Anda di halaman 1dari 666

Modulation

Contents
1

Amplitude modulation

1.1

Forms of amplitude modulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.1.1

ITU designations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.2.1

Continuous waves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.2.2

Early technologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.2.3

Vacuum tubes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.2.4

Single-sideband . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.3

Simplied analysis of standard AM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.4

Spectrum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.5

Power and spectrum eciency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.6

Modulation index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.7

Modulation methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.7.1

Low-level generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.7.2

High-level generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.8

Demodulation methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.9

See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.10 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.11 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Modulation

2.1

Analog modulation methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2.1.1

List of analog modulation techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Digital modulation methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10

2.2.1

Fundamental digital modulation methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10

2.2.2

Modulator and detector principles of operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

11

2.2.3

List of common digital modulation techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

12

2.2.4

Automatic digital modulation recognition (ADMR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

12

2.2.5

Digital baseband modulation or line coding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

13

2.3

Pulse modulation methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

13

2.4

Miscellaneous modulation techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

13

2.5

Further reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

13

2.6

See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

13

1.2

2.2

ii

CONTENTS
2.7

References

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

14

2.8

External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

14

Radio

15

3.1

Etymology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

15

3.2

Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

16

3.2.1

Transmitter and modulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

16

3.2.2

Antenna . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

17

3.2.3

Propagation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

17

3.2.4

Resonance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

17

3.2.5

Receiver and demodulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

18

3.2.6

Radio band . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

18

3.3

Communication systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

18

3.4

History

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

19

3.5

Uses of radio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

19

3.5.1

Audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

19

3.5.2

Telephony . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

21

3.5.3

Video . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

21

3.5.4

Navigation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

22

3.5.5

Radar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

22

3.5.6

Data (digital radio) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

22

3.5.7

Heating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

23

3.5.8

Amateur radio service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

23

3.5.9

Unlicensed radio services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

24

3.5.10 Radio control (RC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

24

3.6

See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

24

3.7

Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

24

3.8

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

24

3.9

External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

25

Carrier wave

26

4.1

Carrierless modulation systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

26

4.2

Carrier leakage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

26

4.3

See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

26

4.4

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

26

Frequency modulation

27

5.1

Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

28

5.1.1

Sinusoidal baseband signal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

28

5.1.2

Modulation index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

28

5.1.3

Bessel functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

29

5.1.4

Carsons rule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

29

CONTENTS

iii

5.2

Noise reduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

29

5.3

Implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

29

5.3.1

Modulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

29

5.3.2

Demodulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

29

Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

30

5.4.1

Magnetic tape storage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

30

5.4.2

Sound . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

30

5.4.3

Radio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

30

5.5

See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

31

5.6

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

31

5.7

External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

31

5.8

Further reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

31

5.4

Frequency
6.1

Denitions

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

32

6.2

Units

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

32

6.3

Period versus frequency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

33

6.4

Related types of frequency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

33

6.5

In wave propagation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

33

6.6

Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

34

6.6.1

By counting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

34

6.6.2

By stroboscope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

34

6.6.3

By frequency counter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

34

6.6.4

Heterodyne methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

34

Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

35

6.7.1

Light . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

35

6.7.2

Sound . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

35

6.7.3

Line current

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

35

6.8

See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

35

6.9

Notes and references . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

36

6.10 Further reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

36

6.11 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

36

Radiotelephone

37

7.1

Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

37

7.1.1

Mode of emission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

37

7.1.2

Modes of operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

37

Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

38

7.2.1

Privacy and selective calling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

38

Uses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

38

7.3.1

Conventional telephone use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

38

7.3.2

Marine use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

38

6.7

32

7.2
7.3

iv

CONTENTS
7.4

Regulations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

39

7.5

See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

39

7.6

Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

39

7.7

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

39

Two-way radio

40

8.1

History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

40

8.2

Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

41

8.2.1

Conventional versus trunked . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

41

8.2.2

Simplex versus duplex channels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

42

8.2.3

Push-to-Talk (PTT) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

43

8.2.4

Analog versus digital . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

43

8.2.5

Data over two-way radio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

43

8.2.6

Engineered versus not engineered . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

44

8.2.7

Options, duty cycle, and conguration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

44

8.2.8

Life of equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

45

8.3

Two-way radio frequencies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

46

8.4

UHF versus VHF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

46

8.5

Range . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

47

8.6

Other two-way radio devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

47

8.6.1

Two-way radio rental business . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

47

8.7

See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

47

8.8

References

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

47

8.9

External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

48

Airband

49

9.1

Spectrum usage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

49

9.1.1

Other bands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

49

9.1.2

Channel spacing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

50

9.1.3

Modulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

50

9.1.4

Audio properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

50

9.1.5

Digital radio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

50

9.2

Unauthorised use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

50

9.3

See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

51

9.4

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

51

10 Citizens band radio

52

10.1 History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

52

10.1.1 United States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

52

10.1.2 Australia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

54

10.1.3 Canada . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

55

10.1.4 Indonesia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

56

CONTENTS

10.1.5 Malaysia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

56

10.1.6 United Kingdom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

56

10.2 Frequency allocations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

57

10.2.1 Standard Channels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

57

10.2.2 Intermediate Channels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

57

10.2.3 SSB usage

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

57

10.2.4 Country-specic variations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

57

10.3 Current use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

59

10.4 Technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

59

10.5 Antennas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

60

10.6 Working skip . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

61

10.7 Freebanding and export radios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

61

10.8 Callbook . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

62

10.9 Media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

62

10.10See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

62

10.11References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

62

10.12Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

63

10.13External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

63

11 Quadrature amplitude modulation

64

11.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

64

11.2 Analog QAM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

64

11.2.1 Fourier analysis of QAM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

65

11.3 Quantized QAM

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

11.3.1 Ideal structure

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

11.4 Quantized QAM performance

65
66

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

66

11.4.1 Rectangular QAM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

67

11.4.2 Non-rectangular QAM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

68

11.4.3 Hierarchical QAM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

68

11.5 Interference and noise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

69

11.6 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

69

11.7 References

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

69

11.8 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

69

12 Medium wave

70

12.1 Propagation characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

70

12.2 Use in the Americas

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

70

12.3 Use in Europe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

71

12.4 Stereo and digital transmissions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

71

12.5 Antennas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

72

12.5.1 Receiving antennas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

73

12.6 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

73

vi

CONTENTS
12.7 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

73

12.8 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

73

13 AM broadcasting

74

13.1 History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

74

13.1.1 Early technologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

75

13.1.2 Vacuum tubes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

75

13.1.3 Beginning of broadcasting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

75

13.1.4 Market concentration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

78

13.1.5 Radio networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

78

13.1.6 Shortwave broadcasting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

80

13.1.7 Golden Age of Radio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

80

13.1.8 Shortcomings of AM broadcasting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

80

13.1.9 Competing media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

81

13.1.10 AM stereo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

81

13.2 Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

81

13.3 Broadcast frequency bands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

82

13.4 Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

83

13.5 Other distribution methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

83

13.6 Microbroadcasting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

83

13.7 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

84

13.8 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

84

13.9 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

85

14 Heterodyne

86

14.1 History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

86

14.1.1 Superheterodyne receiver . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

87

14.2 Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

87

14.2.1 Up and down converters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

87

14.2.2 Analog videotape recording . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

87

14.2.3 Music synthesis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

87

14.2.4 Optical heterodyning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

88

14.3 Mathematical principle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

88

14.3.1 Mixer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

88

14.3.2 Output of a mixer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

89

14.4 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

89

14.5 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

89

14.6 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

89

14.7 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

90

15 Detector (radio)
15.1 Amplitude modulation detectors

91
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

91

CONTENTS

vii

15.1.1 Envelope detector

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

91

15.1.2 Product detector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

91

15.2 Frequency and phase modulation detectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

92

15.2.1 Phase detector

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

92

15.2.2 The Foster-Seeley discriminator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

92

15.2.3 Ratio detector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

92

15.2.4 Quadrature detector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

93

15.2.5 Other FM detectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

93

15.3 Phase-locked loop detector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

93

15.4 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

93

15.5 References

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

94

15.6 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

94

16 Rectier

95

16.1 Rectier devices

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

95

16.2 Rectier circuits

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

95

16.2.1 Single-phase rectiers

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

95

16.2.2 Three-phase rectiers

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

96

16.2.3 Voltage-multiplying rectiers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

98

16.3 Rectier eciency


16.4 Rectier losses

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

99

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

99

16.5 Rectier output smoothing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100


16.6 Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
16.7 Rectication technologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
16.7.1 Electromechanical . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
16.7.2 Electrolytic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
16.7.3 Plasma type

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102

16.7.4 Diode vacuum tube (valve) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104


16.7.5 Solid state
16.8 Current research

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105

16.9 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106


16.10References
17 Fleming valve

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
107

17.1 How it works . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107


17.2 History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
17.2.1 Oscillation valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
17.2.2 Power applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
17.3 References and notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
17.3.1 Citations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
17.3.2 Patents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
17.4 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109

viii

CONTENTS

18 Continuous wave

110

18.1 Radio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110


18.1.1 Key clicks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
18.2 Radar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
18.3 Laser physics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
18.4 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
18.5 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
19 Alexanderson alternator
19.1 History

112

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112

19.1.1 Prior developments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112


19.1.2 Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
19.1.3 Stations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
19.1.4 US Navy stations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
19.2 Design

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113

19.2.1 Frequency control


19.3 Performance advantages

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114

19.4 Disadvantages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114


19.5 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
19.6 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
19.7 References

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115

19.8 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115


20 Lee de Forest

116

20.1 Early life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116


20.2 Early radio work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
20.3 American De Forest Wireless Telegraph Company . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
20.4 Radio Telephone Company . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
20.4.1 Arc radiotelephone development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
20.4.2 Initial broadcasting experiments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
20.4.3 Grid Audion detector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
20.5 Employment at Federal Telegraph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
20.5.1 Audio frequency amplication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
20.6 Reorganized Radio Telephone Company . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
20.6.1 Regeneration controversy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
20.6.2 Renewed broadcasting activities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
20.7 Phonolm sound-on-lm process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
20.8 Later years and death . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
20.9 Legacy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
20.10Awards and recognition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
20.11Personal life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
20.11.1 Marriages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124

CONTENTS

ix

20.11.2 Politics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125


20.11.3 Religious views . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
20.12Quotes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
20.13Patents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
20.14See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
20.15References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
20.16Further reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
20.17External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
21 Amplier
21.1 History

129
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129

21.2 Figures of merit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130


21.3 Amplier categorisation
21.3.1 Active devices

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130

21.3.2 Amplier architectures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131


21.3.3 Applications

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133

21.4 Classication of amplier stages and systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133


21.4.1 Input and output variables
21.4.2 Common terminal

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134

21.4.3 Unilateral or bilateral . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134


21.4.4 Inverting or non-inverting
21.4.5 Function

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135

21.4.6 Interstage coupling method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136


21.4.7 Frequency range . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
21.5 Power amplier classes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
21.5.1 Conduction angle classes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
21.5.2 Class A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
21.5.3 Class B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138
21.5.4 Class AB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
21.5.5 Class C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
21.5.6 Class D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
21.5.7 Additional classes

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141

21.6 Implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143


21.6.1 Amplier circuit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144
21.6.2 Notes on implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
21.7 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
21.8 References

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145

21.9 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147


22 Transmitter

148

22.1 Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148


22.2 History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149

CONTENTS
22.3 How it works . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151
22.4 Legal restrictions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151
22.5 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152
22.6 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152
22.7 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152

23 Arc converter

153

23.1 History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153


23.2 Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
23.3 Keying . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
23.4 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155
23.5 References

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155

23.6 Further reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155


23.7 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156
24 Microphone

157

24.1 History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157


24.2 Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159
24.3 Varieties

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159

24.3.1 Condenser

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159

24.3.2 Dynamic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161


24.3.3 Ribbon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
24.3.4 Carbon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162
24.3.5 Piezoelectric . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162
24.3.6 Fiber optic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162
24.3.7 Laser . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163
24.3.8 Liquid

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163

24.3.9 MEMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163


24.3.10 Speakers as microphones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164
24.4 Capsule design and directivity

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164

24.5 Polar patterns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164


24.5.1 Omnidirectional . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165
24.5.2 Unidirectional . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165
24.5.3 Bi-directional . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165
24.5.4 Shotgun and parabolic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166
24.5.5 Boundary or PZM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166
24.6 Application-specic designs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166
24.7 Powering

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167

24.8 Connectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167


24.8.1 Impedance-matching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168
24.8.2 Digital microphone interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169
24.9 Measurements and specications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169

CONTENTS

xi

24.10Measurement microphones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170


24.10.1 Calibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170
24.11Arrays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171
24.12Windscreens

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171

24.13See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172


24.14References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172
24.15External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173
25 FM broadcasting

174

25.1 Broadcast bands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174


25.2 Modulation characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
25.2.1 Modulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
25.2.2 Pre-emphasis and de-emphasis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
25.2.3 Stereo FM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176
25.2.4 Quadraphonic FM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177
25.2.5 Other subcarrier services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177
25.2.6 Dolby FM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178
25.3 Distance covered by stereo FM transmission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178
25.4 Adoption of FM broadcasting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178
25.4.1 United States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178
25.4.2 Europe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179
25.4.3 Australia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180
25.4.4 New Zealand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180
25.4.5 Turkey . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180
25.4.6 Other countries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180
25.4.7 ITU Conferences about FM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180
25.5 Small-scale use of the FM broadcast band . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180
25.5.1 Consumer use of FM transmitters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181
25.5.2 Microbroadcasting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181
25.5.3 Clandestine use of FM transmitters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181
25.6 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181
25.6.1 FM broadcasting by country . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181
25.6.2 FM broadcasting (technical) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181
25.6.3 Lists

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181

25.6.4 History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182


25.7 References

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182

25.8 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182


26 Radio broadcasting

183

26.1 History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183


26.2 Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184
26.2.1 Shortwave . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185

xii

CONTENTS
26.2.2 AM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185
26.2.3 FM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185
26.2.4 Pirate radio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186
26.2.5 Terrestrial digital radio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186
26.2.6 Satellite . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186
26.3 Program formats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187
26.4 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187
26.5 References

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187

26.6 Further reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187


26.7 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188
27 Single-sideband modulation

189

27.1 Basic concept . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189


27.2 History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190
27.3 Mathematical formulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190
27.3.1 Lower sideband . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191
27.4 Practical implementations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191
27.4.1 Bandpass ltering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191
27.4.2 Hartley modulator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191
27.4.3 Weaver modulator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191
27.4.4 Full, reduced, and suppressed carrier SSB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192
27.5 Demodulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193
27.6 SSB as a speech-scrambling technique . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193
27.7 Vestigial sideband (VSB) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193
27.8 Frequencies for LSB and USB in amateur radio voice communication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194
27.9 Extended single sideband (eSSB) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194
27.10Amplitude-companded single-sideband modulation (ACSSB) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194
27.11ITU designations

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194

27.12Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195
27.13See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195
27.14References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195
27.15General references . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195
27.16Further reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195
28 Longwave

196

28.1 Non-broadcast use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196


28.1.1 Non-directional beacons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196
28.1.2 Time signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196
28.1.3 Military communication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197
28.1.4 LowFER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197
28.1.5 Historic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197
28.2 Broadcasting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197

CONTENTS

xiii

28.2.1 Carrier frequencies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197


28.2.2 Long distance reception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197
28.2.3 List of long-wave broadcasting transmitters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198
28.3 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198
28.4 Notes and references . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198
28.5 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199
29 Double-sideband suppressed-carrier transmission

200

29.1 Spectrum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200


29.2 Generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200
29.3 Demodulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201
29.3.1 Distortion and attenuation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201
29.4 How it works . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201
29.5 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202
29.6 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202
30 Product detector

203

30.1 A simple product detector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203


30.1.1 Mathematical model of the simple product detector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203
30.1.2 Drawbacks of the simple product detector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203
30.2 Another example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203
30.2.1 Mathematical model of the detector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204
30.3 A more sophisticated product detector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204
30.4 Advantages and disadvantages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204
31 Envelope detector

205

31.1 Denition of the envelope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205


31.2 Diode detector

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206

31.3 Precision detector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206


31.4 Drawbacks

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206

31.5 Demodulation of signals

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206

31.6 Audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206


31.7 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206
31.8 References

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206

31.9 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206


32 Double-sideband reduced-carrier transmission

207

32.1 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207


32.2 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207
33 Automatic gain control

208

33.1 How it works . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208


33.2 Example use cases

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208

xiv

CONTENTS
33.2.1 AM radio receivers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208
33.2.2 Radar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209
33.2.3 Audio/video

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209

33.2.4 Vogad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209


33.2.5 Telephone recording . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209
33.2.6 Biological . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210
33.3 Recovery times . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210
33.4 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210
33.5 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210
34 Broadcasting

211

34.1 History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211


34.2 Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212
34.3 Economic models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212
34.4 Recorded and live forms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213
34.5 Social impact . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213
34.6 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214
34.7 Notes and references . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214
34.8 Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215
34.9 Further reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215
34.10External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215
35 Linear amplier

216

35.1 Explanation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216


35.2 Amplier classes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216
35.3 Amateur radio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217
35.4 Broadcast radio stations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217
35.5 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217
35.6 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217
36 Pulse-width modulation

218

36.1 History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218


36.2 Principle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219
36.2.1 Delta . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219
36.2.2 Delta-sigma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219
36.2.3 Space vector modulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220
36.2.4 Direct torque control (DTC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220
36.2.5 Time proportioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220
36.2.6 Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220
36.2.7 Spectrum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221
36.2.8 PWM sampling theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221
36.3 Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221

CONTENTS

xv

36.3.1 Servos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221


36.3.2 Telecommunications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221
36.3.3 Power delivery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221
36.3.4 Voltage regulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222
36.3.5 Audio eects and amplication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222
36.3.6 Electrical . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222
36.4 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223
36.5 References

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223

36.6 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223


37 Ampliphase

224

37.1 How it works . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224


37.2 Development

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224

37.3 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224


37.4 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224
38 Doherty amplier

225

38.1 Successor developments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225


38.2 Footnotes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225
38.3 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226
39 AM stereo

227

39.1 History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227


39.1.1 Timeline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227
39.2 Broadcasting systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228
39.2.1 Harris System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228
39.2.2 Magnavox System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228
39.2.3 Motorola C-QUAM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228
39.2.4 Kahn-Hazeltine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228
39.2.5 Belar System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229
39.3 Adoption in the United States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229
39.4 Global adoption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229
39.5 Current status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230
39.6 Surround sound . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230
39.7 Decline in use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230
39.8 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230
39.9 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231
40 Shortwave radio

232

40.1 Frequency classications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232


40.2 History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233
40.2.1 Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233
40.2.2 Amateur use of shortwave propagation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233

xvi

CONTENTS
40.3 Propagation characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234
40.4 Types of modulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234
40.5 Uses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235
40.6 Shortwave broadcasting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235
40.6.1 Frequency allocations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235
40.6.2 Advantages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236
40.6.3 Disadvantages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236
40.7 Shortwave listening . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237
40.8 Amateur radio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237
40.9 Utility stations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237
40.10Unusual signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237
40.11Shortwave broadcasts and music . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238
40.12Shortwaves future . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238
40.13See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239
40.14References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239
40.15External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240

41 Amplitude modulation signalling system


41.1 Broadcasting

241

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241

41.2 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241


42 Sideband

242

42.1 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243


42.2 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243
43 Types of radio emissions

244

43.1 Designation details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244


43.1.1 Bandwidth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244
43.1.2 Type of modulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244
43.1.3 Type of modulating signal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244
43.1.4 Type of transmitted information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244
43.1.5 Details of information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244
43.1.6 Multiplexing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244
43.2 Common examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244
43.2.1 Broadcasting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244
43.2.2 Two-way radio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244
43.2.3 Low-speed data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245
43.3 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245
43.4 Further reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245
44 Modulation (disambiguation)

246

44.1 Economics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246


44.2 Science . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246

CONTENTS

xvii

44.3 Music . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246


44.3.1 Classical compositions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246
44.3.2 Albums . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246
45 Electronics

247

45.1 Branches of electronics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247


45.2 Electronic devices and components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248
45.3 History of electronic components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248
45.4 Types of circuits

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248

45.4.1 Analog circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248


45.4.2 Digital circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249
45.5 Heat dissipation and thermal management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249
45.6 Noise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249
45.7 Electronics theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249
45.8 Electronics lab

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 250

45.9 Computer aided design (CAD) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 250


45.10Construction methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 250
45.11Degradation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 250
45.12See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 250
45.13References

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 250

45.14Further reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251


45.15External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251
46 Telecommunication

252

46.1 Etymology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252


46.2 History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253
46.2.1 Beacons and pigeons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253
46.2.2 Telegraph and telephone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253
46.2.3 Radio and television . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253
46.2.4 Computers and the Internet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254
46.3 Key concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254
46.3.1 Basic elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254
46.3.2 Analog versus digital communications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255
46.3.3 Telecommunication networks

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255

46.3.4 Communication channels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255


46.3.5 Modulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 256
46.4 Society

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 256

46.4.1 Economic impact . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 256


46.4.2 Social impact . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 256
46.4.3 Other impacts

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257

46.5 Government . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257


46.6 Modern media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257

xviii

CONTENTS
46.6.1 Worldwide equipment sales
46.6.2 Telephone

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257

46.6.3 Radio and television

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 258

46.6.4 Internet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259


46.6.5 Local area networks and wide area networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260
46.7 Transmission capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261
46.8 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261
46.9 References

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261

46.9.1 Citations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261


46.9.2 Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264
46.10External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264
47 Waveform

265

47.1 Examples of waveforms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265


47.2 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265
47.3 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 266
47.4 Further reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 266
47.5 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 266
48 Analog signal

267

48.1 Advantages and disadvantages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267


48.2 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267
48.3 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 268
49 Baseband

269

49.1 Various uses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 269


49.1.1 Baseband bandwidth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 269
49.1.2 Baseband channel

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 269

49.1.3 Digital baseband transmission


49.1.4 Baseband processor
49.1.5 Baseband signal

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 269

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 269

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 270

49.1.6 Equivalent baseband signal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 270


49.2 Modulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 270
49.3 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 270
49.4 References
50 Demodulation
50.1 History

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 270
271

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271

50.2 Techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271


50.3 AM radio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271
50.4 FM radio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272
50.5 PM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272
50.6 QAM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272

CONTENTS

xix

50.7 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272


50.8 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272
51 Low-pass lter

273

51.1 Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273


51.1.1 Acoustics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273
51.1.2 Optics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273
51.1.3 Electronics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273
51.2 Ideal and real lters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273
51.3 Continuous-time low-pass lters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 274
51.3.1 Laplace notation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275
51.4 Electronic low-pass lters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275
51.4.1 First order . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275
51.4.2 Second order . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276
51.4.3 Higher order passive lters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276
51.4.4 Active electronic realization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276
51.4.5 Discrete-time realization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277
51.5 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 278
51.6 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 278
51.7 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 278
52 Digital data

279

52.1 Symbol to digital conversion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279


52.2 Properties of digital information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279
52.3 Historical digital systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 280
52.4 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 281
52.5 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 281
52.6 Further reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 281
53 Public switched telephone network

282

53.1 History (USA) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282


53.2 Operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282
53.3 Regulation

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 283

53.4 Technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 283


53.4.1 Network topology

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 283

53.4.2 Digital channels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 283


53.4.3 Impact on IP standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 283
53.5 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 283
53.6 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 284
53.7 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 284
54 Channel (communications)

285

54.1 Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285

xx

CONTENTS
54.2 Channel models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286
54.2.1 Digital channel models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286
54.2.2 Analog channel models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286
54.3 Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287
54.4 Channel performance measures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287
54.5 Multi-terminal channels, with application to cellular systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287
54.6 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 288
54.7 Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 288

55 Band-pass lter

289

55.1 Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 289


55.2 Q factor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 289
55.3 Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 290
55.4 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 290
55.5 References

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 290

55.6 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 290


56 Frequency-division multiplexing

291

56.1 How it works . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291


56.2 Telephone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292
56.2.1 Group and supergroup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292
56.3 Other examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292
56.4 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292
56.5 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292
57 Line code

294

57.1 Line coding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 294


57.2 Disparity

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 295

57.3 Polarity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 295


57.4 Synchronization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 296
57.5 Other considerations

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 296

57.6 Common line codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 296


57.7 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 296
57.8 References

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297

57.9 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297


58 Local area network

298

58.1 History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 298


58.2 Cabling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299
58.3 Wireless media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299
58.4 Technical aspects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299
58.5 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299
58.6 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299

CONTENTS

xxi

58.7 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300


59 Narrowband

301

59.1 Two-way radio narrowband . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301


59.2 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301
59.3 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301
59.4 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301
60 Wideband

302

60.1 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302


60.2 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302
60.3 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302
61 Data transmission

303

61.1 Distinction between related subjects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303


61.2 Protocol layers and sub-topics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303
61.3 Applications and history . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 304
61.4 Serial and parallel transmission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 305
61.5 Types of communication channels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 305
61.6 Asynchronous and synchronous data transmission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 305
61.7 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 305
61.8 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 306
62 Carrier frequency

307

63 Frequency modulation synthesis

308

63.1 History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 308


63.2 Spectral analysis

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 309

63.3 Footnote . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 309


63.4 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 309
63.5 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 309
63.6 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 310
64 Constant envelope

311

64.1 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 311


64.2 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 311
65 Angle modulation

312

65.1 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 312


66 Phase modulation

313

66.1 Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 313


66.2 Modulation index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 314
66.3 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 314

xxii

CONTENTS

67 Bit rate

315

67.1 Prexes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315


67.2 In data communications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315
67.2.1 Gross bit rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315
67.2.2 Information rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 316
67.2.3 Network throughput . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 316
67.2.4 Goodput (data transfer rate) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 317
67.2.5 Progress trends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 317
67.3 Multimedia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 317
67.4 Encoding bit rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 317
67.4.1 Audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 317
67.4.2 Video . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 318
67.4.3 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 319
67.5 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 319
67.6 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 319
67.7 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 320
68 Symbol rate

321

68.1 Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321


68.1.1 Relationship to gross bitrate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321
68.1.2 Modems for passband transmission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 322
68.1.3 Line codes for baseband transmission

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 322

68.1.4 Digital television and OFDM example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 322


68.1.5 Relationship to chip rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323
68.1.6 Relationship to bit error rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323
68.2 Modulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323
68.2.1 Binary modulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323
68.2.2 N-ary modulation, N greater than 2
68.2.3 Data rate versus error rate

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 324

68.3 Signicant condition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 324


68.4 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 324
68.5 References

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 324

68.6 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 324


69 Digital signal

325

69.1 Denitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 325


69.1.1 In digital electronics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 325
69.1.2 In signal processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 325
69.1.3 In communications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 326
69.2 Logic signal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 326
69.3 Logic voltage levels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 327
69.4 Modulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 327

CONTENTS

xxiii

69.5 Clocking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 327


69.6 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 327
69.7 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 327
70 Digital-to-analog converter

328

70.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 328


70.2 Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 329
70.2.1 Audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 329
70.2.2 Video . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 329
70.2.3 Mechanical . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 330
70.3 Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 330
70.4 Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 331
70.5 Figures of merit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 332
70.6 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 332
70.7 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 332
70.8 Further reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 332
70.9 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 332
71 Analog transmission

333

71.1 Descriptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 333


71.2 Modes of transmission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 333
71.3 Types of analog transmissions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 333
71.4 Benets and drawbacks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 333
71.5 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 333
71.6 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 334
72 Phase-shift keying

335

72.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 335


72.1.1 Denitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 336
72.2 Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 336
72.3 Binary phase-shift keying (BPSK) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 336
72.3.1 Implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 337
72.3.2 Bit error rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 337
72.4 Quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 337
72.4.1 Implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 338
72.4.2 Bit error rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 338
72.4.3 Variants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 339
72.5 Higher-order PSK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 340
72.5.1 Bit error rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 340
72.6 Dierential phase-shift keying (DPSK) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 341
72.6.1 Dierential encoding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 341
72.6.2 Demodulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 342

xxiv

CONTENTS
72.6.3 Example: Dierentially encoded BPSK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 343

72.7 Channel capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 343


72.8 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 343
72.9 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 344
72.10References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 344
73 Frequency-shift keying
73.1 Implementations of FSK Modems

345
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 345

73.2 Other forms of FSK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 345


73.2.1 Continuous-phase frequency-shift keying

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 345

73.2.2 Gaussian frequency-shift keying . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 345


73.2.3 Minimum-shift keying . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 346
73.2.4 Gaussian minimum shift keying

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 346

73.2.5 Audio FSK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 346


73.2.6 Continuous 4 level FM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 346
73.3 Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 346
73.4 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 347
73.5 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 347
73.6 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 347
74 Amplitude-shift keying

348

74.1 Probability of error . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 349


74.2 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 350
74.3 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 350
75 Binary number

351

75.1 History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 351


75.1.1 Egypt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 351
75.1.2 China . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 351
75.1.3 India . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 352
75.1.4 Other cultures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 352
75.1.5 Western predecessors to Leibniz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 352
75.1.6 Leibniz and the I Ching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 352
75.1.7 Later developments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 353
75.2 Representation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 353
75.3 Counting in binary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 354
75.3.1 Decimal counting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 354
75.3.2 Binary counting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 354
75.4 Fractions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 355
75.5 Binary arithmetic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 355
75.5.1 Addition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 355
75.5.2 Subtraction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 356

