055

0.096

0.124

0.070

0.090

Improved

0.055

0.060

0.164

0.064

0.097

ASHRAE Transactions

For the global environment, different CSPs do not significantly change the simulation results. The maximum temperature RMS is 0.14 oC for the simple CSP model, while this

value is 0.25 oC for the rectangular CSP. The overall temperature RMS residuals using these CSPs are 0.12 oC, 0.21 oC,

and 0.11 oC respectively for the simple, rectangular, and

improved CSPs. Similar results are observed in the concentration field. The overall dimensionless concentration RMS

residuals are 0.073, 0.090 and 0.097 respectively. These residuals are comparable since all of them are less than 10%. It is

notable that the improved CSP does not benefit the global

simulation result much. For example, the overall temperatures

RMS for the simple and improved CSPs are 0.12oC and

0.11oC respectively.

479

breathing zone, things are different. The RMS residuals

increase near the heat source. For example, the dimensionless

concentration RMS residual at X=0.2m is 0.061 for the simple

CSP and 0.055 for the rectangular CSP. But at X=1.95m, the

RMS residuals are 0.082 and 0.124, respectively. For the

points closer to the CSP, the RMS residuals are larger. Two

reasons may be contributed to this error increasing: (1) The

geometry of the CSP. Since the CSP blocks the airflow at local

position, the velocity field is different with different CSP

geometry. (2) The heat flux of the CSP. In the simulation, total

heat load is consistent in all cases, which means the heat flux

boundary condition is different due to different surface areas.

CSP. Since the active pollutant is associated with heat source,

pollutant concentration distribution will be affected by the

CSP simplification, especially for the micro-environment

close to the heat source.

Figure 8 shows the pollutant concentration contours

around the head. Forty points are selected to evaluate the error

of CSP simplification. They are evenly distributed in the

spherical volume. The temperature RMS residuals of the

simple and rectangular CSPs are 0.32 oC and 0.27 oC, respectively. The residuals of concentration are 0.26 and 0.19,

respectively. It is observed that the error of the simple CSP is

even larger than the rectangular CSP. This is surprising

Figure 8 Simulated iso-concentration contours (dimensionless) at breathing zone for four cases (active source). (a) Detailed

CSP, (b) Simple CSP, (c) Rectangular CSP, (d) Improved CSP

480

ASHRAE Transactions

because people may expect that the simple CSP whose shape

is more like a human would perform better than the rectangular CSP. The larger error of the simple CSP could be

explained by that it does not treat the source distribution well.

It is found that the head of the simple CSP releases more

pollutant than the head of the detailed CSP. Although the

head section of the rectangular CSP is even larger than the

simple CSP, its surface concentration is smaller than the

simple CSP. That is why simulation result of the rectangular

CSP is even better than the simple CSP. To overcome this

problem, the source distribution should be rearranged according to the detailed CSP, that is exactly what has been done in

the improved CSP case. Table 3 lists the source distribution

on different CSPs. Better simulation results should be

expected through carefully arranging the heat and pollutant

source over the geometry of the simplified CSP.

To evaluate the advantage of the improved CSP, the

volume averaged temperature and concentration for different

CSPs are compared. The comparison result is shown in

Table 4. The temperature errors due to the CSP simplification

are 0.44 oC and 0.38 oC respectively for the simple CSP and

rectangular CSP. The concentration errors are 0.44 and 0.36,

respectively. The rectangular CSP performs better than the

simple CSP, and there seems no benefit by adopting humanlike CSP geometry. Instead, attention should be paid to ensure

the heat and pollutant source consistence of the simplified

CSP over the actual human (detailed CSP).

concentration field is not sensitive to different CSPs. The error

due to CSP simplification is less than 0.05 for global field, and

is 0.03 for breathing zone environment. All are acceptable

Based on the above discussion, the error analysis result is

obtained in Table 7. The reduced rate of computational grids

is defined as the number of reduced grids using simplified

CSPs over the total grid number of the detailed CSP.

It is observed that the improved CSP has acceptable accuracy for both active and passive source cases, and for both

micro and global environment study. Compared to the detailed

CSP case, the improved CSP not only requires 25% less

computational grids, but more importantly, leads to easier

convergence due to less complex geometry and grid distributions.