CONTENTS

xxv

75.5.3 Multiplication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 356


75.5.4 Division . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 356
75.5.5 Square root . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 357
75.6 Bitwise operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 357
75.7 Conversion to and from other numeral systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 357
75.7.1 Decimal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 357
75.7.2 Hexadecimal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 358
75.7.3 Octal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 358
75.8 Representing real numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 358
75.9 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359
75.10Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359
75.11References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 360
75.12External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 360
76 Bit

362

76.1 History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 362


76.2 Physical representation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 362
76.2.1 Transmission and processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 363
76.2.2 Storage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 363
76.3 Unit and symbol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 363
76.3.1 Multiple bits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 363
76.4 Information capacity and information compression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 363
76.5 Bit-based computing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 364
76.6 Other information units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 364
76.7 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 364
76.8 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 364
76.9 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 364
76.10External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 365
77 Baud

366

77.1 Denitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 366


77.2 Relationship to gross bit rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 366
77.3 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 367
77.4 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 367
77.5 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 367
78 Constellation diagram

368

78.1 Interpretation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 368


78.2 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 369
78.3 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 369
79 Complex number

370

79.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 370

xxvi

CONTENTS
79.1.1 Denition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 370
79.1.2 Notation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 371
79.1.3 Complex plane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 371
79.1.4 History in brief . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 371

79.2 Relations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 372


79.2.1 Equality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 372
79.2.2 Ordering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 372
79.3 Elementary operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 372
79.3.1 Conjugate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 372
79.3.2 Addition and subtraction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 372
79.3.3 Multiplication and division . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 373
79.3.4 Reciprocal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 373
79.3.5 Square root . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 373
79.4 Polar form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 374
79.4.1 Absolute value and argument . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 374
79.4.2 Multiplication and division in polar form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 375
79.5 Exponentiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 375
79.5.1 Eulers formula . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 375
79.5.2 Natural logarithm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 376
79.5.3 Integer and fractional exponents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 376
79.6 Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 376
79.6.1 Field structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 376
79.6.2 Solutions of polynomial equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 377
79.6.3 Algebraic characterization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 377
79.6.4 Characterization as a topological eld . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 377
79.7 Formal construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 377
79.7.1 Formal development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 377
79.7.2 Matrix representation of complex numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 378
79.8 Complex analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 378
79.8.1 Complex exponential and related functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 378
79.8.2 Holomorphic functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 379
79.9 Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 379
79.9.1 Control theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 379
79.9.2 Improper integrals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 380
79.9.3 Fluid dynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 380
79.9.4 Dynamic equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 380
79.9.5 Electromagnetism and electrical engineering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 380
79.9.6 Signal analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 380
79.9.7 Quantum mechanics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 381
79.9.8 Relativity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 381
79.9.9 Geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 381

CONTENTS

xxvii

79.9.10 Algebraic number theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 381


79.9.11 Analytic number theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 381
79.10History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 381
79.11Generalizations and related notions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 383
79.12See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 383
79.13Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 384
79.14References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 384
79.14.1 Mathematical references . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 384
79.14.2 Historical references . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 384
79.15Further reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 385
79.16External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 385
80 Imaginary unit

386

80.1 Denition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 386


80.2 i and i . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 387
80.3 Proper use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 387
80.4 Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 387
80.4.1 Square roots

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 388

80.4.2 Cube roots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 388


80.4.3 Multiplication and division . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 388
80.4.4 Powers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 389
80.4.5 Factorial

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 389

80.4.6 Other operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 389


80.5 Alternative notations

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 389

80.6 Matrices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 389


80.7 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 390
80.8 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 390
80.9 References

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 390

80.10Further reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 390


80.11External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 390
81 Passband

391

81.1 Filters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 391


81.2 Digital transmission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 391
81.3 Details

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 392

81.4 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 392


81.5 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 392
82 Radio frequency
82.1 Special properties of RF current

393
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 393

82.2 Radio communication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 393


82.3 Frequency bands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 394

xxviii

CONTENTS

82.4 In medicine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 394


82.5 Eects on the human body . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 394
82.5.1 Extremely low frequency RF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 394
82.5.2 Microwaves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 394
82.5.3 General RF exposure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 394
82.6 As a weapon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 395
82.7 Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 395
82.8 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 395
82.9 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 395
82.10External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 396
83 Pulse shaping

397

83.1 Need for pulse shaping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 397


83.2 Pulse shaping lters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 397
83.2.1 Sinc lter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 398
83.2.2 Raised-cosine lter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 398
83.2.3 Gaussian lter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 398
83.3 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 398
83.4 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 398
84 Digital signal processing

399

84.1 Signal sampling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 399


84.2 Domains

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 399

84.2.1 Time and space domains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 399


84.2.2 Frequency domain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 400
84.2.3 Z-plane analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 400
84.2.4 Wavelet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 400
84.3 Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 400
84.4 Implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 401
84.5 Techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 401
84.6 Related elds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 401
84.7 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 402
84.8 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 402
84.9 Further reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 402
85 Direct digital synthesizer

404

85.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 404


85.2 Performance

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 404

85.2.1 Frequency agility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 404


85.2.2 Phase noise and jitter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 405
85.3 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 405
85.4 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 405

CONTENTS

xxix

85.5 External links and further reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 405


86 Fading

406

86.1 Key concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 406


86.2 Slow versus fast fading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 406
86.3 Block fading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 407
86.4 Selective fading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 407
86.5 Fading models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 408
86.6 Mitigation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 408
86.7 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 408
86.8 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 408
86.9 Literature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 408
86.10External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 409
87 Attenuation

410

87.1 Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 410


87.2 Ultrasound . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 410
87.2.1 Attenuation coecient . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 410
87.3 Light attenuation in water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 411
87.4 Earthquake . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 411
87.5 Electromagnetic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 411
87.5.1 Radiography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 411
87.5.2 Optics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 411
87.5.3 Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 413
87.5.4 Radio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 413
87.6 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 413
87.7 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 413
87.8 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 414
88 Superheterodyne receiver

415

88.1 History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 415


88.1.1 Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 415
88.1.2 Invention . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 416
88.1.3 Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 416
88.2 Design and principle of operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 417
88.2.1 Circuit description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 417
88.2.2 Local oscillator and mixer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 418
88.2.3 Intermediate frequency amplier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 418
88.2.4 Bandpass lter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 419
88.2.5 Demodulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 419
88.3 Advanced designs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 419
88.3.1 Other uses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 419

xxx

CONTENTS
88.3.2 Modern designs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 420
88.4 Advantages and disadvantages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 420
88.4.1 Image frequency (f ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 420
88.4.2 Local oscillator radiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 421
88.4.3 Local oscillator sideband noise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 421
88.5 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 421
88.6 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 421
88.7 Further reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 422
88.8 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 422

89 Undersampling

423

89.1 Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 423


89.2 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 425
89.3 References

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 425

90 Matched lter

426

90.1 Derivation of the matched lter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 426


90.1.1 Derivation via matrix algebra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 426
90.1.2 Derivation via Lagrangian

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 427

90.2 The matched lter as a least squares estimator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 428


90.2.1 Derivation

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 428

90.2.2 Implications

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 429

90.3 Frequency-domain interpretation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 429


90.4 Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 429
90.4.1 Matched lter in radar and sonar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 429
90.4.2 Matched lter in digital communications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 430
90.4.3 Matched lter in gravitational-wave astronomy

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 431

90.5 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 431


90.6 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 431
90.7 References

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 431

90.8 Further reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 432


91 Intersymbol interference
91.1 Causes

433

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 433

91.1.1 Multipath propagation

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 433

91.1.2 Bandlimited channels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 433


91.2 Eects on eye patterns
91.3 Countering ISI

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 434

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 434

91.4 Intentional Intersymbol interference

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 434

91.5 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 434


91.6 References

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 435

91.7 Further reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 435

CONTENTS

xxxi

91.8 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 435


92 Phase synchronization

436

92.1 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 436


92.2 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 436
92.3 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 436
93 Asynchronous communication

437

93.1 Physical layer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 437


93.2 Data link layer and higher . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 437
93.3 Application layer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 437
93.4 Electronically mediated communication

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 437

93.5 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 437


93.6 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 438
94 Multiple frequency-shift keying

439

94.1 MFSK Fundamentals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 439


94.1.1 2-tone MFSK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 439
94.1.2 MFSK in HF communications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 439
94.1.3 VHF & UHF communications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 441
94.2 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 441
94.3 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 441
94.4 Further reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 441
95 Dual-tone multi-frequency signaling

443

95.1 Multifrequency signaling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 443


95.2 #, *, A, B, C, and D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 444
95.3 Keypad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 444
95.4 Decoding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 445
95.5 Other multiple frequency signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 445
95.6 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 445
95.7 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 445
95.8 Further reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 445
95.9 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 445
96 On-o keying

446

96.1 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 446


96.2 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 446
96.3 References
97 8VSB

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 446
447

97.1 Modulation Technique . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 447


97.2 Throughput . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 447
97.3 Power saving advantages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 447

xxxii

CONTENTS

97.4 Disputes over ATSCs use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 448


97.5 8VSB vs COFDM

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 448

97.6 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 448


97.7 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 448
97.8 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 449
98 Polar modulation
98.1 History

450

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 450

98.2 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 450


98.3 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 450
99 Continuous phase modulation
99.1 Phase memory

451

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 451

99.2 Phase trajectory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 451


99.3 Partial response CPM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 451
99.4 Continuous-phase frequency-shift keying . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 451
99.4.1 Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 452
99.5 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 452
99.6 References

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 452

100Minimum-shift keying
100.1Mathematical representation

453
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 453

100.2Gaussian minimum-shift keying

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 453

100.3See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 454


100.4Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 454
100.5References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 454
101Orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing

455

101.1Example of applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 455


101.1.1 Wired . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 455
101.1.2 Wireless . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 455
101.2Key features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 456
101.2.1 Summary of advantages

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 456

101.2.2 Summary of disadvantages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 456


101.3Characteristics and principles of operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 456
101.3.1 Orthogonality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 456
101.3.2 Implementation using the FFT algorithm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 457
101.3.3 Guard interval for elimination of intersymbol interference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 457
101.3.4 Simplied equalization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 458
101.3.5 Channel coding and interleaving . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 458
101.3.6 Adaptive transmission

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 459

101.3.7 OFDM extended with multiple access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 459


101.3.8 Space diversity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 459

CONTENTS

xxxiii

101.3.9 Linear transmitter power amplier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 460


101.4Eciency comparison between single carrier and multicarrier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 460
101.5Idealized system model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 461
101.5.1 Transmitter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 461
101.5.2 Receiver

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 461

101.6Mathematical description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 461


101.7Usage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 462
101.7.1 OFDM system comparison table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 462
101.7.2 ADSL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 462
101.7.3 Powerline Technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 462
101.7.4 Wireless local area networks (LAN) and metropolitan area networks (MAN) . . . . . . . . 462
101.7.5 Wireless personal area networks (PAN) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 462
101.7.6 Terrestrial digital radio and television broadcasting

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 462

101.7.7 Ultra-wideband . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 463


101.7.8 FLASH-OFDM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 463
101.8History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 464
101.9See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 464
101.10References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 465
101.11Further reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 466
101.12External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 466
102Wavelet modulation

467

102.1See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 467


102.2References

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 467

103Trellis modulation

468

103.1A new modulation method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 468


103.2See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 469
103.3In popular culture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 469
103.4Relevant papers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 469
103.5References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 469
103.6External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 469
104Spread spectrum

470

104.1Spread-spectrum telecommunications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 470


104.2Invention of frequency hopping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 471
104.3Spread-spectrum clock signal generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 471
104.4See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 472
104.5Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 472
104.6Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 472
104.7External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 473
105Direct-sequence spread spectrum

474

xxxiv

CONTENTS

105.1History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 474
105.2Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 474
105.3Transmission method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 474
105.4Benets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 475
105.5Uses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 475
105.6See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 475
105.7References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 475
105.8External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 475
106Chirp spread spectrum

476

106.1Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 476
106.2Uses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 476
106.3See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 477
106.4References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 477
106.5External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 477
107Frequency-hopping spread spectrum

478

107.1Spread-spectrum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 478
107.2Military use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 478
107.3Civilian use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 478
107.4Technical considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 479
107.5Multiple inventors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 479
107.6Variations of FHSS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 479
107.7See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 480
107.8Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 480
107.9References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 480
107.10External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 480
108Channel access method

481

108.1Fundamental types of channel access schemes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 481


108.1.1 Frequency-division multiple access (FDMA) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 481
108.1.2 Time division multiple access (TDMA) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 481
108.1.3 Code division multiple access (CDMA)/Spread spectrum multiple access (SSMA) . . . . . 482
108.1.4 Space division multiple access (SDMA) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 482
108.1.5 Power division multiple access (PDMA) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 482
108.2List of channel access methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 482
108.2.1 Circuit mode and channelization methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 482
108.2.2 Packet mode methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 483
108.2.3 Duplexing methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 483
108.3Hybrid channel access scheme application examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 483
108.4Denition within certain application areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 483
108.4.1 Local and metropolitan area networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 483

CONTENTS

xxxv

108.4.2 Satellite communications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 484


108.4.3 Switching centers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 484
108.5Classications in the literature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 484
108.6See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 484
108.7Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 484
108.8References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 484
109Multi-carrier code division multiple access

485

109.1Rationale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 485
109.2Downlink: MC-CDM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 485
109.3Variants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 485
109.4References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 486
109.5Literature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 486
109.6See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 486
110Orthogonal frequency-division multiple access

487

110.1Key features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 487


110.1.1 Claimed advantages over OFDM with time-domain statistical multiplexing . . . . . . . . . 487
110.1.2 Claimed OFDMA Advantages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 487
110.1.3 Recognised disadvantages of OFDMA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 487
110.2Characteristics and principles of operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 488
110.3Usage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 488
110.4Trademark and patents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 489
110.5See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 489
110.6Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 489
110.7References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 489
110.8External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 489
111Class-D amplier

490

111.1Basic operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 490


111.2Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 491
111.3Signal modulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 491
111.4Design challenges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 491
111.4.1 Switching speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 491
111.4.2 Electromagnetic interference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 491
111.4.3 Power supply design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 492
111.5Error control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 492
111.6Advantages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 492
111.7Uses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 492
111.8See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 493
111.9References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 493
111.10External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 493

xxxvi

CONTENTS

112RF power amplier

494

112.1Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 494
112.2Wideband amplier design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 494
112.3References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 495
112.4External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 495
113Code division multiple access

496

113.1History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 496
113.2Uses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 496
113.3Steps in CDMA modulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 497
113.4Code division multiplexing (synchronous CDMA) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 497
113.4.1 Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 498
113.5Asynchronous CDMA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 499
113.5.1 Advantages of asynchronous CDMA over other techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 499
113.5.2 Spread-spectrum characteristics of CDMA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 500
113.6Collaborative CDMA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 500
113.7See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 501
113.8Further reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 501
113.9References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 501
113.10External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 501
114Software-dened radio

502

114.1Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 502
114.2Operating principles

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 502

114.2.1 Ideal concept . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 503


114.2.2 Receiver architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 503
114.3History

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 503

114.3.1 SPEAKeasy phase I

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 504

114.3.2 SPEAKeasy phase II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 504


114.4Current usage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 505
114.4.1 Military . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 505
114.4.2 Amateur and home use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 505
114.5See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 506
114.6References

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 506

114.7Further reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 507


114.8External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 507
115Cognitive radio

509

115.1Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 509
115.2History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 509
115.3Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 510
115.4Technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 510

CONTENTS

xxxvii

115.4.1 Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 510


115.4.2 Versus intelligent antenna (IA) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 511
115.5Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 511
115.6Simulation of CR networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 512
115.7Future plans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 512
115.8See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 512
115.9References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 512
115.10External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 513
116Manchester code

514

116.1Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 514
116.2Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 514
116.3Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 514
116.3.1 Manchester encoding as phase-shift keying

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 515

116.3.2 Conventions for representation of data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 515


116.4See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 515
116.5References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 515
117Non-return-to-zero

516

117.1Unipolar non-return-to-zero level . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 516


117.2Bipolar non-return-to-zero level . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 517
117.3Non-return-to-zero space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 517
117.4Non-return-to-zero inverted . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 517
117.5See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 518
117.6References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 518
118Unipolar encoding

519

118.1See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 519


119Bipolar encoding

520

119.1Alternate mark inversion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 520


119.2Voltage Build-up

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 520

119.3Synchronization and Zeroes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 520


119.4Error detection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 521
119.5Other T1 encoding schemes

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 521

119.6See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 521


119.7References

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 521

120Pulse wave

522

120.1See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 522


120.2References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 522
121Discrete-time signal

523

121.1Acquisition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 523

xxxviii

CONTENTS

121.2See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 523


121.3References

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 523

122Forward error correction

524

122.1How it works . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 524


122.2Averaging noise to reduce errors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 524
122.3Types of FEC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 525
122.4Concatenated FEC codes for improved performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 525
122.5Low-density parity-check (LDPC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 526
122.6Turbo codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 526
122.7Local decoding and testing of codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 526
122.8Interleaving . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 526
122.8.1 Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 527
122.8.2 Disadvantages of interleaving

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 527

122.9List of error-correcting codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 527


122.10See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 528
122.11References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 528
122.12Further reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 528
122.13External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 529
123Pulse-amplitude modulation

530

123.1Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 530
123.2Uses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 530
123.2.1 Ethernet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 530
123.2.2 Photo biology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 530
123.2.3 Electronic drivers for LED lighting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 530
123.2.4 Digital television . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 531
123.3See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 531
123.4References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 531
124Pulse-position modulation

532

124.1History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 532
124.2Synchronization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 532
124.3Sensitivity to multipath interference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 532
124.4Non-coherent detection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 532
124.5PPM vs. M-FSK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 533
124.6Applications for RF communications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 533
124.6.1 PPM encoding for radio control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 533
124.7See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 533
124.8References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 533
125Pulse-code modulation

534

125.1History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 534

CONTENTS

xxxix

125.2Implementations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 535
125.3Modulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 535
125.4Demodulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 535
125.5Standard sampling precision and rates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 536
125.6Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 536
125.7Digitization as part of the PCM process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 536
125.8Encoding for serial transmission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 537
125.9Nomenclature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 537
125.10See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 537
125.11Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 537
125.12References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 538
125.13Further reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 538
125.14External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 539
126Dierential pulse-code modulation

540

126.1Option 1: dierence between two consecutive quantized samples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 540


126.2Option 2: analysis by synthesis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 540
126.3See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 540
126.4References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 540
127Adaptive dierential pulse-code modulation

541

127.1In telephony . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 541


127.2Split-band or subband ADPCM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 541
127.3Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 541
127.4References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 541
128Delta modulation

543

128.1Principle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 543
128.2Transfer characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 543
128.3Output signal power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 544
128.4Bit-rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 544
128.5Adaptive delta modulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 544
128.6Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 544
128.7SBS Application 24 kbps delta modulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 544
128.8See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 545
128.9Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 545
128.10External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 545
129Delta-sigma modulation
129.1Motivation

546

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 546

129.1.1 Why convert an analog signal into a stream of pulses? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 546


129.1.2 Why delta-sigma modulation? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 546
129.1.3 Why the delta-sigma analog to digital conversion? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 547

xl

CONTENTS
129.2Analog to digital conversion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 547
129.2.1 Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 547
129.2.2 Analysis

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 547

129.2.3 Practical Implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 548


129.2.4 Remarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 550
129.3Digital to analog conversion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 551
129.3.1 Discussion

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 551

129.4Relationship to -modulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 551


129.5Principle

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 552

129.6Variations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 552
129.6.1 2nd order and higher order modulator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 552
129.6.2 3-level and higher quantizer
129.6.3 Decimation structures

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 552

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 552

129.7Quantization theory formulas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 552


129.8Oversampling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 553
129.8.1 Example of decimation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 553
129.9Naming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 553
129.10See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 554
129.11References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 554
129.12External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 554
130Continuously variable slope delta modulation

555

130.1Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 555
130.2SBS application 24 kbit/s delta modulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 555
130.3References

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 556

131Pulse-density modulation

557

131.1Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 557
131.2Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 557
131.3Analog-to-digital conversion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 557
131.4Digital-to-analog conversion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 558
131.5Relationship to biology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 558
131.6Algorithm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 558
131.7Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 558
131.8See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 559
131.9References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 559
131.10External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 559
132Morse code

560

132.1Development and history . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 560


132.2User prociency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 562
132.3International Morse Code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 563

CONTENTS

xli

132.3.1 Aviation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 563


132.3.2 Amateur radio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 563
132.3.3 Other uses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 564
132.3.4 Applications for the general public . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 565
132.3.5 Morse code as an assistive technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 565
132.4Representation, timing and speeds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 565
132.4.1 Transmission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 565
132.4.2 Timing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 566
132.4.3 Spoken representation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 566
132.4.4 Speed in words per minute . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 566
132.4.5 Farnsworth speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 567
132.4.6 Alternative display of common characters in International Morse code . . . . . . . . . . . . 567
132.4.7 Link budget issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 567
132.5Learning methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 567
132.5.1 Mnemonics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 568
132.6Letters, numbers, punctuation, prosigns for Morse code and non-English variants . . . . . . . . . . 568
132.6.1 Prosigns

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 568

132.6.2 Symbol representations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 568


132.6.3 Non-Latin extensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 569
132.6.4 Unusual variants

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 569

132.7Decoding software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 569


132.8See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 569
132.9References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 569
132.10External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 570
132.11Text and image sources, contributors, and licenses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 571
132.11.1Text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 571
132.11.2Images . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 599
132.11.3Content license . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 624

Chapter 1

Amplitude modulation
1.1 Forms of amplitude modulation

Amplitude modulation (AM) is a modulation technique


used in electronic communication, most commonly for
transmitting information via a radio carrier wave. In amplitude modulation, the amplitude (signal strength) of the
carrier wave is varied in proportion to the waveform being transmitted. That waveform may, for instance, correspond to the sounds to be reproduced by a loudspeaker, or
the light intensity of television pixels. This technique contrasts with frequency modulation, in which the frequency
of the carrier signal is varied, and phase modulation, in
which its phase is varied.

In electronics and telecommunications, modulation


means varying some aspect of a higher frequency
continuous wave carrier signal with an informationbearing modulation waveform, such as an audio signal
which represents sound, or a video signal which represents images, so the carrier will carry the information.
When it reaches its destination, the information signal is
AM was the earliest modulation method used to trans- extracted from the modulated carrier by demodulation.
mit voice by radio. It was developed during the rst two In amplitude modulation, the amplitude or strength
decades of the 20th century beginning with Roberto Lan- of the carrier oscillations is what is varied. For examdell De Moura and Reginald Fessenden's radiotelephone ple, in AM radio communication, a continuous wave
experiments in 1900.[1] It remains in use today in many radio-frequency signal (a sinusoidal carrier wave) has its
forms of communication; for example it is used in amplitude modulated by an audio waveform before transportable two way radios, VHF aircraft radio, Citizens mission. The audio waveform modies the amplitude
Band Radio, and in computer modems (in the form of of the carrier wave and determines the envelope of the
QAM). AM is often used to refer to mediumwave AM waveform. In the frequency domain, amplitude moduradio broadcasting.
lation produces a signal with power concentrated at the
carrier frequency and two adjacent sidebands. Each sideband is equal in bandwidth to that of the modulating signal, and is a mirror image of the other. Standard AM is
thus sometimes called double-sideband amplitude modulation (DSB-AM) to distinguish it from more sophisticated modulation methods also based on AM.
One disadvantage of all amplitude modulation techniques
(not only standard AM) is that the receiver amplies and
detects noise and electromagnetic interference in equal
proportion to the signal. Increasing the received signal
to noise ratio, say, by a factor of 10 (a 10 decibel improvement), thus would require increasing the transmitter
power by a factor of 10. This is in contrast to frequency
modulation (FM) and digital radio where the eect of
such noise following demodulation is strongly reduced so
long as the received signal is well above the threshold for
reception. For this reason AM broadcast is not favored
for music and high delity broadcasting, but rather for
voice communications and broadcasts (sports, news, talk
radio etc.).

Fig 1: An audio signal (top) may be carried by a carrier signal


using AM or FM methods.

Another disadvantage of AM is that it is inecient in


power usage; at least two-thirds of the power is concentrated in the carrier signal. The carrier signal con1

CHAPTER 1. AMPLITUDE MODULATION

tains none of the original information being transmitted 1.1.1 ITU designations
(voice, video, data, etc.). However its presence provides
a simple means of demodulation using envelope detec- In 1982, the International Telecommunication Union
tion, providing a frequency and phase reference to ex- (ITU) designated the types of amplitude modulation:
tract the modulation from the sidebands. In some modulation systems based on AM, a lower transmitter power
is required through partial or total elimination of the car- 1.2 History
rier component, however receivers for these signals are
more complex and costly. The receiver may regenerate a copy of the carrier frequency (usually as shifted
to the intermediate frequency) from a greatly reduced
pilot carrier (in reduced-carrier transmission or DSBRC) to use in the demodulation process. Even with the
carrier totally eliminated in double-sideband suppressedcarrier transmission, carrier regeneration is possible using a Costas phase-locked loop. This doesn't work however for single-sideband suppressed-carrier transmission
(SSB-SC), leading to the characteristic Donald Duck
sound from such receivers when slightly detuned. Single sideband is nevertheless used widely in amateur radio
and other voice communications both due to its power efciency and bandwidth eciency (cutting the RF bandwidth in half compared to standard AM). On the other
hand, in medium wave and short wave broadcasting, standard AM with the full carrier allows for reception using
inexpensive receivers. The broadcaster absorbs the extra
power cost to greatly increase potential audience.
An additional function provided by the carrier in standard
AM, but which is lost in either single or double-sideband
suppressed-carrier transmission, is that it provides an amplitude reference. In the receiver, the automatic gain control (AGC) responds to the carrier so that the reproduced
audio level stays in a xed proportion to the original modulation. On the other hand, with suppressed-carrier transmissions there is no transmitted power during pauses in
the modulation, so the AGC must respond to peaks of
the transmitted power during peaks in the modulation.
This typically involves a so-called fast attack, slow decay
circuit which holds the AGC level for a second or more
following such peaks, in between syllables or short pauses
in the program. This is very acceptable for communications radios, where compression of the audio aids intelligibility. However it is absolutely undesired for music
or normal broadcast programming, where a faithful reproduction of the original program, including its varying One of the crude pre-vacuum tube AM transmitters, a Telefunken
arc transmitter from 1906. The carrier wave is generated by 6
modulation levels, is expected.
A trivial form of AM which can be used for transmitting binary data is on-o keying, the simplest form of
amplitude-shift keying, in which ones and zeros are represented by the presence or absence of a carrier. Ono keying is likewise used by radio amateurs to transmit
Morse code where it is known as continuous wave (CW)
operation, even though the transmission is not strictly
continuous. A more complex form of AM, Quadrature
amplitude modulation is now more commonly used with
digital data, while making more ecient use of the available bandwidth.

electric arcs in the vertical tubes, connected to a tuned circuit.


Modulation is done by the large carbon microphone (cone shape)
in the antenna lead.

Although AM was used in a few crude experiments in


multiplex telegraph and telephone transmission in the late
1800s,[2] the practical development of amplitude modulation is synonymous with the development between 1900
and 1920 of "radiotelephone" transmission, that is, the
eort to send sound (audio) by radio waves. The rst
radio transmitters, called spark gap transmitters, transmitted information by wireless telegraphy, using dierent
length pulses of carrier wave to spell out text messages in

1.2. HISTORY

3
sidered the rst AM public entertainment broadcast on
Christmas Eve, 1906. He also discovered the principle
on which AM modulation is based, heterodyning, and invented one of the rst detectors able to rectify and receive AM, the electrolytic detector or liquid baretter, in
1902. Other radio detectors invented for wireless telegraphy, such as the Fleming valve (1904) and the crystal
detector (1906) also proved able to rectify AM signals,
so the technological hurdle was generating AM waves;
receiving them was not a problem.

1.2.2 Early technologies


Early experiments in AM radio transmission, conducted
by Fessenden, Valdamar Poulsen, Ernst Ruhmer, Quirino
Majorana, Charles Harrold, and Lee De Forest, were
hampered by the lack of a technology for amplication.
The rst practical continuous wave AM transmitters were
based on either the huge, expensive Alexanderson alternator, developed 1906-1910, or versions of the Poulsen
arc transmitter (arc converter), invented in 1903. The
modications necessary to transmit AM were clumsy and
One of the rst vacuum tube AM radio transmitters, built by resulted in very low quality audio. Modulation was usuMeissner in 1913 with an early triode tube by Robert von Lieben. ally accomplished by a carbon microphone inserted diHe used it in a historic 36 km (24 mi) voice transmission from rectly in the antenna or ground wire; its varying resistance
Berlin to Nauen, Germany. Compare its small size with above varied the current to the antenna. The limited power hantransmitter.
dling ability of the microphone severely limited the power
of the rst radiotelephones; many of the microphones
Morse code. They couldn't transmit audio because the were water-cooled.
carrier consisted of strings of damped waves, pulses of
radio waves that declined to zero, that sounded like a buzz
in receivers. In eect they were already amplitude mod- 1.2.3 Vacuum tubes
ulated.
The discovery in 1912 of the amplifying ability of the
Audion vacuum tube, invented in 1906 by Lee De Forest, solved these problems. The vacuum tube feedback
1.2.1 Continuous waves
oscillator, invented in 1912 by Edwin Armstrong and
The rst AM transmission was made by Canadian re- Alexander Meissner, was a cheap source of continuous
searcher Reginald Fessenden on 23 December 1900 using waves and could be easily modulated to make an AM
a spark gap transmitter with a specially designed high fre- transmitter. Modulation did not have to be done at the
quency 10 kHz interrupter, over a distance of 1 mile (1.6 output but could be applied to the signal before the nal
km) at Cobb Island, Maryland, USA. His rst transmitted amplier tube, so the microphone or other audio source
words were, Hello. One, two, three, four. Is it snowing didn't have to handle high power. Wartime research
where you are, Mr. Thiessen?". The words were barely greatly advanced the art of AM modulation, and after
the war the availability of cheap tubes sparked a great
intelligible above the background buzz of the spark.
Fessenden was a signicant gure in the development of increase in the number of radio stations experimenting
AM radio. He was one of the rst researchers to real- with AM transmission of news or music. The vacuum
ize, from experiments like the above, that the existing tube was responsible for the rise of AM radio broadcasttechnology for producing radio waves, the spark trans- ing around 1920, the rst electronic mass entertainment
mitter, was not usable for amplitude modulation, and that medium. Amplitude modulation was virtually the only
a new kind of transmitter, one that produced sinusoidal type used for radio broadcasting until FM broadcasting
continuous waves, was needed. This was a radical idea at began after World War 2.
the time, because experts believed the impulsive spark
was necessary to produce radio frequency waves, and
Fessenden was ridiculed. He invented and helped develop one of the rst continuous wave transmitters - the
Alexanderson alternator, with which he made what is con-

At the same time as AM radio began, telephone companies such as AT&T were developing the other large application for AM: sending multiple telephone calls through
a single wire by modulating them on separate carrier frequencies, called frequency division multiplexing.[2]

1.2.4

CHAPTER 1. AMPLITUDE MODULATION

Single-sideband

John Renshaw Carson in 1915 did the rst mathematical analysis of amplitude modulation, showing that a signal and carrier frequency combined in a nonlinear device
would create two sidebands on either side of the carrier
frequency, and passing the modulated signal through another nonlinear device would extract the original baseband signal.[2] His analysis also showed only one sideband
was necessary to transmit the audio signal, and Carson
patented single-sideband modulation (SSB) on 1 December 1915.[2] This more advanced variant of amplitude
modulation was adopted by AT&T for longwave transatlantic telephone service beginning 7 January 1927. After
WW2 it was developed by the military for aircraft communication.

Using prosthaphaeresis identities, y(t) can be shown to be


the sum of three sine waves:

[sin(2(fc + fm )t + ) + sin(2(fc fm )t
y(t) = Asin(2fc t)+ AM
2
Therefore, the modulated signal has three components:
the carrier wave c(t) which is unchanged, and two pure
sine waves (known as sidebands) with frequencies slightly
above and below the carrier frequency fc.

1.4 Spectrum

|M()|

1.3 Simplied analysis of standard


AM

A
|Y()|

A
M(+c )

M(c )

Fig 2: Double-sided spectra of baseband and AM signals.

Illustration of Amplitude Modulation

Consider a carrier wave (sine wave) of frequency fc and


amplitude A given by:

c(t) = A sin(2fc t)
Let m(t) represent the modulation waveform. For this
example we shall take the modulation to be simply a sine
wave of a frequency fm, a much lower frequency (such as
an audio frequency) than fc:

m(t) = M cos(2fm t + )

Of course a useful modulation signal m(t) will generally


not consist of a single sine wave, as treated above. However, by the principle of Fourier decomposition, m(t) can
be expressed as the sum of a number of sine waves of
various frequencies, amplitudes, and phases. Carrying
out the multiplication of 1+m(t) with c(t) as above then
yields a result consisting of a sum of sine waves. Again
the carrier c(t) is present unchanged, but for each frequency component of m at there are two sidebands at
frequencies fc + and fc - . The collection of the former frequencies above the carrier frequency is known as
the upper sideband, and those below constitute the lower
sideband. In a slightly dierent way of looking at it, we
can consider the modulation m(t) to consist of an equal
mix of positive and negative frequency components (as
results from a formal Fourier transform of a real valued
quantity) as shown in the top of Fig. 2. Then one can
view the sidebands as that modulation m(t) having simply
been shifted in frequency by fc as depicted at the bottom
right of Fig. 2 (formally, the modulated signal also contains identical components at negative frequencies, shown
at the bottom left of Fig. 2 for completeness).

where M is the amplitude of the modulation. We shall insist that M<1 so that (1+m(t)) is always positive. If M>1
then overmodulation occurs and reconstruction of message signal from the transmitted signal would lead in loss
of original signal. Amplitude modulation results when the If we just look at the short-term spectrum of modulation,
carrier c(t) is multiplied by the positive quantity (1+m(t)): changing as it would for a human voice for instance, then
we can plot the frequency content (horizontal axis) as a
function of time (vertical axis) as in Fig. 3. It can again be
seen that as the modulation frequency content varies, at
In this simple case M is identical to the modulation in- any point in time there is an upper sideband generated acdex, discussed below. With M=0.5 the amplitude mod- cording to those frequencies shifted above the carrier freulated signal y(t) thus corresponds to the top graph (la- quency, and the same content mirror-imaged in the lower
belled 50% Modulation) in Figure 4.
sideband below the carrier frequency. At all times, the

1.6. MODULATION INDEX

5
pensive receivers using envelope detection. Even (analog)
television, with a (largely) suppressed lower sideband, includes sucient carrier power for use of envelope detection. But for communications systems where both transmitters and receivers can be optimized, suppression of
both one sideband and the carrier represent a net advantage and are frequently employed.

1.6 Modulation index


The AM modulation index is a measure based on the ratio
of the modulation excursions of the RF signal to the level
of the unmodulated carrier. It is thus dened as:
Fig 3: The spectrogram of an AM voice broadcast shows the two
sidebands (green) on either side of the carrier (red) with time
proceeding in the vertical direction.

h=

peak value of m(t)


M
=
A
A

carrier itself remains constant, and of greater power than where M and A are the modulation amplitude and carthe total sideband power.
rier amplitude, respectively; the modulation amplitude is
the peak (positive or negative) change in the RF amplitude from its unmodulated value. Modulation index is
1.5 Power and spectrum eciency normally expressed as a percentage, and may be displayed
on a meter connected to an AM transmitter.
So if h = 0.5 , carrier amplitude varies by 50% above
(and below) its unmodulated level, as is shown in the rst
waveform, below. For h = 1.0 , it varies by 100% as
shown in the illustration below it. With 100% modulation the wave amplitude sometimes reaches zero, and
this represents full modulation using standard AM and
is often a target (in order to obtain the highest possible signal to noise ratio) but mustn't be exceeded. Increasing the modulating signal beyond that point, known
as overmodulation, causes a standard AM modulator
(see below) to fail, as the negative excursions of the
wave envelope cannot become less than zero, resulting in
distortion (clipping) of the received modulation. Transmitters typically incorporate a limiter circuit to avoid
overmodulation, and/or a compressor circuit (especially
for
voice communications) in order to still approach
Another improvement over standard AM is obtained
100%
modulation for maximum intelligibility above the
through reduction or suppression of the carrier componoise.
Such
circuits are sometimes referred to as a vogad.
nent of the modulated spectrum. In Figure 2 this is the
spike in between the sidebands; even with full (100%) However it is possible to talk about a modulation index
sine wave modulation, the power in the carrier com- exceeding 100%, without introducing distortion, in the
ponent is twice that in the sidebands, yet it carries no case of double-sideband reduced-carrier transmission. In
unique information. Thus there is a great advantage in that case, negative excursions beyond zero entail a reeciency in reducing or totally suppressing the carrier, versal of the carrier phase, as shown in the third waveeither in conjunction with elimination of one sideband form below. This cannot be produced using the e(single-sideband suppressed-carrier transmission) or with cient high-level (output stage) modulation techniques (see
both sidebands remaining (double sideband suppressed below) which are widely used especially in high power
carrier). While these suppressed carrier transmissions are broadcast transmitters. Rather, a special modulator proecient in terms of transmitter power, they require more duces such a waveform at a low level followed by a linear
sophisticated receivers employing synchronous detection amplier. Whats more, a standard AM receiver using
and regeneration of the carrier frequency. For that rea- an envelope detector is incapable of properly demodulatson, standard AM continues to be widely used, especially ing such a signal. Rather, synchronous detection is rein broadcast transmission, to allow for the use of inex- quired. Thus double-sideband transmission is generally
The RF bandwidth of an AM transmission (refer to Figure 2, but only considering positive frequencies) is twice
the bandwidth of the modulating (or "baseband") signal,
since the upper and lower sidebands around the carrier
frequency each have a bandwidth as wide as the highest modulating frequency. Although the bandwidth of an
AM signal is narrower than one using frequency modulation (FM), it is twice as wide as single-sideband techniques; it thus may be viewed as spectrally inecient.
Within a frequency band, only half as many transmissions (or channels) can thus be accommodated. For
this reason television employs a variant of single-sideband
(known as vestigial sideband, somewhat of a compromise
in terms of bandwidth) in order to reduce the required
channel spacing.

CHAPTER 1. AMPLITUDE MODULATION

not referred to as AM even though it generates an identical RF waveform as standard AM as long as the modulation index is below 100%. Such systems more often
attempt a radical reduction of the carrier level compared
to the sidebands (where the useful information is present)
to the point of double-sideband suppressed-carrier transmission where the carrier is (ideally) reduced to zero. In
all such cases the term modulation index loses its value
as it refers to the ratio of the modulation amplitude to a
rather small (or zero) remaining carrier amplitude.
Amplitude
1.5

50% Modulation

0.5
0

Anode (plate) modulation. A tetrodes plate and screen grid voltage is modulated via an audio transformer. The resistor R1 sets
the grid bias; both the input and output are tuned circuits with
inductive coupling.

0.5

1.5
Time
Amplitude
2

100% Modulation

Message wave envelope


Carrier wave

typically at a frequency less than the desired RF-output


frequency. The analog signal must then be shifted in frequency and linearly amplied to the desired frequency
and power level (linear amplication must be used to prevent modulation distortion).[4] This low-level method for
AM is used in many Amateur Radio transceivers.[5]

2
Time
Amplitude
2.5

150% Modulation

1.7.2 High-level generation

0.5
0
0.5

2.5
Time

Fig 4: Modulation depth. In the diagram, the unmodulated carrier has an amplitude of 1.

1.7 Modulation methods


Modulation circuit designs may be classied as lowor high-level (depending on whether they modulate
in a low-power domainfollowed by amplication for
transmissionor in the high-power domain of the transmitted signal).[3]

1.7.1

AM may also be generated at a low level, using analog


methods described in the next section.

Low-level generation

In modern radio systems, modulated signals are generated via digital signal processing (DSP). With DSP many
types of AM are possible with software control (including DSB with carrier, SSB suppressed-carrier and independent sideband, or ISB). Calculated digital samples are
converted to voltages with a digital to analog converter,

High-power AM transmitters (such as those used for AM


broadcasting) are based on high-eciency class-D and
class-E power amplier stages, modulated by varying the
supply voltage.[6]
Older designs (for broadcast and amateur radio) also generate AM by controlling the gain of the transmitters nal
amplier (generally class-C, for eciency). The following types are for vacuum tube transmitters (but similar
options are available with transistors):[7]
Plate modulation: In plate modulation, the plate
voltage of the RF amplier is modulated with the
audio signal. The audio power requirement is 50
percent of the RF-carrier power.
Heising (constant-current) modulation: RF amplier plate voltage is fed through a choke (highvalue inductor). The AM modulation tube plate
is fed through the same inductor, so the modulator tube diverts current from the RF amplier. The
choke acts as a constant current source in the audio
range. This system has a low power eciency.
Control grid modulation: The operating bias and
gain of the nal RF amplier can be controlled by
varying the voltage of the control grid. This method

1.10. REFERENCES
requires little audio power, but care must be taken
to reduce distortion.
Clamp tube (screen grid) modulation: The
screen-grid bias may be controlled through a clamp
tube, which reduces voltage according to the modulation signal. It is dicult to approach 100-percent
modulation while maintaining low distortion with
this system.
Doherty modulation: One tube provides the power
under carrier conditions and another operates only
for positive modulation peaks. Overall eciency is
good, and distortion is low.

7
Sideband, for some explanation of what this is.
Types of radio emissions, for the emission types designated by the ITU
Airband
Citizens Band Radio
Quadrature amplitude modulation
DSB-SC

1.10 References

Outphasing modulation: Two tubes are operated


in parallel, but partially out of phase with each Notes
other. As they are dierentially phase modulated
their combined amplitude is greater or smaller. Ef[1] http://www.aminharadio.com/radio/files/
ciency is good and distortion low when properly adArtigo-Revista-PCP-USA.pdf
justed.
Pulse width modulation (PWM) or Pulse duration modulation (PDM): A highly ecient high
voltage power supply is applied to the tube plate.
The output voltage of this supply is varied at an audio rate to follow the program. This system was pioneered by Hilmer Swanson and has a number of
variations, all of which achieve high eciency and
sound quality.

1.8 Demodulation methods


The simplest form of AM demodulator consists of a diode
which is congured to act as envelope detector. Another
type of demodulator, the product detector, can provide
better-quality demodulation with additional circuit complexity.

1.9 See also


AM radio
AM stereo
Mediumwave band used for AM broadcast radio
Longwave band used for AM broadcast radio
Frequency modulation

[2] Bray, John (2002). Innovation and the Communications


Revolution: From the Victorian Pioneers to Broadband Internet. Inst. of Electrical Engineers. pp. 59, 6162.
ISBN 0852962185.
[3] A.P.Godse and U.A.Bakshi (2009). Communication Engineering. Technical Publications. p. 36. ISBN 978-818431-089-4.
[4] Silver, Ward, ed. (2011). Ch. 15 DSP and Software Radio Design. The ARRL Handbook for Radio Communications (Eighty-eighth ed.). American Radio Relay League.
ISBN 978-0-87259-096-0.
[5] Silver, Ward, ed. (2011). Ch. 14 Transceivers.
The ARRL Handbook for Radio Communications (Eightyeighth ed.). American Radio Relay League. ISBN 978-087259-096-0.
[6] Frederick H. Raab; et al. (May 2003). RF and Microwave Power Amplier and Transmitter Technologies
- Part 2. High Frequency Design: 22.
[7] Laurence Gray and Richard Graham (1961).
Transmitters. McGraw-Hill. pp. 141.

Radio

Sources
Newkirk, David and Karlquist, Rick (2004). Mixers, modulators and demodulators. In D. G. Reed
(ed.), The ARRL Handbook for Radio Communications (81st ed.), pp. 15.115.36. Newington:
ARRL. ISBN 0-87259-196-4.

Shortwave radio almost universally uses AM, narrow FM occurring above 25 MHz.
Modulation, for a list of other modulation techniques
Amplitude modulation signalling system (AMSS), a
digital system for adding low bitrate information to
an AM signal.

1.11 External links


Amplitude Modulation by Jakub Serych, Wolfram
Demonstrations Project.
Amplitude Modulation, by S Sastry.

CHAPTER 1. AMPLITUDE MODULATION


Amplitude Modulation, an introduction
Federation of American Scientists.

by

Amplitude Modulation tutorial video with example


transmitter circuit.
Amplitude Modulation tutorial including related
topics of modulators, demodulators, etc . .

Chapter 2

Modulation
For other uses, see Modulation (disambiguation).

In music synthesizers, modulation may be used to synthesise waveforms with an extensive overtone spectrum using a small number of oscillators. In this case the carrier
frequency is typically in the same order or much lower
than the modulating waveform (see frequency modulation synthesis or ring modulation synthesis).

In electronics and telecommunications, modulation is


the process of varying one or more properties of a periodic waveform, called the carrier signal, with a modulating signal that typically contains information to be transmitted.
In telecommunications, modulation is the process of conveying a message signal, for example a digital bit stream
or an analog audio signal, inside another signal that can
be physically transmitted. Modulation of a sine waveform
transforms a baseband message signal into a passband signal.

2.1 Analog modulation methods

A modulator is a device that performs modulation. A


demodulator (sometimes detector or demod) is a device
that performs demodulation, the inverse of modulation.
A modem (from modulatordemodulator) can perform
both operations.
The aim of analog modulation is to transfer an analog
baseband (or lowpass) signal, for example an audio signal
or TV signal, over an analog bandpass channel at a dierent frequency, for example over a limited radio frequency
band or a cable TV network channel.
The aim of digital modulation is to transfer a digital bit
stream over an analog bandpass channel, for example over A low-frequency message signal (top) may be carried by an AM
the public switched telephone network (where a bandpass or FM radio wave.
lter limits the frequency range to 3003400 Hz) or over
In analog modulation, the modulation is applied continua limited radio frequency band.
ously in response to the analog information signal.
Analog and digital modulation facilitate frequency division multiplexing (FDM), where several low pass information signals are transferred simultaneously over the
2.1.1 List of analog modulation techniques
same shared physical medium, using separate passband
channels (several dierent carrier frequencies).
Common analog modulation techniques are:
The aim of digital baseband modulation methods, also
known as line coding, is to transfer a digital bit stream
Amplitude modulation (AM) (here the amplitude of
over a baseband channel, typically a non-ltered copper
the carrier signal is varied in accordance to the inwire such as a serial bus or a wired local area network.
stantaneous amplitude of the modulating signal)
The aim of pulse modulation methods is to transfer a
Double-sideband modulation (DSB)
narrowband analog signal, for example a phone call over
a wideband baseband channel or, in some of the schemes,
Double-sideband modulation with carrier
as a bit stream over another digital transmission system.
(DSB-WC) (used on the AM radio broadcasting band)
9

10

CHAPTER 2. MODULATION
Double-sideband
suppressed-carrier
transmission (DSB-SC)
Double-sideband reduced carrier transmission (DSB-RC)
Single-sideband modulation (SSB, or SSBAM)
Single-sideband modulation with carrier
(SSB-WC)
Single-sideband modulation suppressed
carrier modulation (SSB-SC)

1 second

symbol

10

00

11

01

Vestigial sideband modulation (VSB, or VSBAM)


Quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM)
Angle modulation, which is approximately constant
envelope
Frequency modulation (FM) (here the frequency of the carrier signal is varied in accordance to the instantaneous amplitude of the
modulating signal)
Phase modulation (PM) (here the phase shift
of the carrier signal is varied in accordance
with the instantaneous amplitude of the modulating signal)
Transpositional Modulation (TM), in which
the waveform inection is modied resulting
in a signal where each quarter cycle is transposed in the modulation process. TM is a
pesudo-analog modulation (AM). Where an
AM carrier also carries a phase variable phase
f(). TM is f(AM,)

2.2 Digital modulation methods

Schematic of 4 baud (8 bit/s) data link containing arbitrarily chosen values.

melody consisting of 1000 tones per second,


the symbol rate is 1000 symbols/second, or
baud. Since each tone (i.e., symbol) represents
a message consisting of two digital bits in this
example, the bit rate is twice the symbol rate,
i.e. 2000 bits per second. This is similar to the
technique used by dialup modems as opposed
to DSL modems.
According to one denition of digital signal, the modulated signal is a digital signal. According to another denition, the modulation is a form of digital-to-analog conversion. Most textbooks would consider digital modulation schemes as a form of digital transmission, synonymous to data transmission; very few would consider it as
analog transmission.

2.2.1 Fundamental
methods

digital

modulation

In digital modulation, an analog carrier signal is moduThe most fundamental digital modulation techniques are
lated by a discrete signal. Digital modulation methods
based on keying:
can be considered as digital-to-analog conversion, and
the corresponding demodulation or detection as analog PSK (phase-shift keying): a nite number of phases
to-digital conversion. The changes in the carrier signal
are used.
are chosen from a nite number of M alternative symbols
(the modulation alphabet).
FSK (frequency-shift keying): a nite number of
frequencies are used.
A simple example: A telephone line is
ASK (amplitude-shift keying): a nite number of
designed for transferring audible sounds, for
amplitudes are used.
example tones, and not digital bits (zeros and
ones). Computers may however communicate
QAM (quadrature amplitude modulation): a nite
over a telephone line by means of modems,
number of at least two phases and at least two amwhich are representing the digital bits by tones,
plitudes are used.
called symbols. If there are four alternative
symbols (corresponding to a musical instruIn QAM, an inphase signal (or I, with one example bement that can generate four dierent tones,
ing a cosine waveform) and a quadrature phase signal
one at a time), the rst symbol may represent
(or Q, with an example being a sine wave) are amplitude
the bit sequence 00, the second 01, the third
modulated with a nite number of amplitudes, and then
10 and the fourth 11. If the modem plays a

2.2. DIGITAL MODULATION METHODS


summed. It can be seen as a two-channel system, each
channel using ASK. The resulting signal is equivalent to
a combination of PSK and ASK.
In all of the above methods, each of these phases, frequencies or amplitudes are assigned a unique pattern of
binary bits. Usually, each phase, frequency or amplitude
encodes an equal number of bits. This number of bits
comprises the symbol that is represented by the particular phase, frequency or amplitude.

11
Carry out the modulation, for example by multiplying the sine and cosine waveform with the I and Q
signals, resulting in the equivalent low pass signal being frequency shifted to the modulated passband signal or RF signal. Sometimes this is achieved using
DSP technology, for example direct digital synthesis using a waveform table, instead of analog signal
processing. In that case the above DAC step should
be done after this step.

6. Amplication and analog bandpass ltering to avoid


If the alphabet consists of M = 2N alternative symbols,
harmonic distortion and periodic spectrum.
each symbol represents a message consisting of N bits. If
the symbol rate (also known as the baud rate) is fS symbols/second (or baud), the data rate is N fS bit/second.
At the receiver side, the demodulator typically performs:
For example, with an alphabet consisting of 16 alternative
symbols, each symbol represents 4 bits. Thus, the data
1. Bandpass ltering.
rate is four times the baud rate.
2. Automatic gain control, AGC (to compensate for
In the case of PSK, ASK or QAM, where the carrier
attenuation, for example fading).
frequency of the modulated signal is constant, the modulation alphabet is often conveniently represented on a
3. Frequency shifting of the RF signal to the equivaconstellation diagram, showing the amplitude of the I siglent baseband I and Q signals, or to an intermediate
nal at the x-axis, and the amplitude of the Q signal at the
frequency (IF) signal, by multiplying the RF signal
y-axis, for each symbol.
with a local oscillator sinewave and cosine wave frequency (see the superheterodyne receiver principle).

2.2.2

Modulator and detector principles of


operation

PSK and ASK, and sometimes also FSK, are often generated and detected using the principle of QAM. The I
and Q signals can be combined into a complex-valued
signal I+jQ (where j is the imaginary unit). The resulting so called equivalent lowpass signal or equivalent
baseband signal is a complex-valued representation of
the real-valued modulated physical signal (the so-called
passband signal or RF signal).
These are the general steps used by the modulator to
transmit data:

4. Sampling and analog-to-digital conversion (ADC)


(sometimes before or instead of the above point, for
example by means of undersampling).
5. Equalization ltering, for example a matched lter, compensation for multipath propagation, time
spreading, phase distortion and frequency selective
fading, to avoid intersymbol interference and symbol distortion.
6. Detection of the amplitudes of the I and Q signals,
or the frequency or phase of the IF signal.
7. Quantization of the amplitudes, frequencies or
phases to the nearest allowed symbol values.

1. Group the incoming data bits into codewords, one


for each symbol that will be transmitted.

8. Mapping of the quantized amplitudes, frequencies


or phases to codewords (bit groups).

2. Map the codewords to attributes, for example amplitudes of the I and Q signals (the equivalent low
pass signal), or frequency or phase values.

9. Parallel-to-serial conversion of the codewords into a


bit stream.

10. Pass the resultant bit stream on for further process3. Adapt pulse shaping or some other ltering to limit
ing such as removal of any error-correcting codes.
the bandwidth and form the spectrum of the equivalent low pass signal, typically using digital signal
As is common to all digital communication systems, the
processing.
design of both the modulator and demodulator must be
4. Perform digital to analog conversion (DAC) of the done simultaneously. Digital modulation schemes are
I and Q signals (since today all of the above is possible because the transmitter-receiver pair have prior
normally achieved using digital signal processing, knowledge of how data is encoded and represented in
the communications system. In all digital communicaDSP).
tion systems, both the modulator at the transmitter and
5. Generate a high frequency sine carrier waveform, the demodulator at the receiver are structured so that they
and perhaps also a cosine quadrature component. perform inverse operations.

12

CHAPTER 2. MODULATION

Non-coherent modulation methods do not require a receiver reference clock signal that is phase synchronized
with the sender carrier signal. In this case, modulation
symbols (rather than bits, characters, or data packets)
are asynchronously transferred. The opposite is coherent
modulation.

2.2.3

List of common digital modulation


techniques

The most common digital modulation techniques are:

Trellis coded modulation (TCM), also known as


Trellis modulation
Spread-spectrum techniques
Direct-sequence spread spectrum (DSSS)
Chirp spread spectrum (CSS) according to
IEEE 802.15.4a CSS uses pseudo-stochastic
coding
Frequency-hopping spread spectrum (FHSS)
applies a special scheme for channel release

MSK and GMSK are particular cases of continuous phase


modulation. Indeed, MSK is a particular case of the subfamily of CPM known as continuous-phase frequency Binary PSK (BPSK), using M=2 symbols
shift keying (CPFSK) which is dened by a rectangular
Quadrature PSK (QPSK), using M=4 symbols frequency pulse (i.e. a linearly increasing phase pulse) of
one symbol-time duration (total response signaling).
8PSK, using M=8 symbols

Phase-shift keying (PSK)

16PSK, using M=16 symbols

OFDM is based on the idea of frequency-division multiplexing (FDM), but the multiplexed streams are all parts
Dierential PSK (DPSK)
of a single original stream. The bit stream is split into
Dierential QPSK (DQPSK)
several parallel data streams, each transferred over its
own sub-carrier using some conventional digital modu Oset QPSK (OQPSK)
lation scheme. The modulated sub-carriers are summed
/4QPSK
to form an OFDM signal. This dividing and recombining helps with handling channel impairments. OFDM is
Frequency-shift keying (FSK)
considered as a modulation technique rather than a mul Audio frequency-shift keying (AFSK)
tiplex technique, since it transfers one bit stream over
Multi-frequency shift keying (M-ary FSK or one communication channel using one sequence of socalled OFDM symbols. OFDM can be extended to multiMFSK)
user channel access method in the orthogonal frequency Dual-tone multi-frequency (DTMF)
division multiple access (OFDMA) and multi-carrier
code division multiple access (MC-CDMA) schemes, alAmplitude-shift keying (ASK)
lowing several users to share the same physical medium
On-o keying (OOK), the most common ASK form by giving dierent sub-carriers or spreading codes to different users.
M-ary vestigial sideband modulation, for exOf the two kinds of RF power amplier, switching amample 8VSB
pliers (Class D ampliers) cost less and use less batQuadrature amplitude modulation (QAM), a com- tery power than linear ampliers of the same output
power. However, they only work with relatively constantbination of PSK and ASK
amplitude-modulation signals such as angle modulation
Polar modulation like QAM a combination of (FSK or PSK) and CDMA, but not with QAM and
PSK and ASK
OFDM. Nevertheless, even though switching ampliers
are completely unsuitable for normal QAM constellaContinuous phase modulation (CPM) methods
tions, often the QAM modulation principle are used to
drive switching ampliers with these FM and other wave Minimum-shift keying (MSK)
forms, and sometimes QAM demodulators are used to
Gaussian minimum-shift keying (GMSK)
receive the signals put out by these switching ampliers.
Continuous-phase frequency-shift keying
(CPFSK)

Orthogonal
frequency-division
(OFDM) modulation

multiplexing

2.2.4 Automatic digital modulation recognition (ADMR)

Discrete multitone (DMT), including adaptive Automatic digital modulation recognition in intelligent
communication systems is one of the most important ismodulation and bit-loading
sues in software dened radio and cognitive radio. Ac Wavelet modulation
cording to incremental expanse of intelligent receivers,

2.4. MISCELLANEOUS MODULATION TECHNIQUES

13

automatic modulation recognition becomes a challenging


Pulse-width modulation (PWM) and Pulse-depth
topic in telecommunication systems and computer engimodulation (PDM)
neering. Such systems have many civil and military appli Pulse-position modulation (PPM)
cations. Moreover, blind recognition of modulation type
is an important problem in commercial systems, especially in software dened radio. Usually in such systems, Analog-over-digital methods
there are some extra information for system conguration, but considering blind approaches in intelligent re Pulse-code modulation (PCM)
ceivers, we can reduce information overload and increase
Dierential PCM (DPCM)
transmission performance.[1] Obviously, with no knowledge of the transmitted data and many unknown param Adaptive DPCM (ADPCM)
eters at the receiver, such as the signal power, carrier frequency and phase osets, timing information, etc., blind
Delta modulation (DM or -modulation)
identication of the modulation is a dicult task. This
Delta-sigma modulation ()
becomes even more challenging in real-world scenarios with multipath fading, frequency-selective and time Continuously variable slope delta modulation
varying channels.[2]
(CVSDM), also called Adaptive-delta modulation
There are two main approaches to automatic modula(ADM)
tion recognition. The rst approach uses likelihood-based
Pulse-density modulation (PDM)
methods to assign an input signal to a proper class. Another recent approach is based on feature extraction.