Table 3.

Area

(m2)

Heat Load

Heat Flux

Concentration

(W)

(W/m2)

Detailed CSP

Arm

0.136

7.320

0.003

53.824

Body

0.199

10.711

0.003

53.824

Head

0.056

3.014

0.003

53.824

Leg

0.316

17.008

0.003

53.824

Total

0.706

38.000

Passive Pollutant Cases

Simple CSP

pollutant source does not affect the temperature and velocity

field. For passive pollutant case, we assume that the pollutant

is released uniformly from the floor surface. The concentration field of the simple CSP and improved CSP should be similar considering that the CSP heat flux distribution is not

important when heat source and pollutant source are not

coupled. Therefore, only the rectangular and simple CSPs are

compared next.

Figure 9 compares the concentration field of passive

pollutant cases. The concentration field in the breathing zone

is almost uniform for all cases, and CSP has little effect on the

micro-environment. Tables 5 and 6 quantitatively compare the

global field and volume averaged field at the breathing zone.

Table 4.

Arm

0.188

7.641

0.00227

40.642

Body

0.334

13.574

0.00227

40.642

Head

0.112

4.552

0.00227

40.642

Leg

0.301

12.233

0.00227

40.642

Total

0.935

38.000

Improved CSP

Arm

0.188

7.320

0.00217

38.937

Body

0.334

10.711

0.00179

32.069

Head

0.112

3.014

0.00149

26.912

Leg

0.301

17.008

0.00315

56.507

Total

0.935

38.000

Using Different CSPs (Active Source)

Error

Detailed

Simple

Rectangular

Improved

Simple

Rectangular

Improved

Temperature (C)

26.51

26.94

26.89

26.66

0.44

0.38

0.16

Concentration

1.005

1.444

1.360

1.076

0.439

0.355

0.071

ASHRAE Transactions

481

Figure 9 Simulated iso-concentration contours (dimensionless) for four cases (passive source). (a) Detailed CSP, (b) Simple

CSP, (c) Rectangular CSP, (d) Improved CSP.

Concentration RMS at Sampling Points

Using Different CSPs (Passive Source)

X=0.2 m X=1.55 m X=1.95 m X=3.3 m

Concentration at Breathing Zone

Using Different CSPs (Passive Source)

Total

Detailed

Simple

Rectangular

Error

Simple

Error

Rectangular

Temperature (C)

26.51

26.94

26.86

0.43

0.35

Concentration

0.997

0.994

0.994

0.003

0.003

Simple

0.045

0.120

0.131

0.163

0.123

Rectangular

0.083

0.237

0.233

0.236

0.208

Simple

0.014

0.018

0.023

0.036

0.024

Rectangular

0.002

0.063

0.063

0.043

0.049

482

ASHRAE Transactions

due to CSP Simplification*

Simple

CSP

Rectangular

CSP

Improved

CSP

o

Global-T ( C)

0.121

0.208

0.111

Global-C

0.073

0.09

0.097

Micro-T ( C)

0.436

0.384

0.162

Micro-C

0.439

0.355

0.071

o

Global-T ( C)

0.123

0.208

Global-C

0.024

0.049

Micro-T ( C)

0.431

0.351

Micro-C

0.003

0.003

%

25.0%

32.4%

25.0%

CONCLUSION

Based on simulation cases by adopting different CSPs,

the following conclusions can be made:

1.

2.

complex, yield acceptable simulation results. There is

no apparent benefit by adopting very complex CSP

geometry.

For the micro-environment around the person, there

seems no significant benefit by adopting human-like CSP

geometry either. Instead, attention should be paid to

ensure the heat and pollutant source consistence of the

simplified CSP over the actual human (detailed CSP).

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

This study is supported by Chinas Eleventh Five-Year

Scientific Research Support Program, Project No.

2006BAJ02A08. We thank Prof. Shinsuke Kato for providing

experimental data, and Prof. Peter Nielsen for organizing an

interesting ASHRAE seminar on this topic.

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ASHRAE Transactions

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