2.2.5

Digital baseband modulation or line


coding

Main article: Line code


The term digital baseband modulation (or digital baseband transmission) is synonymous to line codes. These
are methods to transfer a digital bit stream over an analog baseband channel (a.k.a. lowpass channel) using
a pulse train, i.e. a discrete number of signal levels,
by directly modulating the voltage or current on a cable. Common examples are unipolar, non-return-to-zero
(NRZ), Manchester and alternate mark inversion (AMI)
codings.[3]

2.3 Pulse modulation methods


Pulse modulation schemes aim at transferring a narrowband analog signal over an analog baseband channel as
a two-level signal by modulating a pulse wave. Some
pulse modulation schemes also allow the narrowband analog signal to be transferred as a digital signal (i.e., as a
quantized discrete-time signal) with a xed bit rate, which
can be transferred over an underlying digital transmission system, for example, some line code. These are not
modulation schemes in the conventional sense since they
are not channel coding schemes, but should be considered
as source coding schemes, and in some cases analog-todigital conversion techniques.
Analog-over-analog methods
Pulse-amplitude modulation (PAM)

2.4 Miscellaneous
techniques

modulation

The use of on-o keying to transmit Morse code


at radio frequencies is known as continuous wave
(CW) operation.
Adaptive modulation
Space modulation is a method whereby signals are
modulated within airspace such as that used in
instrument landing systems.

2.5 Further reading


Multipliers vs. Modulators Analog Dialogue, June
2013

2.6 See also


Neuromodulation
Demodulation
Electrical resonance
Heterodyne
Modulation order
Types of radio emissions
Communications channel
Channel access methods

14
Channel coding
Line code
Telecommunication
Modem
RF modulator
Codec
Ring modulation

2.7 References
[1] M. Hadi Valipour, M. Mehdi Homayounpour and M.
Amin Mehralian, Automatic digital modulation recognition in presence of noise using SVM and PSO, in Proceedings of 2012 Sixth International Symposium on Telecommunications (IST), pp 378-382, Nov 2012, Tehran, Iran.
[2] Dobre, Octavia A., Ali Abdi, Yeheskel Bar-Ness, and Wei
Su. Communications, IET 1, no. 2 (2007): 137-156.
(2007). Survey of automatic modulation classication
techniques: classical approaches and new trends (PDF).
IET Communications: 137156.
[3] Ke-Lin Du & M. N. S. Swamy (2010). Wireless Communication Systems: From RF Subsystems to 4G Enabling
Technologies. Cambridge University Press. p. 188. ISBN
978-0-521-11403-5.

2.8 External links


Interactive presentation of soft-demapping for
AWGN-channel in a web-demo Institute of
Telecommunications, University of Stuttgart
Modem(Modulation and Demodulation)

CHAPTER 2. MODULATION

Chapter 3

Radio
This article is about science and technology. For broadcasting, see Radio broadcasting. For other uses, see
Radio (disambiguation).
Radio is the technology of using radio waves to carry

Classic radio receiver dial

modulation). Radio systems also need an antenna to convert electric currents into radio waves, and vice versa. An
antenna can be used for both transmitting and receiving.
The electrical resonance of tuned circuits in radios allow
individual stations to be selected. The electromagnetic
wave is intercepted by a tuned receiving antenna. A radio
receiver receives its input from an antenna and converts it
into a form usable for the consumer, such as sound, pictures, digital data, measurement values, navigational positions, etc.[2] Radio frequencies occupy the range from
a 3 kHz to 300 GHz, although commercially important
uses of radio use only a small part of this spectrum.[3]
A radio communication system sends signals by radio.[4]
The radio equipment involved in communication systems
includes a transmitter and a receiver, each having an
The Alexandra Palace, here: mast of the broadcasting station
antenna and appropriate terminal equipment such as a
information, such as sound, by systematically modulating microphone at the transmitter and a loudspeaker at the
[5]
some property of electromagnetic energy waves transmit- receiver in the case of a voice-communication system.
ted through space, such as their amplitude, frequency,
phase, or pulse width.[n 1] When radio waves strike
an electrical conductor, the oscillating elds induce an 3.1 Etymology
alternating current in the conductor. The information in
the waves can be extracted and transformed back into its The term radio is derived from the Latin word radius,
original form.
meaning spoke of a wheel, beam of light, ray. It was
Radio systems need a transmitter to modulate (change)
some property of the energy produced to impress a signal
on it, for example using amplitude modulation or angle
modulation (which can be frequency modulation or phase

rst applied to communications in 1881 when, at the suggestion of French scientist Ernest Mercadier, Alexander
Graham Bell adopted radiophone (meaning radiated
sound) as an alternate name for his photophone optical

15

16

CHAPTER 3. RADIO

transmission system.[6] However, this invention would not Radio Times since its founding in the early 1920s.
be widely adopted.
In recent years the more general term wireless has
Following Heinrich Hertz's establishment of the existence gained renewed popularity, even for devices using elecof electromagnetic radiation in the late 1880s, a vari- tromagnetic radiation, through the rapid growth of shortety of terms were initially used for the phenomenon, range computer networking, e.g., Wireless Local Area
with early descriptions of the radiation itself including Network (WLAN), Wi-Fi, and Bluetooth, as well as moHertzian waves, electric waves, and ether waves, bile telephony, e.g., GSM and UMTS cell phones. Towhile phrases describing its use in communications in- day, the term radio species the transceiver device or
cluded spark telegraphy, space telegraphy, aerogra- chip, whereas wireless refers to the lack of physical
phy and, eventually and most commonly, wireless teleg- connections; thus equipment employs embedded radio
raphy. However, wireless included a broad variety of transceivers, but operates as wireless devices over wirerelated electronic technologies, including electrostatic in- less sensor networks.
duction, electromagnetic induction and aquatic and earth
conduction, so there was a need for a more precise term
referring exclusively to electromagnetic radiation.
3.2 Processes
The rst use of radio- in conjunction with electromagnetic radiation appears to have been by French physicist douard Branly, who in 1890 developed a version
of a coherer receiver he called a radio-conducteur.[7] The
radio- prex was later used to form additional descriptive compound and hyphenated words, especially in Europe, for example, in early 1898 the British publication
The Practical Engineer included a reference to the radiotelegraph and radiotelegraphy,[8] while the French
text of both the 1903 and 1906 Berlin Radiotelegraphic
Conventions includes the phrases radiotlgraphique and
radiotlgrammes.
The use of radio as a standalone word dates back
to at least December 30, 1904, when instructions issued by the British Post Oce for transmitting telegrams specied that The word 'Radio'... is sent in
the Service Instructions.[9] This practice was universally
adopted, and the word radio introduced internationally, by the 1906 Berlin Radiotelegraphic Convention,
which included a Service Regulation specifying that Radiotelegrams shall show in the preamble that the service
is 'Radio'".
The switch to radio in place of wireless took place
slowly and unevenly in the English-speaking world. Lee
de Forest helped popularize the new word in the United
Statesin early 1907 he founded the DeForest Radio
Telephone Company, and his letter in the June 22, 1907
Electrical World about the need for legal restrictions
warned that Radio chaos will certainly be the result until such stringent regulation is enforced.[10] The United
States Navy would also play a role. Although its translation of the 1906 Berlin Convention used the terms wireless telegraph and wireless telegram, by 1912 it began
to promote the use of radio instead. The term started
to become preferred by the general public in the 1920s
with the introduction of broadcasting. (Broadcasting is
based upon an agricultural term meaning roughly scattering seeds widely.) British Commonwealth countries
continued to commonly use the term wireless until the
mid-20th century, though the magazine of the British
Broadcasting Corporation in the UK has been called

Radio communication. Information such as sound is converted


by a transducer such as a microphone to an electrical signal,
which modulates a radio wave sent from a transmitter. A receiver
intercepts the radio wave and extracts the information-bearing
electronic signal, which is converted back using another transducer such as a speaker.

Radio systems used for communication have the following elements. With more than 100 years of development,
each process is implemented by a wide range of methods,
specialised for dierent communications purposes.

3.2.1 Transmitter and modulation


Main article: Radio transmitter
See also: Radio transmitter design
Each system contains a transmitter, This consists of a
source of electrical energy, producing alternating current
of a desired frequency of oscillation. The transmitter contains a system to modulate (change) some property of the
energy produced to impress a signal on it. This modulation might be as simple as turning the energy on and
o, or altering more subtle properties such as amplitude,
frequency, phase, or combinations of these properties.
The transmitter sends the modulated electrical energy to a
tuned resonant antenna; this structure converts the rapidly
changing alternating current into an electromagnetic wave
that can move through free space (sometimes with a particular polarization).
Amplitude modulation of a carrier wave works by varying the strength of the transmitted signal in proportion to
the information being sent. For example, changes in the

3.2. PROCESSES

17

An audio signal (top) may be carried by an AM or FM radio


wave.

signal strength can be used to reect the sounds to be reproduced by a speaker, or to specify the light intensity of
television pixels. It was the method used for the rst audio radio transmissions, and remains in use today. AM
is often used to refer to the medium wave broadcast band
(see AM radio), but it is used in various radiotelephone
services such as the Citizen Band, amateur radio and es- Rooftop television antennas. Yagi-Uda antennas like these six are
pecially in aviation, due to its ability to be received under widely used at VHF and UHF frequencies.
very weak signal conditions and its immunity to capture
eect, allowing more than one signal to be heard simulduce a tiny voltage at its terminals, that is applied to a
taneously.
receiver to be amplied. Some antennas can be used for
Frequency modulation varies the frequency of the carrier. both transmitting and receiving, even simultaneously, deThe instantaneous frequency of the carrier is directly pro- pending on the connected equipment.
portional to the instantaneous value of the input signal.
FM has the "capture eect" whereby a receiver only receives the strongest signal, even when others are present. 3.2.3 Propagation
Digital data can be sent by shifting the carriers frequency
among a set of discrete values, a technique known as Main article: Radio propagation
frequency-shift keying. FM is commonly used at Very
high frequency (VHF) radio frequencies for high-delity
broadcasts of music and speech (see FM broadcasting). Once generated, electromagnetic waves travel through
space either directly, or have their path altered by
Analog TV sound is also broadcast using FM.
reection, refraction or diraction. The intensity of
Angle modulation alters the instantaneous phase of the the waves diminishes due to geometric dispersion (the
carrier wave to transmit a signal. It may be either FM or inverse-square law); some energy may also be absorbed
phase modulation (PM).
by the intervening medium in some cases. Noise will generally alter the desired signal; this electromagnetic interference comes from natural sources, as well as from ar3.2.2 Antenna
ticial sources such as other transmitters and accidental
radiators. Noise is also produced at every step due to the
inherent properties of the devices used. If the magniMain article: Antenna (radio)
An antenna (or aerial) is an electrical device which con- tude of the noise is large enough, the desired signal will
verts electric currents into radio waves, and vice versa. It no longer be discernible; the signal-to-noise ratio is the
is usually used with a radio transmitter or radio receiver. fundamental limit to the range of radio communications.
In transmission, a radio transmitter supplies an electric
current oscillating at radio frequency (i.e. high frequency
AC) to the antennas terminals, and the antenna radiates 3.2.4 Resonance
the energy from the current as electromagnetic waves (radio waves). In reception, an antenna intercepts some of Main article: Electrical resonance
the power of an electromagnetic wave in order to pro- See also: LC circuit

18

CHAPTER 3. RADIO

3.2.6 Radio band


Electrical resonance of tuned circuits in radios allow individual stations to be selected. A resonant circuit will Main article: Radio frequency
respond strongly to a particular frequency, and much less
so to diering frequencies. This allows the radio receiver
to discriminate between multiple signals diering in fre- Radio frequencies occupy the range from a 3 kHz to 300
GHz, although commercially important uses of radio use
quency.
only a small part of this spectrum.[12] Other types of
electromagnetic radiation, with frequencies above the RF
range, are infrared, visible light, ultraviolet, X-rays and
gamma rays. Since the energy of an individual photon of
3.2.5 Receiver and demodulation
radio frequency is too low to remove an electron from an
atom, radio waves are classied as non-ionizing radiation.
Main article: Radio receiver
See also: Radio receiver design, Crystal radio, and
Communications receiver
The electromagnetic wave is intercepted by a tuned re-

3.3 Communication systems


A radio communication system sends signals by radio.[13]
Types of radio communication systems deployed depend
on technology, standards, regulations, radio spectrum
allocation, user requirements, service positioning, and
investment.[14]
The radio equipment involved in communication systems
includes a transmitter and a receiver, each having an
antenna and appropriate terminal equipment such as a
A crystal receiver, consisting of an antenna, adjustable microphone at the transmitter and a loudspeaker at the
electromagnetic coil, crystal rectier, capacitor, headphones and receiver in the case of a voice-communication system.[15]
ground connection.

The power consumed in a transmitting station varies depending on the distance of communication and the transmission conditions. The power received at the receiving
station is usually only a tiny fraction of the transmitters
output, since communication depends on receiving the
information, not the energy, that was transmitted.

ceiving antenna; this structure captures some of the energy of the wave and returns it to the form of oscillating electrical currents. At the receiver, these currents are
demodulated, which is conversion to a usable signal form
by a detector sub-system. The receiver is "tuned" to re- Classical radio communications systems use frequencyspond preferentially to the desired signals, and reject undivision multiplexing (FDM) as a strategy to split up and
desired signals.
share the available radio-frequency bandwidth for use by
Early radio systems relied entirely on the energy collected dierent parties communications concurrently. Modern
by an antenna to produce signals for the operator. Ra- radio communication systems include those that divide
dio became more useful after the invention of electronic up a radio-frequency band by time-division multiplexing
devices such as the vacuum tube and later the transistor, (TDM) and code-division multiplexing (CDM) as alterwhich made it possible to amplify weak signals. Today ra- natives to the classical FDM strategy. These systems ofdio systems are used for applications from walkie-talkie fer dierent tradeos in supporting multiple users, bechildrens toys to the control of space vehicles, as well as yond the FDM strategy that was ideal for broadcast radio
for broadcasting, and many other applications.
but less so for applications such as mobile telephony.
A radio receiver receives its input from an antenna, uses
electronic lters to separate a wanted radio signal from all
other signals picked up by this antenna, amplies it to a
level suitable for further processing, and nally converts
through demodulation and decoding the signal into a form
usable for the consumer, such as sound, pictures, digital
data, measurement values, navigational positions, etc.[11]

A radio communication system may send information


only one way. For example, in broadcasting a single transmitter sends signals to many receivers. Two stations may
take turns sending and receiving, using a single radio frequency; this is called simplex. By using two radio frequencies, two stations may continuously and concurrently
send and receive signals - this is called "duplex" operation.

3.5. USES OF RADIO

3.4 History

19

3.5 Uses of radio


For a broader coverage related to this topic, see Radio
spectrum Applications.

Main article: History of radio


In 1864 James Clerk Maxwell showed mathematically
that electromagnetic waves could propagate through free
space.[16] The eects of electromagnetic waves (thenunexplained "action at a distance" sparking behavior)
were actually observed before and after Maxwells work
by many inventors and experimenters including Luigi
Galvani (1791), Peter Samuel Munk (1835), Joseph
Henry (1842), Samuel Alfred Varley (1852), Edwin
Houston, Elihu Thomson, Thomas Edison (1875) and
David Edward Hughes (1878).[17][18][19] Edison gave the
eect the name "etheric force"[20] and Hughes detected
a spark impulse up to 500 yards (460 m) with a portable
receiver, but none could identify what caused the phenomenon and it was usually written o as electromagnetic
induction.[21] In 1886 Heinrich Rudolf Hertz noticed the
same sparking phenomenon and, in published experiments (1887-1888), was able to demonstrate the existence of electromagnetic waves in an experiment conrming Maxwells theory of electromagnetism. The discovery
of these Hertzian waves (radio waves) prompted many
experiments by physicists. An August 1894 lecture by
the British physicist Oliver Lodge, where he transmitted
and received Hertzian waves at distances up to 50 meters, was followed up a year later with experiments by
Indian physicist Jagadish Bose in radio microwave optics
and construction of a radio based lightning detector by
Russian physicist Alexander Stepanovich Popov. Starting in late 1894, Guglielmo Marconi began pursuing the
idea of building a wireless telegraphy system based on
Hertzian waves (radio). Marconi gained a patent on the
system in 1896 and developed it into a commercial communication system over the next few years.[22]

Early uses were maritime, for sending telegraphic messages using Morse code between ships and land. The earliest users included the Japanese Navy scouting the Russian eet during the Battle of Tsushima in 1905. One of
the most memorable uses of marine telegraphy was during the sinking of the RMS Titanic in 1912, including
communications between operators on the sinking ship
and nearby vessels, and communications to shore stations
listing the survivors.
Radio was used to pass on orders and communications
between armies and navies on both sides in World War
I; Germany used radio communications for diplomatic
messages once it discovered that its submarine cables had
been tapped by the British. The United States passed
on President Woodrow Wilson's Fourteen Points to Germany via radio during the war. Broadcasting began from
San Jose, California in 1909,[23] and became feasible in
the 1920s, with the widespread introduction of radio receivers, particularly in Europe and the United States. Besides broadcasting, point-to-point broadcasting, including telephone messages and relays of radio programs, became widespread in the 1920s and 1930s. Another use of
radio in the pre-war years was the development of detection and locating of aircraft and ships by the use of radar
(RAdio Detection And Ranging).

Today, radio takes many forms, including wireless networks and mobile communications of all types, as well as
radio broadcasting. Before the advent of television, commercial radio broadcasts included not only news and music, but dramas, comedies, variety shows, and many other
forms of entertainment (the era from the late 1920s to
the mid-1950s is commonly called radios Golden Age).
Radio was unique among methods of dramatic presentation in that it used only sound. For more, see radio proEarly 20th century radio systems transmitted messages
gramming.
by continuous wave code only. Early attempts at developing a system of amplitude modulation for voice and
music were demonstrated in 1900 and 1906, but had little success. World War I accelerated the development of 3.5.1 Audio
radio for military communications, and in this era the rst
vacuum tubes were applied to radio transmitters and re- One-way
ceivers. Electronic amplication was a key development
in changing radio from an experimental practice by ex- Main article: Radio broadcasting
perts into a home appliance. After the war, commercial AM radio uses amplitude modulation, in which the amradio broadcasting began in the 1920s and became an im- plitude of the transmitted signal is made proportional to
portant mass medium for entertainment and news.
the sound amplitude captured (transduced) by the miWorld War II again accelerated development of radio for crophone, while the transmitted frequency remains unthe wartime purposes of aircraft and land communica- changed. Transmissions are aected by static and intion, radio navigation and radar. After the war, the ex- terference because lightning and other sources of radio
periments in television that had been interrupted were re- emissions on the same frequency add their amplitudes to
sumed, and it also became an important home entertain- the original transmitted amplitude.
ment medium.

In the early part of the 20th century, American AM ra-

20

Bakelite radio at the Bakelite Museum, Orchard Mill, Williton,


Somerset, UK.

CHAPTER 3. RADIO

Bush House, old home of the BBC World Service.

FM broadcast radio sends music and voice with less noise


than AM radio. It is often mistakenly thought that FM is
higher delity than AM, but that is not true. AM is capable of the same audio bandwidth that FM employs. AM
receivers typically use narrower lters in the receiver to
recover the signal with less noise. AM stereo receivers
can reproduce the same audio bandwidth that FM does
due to the wider lter used in an AM stereo receiver,
but today, AM radios limit the audio bandpass to 35
kHz. In frequency modulation, amplitude variation at the
microphone causes the transmitter frequency to uctuate.
Because the audio signal modulates the frequency and not
the amplitude, an FM signal is not subject to static and
A Fisher 500 AM/FM hi- receiver from 1959.
interference in the same way as AM signals. Due to its
need for a wider bandwidth, FM is transmitted in the Very
High Frequency (VHF, 30 MHz to 300 MHz) radio specdio stations broadcast with powers as high as 500 kW, trum.
and some could be heard worldwide; these stations transmitters were commandeered for military use by the US VHF radio waves act more like light, traveling in straight
Government during World War II. Currently, the max- lines; hence the reception range is generally limited to
imum broadcast power for a civilian AM radio station about 50200 miles (80322 km). During unusual upin the United States and Canada is 50 kW, and the ma- per atmospheric conditions, FM signals are occasionally
jority of stations that emit signals this powerful were reected back towards the Earth by the ionosphere, regrandfathered in (see List of 50 kW AM radio stations sulting in long distance FM reception. FM receivers are
in the United States). In 1986 KTNN received the last subject to the capture eect, which causes the radio to
granted 50,000-watt class A license. These 50 kW sta- only receive the strongest signal when multiple signals aptions are generally called "clear channel" stations (not to pear on the same frequency. FM receivers are relatively
be confused with Clear Channel Communications), be- immune to lightning and spark interference.
cause within North America each of these stations has High power is useful in penetrating buildings, diracting
exclusive use of its broadcast frequency throughout part around hills, and refracting in the dense atmosphere near
or all of the broadcast day.
the horizon for some distance beyond the horizon. Conse-

3.5. USES OF RADIO

21

quently, 100,000-watt FM stations can regularly be heard Marine voice radios can use single sideband voice (SSB)
up to 100 miles (160 km) away, and farther, 150 miles in the shortwave High Frequency (HF3 MHz to 30
(240 km), if there are no competing signals.
MHz) radio spectrum for very long ranges or Marine
A few old, grandfathered stations do not conform to VHF radio / narrowband FM in the VHF spectrum for
these power rules. WBCT-FM (93.7) in Grand Rapids, much shorter ranges. Narrowband FM sacrices delity
Michigan, US, runs 320,000 watts ERP, and can increase to make more channels available within the radio specto 500,000 watts ERP by the terms of its original license. trum, by using a smaller range of radio frequencies, usuSuch a huge power level does not usually help to increase ally with ve kHz of deviation, versus the 75 kHz used
by commercial FM broadcasts, and 25 kHz used for TV
range as much as one might expect, because VHF frequencies travel in nearly straight lines over the horizon sound.
and o into space. Nevertheless, when there were fewer
FM stations competing, this station could be heard near
Bloomington, Illinois, US, almost 300 miles (480 km)
away.

Government, police, re and commercial voice services


also use narrowband FM on special frequencies. Early
police radios used AM receivers to receive one-way dispatches.

FM subcarrier services are secondary signals transmitted


in a piggyback fashion along with the main program.
Special receivers are required to utilize these services.
Analog channels may contain alternative programming,
such as reading services for the blind, background music or stereo sound signals. In some extremely crowded
metropolitan areas, the sub-channel program might be an
alternate foreign-language radio program for various ethnic groups. Sub-carriers can also transmit digital data,
such as station identication, the current songs name,
web addresses, or stock quotes. In some countries, FM
radios automatically re-tune themselves to the same channel in a dierent district by using sub-bands.

Civil and military HF (high frequency) voice services use


shortwave radio to contact ships at sea, aircraft and isolated settlements. Most use single sideband voice (SSB),
which uses less bandwidth than AM.[24] On an AM radio SSB sounds like ducks quacking, or the adults in a
Charlie Brown cartoon. Viewed as a graph of frequency
versus power, an AM signal shows power where the frequencies of the voice add and subtract with the main radio
frequency. SSB cuts the bandwidth in half by suppressing
the carrier and one of the sidebands. This also makes the
transmitter about three times more powerful, because it
doesn't need to transmit the unused carrier and sideband.

Two-way
Main article: Two-way radio
Aviation voice radios use Aircraft band VHF AM. AM
is used so that multiple stations on the same channel can
be received. (Use of FM would result in stronger stations blocking out reception of weaker stations due to
FMs capture eect). Aircraft y high enough that their
transmitters can be received hundreds of miles away, even
though they are using VHF.

TETRA, Terrestrial Trunked Radio is a digital cell phone


system for military, police and ambulances. Commercial
services such as XM, WorldSpace and Sirius oer encrypted digital satellite radio.

3.5.2 Telephony
Mobile phones transmit to a local cell site (transmitter/receiver) that ultimately connects to the public
switched telephone network (PSTN) through an optic
ber or microwave radio and other network elements.
When the mobile phone nears the edge of the cell sites
radio coverage area, the central computer switches the
phone to a new cell. Cell phones originally used FM, but
now most use various digital modulation schemes. Recent developments in Sweden (such as DROPme) allow
for the instant downloading of digital material from a radio broadcast (such as a song) to a mobile phone.
Satellite phones use satellites rather than cell towers to
communicate.

3.5.3 Video

Degen DE1103, an advanced world mini-receiver with single


sideband modulation and dual conversion

Analog television sends the picture as AM and the sound


as AM or FM, with the sound carrier a xed frequency
(4.5 MHz in the NTSC system) away from the video carrier. Analog television also uses a vestigial sideband on
the video carrier to reduce the bandwidth required.
Digital television uses 8VSB modulation in North Amer-

22

CHAPTER 3. RADIO

ica (under the ATSC digital television standard), and


COFDM modulation elsewhere in the world (using the
DVB-T standard). A ReedSolomon error correction
code adds redundant correction codes and allows reliable reception during moderate data loss. Although many
current and future codecs can be sent in the MPEG
transport stream container format, as of 2006 most systems use a standard-denition format almost identical to
DVD: MPEG-2 video in Anamorphic widescreen and
MPEG layer 2 (MP2) audio. High-denition television
is possible simply by using a higher-resolution picture,
but H.264/AVC is being considered as a replacement
video codec in some regions for its improved compression. With the compression and improved modulation
involved, a single channel can contain a high-denition
program and several standard-denition programs.

gation potential to civil aircraft.

3.5.5 Radar
Main article: Radar
Radar (Radio Detection And Ranging) detects objects at
a distance by bouncing radio waves o them. The delay
caused by the echo measures the distance. The direction
of the beam determines the direction of the reection.
The polarization and frequency of the return can sense
the type of surface. Navigational radars scan a wide area
two to four times per minute. They use very short waves
that reect from earth and stone. They are common on
commercial ships and long-distance commercial aircraft.

General purpose radars generally use navigational radar


frequencies, but modulate and polarize the pulse so the
receiver can determine the type of surface of the reecMain article: Radio navigation
tor. The best general-purpose radars distinguish the rain
of heavy storms, as well as land and vehicles. Some can
All satellite navigation systems use satellites with preci- superimpose sonar data and map data from GPS position.
sion clocks. The satellite transmits its position, and the Search radars scan a wide area with pulses of short ratime of the transmission. The receiver listens to four dio waves. They usually scan the area two to four times
satellites, and can gure its position as being on a line that a minute. Sometimes search radars use the Doppler efis tangent to a spherical shell around each satellite, deter- fect to separate moving vehicles from clutter. Targeting
mined by the time-of-ight of the radio signals from the radars use the same principle as search radar but scan a
satellite. A computer in the receiver does the math.
much smaller area far more often, usually several times a
Radio direction-nding is the oldest form of radio nav- second or more. Weather radars resemble search radars,
igation. Before 1960 navigators used movable loop an- but use radio waves with circular polarization and a wavetennas to locate commercial AM stations near cities. length to reect from water droplets. Some weather radar
In some cases they used marine radiolocation beacons, use the Doppler eect to measure wind speeds.

3.5.4

Navigation

which share a range of frequencies just above AM radio


with amateur radio operators. LORAN systems also used
time-of-ight radio signals, but from radio stations on the 3.5.6
ground.

Data (digital radio)

Very High Frequency Omnidirectional Range (VOR),


systems (used by aircraft), have an antenna array that
transmits two signals simultaneously. A directional signal rotates like a lighthouse at a xed rate. When the directional signal is facing north, an omnidirectional signal
pulses. By measuring the dierence in phase of these
two signals, an aircraft can determine its bearing or radial from the station, thus establishing a line of position.
An aircraft can get readings from two VORs and locate
its position at the intersection of the two radials, known
as a "x.
When the VOR station is collocated with DME (Distance
Measuring Equipment), the aircraft can determine its
bearing and range from the station, thus providing a x
from only one ground station. Such stations are called
VOR/DMEs. The military operates a similar system
of navaids, called TACANs, which are often built into
VOR stations. Such stations are called VORTACs. Because TACANs include distance measuring equipment,
VOR/DME and VORTAC stations are identical in navi-

2008 Pure One Classic digital radio

Most new radio systems are digital, including Digital TV,


satellite radio, and Digital Audio Broadcasting. The oldest form of digital broadcast was spark gap telegraphy,
used by pioneers such as Marconi. By pressing the key,

3.5. USES OF RADIO


the operator could send messages in Morse code by energizing a rotating commutating spark gap. The rotating commutator produced a tone in the receiver, where
a simple spark gap would produce a hiss, indistinguishable from static. Spark-gap transmitters are now illegal,
because their transmissions span several hundred megahertz. This is very wasteful of both radio frequencies and
power.
The next advance was continuous wave telegraphy, or
CW (Continuous Wave), in which a pure radio frequency,
produced by a vacuum tube electronic oscillator was
switched on and o by a key. A receiver with a local oscillator would "heterodyne" with the pure radio frequency,
creating a whistle-like audio tone. CW uses less than 100
Hz of bandwidth. CW is still used, these days primarily by amateur radio operators (hams). Strictly, on-o
keying of a carrier should be known as Interrupted Continuous Wave or ICW or on-o keying (OOK).

23
sions. Commercial use of spread spectrum began in the
1980s. Bluetooth, most cell phones, and the 802.11b version of Wi-Fi each use various forms of spread spectrum.
Systems that need reliability, or that share their frequency with other services, may use coded orthogonal
frequency-division multiplexing or COFDM. COFDM
breaks a digital signal into as many as several hundred
slower subchannels. The digital signal is often sent as
QAM on the subchannels. Modern COFDM systems use
a small computer to make and decode the signal with
digital signal processing, which is more exible and far
less expensive than older systems that implemented separate electronic channels.

COFDM resists fading and ghosting because the narrowchannel QAM signals can be sent slowly. An adaptive
system, or one that sends error-correction codes can also
resist interference, because most interference can aect
only a few of the QAM channels. COFDM is used for
Radioteletype equipment usually operates on short-wave Wi-Fi, some cell phones, Digital Radio Mondiale, Eureka
(HF) and is much loved by the military because they cre- 147, and many other local area network, digital TV and
ate written information without a skilled operator. They radio standards.
send a bit as one of two tones using frequency-shift keying. Groups of ve or seven bits become a character
printed by a teleprinter. From about 1925 to 1975, ra- 3.5.7 Heating
dioteletype was how most commercial messages were
sent to less developed countries. These are still used by Main article: Radio-frequency heating
the military and weather services.
Aircraft use a 1200 Baud radioteletype service over VHF
to send their ID, altitude and position, and get gate
and connecting-ight data. Microwave dishes on satellites, telephone exchanges and TV stations usually use
quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM). QAM sends
data by changing both the phase and the amplitude of
the radio signal. Engineers like QAM because it packs
the most bits into a radio signal when given an exclusive
(non-shared) xed narrowband frequency range. Usually
the bits are sent in frames that repeat. A special bit
pattern is used to locate the beginning of a frame.

Radio-frequency energy generated for heating of objects


is generally not intended to radiate outside of the generating equipment, to prevent interference with other radio
signals. Microwave ovens use intense radio waves to heat
food. Diathermy equipment is used in surgery for sealing
of blood vessels. Induction furnaces are used for melting
metal for casting, and induction hobs for cooking.

3.5.8 Amateur radio service

Modern GPS receivers.

Communication systems that limit themselves to a xed


narrowband frequency range are vulnerable to jamming. Amateur radio station with multiple receivers and transceivers
A variety of jamming-resistant spread spectrum techniques were initially developed for military use, most fa- Amateur radio, also known as ham radio, is a hobby
mously for Global Positioning System satellite transmis- in which enthusiasts are licensed to communicate on a

24

CHAPTER 3. RADIO

number of bands in the radio frequency spectrum noncommercially and for their own experiments. They may
also provide emergency and service assistance in exceptional circumstances. This contribution has been very
benecial in saving lives in many instances.[25]
Radio amateurs use a variety of modes, including ecient ones like Morse code and experimental ones like
Low-Frequency Experimental Radio. Several forms of
radio were pioneered by radio amateurs and later became
commercially important, including FM, single-sideband
(SSB), AM, digital packet radio and satellite repeaters.
Some amateur frequencies may be disrupted illegally by
power-line internet service.

3.5.9

Unlicensed radio services

Unlicensed, government-authorized personal radio services such as Citizens band radio in Australia, most of
the Americas, and Europe, and Family Radio Service and
Multi-Use Radio Service in North America exist to provide simple, usually short range communication for individuals and small groups, without the overhead of licensing. Similar services exist in other parts of the world.
These radio services involve the use of handheld units.
Wi-Fi also operates in unlicensed radio bands and is very
widely used to network computers.
Free radio stations, sometimes called pirate radio or
clandestine stations, are unauthorized, unlicensed, illegal broadcasting stations. These are often low power
transmitters operated on sporadic schedules by hobbyists,
community activists, or political and cultural dissidents.
Some pirate stations operating oshore in parts of Europe and the United Kingdom more closely resembled
legal stations, maintaining regular schedules, using high
power, and selling commercial advertising time.[26][27]

3.5.10

Radio control (RC)

Radio remote controls use radio waves to transmit control data to a remote object as in some early forms
of guided missile, some early TV remotes and a range
of model boats, cars and airplanes. Large industrial
remote-controlled equipment such as cranes and switching locomotives now usually use digital radio techniques
to ensure safety and reliability.

3.7 Notes
[1] While the term 'radio-' is actually the combining form of
radiant (e.g., radioactive, radiotherapy), the process that
was originally called radiotelegraphy has become so common that it is nearly always called just 'radio' and the associated electromagnetic waves are called radio waves. In
practice, radio frequencies are signicantly below that of
visible light from about 3 kHz to 300 GHz.[1]

3.8 References
[1] Dictionary of Electronics By Rudolf F. Graf (1974). Page
467.
[2] Radio-Electronics, ''Radio Receiver Technology''".
Radio-electronics.com. Retrieved 2014-08-02.
[3] The Electromagnetic Spectrum, University of Tennessee,
Dept. of Physics and Astronomy
[4] Clint Smith, Curt Gervelis (2003). Wireless Network Performance Handbook. McGraw-Hill Professional. ISBN
0-07-140655-7.
[5] R. K. Puri (2004). Solid State Physics and Electronics. S.
Chand. ISBN 81-219-1475-2.
[6] Production of Sound by Radiant Energy by Alexander
Graham Bell, Popular Science Monthly, July, 1881, pages
329-330: "[W]e have named the apparatus for the production and reproduction of sound in this way the photophone, because an ordinary beam of light contains the
rays which are operative. To avoid in future any misunderstandings upon this point, we have decided to adopt the
term "radiophone", proposed by M. Mercadier, as a general term signifying the production of sound by any form
of radiant energy...
[7] The Genesis of Wireless Telegraphy by A. Frederick
Collins, Electrical World and Engineer, May 10, 1902,
page 811.
[8] Wireless Telegraphy, The Practical Engineer, February
25, 1898, page 174. Dr. O. J. Lodge, who preceded Marconi in making experiments in what may be called ray
telegraphy or radiotelegraphy by a year or two, has devised
a new method of sending and receiving the messages. The
reader will understand that in the radiotelegraph electric
waves forming the signals of the message start from the
sending instrument and travel in all directions like rays of
light from a lamp, only they are invisible.

In Madison Square Garden, at the Electrical Exhibi- [9]


tion of 1898, Nikola Tesla successfully demonstrated a
radio-controlled boat.[28] He was awarded U.S. patent
No. 613,809 for a Method of and Apparatus for Con[10]
trolling Mechanism of Moving Vessels or Vehicles.[29]

3.6 See also


Outline of radio

Wireless Telegraphy, The Electrical Review (London),


January 20, 1905, page 108, quoting from the British Post
Oces December 30, 1904 Post Oce Circular.
Interference with Wireless Messages, Electrical World,
June 22, 1907, page 1270.

[11] Radio-Electronics, ''Radio Receiver Technology''".


Radio-electronics.com. Retrieved 2014-08-02.
[12] The Electromagnetic Spectrum, University of Tennessee,
Dept. of Physics and Astronomy

3.9. EXTERNAL LINKS

[13] Clint Smith, Curt Gervelis (2003). Wireless Network Performance Handbook. McGraw-Hill Professional. ISBN
0-07-140655-7.
[14] Macario, R. C. V. (1996). Modern personal radio systems. IEE telecommunications series, 33. London: Institution of Electrical Engineers. Page 3.
[15] R. K. Puri (2004). Solid State Physics and Electronics. S.
Chand. ISBN 81-219-1475-2.
[16] web.pdx.edu/~{}bseipel/Lecture%20notes%206-%
20203%20EMwaves.pdf
[17] T. K. Sarkar, Robert Mailloux, Arthur A. Oliner, M.
Salazar-Palma, Dipak L. Sengupta , History of Wireless,
John Wiley & Sons - 2006, pages 258-261
[18] Christopher H. Sterling, Encyclopedia of Radio 3Volume, Routledge - 2004, page 831
[19] Anand Kumar Sethi, The Business of Electronics: A Concise History, Palgrave Macmillan - 2013, page 22
[20] ieeeghn.org, IEEE Global History Network, Etheric Force
[21] W. Bernard Carlson, Innovation as a Social Process: Elihu
Thomson and the Rise of General Electric, Cambridge
University Press - 2003, pages 57-58
[22] U.S. Supreme Court. Retrieved 2012-04-23.
[23] The History Of KQW Radio - KCBS. Bayarearadio.org.
Retrieved 2009-07-22.
[24] Audio example of SSB. Retrieved 2014-08-02.
[25] "Amateur Radio Saved Lives in South Asia". Arrl.org.
2004-12-29. Archived from the original on 2007-10-13.
[26] Free radio: electronic civil disobedience by Lawrence C.
Soley. Published by Westview Press, 1998. ISBN 0-81339064-8, ISBN 978-0-8133-9064-2
[27] Rebel Radio: The Full Story of British Pirate Radio by John
Hind, Stephen Mosco. Published by Pluto Press, 1985.
ISBN 0-7453-0055-3, ISBN 978-0-7453-0055-9
[28] Tesla - Master of Lightning: Remote Control. PBS. Retrieved 2009-07-22.
[29] Tesla - Master of Lightning: Selected Tesla Patents.
PBS. Retrieved 2009-07-22.

3.9 External links

25

Chapter 4

Carrier wave
In telecommunications, a carrier wave, carrier signal,
or just carrier, is a waveform (usually sinusoidal) that is
modulated (modied) with an input signal for the purpose
of conveying information.[1] This carrier wave is usually
a much higher frequency than the input signal. The purpose of the carrier is usually either to transmit the information through space as an electromagnetic wave (as in
radio communication), or to allow several carriers at different frequencies to share a common physical transmission medium by frequency division multiplexing (as, for
example, a cable television system). The term is also used
for an unmodulated emission in the absence of any modulating signal.[2]

4.2 Carrier leakage


Carrier leakage is interference caused by cross-talk or a
DC oset. It is present as an unmodulated sine wave
within the signals bandwidth, whose amplitude is independent of the signals amplitude. See frequency mixers,
to read further about carrier leakage or local oscillator
feedthrough.

4.3 See also


Carrier recovery

Most radio systems in the 20th century used frequency


modulation (FM) or amplitude modulation (AM) to make
the carrier carry information. In the case of singlesideband modulation (SSB), the carrier is suppressed (and
in some forms of SSB, eliminated). The carrier must be
reintroduced at the receiver by a beat frequency oscillator (BFO). The frequency of a radio or television station
is actually the carrier waves center frequency.

Carrier system
Carrier tone
Frequency-division multiplexing
Sideband

4.4 References
4.1 Carrierless modulation systems

[1] Carrier wave with no modulation transports no information.. University Of Texas. Archived from the original on
2008-04-14. Retrieved 2008-05-30.

Newer forms of radio communication (such as spread


spectrum and ultra-wideband) do not use a conventional
sinusoidal carrier wave, nor does OFDM (which is used
in DSL and in the European standard for HDTV).

OFDM may be thought of as an array of symmetrical carrier waves. The rules governing carrier-wave
propagation aect OFDM dierently from 8VSB.
Some forms of spread spectrum transmission (and
most forms of ultra-wideband) are mathematically
dened as being devoid of carrier waves. Transmitter implementations typically produce residual carriers which may (or may not) be detectable or transmitted.
26

[2] Federal Standard 1037C and MIL-STD-188

Chapter 5

Frequency modulation

A signal may be carried by an AM or FM radio wave.

In telecommunications and signal processing, frequency


modulation (FM) is the encoding of information in a
carrier wave by varying the instantaneous frequency of
the wave. This contrasts with amplitude modulation, in
which the amplitude of the carrier wave varies, while the
frequency remains constant.
FM has better noise (RFI) rejection than AM, as shown in this
In analog frequency modulation, such as FM radio broad- dramatic New York publicity demonstration by General Electric
casting of an audio signal representing voice or music, in 1940. The radio has both AM and FM receivers. With a milthe instantaneous frequency deviation, the dierence be- lion volt arc as a source of interference behind it, the AM receiver
tween the frequency of the carrier and its center fre- produced only a roar of static, while the FM receiver clearly reproduced a music program from Armstrongs experimental FM
quency, is proportional to the modulating signal.
transmitter W2XMN in New Jersey.

Digital data can be encoded and transmitted via FM by


shifting the carriers frequency among a predened set
of frequencies representing digits - for example one frequency can represent a binary 1 and a second can represent binary 0. This modulation technique is known
as frequency-shift keying (FSK). FSK is widely used in
modems and fax modems, and can also be used to send
Morse code.[1] Radioteletype also uses FSK.[2]
Frequency modulation is widely used for FM radio
broadcasting. It is also used in telemetry, radar, seismic prospecting, and monitoring newborns for seizures
via EEG,[3] two-way radio systems, music synthesis, magnetic tape-recording systems and some videotransmission systems. In radio transmission, an advantage of frequency modulation is that it has a larger signalto-noise ratio and therefore rejects radio frequency inter-

ference better than an equal power amplitude modulation


(AM) signal. For this reason, most music is broadcast
over FM radio.
Frequency modulation has a close relationship with phase
modulation; phase modulation is often used as an intermediate step to achieve frequency modulation. Mathematically both of these are considered a special case of
quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM).

27

28

CHAPTER 5. FREQUENCY MODULATION

5.1 Theory

5.1.2 Modulation index

If the information to be transmitted (i.e., the baseband


signal) is xm (t) and the sinusoidal carrier is xc (t) =
Ac cos(2fc t) , where fc is the carriers base frequency,
and Ac is the carriers amplitude, the modulator combines
the carrier with the baseband data signal to get the transmitted signal:

As in other modulation systems, the modulation index


indicates by how much the modulated variable varies
around its unmodulated level. It relates to variations in
the carrier frequency:

h=
(

y(t) = Ac cos 2
f ( )d
0
)
( t
[fc + f xm ( )] d
= Ac cos 2
0
(
)
t
= Ac cos 2fc t + 2f
xm ( )d
0

f
f |xm (t)|
=
fm
fm

where fm is the highest frequency component present


in the modulating signal xm(t), and f is the peak
frequency-deviationi.e. the maximum deviation of the
instantaneous frequency from the carrier frequency. For
a sine wave modulation, the modulation index is seen to
be the ratio of the peak frequency deviation of the carrier
wave to the frequency of the modulating sine wave.

where f = Kf Am , Kf being the sensitivity of the If h 1 , the modulation is called narrowband FM, and
frequency modulator and Am being the amplitude of the its bandwidth is approximately 2fm . Sometimes modulation index h<0.3 rad is considered as Narrowband FM
modulating signal or baseband signal.
otherwise Wideband FM.
In this equation, f ( ) is the instantaneous frequency of
the oscillator and f is the frequency deviation, which For digital modulation systems, for example Binary Frerepresents the maximum shift away from fc in one direc- quency Shift Keying (BFSK), where a binary signal modulates the carrier, the modulation index is given by:
tion, assuming xm(t) is limited to the range 1.
While most of the energy of the signal is contained within
fc f, it can be shown by Fourier analysis that a wider
range of frequencies is required to precisely represent an
FM signal. The frequency spectrum of an actual FM signal has components extending innitely, although their
amplitude decreases and higher-order components are often neglected in practical design problems.[4]

h=

f
f
= 1 = 2f Ts
fm
2Ts

where Ts is the symbol period, and fm = 2T1 s is used as


the highest frequency of the modulating binary waveform
by convention, even though it would be more accurate to
say it is the highest fundamental of the modulating binary
waveform. In the case of digital modulation, the carrier
5.1.1 Sinusoidal baseband signal
fc is never transmitted. Rather, one of two frequencies
is transmitted, either fc + f or fc f , depending on
Mathematically, a baseband modulated signal may be ap- the binary state 0 or 1 of the modulation signal.
proximated by a sinusoidal continuous wave signal with a
If h 1 , the modulation is called wideband FM and
frequency fm.This method is also named as Single-tone
its bandwidth is approximately 2f . While wideband
Modulation.The integral of such a signal is:
FM uses more bandwidth, it can improve the signal-tonoise ratio signicantly; for example, doubling the value
t
of f , while keeping fm constant, results in an eightAm cos(2fm t)
xm ( )d =
fold improvement in the signal-to-noise ratio.[5] (Com2fm
0
pare this with Chirp spread spectrum, which uses exIn this case, the expression for y(t) above simplies to:
tremely wide frequency deviations to achieve processing gains comparable to traditional, better-known spreadspectrum modes).
(
)
f
y(t) = Ac cos 2fc t
cos (2fm t)
With a tone-modulated FM wave, if the modulation frefm
quency is held constant and the modulation index is inwhere the amplitude Am of the modulating sinusoid is creased, the (non-negligible) bandwidth of the FM sigrepresented by the peak deviation f (see frequency de- nal increases but the spacing between spectra remains the
viation).
same; some spectral components decrease in strength as
The harmonic distribution of a sine wave carrier modu- others increase. If the frequency deviation is held conlated by such a sinusoidal signal can be represented with stant and the modulation frequency increased, the spacing
Bessel functions; this provides the basis for a mathemat- between spectra increases.
ical understanding of frequency modulation in the fre- Frequency modulation can be classied as narrowband if
quency domain.
the change in the carrier frequency is about the same as

5.2. NOISE REDUCTION


the signal frequency, or as wideband if the change in the
carrier frequency is much higher (modulation index >1)
than the signal frequency. [6] For example, narrowband
FM is used for two way radio systems such as Family
Radio Service, in which the carrier is allowed to deviate only 2.5 kHz above and below the center frequency
with speech signals of no more than 3.5 kHz bandwidth.
Wideband FM is used for FM broadcasting, in which music and speech are transmitted with up to 75 kHz deviation from the center frequency and carry audio with up to
a 20-kHz bandwidth.

5.1.3

Bessel functions

For the case of a carrier modulated by a single sine wave,


the resulting frequency spectrum can be calculated using Bessel functions of the rst kind, as a function of
the sideband number and the modulation index. The carrier and sideband amplitudes are illustrated for dierent
modulation indices of FM signals. For particular values
of the modulation index, the carrier amplitude becomes
zero and all the signal power is in the sidebands.[4]

29
where W is the highest frequency in the modulating signal but non-sinusoidal in nature and D is the Deviation
ratio which the ratio of frequency deviation to highest frequency of modulating non-sinusoidal signal.

5.2 Noise reduction


A major advantage of FM in a communications circuit,
compared for example with AM, is the possibility of improved Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Compared with an
optimum AM scheme, FM typically has poorer SNR below a certain signal level called the noise threshold, but
above a higher level the full improvement or full quieting threshold the SNR is much improved over AM.
The improvement depends on modulation level and deviation. For typical voice communications channels, improvements are typically 5-15 dB. FM broadcasting using wider deviation can achieve even greater improvements. Additional techniques, such as pre-emphasis of
higher audio frequencies with corresponding de-emphasis
in the receiver, are generally used to improve overall SNR
in FM circuits. Since FM signals have constant amplitude, FM receivers normally have limiters that remove
AM noise, further improving SNR.[7][8]

Since the sidebands are on both sides of the carrier, their


count is doubled, and then multiplied by the modulating frequency to nd the bandwidth. For example, 3
kHz deviation modulated by a 2.2 kHz audio tone produces a modulation index of 1.36. Suppose that we
limit ourselves to only those sidebands that have a rel- 5.3 Implementation
ative amplitude of at least 0.01. Then, examining the
chart shows this modulation index will produce three 5.3.1 Modulation
sidebands. These three sidebands, when doubled, gives
us (6 * 2.2 kHz) or a 13.2 kHz required bandwidth.
FM signals can be generated using either direct or indirect
frequency modulation:

5.1.4

Carsons rule

Main article: Carson bandwidth rule


A rule of thumb, Carsons rule states that nearly all (~98
percent) of the power of a frequency-modulated signal
lies within a bandwidth BT of:
BT = 2(f + fm )
= 2fm ( + 1)

Direct FM modulation can be achieved by directly


feeding the message into the input of a VCO.
For indirect FM modulation, the message signal
is integrated to generate a phase-modulated signal.
This is used to modulate a crystal-controlled oscillator, and the result is passed through a frequency
multiplier to give an FM signal. In this modulation
narrowband FM is generated leading to wideband
FM later and hence the modulation is known as Indirect FM modulation.[9]

where f , as dened above, is the peak deviation of the


instantaneous frequency f (t) from the center carrier fre5.3.2 Demodulation
quency fc , is the Modulation index which is the ratio
of frequency deviation to highest frequency in the moduSee also: Detectors
lating signal and fm is the highest frequency in the modulating signal. Condition for application of Carsons rule
Many FM detector circuits exist. A common method
is only sinusoidal signals.
for recovering the information signal is through a FosterBT = 2(f + W )
Seeley discriminator. A phase-locked loop can be used as
an FM demodulator. Slope detection demodulates an FM
signal by using a tuned circuit which has its resonant fre= 2W (D + 1)
quency slightly oset from the carrier. As the frequency

30

CHAPTER 5. FREQUENCY MODULATION

rises and falls the tuned circuit provides a changing amplitude of response, converting FM to AM. AM receivers
may detect some FM transmissions by this means, although it does not provide an ecient means of detection
for FM broadcasts.

5.4 Applications
5.4.1

Magnetic tape storage

FM is also used at intermediate frequencies by analog


VCR systems (including VHS) to record the luminance
(black and white) portions of the video signal. Commonly, the chrominance component is recorded as a conventional AM signal, using the higher-frequency FM signal as bias. FM is the only feasible method of recording
the luminance (black and white) component of video to
(and retrieving video from) magnetic tape without distortion; video signals have a large range of frequency components from a few hertz to several megahertz, too wide
for equalizers to work with due to electronic noise below 60 dB. FM also keeps the tape at saturation level,
acting as a form of noise reduction; a limiter can mask
variations in playback output, and the FM capture eect
removes print-through and pre-echo. A continuous pilottone, if added to the signal as was done on V2000 and
many Hi-band formats can keep mechanical jitter under
control and assist timebase correction.

An American FM radio transmitter in Bualo, NY at WEDG

modulation (FM) radio.[11] He patented the regenerative


circuit in 1914, the superheterodyne receiver in 1918 and
the super-regenerative circuit in 1922.[12] Armstrong presented his paper, A Method of Reducing Disturbances in
Radio Signaling by a System of Frequency Modulation,
These FM systems are unusual, in that they have a ratio
(which rst described FM radio) before the New York
of carrier to maximum modulation frequency of less than
section of the Institute of Radio Engineers on November
two; contrast this with FM audio broadcasting, where the
6, 1935. The paper was published in 1936.[13]
ratio is around 10,000. Consider, for example, a 6-MHz
carrier modulated at a 3.5-MHz rate; by Bessel analysis, As the name implies, wideband FM (WFM) requires a
the rst sidebands are on 9.5 and 2.5 MHz and the second wider signal bandwidth than amplitude modulation by
sidebands are on 13 MHz and 1 MHz. The result is a an equivalent modulating signal; this also makes the sigreversed-phase sideband on +1 MHz; on demodulation, nal more robust against noise and interference. Frethis results in unwanted output at 61 = 5 MHz. The quency modulation is also more robust against signalsystem must be designed so that this unwanted output is amplitude-fading phenomena. As a result, FM was chosen as the modulation standard for high frequency, high
reduced to an acceptable level.[10]
delity radio transmission, hence the term "FM radio"
(although for many years the BBC called it VHF radio because commercial FM broadcasting uses part of
5.4.2 Sound
the VHF bandthe FM broadcast band). FM receivers
FM is also used at audio frequencies to synthesize sound. employ a special detector for FM signals and exhibit a
This technique, known as FM synthesis, was popularized phenomenon known as the capture eect, in which the
by early digital synthesizers and became a standard fea- tuner captures the stronger of two stations on the same
ture in several generations of personal computer sound frequency while rejecting the other (compare this with a
similar situation on an AM receiver, where both stations
cards.
can be heard simultaneously). However, frequency drift
or a lack of selectivity may cause one station to be over5.4.3 Radio
taken by another on an adjacent channel. Frequency drift
was a problem in early (or inexpensive) receivers; inadeMain article: FM broadcasting
quate selectivity may aect any tuner.
An FM signal can also be used to carry a stereo signal;
Edwin Howard Armstrong (18901954) was an Ameri- this is done with multiplexing and demultiplexing before
can electrical engineer who invented wideband frequency and after the FM process. The FM modulation and de-

5.7. EXTERNAL LINKS


modulation process is identical in stereo and monaural
processes. A high-eciency radio-frequency switching
amplier can be used to transmit FM signals (and other
constant-amplitude signals). For a given signal strength
(measured at the receiver antenna), switching ampliers
use less battery power and typically cost less than a linear
amplier. This gives FM another advantage over other
modulation methods requiring linear ampliers, such as
AM and QAM.

31

[6] B. P. Lathi, Communication Systems, John Wiley and


Sons, 1968 ISBN 0-471-51832-8, p, 214217
[7] H. P. Westman, ed. (1970). Reference Data for Radio
Engineers (Fifth ed.). Howard W. Sams & Co. p. 21-11.
[8] Alan Bloom (2010). Chapter 8. Modulation. In H.
Ward Silver and Mark J. Wilson (Eds). The ARRL Handbook for Radio Communications. American Radio Relay
League. p. 8.7. ISBN 978-0-87259-146-2.

FM is commonly used at VHF radio frequencies for [9] Communication Systems 4th Ed, Simon Haykin, 2001
high-delity broadcasts of music and speech. Analog
[10]
FM Systems Of Exceptional Bandwidth
TV sound is also broadcast using FM. Narrowband FM
Proc. IEEE vol 112, no. 9, p. 1664, Septemis used for voice communications in commercial and
ber 1965
amateur radio settings. In broadcast services, where audio delity is important, wideband FM is generally used. [11] A. Michael Noll (2001). Principles of modern communications technology. Artech House. p. 104. ISBN 978-1In two-way radio, narrowband FM (NBFM) is used to
58053-284-6.
conserve bandwidth for land mobile, marine mobile and
other radio services.
[12] US 1342885

5.5 See also


Amplitude modulation
Continuous-wave frequency-modulated radar
Chirp
FM broadcasting

[13] Armstrong, E. H. (May 1936). A Method of Reducing


Disturbances in Radio Signaling by a System of Frequency
Modulation. Proceedings of the IRE. IRE. 24 (5): 689
740. doi:10.1109/JRPROC.1936.227383.

5.7 External links


Frequency modulation tutorial video with example
waveforms and FM transmitter circuit.

FM stereo
FM-UWB (FM and Ultra Wideband)
History of radio
Modulation, for a list of other modulation techniques

5.6 References
[1] Stan Gibilisco (2002). Teach yourself electricity and electronics. McGraw-Hill Professional. p. 477. ISBN 978-007-137730-0.
[2] David B. Rutledge (1999). The Electronics of Radio.
Cambridge University Press. p. 310. ISBN 978-0-52164645-1.
[3] B. Boashash, editor, Time-Frequency Signal Analysis
and Processing A Comprehensive Reference, Elsevier
Science, Oxford, 2003; ISBN 0-08-044335-4
[4] T.G. Thomas, S. C. Sekhar Communication Theory, TataMcGraw Hill 2005, ISBN 0-07-059091-5 page 136
[5] Der, Lawrence, Ph.D., Frequency Modulation (FM) Tutorial, http://www.silabs.com/Marcom%20Documents/
Resources/FMTutorial.pdf, Silicon Laboratories, Inc.,
accessed 2013 February 24, p. 5

5.8 Further reading


A. Bruce Carlson. Communication Systems, 4th
edition. McGraw-Hill Science/Engineering/Math.
2001. ISBN 0-07-011127-8, ISBN 978-0-07011127-1.
Gary L. Frost. Early FM Radio: Incremental Technology in Twentieth-Century America. Baltimore:
Johns Hopkins University Press, 2010. ISBN 08018-9440-9, ISBN 978-0-8018-9440-4.
Ken Seymour, AT&T Wireless (Mobility). Frequency Modulation, The Electronics Handbook, pp
1188-1200, 1st Edition, 1996. 2nd Edition, 2005
CRC Press, Inc., ISBN 0-8493-8345-5 (1st Edition).

Chapter 6

Frequency
This article is about the rates of waves, oscillations, and
vibrations. For the rates of non-cyclic phenomena, see
Aperiodic frequency. For the general concept beyond the
temporal domain, see Frequency (statistics). For other
uses, see Frequency (disambiguation).
For a broader coverage related to this topic, see Temporal
rate.
Frequency is the number of occurrences of a repeating
event per unit time.[1] It is also referred to as temporal
frequency, which emphasizes the contrast to spatial frequency and angular frequency. The period is the duration
of time of one cycle in a repeating event, so the period
is the reciprocal of the frequency.[2] For example, if a
newborn babys heart beats at a frequency of 120 times a
minute, its periodthe time interval between beatsis
half a second (that is, 60 seconds divided by 120 beats).
Frequency is an important parameter used in science and
engineering to specify the rate of oscillatory and vibratory
phenomena, such as mechanical vibrations, audio (sound)
signals, radio waves, and light.

6.1 Denitions
For cyclical processes, such as rotation, oscillations, or
waves, frequency is dened as a number of cycles per
unit time. In physics and engineering disciplines, such as
optics, acoustics, and radio, frequency is usually denoted
by a Latin letter f or by the Greek letter or (nu) (see
e.g. Plancks formula).
Period (in units of time) X Ordinary frequency (in number of cycles per unit of time) = 1 cycle.

These three dots are ashing, or cycling, periodicallyfrom


lowest frequency (0.5 hertz) to highest frequency (2.0 hertz),
top to bottom. For each ashing dot: f is the frequency in
hertz, (Hz)or the number of events per second (i.e., cycles per
second)that the dot ashes; while T is the period, or time, in
seconds (s) of each cycle, (i.e., the number of seconds per cycle).
Note T and f are reciprocal values to each other.

Therefore, the period, usually denoted by T, is the duration of one cycle, and is the reciprocal of the frequency
f:

6.2 Units

f=

1cycle
.
T

The SI unit of frequency is the hertz (Hz), named after


the German physicist Heinrich Hertz; one hertz means
that an event repeats once per second. A previous name
for this unit was cycles per second (cps). The SI unit for
32

6.5. IN WAVE PROPAGATION

33
For other uses, see Frequency (disambiguation).

As time elapseshere moving left to right on the horizontal


axisthe ve sinusoidal waves vary, or cycle, regularly at different rates. The red wave (top) has the lowest frequency (i.e.,
cycles at the slowest rate) while the purple wave (bottom) has the
highest frequency (cycles at the fastest rate).

Angular frequency, usually denoted by the Greek


letter (omega), is dened as the rate of change
of angular displacement, , (during rotation), or the
rate of change of the phase of a sinusoidal waveform (e.g. in oscillations and waves), or as the rate
of change of the argument to the sine function:

y(t) = sin ((t)) = sin(t) = sin(2f t)


period is the second.
A traditional unit of measure used with rotating mechanical devices is revolutions per minute, abbreviated r/min
or rpm. 60 rpm equals one hertz.[3]

d
= = 2f
dt
Angular frequency is commonly measured in
radians per second (rad/s) but, for discretetime signals, can also be expressed as radians per sample time, which is a dimensionless
quantity.

6.3 Period versus frequency


As a matter of convenience, longer and slower waves,
such as ocean surface waves, tend to be described by wave
period rather than frequency. Short and fast waves, like
audio and radio, are usually described by their frequency
instead of period. These commonly used conversions are
listed below:

Spatial frequency is analogous to temporal frequency, but the time axis is replaced by one or more
spatial displacement axes. E.g.:

6.4 Related types of frequency

y(t) = sin ((t, x)) = sin(t + kx)

d
=k
dx
Wavenumber, k, is the spatial frequency analogue of angular temporal frequency and is
measured in radians per meter. In the case of
more than one spatial dimension, wavenumber
is a vector quantity.

6.5 In wave propagation


Further information: Wave propagation
For periodic waves in nondispersive media (that is, media
in which the wave speed is independent of frequency),
frequency has an inverse relationship to the wavelength,
(lambda). Even in dispersive media, the frequency f of
a sinusoidal wave is equal to the phase velocity v of the
wave divided by the wavelength of the wave:
Diagram of the relationship between the dierent types of frequency and other wave properties.

f=

v
.

34

CHAPTER 6. FREQUENCY

In the special case of electromagnetic waves moving frequency will vibrate with large amplitude, visible next
through a vacuum, then v = c, where c is the speed of to the scale.
light in a vacuum, and this expression becomes:

f=

c
.

6.6.2 By stroboscope

An older method of measuring the frequency of rotating


When waves from a monochrome source travel from one
or vibrating objects is to use a stroboscope. This is an
medium to another, their frequency remains the same
intense repetitively ashing light (strobe light) whose freonly their wavelength and speed change.
quency can be adjusted with a calibrated timing circuit.
The strobe light is pointed at the rotating object and the
frequency adjusted up and down. When the frequency of
6.6 Measurement
the strobe equals the frequency of the rotating or vibrating
object, the object completes one cycle of oscillation and
returns to its original position between the ashes of light,
See also: Frequency meter
so when illuminated by the strobe the object appears stationary. Then the frequency can be read from the calibrated readout on the stroboscope. A downside of this
6.6.1 By counting
method is that an object rotating at an integral multiple
of the strobing frequency will also appear stationary.
Calculating the frequency of a repeating event is accomplished by counting the number of times that event occurs
within a specic time period, then dividing the count by 6.6.3 By frequency counter
the length of the time period. For example, if 71 events
occur within 15 seconds the frequency is:

f=

71
4.7 Hz
15 s

If the number of counts is not very large, it is more accurate to measure the time interval for a predetermined
number of occurrences, rather than the number of occurrences within a specied time.[4] The latter method introduces a random error into the count of between zero
and one count, so on average half a count. This is called
gating error and causes an average error in the calculated
frequency of f = 1/(2 Tm), or a fractional error of f
/ f = 1/(2 f Tm) where Tm is the timing interval and f
is the measured frequency. This error decreases with frequency, so it is a problem at low frequencies where the
number of counts N is small.

Modern frequency counter

Higher frequencies are usually measured with a frequency


counter. This is an electronic instrument which measures the frequency of an applied repetitive electronic
signal and displays the result in hertz on a digital display.
It uses digital logic to count the number of cycles during a time interval established by a precision quartz time
base. Cyclic processes that are not electrical in nature,
such as the rotation rate of a shaft, mechanical vibrations, or sound waves, can be converted to a repetitive
electronic signal by transducers and the signal applied to
a frequency counter. Frequency counters can currently
cover the range up to about 100 GHz. This represents
the limit of direct counting methods; frequencies above
this must be measured by indirect methods.

6.6.4 Heterodyne methods


resonant-reed frequency meter, an obsolete device used
from about 1900 to the 1940s for measuring the frequency of alternating current. It consists of a strip of
metal with reeds of graduated lengths, vibrated by an
electromagnet. When the unknown frequency is applied
to the electromagnet, the reed which is resonant at that

Above the range of frequency counters, frequencies of


electromagnetic signals are often measured indirectly by
means of heterodyning (frequency conversion). A reference signal of a known frequency near the unknown frequency is mixed with the unknown frequency in a non-

6.8. SEE ALSO


linear mixing device such as a diode. This creates a
heterodyne or beat signal at the dierence between the
two frequencies. If the two signals are close together in
frequency the heterodyne is low enough to be measured
by a frequency counter. This process only measures the
dierence between the unknown frequency and the reference frequency, which must be determined by some other
method. To reach higher frequencies, several stages of
heterodyning can be used. Current research is extending this method to infrared and light frequencies (optical
heterodyne detection).

6.7 Examples
6.7.1

Light

35
where c is the speed of light (c in a vacuum, or less in
other media), f is the frequency and is the wavelength.
In dispersive media, such as glass, the speed depends
somewhat on frequency, so the wavelength is not quite
inversely proportional to frequency.

6.7.2 Sound
Main article: Audio frequency
Sound propagates as mechanical vibration waves of pressure and displacement, in air or other substances.[5] Frequency is the property of sound that most determines
pitch.[6]
The frequencies an ear can hear are limited to a specic
range of frequencies. The audible frequency range for
humans is typically given as being between about 20 Hz
and 20,000 Hz (20 kHz), though the high frequency limit
usually reduces with age. Other species have dierent
hearing ranges. For example, some dog breeds can perceive vibrations up to 60,000 Hz.[7]
In many media, such as air, the speed of sound is approximately independent of frequency, so the wavelength of
the sound waves (distance between repetitions) is approximately inversely proportional to frequency.

Complete spectrum of electromagnetic radiation with the visible


portion highlighted

6.7.3 Line current

Main articles: Light and Electromagnetic radiation

Main article: Utility frequency

Visible light is an electromagnetic wave, consisting of


oscillating electric and magnetic elds traveling through
space. The frequency of the wave determines its color:
41014 Hz is red light, 81014 Hz is violet light, and between these (in the range 4-81014 Hz) are all the other
colors of the rainbow. An electromagnetic wave can have
a frequency less than 41014 Hz, but it will be invisible to the human eye; such waves are called infrared (IR)
radiation. At even lower frequency, the wave is called
a microwave, and at still lower frequencies it is called a
radio wave. Likewise, an electromagnetic wave can have
a frequency higher than 81014 Hz, but it will be invisible to the human eye; such waves are called ultraviolet
(UV) radiation. Even higher-frequency waves are called
X-rays, and higher still are gamma rays.

In Europe, Africa, Australia, Southern South America,


most of Asia, and Russia, the frequency of the alternating
current in household electrical outlets is 50 Hz (close to
the tone G), whereas in North America and Northern
South America, the frequency of the alternating current
in household electrical outlets is 60 Hz (between the tones
B and B; that is, a minor third above the European frequency). The frequency of the 'hum' in an audio recording can show where the recording was made, in countries
using a European, or an American, grid frequency.

6.8 See also

See also: Frequency (disambiguation)


All of these waves, from the lowest-frequency radio waves See also: Category:Units of frequency.
to the highest-frequency gamma rays, are fundamentally
the same, and they are all called electromagnetic radiation. They all travel through a vacuum at the same speed
Audio frequency
(the speed of light), giving them wavelengths inversely
Bandwidth (signal processing)
proportional to their frequencies.
Cuto frequency
c = f

Downsampling

36

CHAPTER 6. FREQUENCY

6.10 Further reading

Electronic lter
Frequency band

Giancoli, D.C. (1988). Physics for Scientists and


Engineers (2nd ed.). Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13669201-X.

Frequency converter
Frequency domain
Frequency distribution

6.11 External links

Frequency extender

Conversion: frequency to wavelength and back

Frequency grid

Conversion: period, cycle duration, periodic time to


frequency

Frequency modulation
Frequency spectrum

Keyboard frequencies = naming of notes - The English and American system versus the German system

Interaction frequency
Natural frequency
Negative frequency

Teaching resource for 14-16yrs on sound including


frequency

Periodicity (disambiguation)

A simple tutorial on how to build a frequency meter

Pink noise

Frequency - diracdelta.co.uk JavaScript calculation.

Preselector

A frequency generator with sound, useful for hearing


tests

Radar signal characteristics


Signaling (telecommunications)
Spread spectrum
Spectral component
Transverter
Upsampling
Quefrency

6.9 Notes and references


[1] Denition of FREQUENCY.
2016.

Retrieved 3 October

[2] Denition of PERIOD. Retrieved 3 October 2016.


[3] Davies, A. (1997). Handbook of Condition Monitoring:
Techniques and Methodology. New York: Springer. ISBN
978-0-412-61320-3.
[4] Bakshi, K.A.; A.V. Bakshi; U.A. Bakshi (2008).
Electronic Measurement Systems. US: Technical Publications. pp. 414. ISBN 978-81-8431-206-5.
[5] Denition of SOUND. Retrieved 3 October 2016.
[6] Pilhofer, Michael (2007). Music Theory for Dummies.
For Dummies. p. 97. ISBN 9780470167946.
[7] Elert, Glenn; Timothy Condon (2003). Frequency Range
of Dog Hearing. The Physics Factbook. Retrieved 200810-22.

Chapter 7

Radiotelephone
For the 19th century optical telecommunication inven- 7.1.1 Mode of emission
tion by Alexander Graham Bell and Sumner Tainter, see
Photophone.
The word phone has a long precedent beginning with early
A radiotelephone (or radiophone) is a communications
US wireless voice systems. The term means voice as opposed to telegraph or Morse code. This would include
systems tting into the category of two-way radio or oneway voice broadcasts such as coastal maritime weather.
The term is still popular in the amateur radio community
and in US Federal Communications Commission regulations.

7.1.2 Modes of operation


A standard landline telephone allows both users to talk
and listen simultaneously; eectively there are two open
channels between the two end-to-end users of the system. In a radiotelephone system, this form of working,
known as full-duplex, require a radio system to simultaneously transmit and receive on two separate channels,
which both wastes bandwidth and presents some technical
challenges. It is, however, the most comfortable method
of voice communication for users, and it is currently used
in cell phones and was used in the former IMTS.

Comparison of an amateur radio handheld transceiver, cell


phone, and matchbox

system for transmission of speech over radio. Radiotelephone systems are not necessarily interconnected with the
public land line telephone network. Radiotelephony
means transmission of sound (audio) by radio, in contrast
to radiotelegraphy (transmission of telegraph signals) or
video transmission. Where a two-way radio system is arranged for speaking and listening at a mobile station, and
where it can be interconnected to the public switched telephone system, the system can provide mobile telephone
service.

7.1 Design

The most common method of working for radiotelephones is half-duplex, operation, which allows one person to talk and the other to listen alternately. If a single
channel is used, both ends take turns to transmit on it.
An eavesdropper would hear both sides of the conversation. Dual-frequency working splits the communication
into two separate channels, but only one is used to transmit at a time. The end users have the same experience
as single frequency simplex but an eavesdropper with one
receiver would only hear one side of the conversation.
The user presses a special switch on the transmitter when
they wish to talkthis is called the press-to-talk switch
or PTT (colloquially, sometimes called the tit). It is
usually tted on the side of the microphone or other obvious position. Users may use a special code-word such
as over to signal that they have nished transmitting, or
it may follow from the conversation.

37

38

7.2 Features
Radiotelephones may operate at any frequency where
they are licensed to do so, though typically they are used
in the various bands between 60 and 900 MHz. They may
use simple modulation schemes such as AM or FM, or
more complex techniques such as digital coding, spread
spectrum, and so on. Licensing terms for a given band
will usually specify the type of modulation to be used. For
example, airband radiotelephones used for air to ground
communication between pilots and controllers operates
in the VHF band from 118.0 to 136.975 MHz, using amplitude modulation.

CHAPTER 7. RADIOTELEPHONE
a far greater number of addresses. In addition, special
features (such as broadcast modes and emergency overrides) can be designed in, using special addresses set aside
for the purpose. A mobile unit can also broadcast a Selcall sequence with its unique address to the base, so the
user can know before the call is picked up which unit is
calling. In practice many selcall systems also have automatic transponding built in, which allows the base station to interrogate a mobile even if the operator is not
present. Such transponding systems usually have a status
code that the user can set to indicate what they are doing. Features like this, while very simple, are one reason
why they are very popular with organisations that need to
manage a large number of remote mobile units. Selcall
is widely used, though is becoming superseded by much
more sophisticated digital systems.

Radiotelephone receivers are usually designed to a very


high standard, and are usually of the double-conversion
superhet design. Likewise, transmitters are carefully designed to avoid unwanted interference and feature power
outputs from a few tens of milliwatts to perhaps 50 watts
for a mobile unit, up to a couple of hundred watts for a 7.3
base station. Multiple channels are often provided using
a frequency synthesizer.
7.3.1

Uses
Conventional telephone use

Receivers usually features a squelch circuit to cut o


the audio output from the receiver when there is no Main article: Mobile radio telephone
transmission to listen to. This is in contrast to broadcast
receivers, which often dispense with this.
Mobile radio telephone systems such as Mobile Telephone Service and Improved Mobile Telephone Service
allowed a mobile unit to have a telephone number allow7.2.1 Privacy and selective calling
ing access from the general telephone network, although
some systems required mobile operators to set up calls
Main article: Selective calling
to mobile stations. Mobile radio telephone systems before the introduction of cellular telephone services suffered
from few usable channels, heavy congestion, and
Often, on a small network system, there are many mobile
very
high
operating costs.
units and one main base station. This would be typical for
police or taxi services for example. To help direct messages to the correct recipients and avoid irrelevant traf7.3.2 Marine use
c on the networks being a distraction to other units, a
variety of means have been devised to create addressing
The Marine Radiotelephone Service or HF ship-to-shore
systems.
operates on shortwave radio frequencies, using singleThe crudest and oldest of these is called CTCSS, or Con- sideband modulation. The usual method is that a ship
tinuous Tone-Controlled Squelch System. This consists calls a shore station, and the shore stations marine operof superimposing a precise very low frequency tone on ator connects the caller to the public switched telephone
the audio signal. Only the receiver tuned to this specic network. This service is retained for safety reasons, but
tone is able to receive the signal: this receiver shuts o in practice has been made obsolete by satellite telephones
the audio when the tone is not present or is a dierent fre- (particularly INMARSAT) and VoIP telephone and email
quency. By assigning a unique frequency to each mobile, via satellite internet.
private channels can be imposed on a public network.
However this is only a convenience featureit does not Short wave radio is used because it bounces between the
ionosphere and the ground, giving a modest 1,000 watt
guarantee privacy.
transmitter (the standard power) a worldwide range.
A more commonly used system is called Selective Calling
or Selcall. This also uses audio tones, but these are not re- Most shore stations monitor several frequencies. The frestricted to sub-audio tones and are sent as a short burst in quencies with the longest range are usually near 20 MHz,
sequence. The receiver will be programmed to respond but the ionospheric weather (propagation) can dramationly to a unique set of tones in a precise sequence, and cally change which frequencies work best.
only then will it open the audio circuits for open-channel Single-sideband (SSB) is used because the short wave
conversation with the base station. This system is much bands are crowded with many users, and SSB permits
more versatile than CTCSS, as relatively few tones yield a single voice channel to use a narrower range of radio

7.6. NOTES
frequencies (bandwidth), about 3.5 kHz. In comparison,
AM radio uses about 8 kHz, and narrowband (voice or
communication-quality) FM uses 9 kHz.
Marine radiotelephony rst became common in the
1930s, and was used extensively for communications to
ships and aircraft over water. In that time, most longrange aircraft had long-wire antennas that would be let
out during a call, and reeled-in afterward. Marine radiotelephony originally used AM mode in the 2-3 MHz
region before the transition to SSB and the adoption of
various higher frequency bands in addition to the 2 MHz
frequencies.
One of the most important uses of marine radiotelephony
has been to change ships itineraries, and to perform other
business at sea.
Some ships, including almost all military ships, carry
teletypewriters, and use them to communicate over short
wave. This is called marine radiotelegraphy". The
equipment is a shortwave radio transceiver with an attachment that generates and receives audio tones in order to
drive the teletypewiter.

7.4 Regulations
In the United States, since the Communications Act of
1934 the Federal Communications Commission (FCC)
has issued various commercial radiotelephone operator
licenses and permits to qualied applicants. These allow them to install, service, and maintain voice-only radio transmitter systems for use on ships and aircraft.[1]
(Until deregulation in the 1990s they were also required
for commercial domestic radio and television broadcast
systems. Because of treaty obligations they are still required for engineers of international shortwave broadcast
stations.) The certicate currently issued is the general
radiotelephone operator license.

7.5 See also


ASTRA2Connect Maritime Broadband
AT&T High Seas Service
Car phone
Improved Mobile Telephone Service
Inmarsat
Mobile radio telephone
Mobile Telephone Service
Two-way radio

39

7.6 Notes
[1] http://www.narte.org/h/fccabout.asp

7.7 References
Bruce, Robert V. Bell: Alexander Bell and the Conquest of Solitude. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press, 1990. ISBN 0-8014-9691-8.
Carson, Mary Kay (2007). 8. Alexander Graham Bell: Giving Voice To The World. Sterling Biographies. 387 Park Avenue South, New York, NY
10016: Sterling Publishing Co., Inc. pp. 7678.
ISBN 978-1-4027-3230-0. OCLC 182527281.

Chapter 8

Two-way radio
This article is about two-way radio in general. For handheld two-way radios, see Walkie-talkie.
A two-way radio is a radio that can do both transmit

8.1 History
Installation of receivers and transmitters at the same
xed location allowed exchange of messages wirelessly.
As early as 1907, two-way telegraphy trac across the
Atlantic Ocean was commercially available. By 1912
commercial and military ships carried both transmitters
and receivers, allowing two-way communication in close
to real-time with a ship that was out of sight of land.
The rst truly mobile two-way radio was developed in
Australia in 1923 by Senior Constable Frederick William
Downie of the Victorian Police. The Victoria Police were
the rst in the world to use wireless communication in
cars, putting an end to the inecient status reports via
public telephone boxes which had been used until that
time. The rst sets took up the entire back seat of the
Lancia patrol cars.[4]

Several modern two-way hand-held radios compatible with the


Project 25 digital radio standard (Mobile and base station radios
not shown)

As radio equipment became more powerful, compact,


and easier to use, smaller vehicles had two-way radio
communication equipment installed. Installation of radio equipment in aircraft allowed scouts to report back
and receive a signal (a transceiver), unlike a broadcast observations in real-time, not requiring the pilot to drop
messages to troops on the ground below or to land and
receiver which only receives content. A two-way radio
(transceiver) allows the operator to have a conversation make a personal report.
with other similar radios operating on the same radio In 1933, the Bayonne, New Jersey police department
frequency (channel). Two-way radios are available in successfully operated a two-way system between a cenmobile, stationary base and hand-held portable congu- tral xed station and radio transceivers installed in porations. Hand-held radios are often called walkie-talkies, lice cars; this allowed rapidly directing police response in
emergencies.[5] During World War II walkie-talkie handhandie-talkies, or just hand-helds.
Two-way radio systems usually operate in a half-duplex held radio transceivers were extensively used by air and
mode; that is, the operator can talk, or he can listen, ground troops, both by the Allies and the Axis.
but not at the same time. A push-to-talk or Press To
Transmit button activates the transmitter; when it is released the receiver is active. A mobile phone or cellular
telephone is an example of a two-way radio that does
both transmits and receives at the same time,i.e., in fullduplex mode. Full-duplex is generally achieved by the
use of two dierent frequencies or by frequency-sharing
methods to carry the two directions of the conversation
simultaneously.[1] Methods for mitigating the self interference caused by simultaneous same-frequency transmission and reception include using two antennas,[2] or
dynamic solid-state lters.[3]

Early two-way schemes allowed only one station to transmit at a time while others listened, since all signals were
on the same radio frequency this was called simplex
mode. Code and voice operations required a simple
communication protocol to allow all stations to cooperate in using the single radio channel, so that one stations
transmissions were not obscured by anothers. By using
receivers and transmitters tuned to dierent frequencies,
and solving the problems introduced by operation of a
receiver immediately next to a transmitter, simultaneous
transmission and reception was possible at each end of a
radio link, in so-called "full duplex" mode.

40

8.2. TYPES
The rst radio systems could not transmit voice. This required training of operators in use of Morse code. On a
ship, the radio operating ocers (sometimes shortened to
radio ocers) typically had no other duties than handling radio messages. When voice transmission became
possible, dedicated operators were no longer required and
two-way use became more common. Todays two-way
mobile radio equipment is nearly as simple to use as a
household telephone, from the point of view of operating personnel, thereby making two-way communications
a useful tool in a wide range of personal, commercial and
military roles.

8.2 Types
Two-way radio systems can be classied in several ways
depending on their attributes.

41
There are a wide variety of scan congurations which
vary from one system to another. Some radios have scan
features that receive the primary selected channel at full
volume and other channels in a scan list at reduced volume. This helps the user distinguish between the primary
channel and others without looking at the radio control
panel. An overview:
A scanning feature can be dened and preset: when
in scanning mode, a predetermined set of channels is
scanned. Channels are not changeable by the radio
user.
Some radios allow an option for user-selected scan:
this allows either lockout of pre-selected channels or
adding channels to a scan list by the operator. The
radio may revert to a default scan list each time it
is powered o or may permanently store the most
recent changes.

In professional radios, scan features are programmable


and have many options. Scan features can aect system
latency. If the radio has a twenty channel scan list and
Conventional
some channels have CTCSS, it can take several seconds to
search the entire list. The radio must stop on each channel
Conventional radios operate on xed RF channels. In the
with a signal and check for a valid CTCSS before resumcase of radios with multiple channels, they operate on one
ing scanning. This can cause missed messages.
channel at a time. The proper channel is selected by a
user. The user operates a channel selector (dial or but- For this reason, scan features are either not used or scan
tons) on the radio control panel to pick the appropriate lists are intentionally kept short in emergency applications. Part of APCO Project 16 set standards for chanchannel.
nel access times and delays caused by system overhead.
In multi-channel systems, channels are used for sepaScan features can further increase these delays. One study
rate purposes.[6] A channel may be reserved for a spesaid delays of longer than 0.4 seconds (400 milliseconds)
cic function or for a geographic area. In a functional
in emergency services are not recommended.[7] No delay
channel system, one channel may allow City of Springfrom user push-to-talk until the users voice is heard in
eld road repair crews to talk to the City of Springelds
the radios speaker is an unattainable ideal.
road maintenance oce. A second channel may allow
road repair crews to communicate with state highway department crews. In a geographic system, a taxi company Talk-back on scan Some conventional radios use, or
may use one channel to communicate in the Boston, Mas- have an option for, a talk-back-on-scan function. If the
sachusetts area and a second channel when taxis are in user transmits when the radio is in a scan mode, it may
Providence, Rhode Island. In marine radio operations, transmit on the last channel received instead of the seone channel is used as an emergency and calling channel, lected channel. This may allow users of multi-channel
so that stations may make contact then move to a separate radios to reply to the last message without looking at the
working channel for continued communication.
radio to see which channel it was on. Without this feature,
Motorola uses the term mode to refer to channels on some the user would have to use the channel selector to switch
conventional two-way radio models. In this use, a mode to the channel where the last message occurred. (This
consists of a radio frequency channel and all channel- option can cause confusion and users must be trained to
dependent options such as selective calling, channel scan- understand this feature.)

8.2.1

Conventional versus trunked

ning, power level, and more.


Scanning in conventional radios Some conventional
radios scan more than one channel. That is, the receiver
searches more than one channel for a valid transmission.
A valid transmission may be a radio channel with any signal or a combination of a radio channel with a specic
CTCSS (or Selective calling) code.

This is an incomplete list of some conventional radio


types:
Commercial and Public Safety Radio
Marine VHF radio
Family Radio Service (sometimes referred to by the
abbreviation FRS)

42

CHAPTER 8. TWO-WAY RADIO

UNICOM

8.2.2 Simplex versus duplex channels

Amateur Radio

Simplex

Trunked
Main article: Trunked radio system
In a trunked radio system, the system logic automatically
picks the physical radio frequency channel. There is a
protocol that denes a relationship between the radios and
the radio backbone which supports them. The protocol
allows channel assignments to happen automatically.
Digital trunked systems may carry simultaneous conversations on one physical channel. In the case of a digital
trunked radio system, the system also manages time slots
on a single physical channel. The function of carrying simultaneous conversations over a single channel is called
multiplexing.
Instead of channels, radios are related by groups which
may be called, groups, talk groups, or divided into a hierarchy such as eet and subeet, or agency-eet-subeet.
These can be thought of as virtual channels which appear
and disappear as conversations occur.
Systems make arrangements for handshaking and connections between radios by one of these two methods:

Simplex channel systems use a single channel for transmit


and receive. This is typical of aircraft VHF AM, Citizens Band and marine radios. Simplex systems are often
legacy systems that have existed since the 1930s. The architecture allows old radios to work with new ones in a
single network. In the case of all ships worldwide or all
aircraft worldwide, the large number of radios installed,
(the installed base,) can take decades to upgrade. Simplex systems often use open architectures that allow any
radio meeting basic standards to be compatible with the
entire system.
Advantage: as the simplest system conguration,
there is reliability since only two radios are needed
to establish communication between them, without
any other infrastructure.
Disadvantages: The simplex conguration oers
communication over the shortest range or distance
because mobile units must be in eective range of
each other. The available channel bandwidth limits the number of simultaneous conversations, since
dead air time cannot be easily used for additional
communication.

A computer assigns channels over a dedicated con- Duplex


trol channel. The control channel sends a continual
data stream. All radios in the system monitor the
data stream until commanded by the computer to
join a conversation on an assigned channel.
Electronics embedded in each radio communicate
using a protocol of tones or data in order to establish
a conversation, (scan-based).
If all physical channels are busy, some systems include a
protocol to queue or stack pending requests until a channel becomes available.
Some trunked radios scan more than one talk group or
agency-eet-subeet.
Visual clues a radio may be trunked include the 1) lack
of a squelch knob or adjustment, 2) no monitor button or
switch, and 3) a chirp (made famous by Nextel) showing
the channel is available and ready at the moment the pushto-talk is pressed.
This is an incomplete list of some trunked radio types:
TETRA
Logic Trunked Radio (abbreviated LTR)
SmartZone and SmartNet
EDACS

Duplex means two channels are used: one in each direction.

Duplex channel systems transmit and receive on dierent discrete channels. This denes systems where equipment cannot communicate without some infrastructure
such as a repeater, base station or Talk-Through Base.

8.2. TYPES
Most common in the US is a repeater conguration where
a base station is congured to simultaneously re-transmit
the audio received from mobile units. This makes the mobiles, or hand-helds, able to communicate amongst one
another anywhere within reception range of the base station or repeater. Typically the base or repeater station
has a high antenna and high power, which allows much
greater range, compared with a ground vehicle or handheld transceiver.

43

8.2.4 Analog versus digital


One example of analog radios are AM aircraft radios used
to communicate with control towers and air trac controllers. Another is a Family Radio Service walkie talkie.
Analog equipment is less complex than the simplest digital.

Advantage: In high-quality equipment, better ability


to communicate in cases where a received signal is
Duplex systems can be divided into two types. The term
weak or noisy.
half-duplex refers to systems where use of a push-to-talk
switch is required to communicate. Full duplex refers to
Disadvantage: Only one conversation at a time can
systems like mobile telephones with a capability to simuloccur on each channel.
taneously receive and transmit. Repeaters are by nature
full duplex, most mobiles and almost all handhelds are
Examples of digital communication technologies are all
half duplex.
modern cellphones plus TETRA considered to be the best
Advantage: duplex channels usually allow repeater standard in digital radio and being the baseline infrastrucoperation which extends range (in most cases due ture for whole of country networks, including manufacto increased transmit power and improved aerial lo- turers such as DAMM, Rohill, Cassidian, Sepura and othcation / height) especially where hand-held radios ers, APCO Project 25, a standard for digital public safety
radios, and nally other systems such as Motorolas Moare in use.
toTRBO, HQTs DMR, Nextels iDEN, Hyteras DMR,
Disadvantage: If a radio cannot reach the repeater,
EMCs DMR, and NXDN implemented by Icom as IDAS
it cannot communicate.
and by Kenwood as NEXEDGE. Only NXDN and Mototrbo are proprietary DMR is an ETSI open standard.
Hybrid simplex/duplex
Advantage: More simultaneous talking paths are
Some systems use a mix of the two where radios use dupossible and information such as unit ID, status butplex as a default but can communicate simplex on the base
tons, or text messages can be embedded into a sinstation channel if out-of-range.[8] In the US, the capabilgle digital radio channel. The interoperability stanity to talk simplex on a duplex channel with a repeater is
dard of TETRA means that any brand TETRA radio
sometimes called talk-around, direct, or car-to-car.
can work with any Brand TETRA infrastructure, not
locking the user into expensive and proprietary systems.

8.2.3

Push-to-Talk (PTT)

Disadvantage: Radios must be designed to the same,


compatible standard, radios can become obsolete
quickly (although this is mitigated by properly implemented interoperability standards such as those
set down by ETSI for TETRA), cost more to purchase, and are more complicated.

In two-way radios with headsets, a push-to-talk button


may be included on a cord or wireless electronics box
clipped to the users clothing. In re trucks or an ambulance a button may be present where the corded headset
plugs into the radio wiring. Aircraft typically have corded
headsets and a separate push-to-talk button on the control yoke or control stick. Dispatch consoles often have
a hand-operated push-to-talk buttons along with a foot
switch or pedal. If the dispatchers hands are on a computer keyboard, the user can step on the foot pedal to
transmit. Some systems have muting so the dispatcher
can be on a telephone call and the caller cannot hear what
is said over the radio. Their headset microphone will
mute if they transmit. This relieves the dispatcher of explaining every radio message to a caller.

8.2.5 Data over two-way radio

In some circumstances, voice-operated transmit (VOX) is


used in place of a push-to-talk button. Possible uses are
handicapped users who cannot push a button, Amateur
radio operators, reghters, crane operators, or others
performing critical tasks where hands must be free but
communication is still necessary.

Some two-way digital systems carry both audio and data


over a single data stream. Systems of this type include
NXDN and APCO Project 25. Other more advanced
systems under the TETRA standard are capable of joining time slots together to improve data bandwidth, allowing advanced data polling and telemetry applications over

In some cases, two-way radio is used to communicate


analog or digital data. Systems can be simplex or duplex and may employ selective calling features such as
CTCSS. In full-duplex systems, data can be sent real-time
between two points. In simplex or half-duplex, data can
be sent with a time lag between many points.

44

CHAPTER 8. TWO-WAY RADIO

radio. The method of encoding and decoding the au- in an urban area. System designers use radio frequency
dio stream is called a codec, such as the AMBE or the models, terrain models, and signal propagation modeling
ACELP family of codecs.
software in an attempt to accurately estimate where radios
After market GPS tracking and mobile messaging devices will work within a dened geographic area. The models
can be interfaced with popular two-way radio models pro- help designers choose equipment, equipment locations,
antennas, and estimate how well signals will penetrate
viding a range of features.
buildings. These models will be backed-up by drive testing and actual eld signal level measurements. Designers
adjust antenna patterns, add or move equipment sites, and
Analog
design antenna networks in a way that will accomplish the
[11]
Analog systems may communicate a single condition, intended level of performance.
such as water level in a livestock tank. A transmitter at
the tank site continually sends a signal with a constant audio tone. The tone would change in pitch to indicate the
tanks water level. A meter at the remote end would vary,
corresponding to the tone pitch, to indicate the amount
of water present in the livestock tank. Similar methods
can be used to telemeter any analog condition. This type
of radio system serves a purpose equivalent to a fourto-twenty milliampere loop.[9] In the US, mid-band 72
76 MHz or UHF 450470 MHz interstitial channels are
often used for these systems. Some systems multiplex
telemetry of several analog conditions by limiting each to
a separate range of tone pitches, for example.[10]

Some systems are not engineered. Legacy systems are existing systems which were never designed to meet a system performance objective. They may have started with
a base station and a group of mobile radios. Over a period of years, they have equipment added on in a building block style. Legacy systems may perform adequately
even though they were not professionally designed as a
coherent system. A user may purchase and locate a base
station with an expectation that similar systems used in
the past worked acceptably. A City Road Department
may have a system that works acceptably, so the Parks
Department may build a new similar system and nd it
equally usable. General Mobile Radio Service systems
are not usually engineered.

Digital
Digital systems may communicate text messages from
computer-aided dispatch (CAD). For example, a display
in a tow truck may give a textual location for a call and
any related details. The tow truck driver may press an acknowledge button, sending data in the opposite direction
and agging the call as received by the driver. They can
be used for analog telemetry systems, such as the livestock tank levels, as described above. Another possibility is the lubricating oil pressure in a transit bus engine,
or the current speed of the bus. Analog conditions are
translated into data words. Some systems send radio paging messages which can either 1) beep a paging receiver,
2) send a numeric message, or 3) send a text message.

8.2.7 Options, duty cycle, and conguration

Digital systems typically use data rates in the 1,200


19,200 kilobit-per-second rates and may employ modulation schemes such as frequency shift keying, audio frequency shift keying, or quadrature phase shift keying to
encode characters. Modern equipment have the same capabilities to carry data as are found in Internet Protocol.
Working within the systems protocol constraints, virtually anything can be sent or received.

8.2.6

Engineered versus not engineered

Engineered systems are designed to perform close to a


specication or standard. They are designed as systems
with all equipment matched to perform together. For example, a modern, local government two-way radio system
in the US may be designed to provide 95% area coverage

Example of control arrangement on a congured P25-capable


hand-held radio.

1940s tube-type land mobile two way radios often had


one channel and were carrier squelch. Because radios
were costly and there were fewer radio users, it might be
the case that no one else nearby used the same channel.

8.2. TYPES

45

A transmit and receive crystal had to be ordered for the


desired channel frequency, then the radio had to be tuned
or aligned to work on the channel. 12-volt mobile, tubetype radios drew several amperes on standby and tens-ofamperes on transmit. Equipment worked ideally when
new. The performance of vacuum tubes gradually degraded over time. US regulations required an indicator
lamp showing the transmitter had power applied and was
ready to transmit and a second indicator, (usually red,)
that showed the transmitter was on. In radios with options, wire jumpers and discrete components were used
to select options. To change a setting, the technician soldered an option jumper wire then made any corresponding adjustments.
Motorola MOTOTRBO Repeater DR3000 with duplexer mounted
Many mobile and handhelds have a limited duty cycle. in Flightcase, 100% Duty cycle up to 40 W output
Duty Cycle is the ratio of listening time to transmit time
and is generally dependent on how well the transmitter
of ambulances, for example, could be pressed into sercan shed the heat from the heat sink on the rear of the ravice as command post at a major incident. Unfortunately
dio. A 10% duty cycle (common on handhelds) translates
budgets frequently get in the way and intermittent duty
to 10 seconds of transmit time to 90 seconds of receive
radios are purchased.
time. Some mobile and base equipment is specied at
dierent power levels for example 100% duty cycle at Time delay is always associated with radio systems, but
it is apparent in spacecraft communications. NASA reg25 watts and 15% at 40 watts.[12]
ularly communicates with exploratory spacecraft where a
The trend is toward increasing complexity. Modern
round-trip message time is measured in hours (like out
handheld and mobile radios can have capacities as high
past Jupiter). For Apollo program and Space Shuttle,
as 255 channels. Most are synthesized: the internal elecQuindar tones were used for transmit PTT control.
tronics in modern radios operate over a range of frequencies with no tuning adjustments. High-end models may
have several hundred optional settings and require a com8.2.8 Life of equipment
puter and software to congure. Sometimes, controls on
the radio are referred to as programmable. By changing
Though the general life term for the two way radio is 5
conguration settings, a system designer could choose to
to 7 years and 1 to 2 years for its accessories but still the
set up a button on the radios control panel to function as:
usage, atmosphere and environment plays a major role to
decide its life term (radios are often deployed in harsh
turn scan on or o,
environments where more fragile communication equipment such as phones and tablets may fail). There are so
alert another mobile radio, (selective calling),
many speculations on the life term of two way radios and
their accessories i.e. batteries, chargers, head set etc.
turn on an outside speaker, or
select repeater locations.
In most modern radios these settings are done with specialized software (provided by the manufacturer) and a
connection to a laptop computer.

In government systems, equipment may be replaced


based on budgeting rather than any plan or expected service life. Funding in government agencies may be cyclical
or sporadic. Managers may replace computing systems,
vehicles, or budget computer and vehicle support costs
while ignoring two-way radio equipment. Equipment
may remain in use even though maintenance costs are unreasonable when viewed from an eciency standpoint.[13]

Microprocessor-based radios can draw less than 0.2 amperes on standby and up to tens-of-amperes on highDierent system elements will have diering service lifepowered, 100 watt transmitters.
Base stations, repeaters, and high-quality mobile radios times. These may be aected by who uses the equipment.
often have specications that include a duty cycle. A An individual contacted at one county government agency
repeater should always be continuous duty. This means claimed equipment used by 24-hour services wears out
the radio is designed to transmit in a continuous broad- much faster than equipment used by those who work in
cast without transmitter overheating and resulting failure. positions staed eight hours a day.
Handhelds are intermittent duty, mobile radios and base
station radios are available in normal or continuous duty
congurations. Continuous duty is preferred in mobile
emergency equipment because any one of an entire eet

One document says seven years is beyond the expected


lifetime of walkie-talkies in police service. Batteries are
cited as needing replacement more often. Twelve-yearold dispatch consoles mentioned in the same document

46

CHAPTER 8. TWO-WAY RADIO

were identied as usable. These were compared to prob- frequency by its channel number. Organizations, such as
lematic 21-year-old consoles used elsewhere in the same electric power utilities or police departments, may have
system.[14]
several assigned frequencies in use with arbitrarily asAnother source says system backbone equipment like signed channel numbers. For example, one police departconsoles and base stations are expected to have a fteen- ments Channel 1 might be known to another departyear life. Mobile radios are expected to last ten years. ment as Channel 3 or may not even be available. PubWalkie talkies typically last eight.[15] In a State of Cali- lic service agencies have an interest in maintaining some
fornia document, the Department of General Services re- common frequencies for inter-area or inter-service coordination in emergencies (modern term: interoperability).
ports expected service life for a communications console
used in the Department of Forestry and Fire Protection Each country allocates radio frequencies to dierent twois 10 years.[16]
way services, in accordance with international agreements. In the United States some examples of two-way
services are: Citizens Band, FRS, GMRS, MURS, and
BRS.
8.3 Two-way radio frequencies
Two-way radios can operate on many dierent
frequencies, and these frequencies are assigned differently in dierent countries. Typically channelized
operations are used, so that operators need not tune
equipment to a particular frequency but instead can use
one or more pre-selected frequencies, easily chosen by a
dial, a pushbutton or other means. For example, in the
United States, there is a block of 5 channels (pre-selected
radio frequencies) are allocated to the Multiple Use
Radio System. A dierent block of 22 channels are
assigned, collectively, to the General Mobile Radio
Service and Family Radio Service. The Citizens Radio
Service (""CB"") has 40 channels.

Amateur radio operators nearly always use frequencies


rather than channel numbers, since there is no regulatory
or operating requirement for xed channels in this context. Even amateur radio equipment will have memory
features to allow rapidly setting the transmitter and receiver to favorite frequencies.

8.4 UHF versus VHF


The most common two-way radio systems operate in the
VHF and UHF parts of the radio spectrum. Because this
part of the spectrum is heavily used for broadcasting and
multiple competing uses, spectrum management has become an important activity of governments to regulate radio users in the interests of ecient and non-interfering
use of radio. Both bands are widely applied for dierent
users.

In an analog, conventional system, (the simplest type


of system) a frequency or channel serves as a physical medium or link carrying communicated information.
The performance of a radio system is partly dependent on
the characteristics of frequency band used. The selection UHF has a shorter wavelength which makes it easier for
of a frequency for a two-way radio system is aected, in the signal to nd its way through smaller wall openings to
part, by:[17]
the inside of a building. The longer wavelength of VHF
means it can transmit further under normal conditions.
government licensing and regulations.
For most applications, lower radio frequencies are better
for longer range and through vegetation. A broadcasting
local congestion or availability of frequencies.
TV station illustrates this. A typical VHF TV station op terrain, since radio signals travel dierently in forests erates at about 100,000 watts and has a coverage radius
range of about 60 miles. A UHF TV station with a 60and urban viewsheds.
mile coverage radius requires transmitting at 3,000,000
the presence of noise, interference, or intermodula- watts. Another factor with higher frequencies (UHF) is
that smaller sized objects will absorb or reect the ention.
ergy more which causes range loss and/or multipath re sky wave interference below 5060 MHz and ections which can weaken a signal by causing an Out of
tropospheric bending at VHF.
Time/Out of Phase signal to reach the antenna of the receiver (this is what caused the Ghost image on old over
in the US, some frequencies require approval of a
the air television).
frequency coordination committee.
If an application requires working mostly outdoors, a
A channel number is just a shorthand notation for a fre- VHF radio is probably the best choice, especially if a base
quency. It is, for instance, easier to remember Channel station radio indoors is used and an external antenna is
1 than to remember 26.965 MHz (US CB Channel 1) added. The higher the antenna is placed, the further the
or 462.5625 MHz (FRS/GMRS channel 1), or 156.05 radio can transmit and receive.
MHz (Marine channel 1). It is necessary to identify If the radios are used mainly inside buildings, then UHF
which radio service is under discussion when specifying a is likely the best solution since its shorter wavelength trav-

8.7. SEE ALSO

47

els through small openings in the building better. There 8.6.1 Two-way radio rental business
are also repeaters that can be installed that can relay any
frequencies signal (VHF or UHF) to increase the com- As two-way radios became the leading method of twomunication distance.
way communication, industries like movie and television
There are more available channels with UHF. Since the production companies, security companies, event comrange of UHF is also not as far as VHF under most con- panies, sporting events and others needed to nd a soditions, there is less chance of distant radios interfering lution to use two way radios that was cost-eective and
with the signal. UHF is less aected than VHF by man- economically smart. Instead of buying two-way radios
made electrical noise. So as you see, radio technology is these companies began renting two-way radios short term
very dynamic and you must make the choice of what to and long term. The two-way radio rentals is a signicant
and important component of two-way radio businesses.
use based on your individual situation.
Many have become reluctant to buy two way radios because of the duration of their event or the necessity to
save money. Renting two way radios has brought comfort to customers in renting two way radios because the
8.5 Range
price and non commitment to owning such two way communication devices. Customers can rent anything from
The useful direct range of a two-way radio system detwo-way radios to two-way radio equipment like speaker
pends on radio propagation conditions, which are a funcmicrophones or repeaters.
tion of frequency, antenna height and characteristics, atmospheric noise, reection and refraction within the atmosphere, transmitter power and receiver sensitivity, and
required signal-to-noise ratio for the chosen modulation 8.7 See also
method. An engineered two-way radio system will calculate the coverage of any given base station with an
TETRA (Terrestrial Trunked Radio)
estimate of the reliability of the communication at that
Astro (Motorola)
range. Two-way systems operating in the VHF and UHF
bands, where many land mobile systems operate, rely on
Digital Mobile Radio
line-of-sight propagation for the reliable coverage area.
The shadowing eect of tall buildings may block recep PMR446
tion in areas within the line-of-sight range which can be
achieved in open countryside free of obstructions. The
Family Radio Service
approximate line-of-sight distance to the radio horizon
can be estimated from : horizon in kilometers = 3.569
GE Marc V
times the square root of the antenna height in meters.
Project 25
There are other factors that aect the range of a twoway radio such as weather, exact frequency used, and
Quik Call I
obstructions.[18]
Mobile radio

8.6 Other two-way radio devices


Not all two way radios are hand-held devices. The same
technology that is used in two way radios can be placed in
other radio forms. An example of this is a wireless callbox. A wireless callbox is a device that can be used for
voice communication at security gates and doors. Not
only can they be used to talk to people at these entry
points, personnel can remotely unlock the door so the visitor can enter. There are also customer service callboxes
that can be placed around a business that a customer can
use to summon help from a two-way radio equipped store
employee.
Another use of two-way radio technology is for a wireless PA system. A wireless PA is essentially a one-way
two way radio that enables broadcasting messages from
handheld two-way radios or base station intercoms.

Motorola Saber
Professional Mobile Radio
Specialized Mobile Radio

8.8 References
[1] Goldsmith, Andrea (8 Aug 2005). Wireless ComCambridge University Press.
ISBN
munications.
9780521837163. Retrieved 20 April 2016.
[2] Duarte, Melissa; Sabharwal, Ashutosh (2010). FullDuplex Wireless Communications Using O-The-Shelf
Radios: Feasibility and First Results (PDF). WARP
Project. Retrieved 20 April 2016.
[3] Choi, Charles Q. Chip Could Double Wireless Data Capacity. IEEE Spectrum. Retrieved 20 April 2016.

48

CHAPTER 8. TWO-WAY RADIO

[4] Haldane, Robert. (1995) The Peoples Force, A history of


the Victoria Police. Melbourne University Press. ISBN
0-522-84674-2, 1995
[5] IEEE History Milestones retrieved Oct. 2, 2007
[6] One example of purpose-specic channel assignments is
described in Ivanov, D. A., V. P. Savelyev, and P. V. Shemanski, Organization of Communications, Fundamentals of Tactical Command and Control: A Soviet View, Soviet Military Thought Series #18, (Washington, D.C.: Superintendent of Documents, 1977) Library of Congress
Control Number: 84602565. This is a US Air Force translation of a Soviet-era, Russian-language book. See also,
Inadequate System Capacity, Special Report: Improving Fireghter Communications, USFA-TR-099/January
1999, (Emmitsburg, Maryland: U.S. Fire Administration, 1999) pp. 18-19 and 5.2 Present System, The
California Highway Patrol Communications Technology
Research Project on 800 MHz, 80-C477, (Sacramento,
California: Department of General Services, Communications Technology Division, 1982,) pp. V-4 - V-6.
[7] 3.4.1 User Equipment General Deciencies, San Rafael
Police Radio Committee: Report to Mayor and City Council, (San Rafael, California: City of San Rafael, 1995,) pp.
12.
[8] For an example of talk around use, see Problem Reporting, Special Report: Improving Fireghter Communications, USFA-TR-099/January 1999, (Emmitsburg, Maryland: U.S. Fire Administration, 1999) pp. 25-26. This article also conrms the denition of the phrase talk around.
[9] For examples, see, Mikhailov, K. E. Communications
Facilities on the Volga-Moscow Transmission Line,
Long-Distance Electrical Transmission between the V. I.
Lenin Hydroelectric Station and Moscow, (Jerusalem: Israeli Program for Scientic Translations, 1965).
[10] For an electrocardiogram telemetry example, see Planning Emergency Medical Communications: Volume 2,
Local/Regional-Level Planning Guide, (Washington, D.C.:
National Highway Trac Safety Administration, US Department of Transportation, 1995) pp. 48.
[11] For two examples of drive testing and eld measurements
of received signal levels, see:
Section II: Radio Propagation Studies, The California Highway Patrol Communications Technology Research Project on 800 MHz, 80-C477,
(Sacramento, California: Department of General
Services, Communications Technology Division,
1982,) pp. II-1 - II-34.
Ossanna, Jr., Joseph F., A Model For Mobile
Radio Fading Due to Building Reections: Theoretical and Experimental Fading Waveform Power
Spectra, Bell System Technical Journal, November
1964, pp. 2935-2971. 800 MHz trivia: this article
shows that signal fades occur at audio frequencies
near CTCSS tones, explaining why only DCS was
used in Motorola 800 MHz systems in the 1970s.
[12] Kenwood TKR-850 specication sheet

[13] For one example, see: Plan Element S-7: Rationalized Funding and Plan Element L-2: Permanent Contra Costa Public Safety Radio Authority, Contra Costa
County Public Safety Mobile Radio Master Plan, (Fairfax,
Virginia: Federal Engineering, Inc., 2002,) pp. 45, 49.
[14] For one example, see: 3.2.10.1 Current System Problems, Trunked Radio System: Request For Proposals,
(Oklahoma City, Oklahoma: Oklahoma City Municipal
Facilities Authority, Public Safety Capital Projects Oce,
2000) pp. 56.
[15] 2.4 Equipment Inventory, San Rafael Police Radio Committee: Report to Mayor and City Council, (San Rafael,
California: City of San Rafael, 1995,) pp. 8.
[16] 8000 Exhibits:Equipment Replacement Costs for a Typical Three Position CDF Command and Control Center,
8000 Telecommunications Manual, (Sacramento, California: State of California, Department of Forestry and Fire
Protection, 2006) Adobe PDF le on console costs.
[17] See, Appendix B - FCC Regulations, California EMS
Communications Plan: Final Draft, (Sacramento, California: State of California EMS Authority, September 2000)
pp.38. and Arizona Phase II Final Report: Statewide Radio Inter-operability Needs Assessment, Macro Corporation and The State of Arizona, 2004.
[18] 2-Way Radio Range: How Far Can Two-Way Radios
Communicate?"

8.9 External links


P25 Phase 2 Forum, for more information on P25
Phase 2
DMR (Digital Mobile Radio) Association
TETRA Association
Project 25 Technology Interest Group
Harris PSPC

Chapter 9

Airband
This article is about the radio spectrum used in aviation.
For bands named Air, see Air (disambiguation) Artists.
Airband or Aircraft band is the name for a group of

A typical aircraft VHF radio. The display shows an active frequency of 123.5MHz and a standby frequency of 121.5 MHz.
The two are exchanged using the button marked with a doubleheaded arrow. The tuning control on the right only aects the
standby frequency.

frequencies in the VHF radio spectrum allocated to radio


communication in civil aviation, sometimes also referred
to as VHF, or phonetically as Victor. Dierent sections
of the band are used for radionavigational aids and air
trac control.[1][2][3]
In most countries a license to operate airband equipment
is required and the operator is tested on competency in
procedures, language and the use of the phonetic alphabet.[2][4]

9.1 Spectrum usage


Antenna array at Amsterdam Airport Schiphol

The VHF airband uses the frequencies between 108 and


137 MHz. The lowest 10 MHz of the band, from 108
117.95 MHz, is split into 200 narrow-band channels of sion range of an aircraft ying at cruise altitude (35,000
is about 200 mi (322 km) in good weather
50 kHz. These are reserved for navigational aids such as ft (10,668 m)),
[2][3][5][6]
conditions.
VOR beacons, and precision approach systems such as
ILS localizers.[2][3]
As of 2012, most countries divide the upper 19 MHz into
760 channels for amplitude modulation voice transmissions, on frequencies from 118136.975 MHz, in steps
of 25 kHz. In Europe, it is becoming common to further divide those channels into three (8.33 kHz channel
spacing), potentially permitting 2,280 channels. Some
channels between 123.100 and 135.950 are available in
the US to other users such as government agencies, commercial company advisory, search and rescue, military
aircraft, glider and ballooning air-to-ground, ight test
and national aviation authority use. A typical transmis-

9.1.1 Other bands


Aeronautical voice communication is also conducted
in other frequency bands, including satellite voice on
Inmarsat or Iridium,[7] and high frequency voice. Usually these other frequency bands are only used in oceanic
and remote areas, though they work over wider areas or
even globally. Military aircraft also use a dedicated UHFAM band from 225.0399.95 MHz for air-to-air and airto-ground, including air trac control communication.
This band has a designated emergency and guard channel

49

50

CHAPTER 9. AIRBAND

of 243.0 MHz.[2][8]
Some types of navaids, such as non-directional beacons
and Distance Measuring Equipment, do not operate on
these frequencies; in the case of NDBs, the low frequency
and medium frequency bands are used between 190415
kHz and 510535 kHz. The ILS glide path operates in the
UHF frequency range of 329.3335.0 MHz, and DME
also uses UHF from 9621150 MHz.[2]

9.1.2

Channel spacing

9.1.4 Audio properties


The audio quality in the airband is limited by the RF
bandwidth used. In the newer channel spacing scheme,
the largest bandwidth of an airband channel might be limited to 8.33 kHz, so the highest possible audio frequency
is 4.165 kHz.[16] In the 25 kHz channel spacing scheme,
an upper audio frequency of 12.5 kHz would be theoretically possible.[16] However, most airband voice transmissions never actually reach these limits. Usually, the whole
transmission is contained within a 6 kHz to 8 kHz bandwidth, corresponding to an upper audio frequency of 3
kHz to 4 kHz.[16] This frequency, while low compared to
the top of the human hearing range, is sucient to convey speech. Dierent aircraft, control towers and other
users transmit with dierent bandwidths and audio characteristics.

Channel spacing for voice communication on the airband


was originally 200 kHz until 1947,[9] providing 70 channels from 118 to 132 MHz. Some radios of that time
provided receive-only coverage below 118 MHz for a total of 90 channels. From 19471958 the spacing became
100 kHz; from 1954 split once again to 50 kHz and the
upper limit extended to 135.95 MHz (360 channels), and
then to 25 kHz in 1972 to provide 720 usable channels. 9.1.5 Digital radio
On 1 January 1990 the frequencies between 136.000 and
A switch to digital radios has been contemplated, as this
136.975 MHz were added, resulting in 760 channels.[5]
would greatly increase capacity by reducing the bandIncreasing air trac congestion has led to further subwidth required to transmit speech. Other benets from
division into narrow-band 8.33 kHz channels in the
digital coding of voice transmissions include decreased
ICAO European region; all aircraft ying are required
susceptibility to electrical interference and jamming. The
to have communication equipment for this channel
change-over to digital radio has yet to happen, partly bespacing.[2][10][11][12] Outside of Europe, 8.33 kHz chancause the mobility of aircraft necessitates complete internels are permitted in many countries but not widely used
national cooperation to move to a new system and also the
as of 2012.
time implementation for subsequent changeover.[17][18]
The emergency communication channel 121.5 MHz is the Another factor delaying the move to any digital mode is
only channel that retains 100 kHz channel spacing in the the need to retain the ability for one station to override
US; there are no channel allocations between 121.4 and another in an emergency.
121.5 or between 121.5 and 121.6[13]

9.1.3

Modulation

Aircraft communications radio operations worldwide use


amplitude modulation, predominantly A3E double sideband with full carrier on VHF and UHF, and J3E single
sideband with suppressed carrier on HF. Besides being
simple, power-ecient and compatible with legacy equipment, AM and SSB permit stronger stations to override
weaker or interfering stations. Additionally, this method
does not suer from the capture eect found in FM. Even
if a pilot is transmitting, a control tower can talk over
that transmission and other aircraft will hear a somewhat
garbled mixture of both transmissions, rather than just
one or the other. Even if both transmissions are received
with identical signal strength, a heterodyne will be heard
where no such indication of blockage would be evident in
an FM system.[14]

9.2 Unauthorised use


It is illegal in most countries to transmit on the Airband
frequencies without a suitable license, although an individual license may not be required, for instance in the US
where aircraft stations are licensed by rule..[19] Many
countries regulations also restrict communications in the
airband. For instance, in Canada, airband communications are limited to those required for the safety and navigation of an aircraft; the general operation of the aircraft;
and the exchange of messages on behalf of the public. In
addition, a person may operate radio apparatus only to
transmit a non-superuous signal or a signal containing
non-profane or non-obscene radiocommunications.[2]

Listening to airband frequencies without a license is


also an oence in some countries, including the UK,[20]
though enforcement may vary. Such activity has been
Alternative analog modulation schemes are under discus- the subject of international situations between govsion, such as the CLIMAX[15] multi-carrier system and ernments when tourists bring airband equipment into
oset carrier techniques to permit more ecient utiliza- countries which ban the possession and use of such
tion of spectrum.
equipment.[21][22]

9.4. REFERENCES

9.3 See also


Aircraft Communications Addressing and Reporting System
Air trac ow management
Air trac control
Avionics
Control tower
Future Air Navigation System
Radio horizon

9.4 References
[1] H. P. Westman (ed), Reference Data for Radio Engineers
Fifth Edition, Howard W. Sams and Co, 1968, page 1-6
[2] Transport Canada (April 2014). Com - 5.0 radio communications (PDF). Retrieved 27 April 2013.
[3] Aviation Radio Bands and Frequencies. Smeter network
2011. Retrieved 16 February 2011.
[4] Radio Telephony Training Syllabus (PDF). Cotswold
Gliding Club - date undisclosed. Retrieved 16 February
2011.
[5] Requirements for 760 channel VHF radio for Aeronautical operations (PDF). Federal aviation agency 1992. Retrieved 2011-02-14.
[6] VII. ELECTRONIC AIDS TO INSTRUMENT FLYING. FAA test company - date undisclosed. Retrieved
2011-02-17.
[7] Iridium Satellite Voice (SATVOICE) with Safety Services (PDF). Retrieved 2016-09-18.
[8] DAOT 5: C-12-118-000/MB-000 Operating Instructions
CH118 Helicopter (unclassied), Change 2, 23 April
1987, Page 1-51. Department of National Defence
[9] 8.33 kHz Channel spacing what is this?". Roger-Wilco.
2010-04-03. Retrieved 2012-05-10.
[10] Mise en oeuvre de lespacement 8.33 kHz au-dessous
du FL 195
[11] Aircraft frequencies for UK and Europe. Garfnet organisation 2009. Retrieved 14 February 2011.
[12] 8.33kHz Programme. Eurocontrol. Retrieved 200712-24.
[13] 47 C.F.R. 87.173 as of 2012
[14] EECE 252 Project Report, Amplitude Modulated Radio
Applications in Aviation 17 April 2012
[15] EuroControl, CLIMAX/8.33: To extend 8.33 kHz benets, ICAO, October 2007

51

[16] Poole, Ian. Amplitude Modulation, AM Spectrum


& Bandwidth. Radio-Electronics.com. Retrieved 26
September 2015.
[17] Aordable real-time digital voice transmission using
Voip technology. Command NAVAIR 2 January 2010.
Retrieved 16 February 2011.
[18] Aircraft centric digital CNS (PDF). CITA 2010. Retrieved 14 February 2011.
[19] 47 C.F.R. 87.18 as of 2012
[20] Guidance on Receive-Only Radio Scanners Ofcom
[21] Greek drama in capital. Algarve resident 2011. Retrieved 16 February 2011.
[22] Plane-spotters 'ignored warnings. BBC News, 25 April
2002. Retrieved: 14 March 2007. Quote: Note-taking
in conjunction with other activities may be detrimental (to
Greek security).

Chapter 10

Citizens band radio


communications. Like many other two-way radio services, citizens band channels are shared by many users.
Only one station may transmit at a time; other stations
must listen and wait for the shared channel to be available. It is customary for stations waiting to use a shared
channel to broadcast the single word Break during a lull
in the conversation. (Citation needed. Not an accurate
representation of radio etiquette.) This informs people
using the channel that others are waiting.

Typical 1980s CB base station, used with outdoor antenna. This


radio may also be used in an automobile, since it is powered by
13.8V DC. Shown with Astatic Power D-104 desk mic

A number of countries have created similar radio services, with varying technical standards and requirements
for licensing. While they may be known by other names,
such as the General Radio Service in Canada,[1] they often use similar frequencies (26 to 28 MHz), have similar
uses, and similar technical standards. Although licenses
may be required, eligibility is generally simple. Some
countries also have personal radio services in the UHF
band, such as the European PMR446 and the Australian
UHF CB.

10.1 History
10.1.1 United States
Main article: CB usage in the United States

Origins

Cobra 18 WX ST II mobile CB radio with microphone

Citizens band radio (also known as CB radio) is, in


many countries, a system of short-distance radio communications between individuals typically on a selection of
40 channels within the 27 MHz (11 m) band. Citizens
band is distinct from other personal radio service allocations such as FRS, GMRS, MURS, UHF CB and the
Amateur Radio Service (ham radio). In many countries, CB operation does not require a license, and (unlike
amateur radio) it may be used for business or personal A QSL card issued by a US CB station in 1963.
52

10.1. HISTORY

53

The citizens band radio service originated in the United


States as one of several personal radio services regulated
by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC).
These services began in 1945 to permit citizens a radio
band for personal communication (e.g., radio-controlled
model airplanes and family and business communications). In 1948, the original CB radios were designed
for operation on the 460470 MHz UHF band.[2] There
were two classes of CB radio: A and B. Class B radios had simpler technical requirements, and were limited to a smaller frequency range. Al Gross established
the Citizens Radio Corporation during the late 1940s to
manufacture Class B handhelds for the general public.[3]

of tractor-trailers in eastern Pennsylvania using the citizens band radio in his truck. His name was J.W. Edwards and his handle (or radio name) was River Rat.
The blockade began on I-80 and quickly spread throughout the country, with River Rats messages literally being
relayed from one area of trucks to the next.[8] The radios were crucial for independent truckers; many were
paid by the mile, which meant their productivity was impacted by the 55-mph speed limit.[7] The use of CB radios in 1970s lms such as Smokey and the Bandit (1977)
and Convoy (1978), popular novelty songs such as C.W.
McCall's "Convoy" (1975) and on television series such
as Movin' On (debuted in 1974) and The Dukes of Hazzard
(debuted 1979) established CB radio as a nationwide
Ultra-high frequency (UHF) radios, at the time, were neicraze
in the USA in the mid- to late 1970s.
ther practical nor aordable for the average consumer.
[4]
On September 11, 1958 the Class D CB service was Originally, CB required a purchased license ($20 in the
created on 27 MHz, and this band became what is pop- early 1970s, reduced to $4 on March 1, 1975) and the
ularly known today as Citizens Band. There were only use of a callsign; however, when the CB craze was at its
23 channels at the time; the rst 22 were taken from the peak many people ignored this requirement and invented
former amateur radio service 11-meter band, and channel their own nicknames (known as handles). Rules on au23 was shared with radio-controlled devices. Some hob- thorized use of CB radio (along with lax enforcement)
byists continue to use the designation 11 meters to refer led to widespread disregard of the regulations (notably in
to the Citizens Band and adjoining frequencies. Part 95 antenna height, distance communications, licensing, call
of the Code of Federal Regulations regulates the Class signs and transmitter power).
D CB service, on the 27 MHz band, since the 1970s and Betty Ford, the former First Lady of the United States,
continuing today.[5] Most of the 460470 MHz band was used the CB handle First Mama.[9] Voice actor Mel
reassigned for business and public-safety use; Class A CB Blanc was also an active CB operator, often using Bugs
is the forerunner of the General Mobile Radio Service or Day as his handle and talking on the air in the Los
(GMRS). Class B CB is a more distant ancestor of the Angeles area in one of his many voice characters. He
Family Radio Service. The Multi-Use Radio Service is
appeared in an interview (with clips having fun talking
another two-way radio service in the VHF high band. An to children on his home CB radio station) in the NBC
unsuccessful petition was led in 1973 to create a Class E
Knowledge television episode about CB radio in 1978.[10]
CB service at 220 MHz, which was opposed by amateur Similar to internet chat rooms a quarter-century later, CB
radio organizations.[6] and others. There are several other
allowed people to get to know one another in a quasiclasses of personal radio services for specialized purposes anonymous manner. As with the internet, CB radio usage
(such as remote control devices).
allowed the worst characteristics of anonymity.
During the 1960s, the service was popular among Originally, there were 23 CB channels in the U.S.; the 40small businesses (e.g., electricians, plumbers, carpen- channel band plan was implemented in 1977. Channel 9
ters), truck drivers and radio hobbyists. By the late 1960s was ocially reserved for emergency use by the FCC in
advances in solid-state electronics allowed the weight, 1969.[11] Channel 10 was originally often used for highsize, and cost of the radios to fall, giving the public access way travel communications east of the Mississippi River,
to a communications medium previously only available and channel 19 west of the Mississippi; channel 19 then
to specialists.[7] CB clubs were formed; a CB slang lan- became the preferred highway channel in most areas, as it
guage evolved alongside 10-codes, similar to those used did not have adjacent-channel interference problems with
in emergency services.
channel 9. Many CBers called channel 19 the truckers
1970s popularity
After the 1973 oil crisis the U.S. government imposed a
nationwide 55 mph speed limit, and fuel shortages and
rationing were widespread. CB radio was used (especially by truckers) to locate service stations with better
supplies of fuel, to notify other drivers of speed traps,
and to organize blockades and convoys in a 1974 strike
protesting the new speed limit and other trucking regulations. One leader was able to almost single-handedly
coordinate an interstate highway blockade of hundreds

channel. Channel 11 was originally restricted by the


FCC for use as the calling channel.
The original FCC output power limitation for CB radios
was 5-watts DC input to the nal amplier stage, which
was a reference to the earlier radios equipped with tubes.
With solid state radios becoming more common in the
1970s, this specication was rewritten by the FCC at the
same time the authorized channels were increased to 40.
The current specication is simply 4-watts output (AM)
or 12-watts output (SSB)" as measured at the antenna
connector on the back of the radio. The old specication

54
was often used in false advertising by some manufacturers who would claim their CB radios had 5-watts long
after the specication had changed to 4-watts output. The
older 23-channel radios built under the old specications
typically had an output of around 3.5 to 3.8 watts output when measured at the antenna connector. The FCC
simply rounded-up the old 5-watts DC input to the nal
amplier stage specication to the new 4-watts output
as measured at the antenna connector on the back of the
radio, resulting in a far simpler and easier specication.
Initially, the FCC intended for CB to be the poor mans
business-band radio, and CB regulations were structured similarly to those regulating the business band radio service. Until 1975,[12] only channels 915 and
23[13] could be used for inter-station calls (to other licensees). Channels 18 and 1622 were reserved for
intra-station communications (among units with the
same license).[14] After the inter-station/intra-station rule
was dropped, channel 11 was reserved as a calling frequency (for the purpose of establishing communications);
however, this was withdrawn in 1977.[15] During this
early period, many CB radios had inter-station channels
colored on their dials, while the other channels were clear
or normally colored (except channel 9, which was usually colored red). It was common for a town to adopt an
inter-station channel as its home channel. This helped
prevent overcrowding on Channel 11, enabling a CBer to
monitor a towns home channel to contact another CBer
from that town instead of a making a general call on
Channel 11.
Boating and the U.S. Coast Guard
Since CB was coming down in price and VHF Marine
Band was still expensive, many boaters put CB radios on
their boats. Business caught on to this market, and introduced marine CBs containing a weather band (WX).
There was a lot of controversy about whether or not the
Coast Guard should monitor CB radio, but they did, using Motorola base stations installed at their search and
rescue stations. The Coast Guard stopped this practice in
the late 1980s and recommends VHF Marine Band radios
for boaters.[16]
21st-century use
CB has lost much of its original appeal due to development of mobile phones, the internet and the Family Radio
Service. Changing radio propagation for long-distance
communications due to the 11-year sunspot cycle is a
factor at these frequencies. In addition, CB may have
become a victim of its own popularity; with millions of
users on a nite number of frequencies during the mid-tolate 1970s and early 1980s, channels often were noisy and
communication dicult. This caused a waning of interest among hobbyists. Business users (such as tow-truck
operators, plumbers and electricians) moved to the VHF

CHAPTER 10. CITIZENS BAND RADIO


business-band frequencies. The business band requires
an FCC license, and usually results in an assignment to
a single frequency. The advantages of fewer users sharing a frequency, greater authorized output power, clarity
of FM transmission, lack of interference by distant stations due to skip propagation, and consistent communications made the VHF (Very High Frequency) radio an
attractive alternative to the overcrowded CB channels.
Channel 9 is restricted by the FCC to only emergency
communications and roadside assistance.[17] Most highway travelers monitor channel 19. CB radio is still used
by truck drivers, and remains an eective means of obtaining information about road construction, accidents
and police speed traps.

10.1.2 Australia
Before CB was authorized in Australia, there were handheld 27 MHz walkie-talkies which utilized several
frequencies between the present CB channels, such as
27.240 MHz.[18][19] By the mid-1970s, hobbyists were
experimenting with handheld radios and unauthorized 23
Channel American CB radios. At that time in Australia,
the 11-meter band was still used by licensed ham operators and Emergency Services,[20] but not yet available
for CB use. A number of CB clubs had formed by this
time which assigned call signs to members, exchanged
QSL cards, and lobbied for the legalisation of CB. In
1977 Having legalised Australian CB and allowed the import and sale of American and Japanese 23 channel sets
the government then drafted new interim regulations for
Australian 18 channel transceivers.The new RB249 regulations came in on January 1, 1978 and the last ocial
registrations for 23 channel sets was January 31, 1978. If
you did not have your 23 Channel CB registered by this
date it was illegal to use it and could no longer be eligible to get licensed. The 18 channel band plan used 16
channels of the 23 channel CB radios plus 2 extra channels. 27.095 and 27.195 to make up the 18 channels.
Channels 1,2,3,4,10,21 and 23 where deleted from this
18 channel band plan. So channel 1 on an 18 channel was
actually channel 5 on a 23 channel radio.[21] On January 1,
1982, the American 40-channel band plan was adopted.
From the outset, the government attempted to regulate
CB radio with license fees and call signs, but some years
later abandoned this approach. Enthusiasts rushed for licences when the doors opened at post oces around Australia in mid 1977 and by the end of the rst quarter of
1978 there had been an estimated 200,000 licences issued (Australias Population in 1978 was 14.36 Million).
The regulations called for one licence per CB radio. The
price for a licence in 1977 was AU$25. Australian CB
radio is AM and USB, LSB (No FM) on 27 MHz and
output power is 4 Watts AM and 12 Watts SSB. UHF is
477 MHz FM and has an output power of 5 Watts. Originally when CB was rst legalised the 27 MHz CB Band
was to be banned to Australian CBers in 1982 and only

10.1. HISTORY
the 477 MHz UHF band was to continue, but this never
ended up happening. The rst 477MHZ CB radio in 1977
was designed and made in Australia by Philips and was a
40 channel CB called the FM320. 27 MHz CB Channel Allocation in Australia is Channel 8 (27.055 MHz)
Truckers or Highway Channel, Channel 9 (27.065 MHz)
Emergency, Channel 11 (27.085 MHz) AM Call Channel, Channel 16 (27.155 MHz) LSB SSB Call Channel,
35 (27.355 MHz) LSB 2nd SSB Call Channel. UHF CB
Channel Allocation is Channel 5 Emergency, Channel 11
Call Channel, Channel 40 Truckers or Highway

55
ing (ship-shore) 27.9400 Ch 94 - Non-commercial club
calling and working (ship-ship/ship-shore) 27.9600 Ch
96 - Non-commercial calling and working (ship-ship)
27.9800 Ch 98 - Rescue calling and working (shipship/ship-shore)

The rst CB club in Australia was the Charlie Brown


Touring Car Club (CBTCC), which formed in Morwell,
Victoria in 1967 and consisted mainly of four-wheel
drive enthusiasts. The club used the prex GL (for
Gippsland), since CB could not be used. After July
1, 1977, the club changed its name to Citizens Band
Two Way Communication Club (CBTCC). Other early
clubs were LV (Latrobe Valley) and WB (named after Wayne Britain). Members of these clubs are still active, and have also become amateur radio operators.
With the introduction of UHF CB radios in 1977, many
operators used both UHF and HF radios and formed
groups to own and operate local FM repeaters. Members
of the CBTCC formed what became known as Australian
Citizens Radio Movement (ACRM) in the early 1970s;
this organization became the voice for legalization of CB
radio throughout Australia. After peaking in the 1970s
and early 1980s, the use of 27 MHz CB in Australia has
fallen dramatically due to the introduction of 477 MHz
UHF CB (with FM and repeaters) and the proliferation of
cheap, compact handheld UHF transceivers. Technology
such as mobile telephones and the internet have provided
people with other choices for communications. The Australian government has changed the allocation of channels
available for UHF CB Radio from 40 to 80, and doubled
the number of repeater channels from 8 to 16. This was
done by taking the existing channels that had a spacing of
25 kHz between (Known as wide band) them and placing new channels in between the old 40 channels. So now
the channels have 12.5 kHz spacing between them (now
called narrow band). But the original 40 channels are still
on the original frequencies.[22]
Australia also has Marine Radio Using 27 MHz. There Hand-held CB transceiver; antenna not shown
are several frequencies allocated to 27 MHz Marine Radio in Australia. The frequencies range from 27.6800
MHz to 27.9800 MHz. Mode:AM Power:4W Maximum. 10.1.3 Canada
These Frequencies and Allocation are:
27.6800 Ch 68 - Commercial calling and working
27.7200 Ch 72 - Professional shing calling and working
(ship-shore/ship-ship) 27.8200 Ch 82 - Professional shing calling and working (ship-shore/ship-ship) 27.8600
Ch 86 - Supplementary distress, safety and calling
27.8800 Ch 88 - Distress, safety and calling 27.9000 Ch
90 - Non-commercial calling and working (ship-shore)
27.9100 Ch 91 - Non-commercial calling and work-

In Canada, the General Radio Service uses the identical


frequencies and modes as the United States citizens band,
and no special provisions are required for either Canadians or Americans using CB gear while traveling across
the border. The General Radio Service was authorized in
1962. Initially, CB channels 1 through 3 remained allocated to amateur radio and channel 23 was used by paging
services. American CB licensees were initially required
to apply for a temporary license to operate in Canada.[23]

56

CHAPTER 10. CITIZENS BAND RADIO

In April 1977, the service was expanded to the same 40 MHz allocation: an eight-channel analog Personal Mochannels as the American service.[24]
bile Radio 446 MHz (Analog PMR446) with frequencies from 446.00625446.09375 MHz (12.5 kHz spacing) FM with 0.5 watt power output, and 16 channels
for Digital Personal Mobile Radio 446 MHz (Digital
10.1.4 Indonesia
PMR 446). Frequencies for Digital PMR 446 are from
In Indonesia, CB radios were rst introduced about 1977 446.103125446.196875 MHz with 6.25 kHz channel
when some transceivers were imported illegally from spacing in 4FSK mode and a power output of 0.5 watt.[27]
Australia, Japan and the United States. The dates are An unocial citizens band radio club in Malaysia is the
hard to conrm accurately, but early use was known Malaysia Boleh Citizen Radio Group, known as Mike
around large cities such as Jakarta, Bandung, Yogyakarta, Bravo (Malaysia Boleh).[28]
Surabaya and Medan. The Indonesian government legalized CB on 6 October 1980 with a decision by the
Minister of Communications, the Ministerial Decree on 10.1.6 United Kingdom
the Licensing for the Operation of Inter-Citizens Radio
Communication. Because many people were already us- Main article: CB radio in the United Kingdom
ing 40-channel radios prior to legalization, the American band plan (with AM and SSB) was adopted; a VHF
band was added in 1994, along with allowing use of the In the UK, small but growing numbers of people were ilAustralian UHF CB channel plan at 476-477 MHz On legally using American CB radios during the late 1970s
November 10, 1980, the Indonesian Directorate Gen- and early 1980s. The prominence of CB radio grew in
eral of Posts and Telecommunications issued another de- Britain partly due to the popularity of novelty songs like
cree establishing RAPI (Radio Antar Penduduk Indone- CW McCalls Convoy and Laurie Lingo & The Dipsia) as the ocial citizens band radio organization in sticks Convoy GB in 1976 (both of which were Top
5 hits) and the movie Convoy in 1978. CB radio use
Indonesia.[25]
was even featured on one part of the popular television
programme Are You Being Served?. By 1980, CB radio
was
becoming a popular pastime in Britain; as late as the
10.1.5 Malaysia
summer of 1981 the British government was still saying
In Malaysia, citizens band radios became legal when that CB would never be legalized on 27 MHz, proposing
the Notication of Issuance Of Class Assignments by a UHF service around 860 MHz called Open Channel
Communication and Multimedia Malaysia was published instead. However, in November 1981 (after high-prole
on 1 April 2000. Under this class assignment, a CB radio public demonstrations) 40 frequencies unique to the UK,
is classied as a Personal Radio Service device. The known as the 27/81 Bandplan using FM were allocated
frequency band is HF, 26.9650 MHz to 27.4050 MHz at 27 MHz plus 20 channels on 934 MHz (934.0125 to
(40 channels), power output is 4 watts for AM and FM 934.9625 MHz with 50-kHz-spacing). CBs inventor, Al
and 12 watts PEP for SSB. Channel 9 is reserved for Gross, made the ceremonial rst legal British CB call
from Trafalgar Square in London.
emergencies, and channel 11 is a calling channel. On
UHF 477 MHz, citizens band PRS radio devices are al- The maximum power allowable on the MPT 1320 27/81
lowed 5 watts power output on FM on 39 assigned chan- system was 4 watts (in common with the American sysnels spaced at 12.5-kHz intervals between 477.0125 MHz tem), although initially radios were equipped to reduce
and 477.4875 MHz. Channel 9 is reserved for emergen- output power by 10 dB (to 0.4 watts) if the antenna was
cies, and channel 11 for calling. A short-range simplex mounted more than 7 meters above ground level. The
radio communications service for recreational use is from power-reduction switch is also useful in reducing TV in477.5250477.9875 MHz FM mode with 38 channels terference. MPT 1320 also restricted antennas to a maxand a power output of 500 mW. A CB radio or Personal imum length of 1.5 meters, with base loading being the
Radio Service Device under Class Assignment does not only type permitted for 27 MHz operation. Over the
need an individual license to operate in Malaysia if it ad- next several years antenna regulations were relaxed, with
heres to the rules of the Warta Kerajaan Malaysia, Com- antenna length increasing to 1.65 meters and centre- or
munication and Multimedia Act 1998 (Act 588), Noti- top-loading of the main radiating element permitted. On
cation of Issuance Of Class Assignment, P.U.(B)416 Jil. September 1, 1987 the UK added the usual 40 frequen48, No. 22(e) Personal Radio Service Device, 1 Novem- cies (26.96527.405 MHz) used worldwide, for a total of
ber 2004.[26]
80 channels at 27 MHz; antenna regulations were further
On April 1, 2010 the MCMC (Malaysian Communica- relaxed, and the 934 MHz band was withdrawn in 1998.
tions and Multimedia Commission) released a new Notication of Issuance of Class Assignments, the Communications and Multimedia Act 1998 Class Assignments
No. 1 of 2010. This includes a new UHF PMR 446

CB radio in the UK was deregulated in December 2006


by the regulatory body Ofcom, and CB radio in the UK
is now license-free. The old MPT 1320 27/81 band will
continue to be available for the foreseeable future. On

10.2. FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS


27 June 2014, changes were made by Ofcom to allow the
use of AM & SSB modes on CB in the UK legally for
the rst time. The rules regarding non-approved radios
and power levels above 4 watts on AM/FM and 12W on
SSB still apply, despite deregulation. Persons using illegal equipment or accessories still risk prosecution, nes
or conscation of equipment, although this is rarely enforced. AM and SSB on the freeband and amplier use
are common among enthusiasts. Packet radio is legal
in the UK, although not widely used. Internet gateway
stations are also beginning to appear; although illegal on
27 MHz, these units are connected to other CB stations
around the world.
Although the use of CB radios in the UK is limited they
are still popular, especially with the farming community,
truckers and mini-cab services.[29] The widely used channel for the Young Farmers Club is channel 11. The normal calling and truckers channel is channel 19, although
many truck organisations and groups use other channels
to avoid abuse.

10.2 Frequency allocations


CB radio is not a worldwide, standardized radio service.
Each country decides if it wants to authorize such a radio service from its domestic frequency authorizations,
and what its standards will be; however, similar radio
services exist in many countries. Frequencies, power
levels and modes (such as frequency modulation (FM),
amplitude modulation (AM), and single-sideband modulation (SSB), often vary from country to country; use of
foreign equipment may be illegal. However, many countries have adopted the American channels and their associated frequencies, which is generally in AM mode except some higher channels which are sometimes in SSB
mode.[30]

57
nel number along with an A. Specically channel 11A
is used to power Eurobalises.

10.2.3 SSB usage


Single-sideband (SSB) operation involves the selection
of either the Lower Side Band (LSB) or the Upper Side
Band (USB) mode for transmit and receive. SSB radios
also have the standard AM mode for communicating with
standard CB radio models. With the original 23 CB channels SSB stations commonly used channel 16, to avoid interference to those using AM (SSB stations are authorized
to use 12 watts, as opposed to 4 watts for AM stations)
and to more easily locate other SSB stations. With the
FCC authorization of 40 channels, SSB operation shifted
to channels 3640. Channel 36 or 38 (LSB) became the
unocial SSB calling channels for stations seeking contacts, with the subsequent conversation moving to channels 3740. CBers with AM-only radios are asked to
not use channels 36 through 40. In return, SSB stations
stay o the remaining 35 channels so they could be used
by AM stations. This agreement provides interferencefree operation for all operators by separating the far more
powerful SSB stations from the AM stations. This solution also resolves the chaos created by the false advertising that SSB radios have 120 channels compared to only
40 for AM radios.

While a SSB radio has three possible modes (AM, LSB,


USB) it can operate in, operation is still limited to the
same 40 channels. Some manufacturers tried to sell more
radios by claiming that with three dierent modes possible for each channel, it was the equivalent to 120 channels. Reality is far dierent. In general, each channel can
only support one conversation at a time, whether it be in
the AM, LSB or USB mode; however, a single channel
can support separate LSB and USB conversations at the
same time if there is no AM conversation in progress.
For a particular conversation, everyone must be tuned to
the same channel and same mode in order to talk with
10.2.1 Standard Channels
each other. Attempting an SSB conversation while an
AM conversation is in progress results in jammed comThe standard channel numbering is harmonized through munications for everyone.
FCC (America) and CEPT (Europe) T : .
MH , : . MH , : . MH
CEPT.[31]
10.2.4 Country-specic variations
See also channel assignments for CB usage in the United
Main article: Personal radio service
States.

10.2.2

Intermediate Channels

When looking at the FCC/CEPT channel list there are


some channels with an oset of 20 kHz instead of the regular 10 kHz step. These intermediate frequencies are reserved for other application such as remote controls, baby
phones or cordless keyboards. It is an unocial practice
to name these channels by their next lower standard chan-

The European Conference of Postal and Telecommunications Administrations (CEPT) adopted the North American channel assignments, except channel n 23, frequency
27.235 MHz; channel n 24, frequency 27.245 MHz;
channel n 25, frequency 27.255 MHz.[31] However, legal CB equipment sold in Europe does follow the North
American channel designation. Some member countries
permit additional modes and frequencies; for example,
Germany has 40 additional channels at 26 MHz for a total

58

CHAPTER 10. CITIZENS BAND RADIO

of 80. The United Kingdom has an additional 40 channels between 27.60125 and 27.99125 MHz, also making
80 in total. Before CEPT, most member countries used
a subset of the 40 US channels.

Zealand authorizes use of their New Zealand specic 40channel 26.330 26.770 MHz frequency plan in addition to the standard 40-channel 26.965 27.405 MHz
frequency plan for a total of 80 HF CB channels. New
has also adopted the Australian UHF CB System
In Russia and Poland the channels are shifted 5 kHz down; Zealand[33]
as
well.
for example, channel 30 is 27.300 MHz. Many operators add a switch to change between the zeroes (the Japans CB allocation consists of 8 voice and 2 R/C chanRussian/Polish channel assignment) and the ves (the nels with a maximum power output of 500 mW. AM
international/European assignment). Most contemporary mode is the only mode permitted and antennas must be
radios for that markets can do ves as well as zeroes non-removable and less than 199 cm (78 inches) long. In
out of the box. Since roughly 20052006, Russia and Japan, the 26 28 MHz range is allocated to shery raPoland have adopted use of the standard US channel o- dio services and these frequencies are heavily used for
set as well as the older channel plan, for two overlapping marine communications. However, frequencies such as
grids of channels.
27.005 MHz AM are widely pirated in Japan with very
Russia uses an alphanumeric designation for their CB high power transmitters. This causes interference to the
channel plans, due the fact that several grids or bands authorized low-power 1 W DSB (1 watt AM) shery raof 40 channels each are used, along with both AM and dio service. Instead of 26 27 MHz, Japan has authoFM mode. Russian CB allocations follow the CB band rized several UHF-FM CB-type personal radio services
26.965 27.405 MHz (designated as band C), as well as in the 348 MHz, 420 422 MHz and 903 904 MHz
26.515 26.955 MHz (designated as band B) and 27.415 bands.
27.855 MHz (designated as band D). Some radios refer
to the mid band (standard CB band) as band D which
shifts the letters up one (making 26.515 to 26.955 MHz
band C and 27.415 27.855 MHz band E.
For the convenience of users of the grid were marked by
letters. Classic is considered the marking when the main
range is designated C letter. The most common description of the channel is considered to be similar to the
following: (C9FM or C9EFM or C9EF or 9EF).
In it:
the rst letter ( C) is indicated by a grid that contains a set of 40 channels. If the rst letter is not
specied, it is considered that it is ( C). For example, (C9EF, 9EF)
hereinafter ( 9) the channel number. Sometimes
less than 10 channels are designated 2 digits. For
example, (C9EF, C09EF)

1. 26.968 MHz Japanese CB Channel 1


2. 26.976 MHz Japanese CB Channel 2
3. 27.040 MHz Japanese CB Channel 3
4. 27.080 MHz Japanese CB Channel 4
5. 27.088 MHz Japanese CB Channel 5
6. 27.112 MHz Japanese CB Channel 6
7. 27.120 MHz Japanese CB Channel 7
8. 27.144 MHz Japanese CB Channel 8 Calling
Channel
1. 27.048 MHz Japanese Remote Control R/C Frequency
2. 27.136 MHz Japanese Remote Control R/C Frequency

behind it an optional designation ( E) for European or mandatory ( R) for Russian size frequency nets. For example, (C9EF, C9F, C9RF)

3. 27.152 MHz Japanese Remote Control R/C Frequency

end the used modulation ( FM) or ( F), (


AM) or ( A). e.g. (C9EFM, C9EF, C9EAM,
C9EA )

Indonesia has the usual 40 channels at 27 MHz, plus


a unique 60-channel allocation from 142.050 MHz
143.525 MHz.[34]

In Brazil, CB operators can use up to 80 channels (from


An example of correct designations: C9EF, C9EA, 26.965 MHz to 27.805 MHz).
C9RF, C9RA
South Africa, like New Zealand and the UK, permits the
The 25 30 MHz band (including the CB allocations and use of two HF CB bands. South Africa has a 23-channel
frequencies above and below the 26.5 27.86 MHz band) AM/SSB 29 MHz CB allocation (called 29 Megs or
is heavily used for taxi cab and other mobile two-way 29 MHz CB) from 29.710 MHz to 29.985 MHz in 12.5
communications systems in Russia, Ukraine and other kHz steps. South Africa also permits use of standard CB
former USSR country states.
channels 19 through 27 (27.185 to 27.275 MHz) with
New Zealand and Japan have unique allocations that do AM/SSB permitted. Many radios sold in South Africa
not correspond to those of any other country. New feature both the 27 MHz and 29 MHz bands.

10.4. TECHNOLOGY

59

Hungary allows use of the low channels for a total of Russia it is channel 15 (in addition to traditional emer80 channels (26.515 MHz to 27.405 MHz).
gency 9 and truckers 19 channels) and in Greece it is
Germany authorizes a similar allocation, the usual 40 channel 13, all AM. These frequencies may have evolved
channels from 26.965 to 27.405 MHz and another 40 because tuned circuits (particularly antennas) work best
channels from 26.565 to 26.955 MHz in straight 10 kHz in the middle of the band; the frequency for channel 19
(not channel 20) is the center of the 40-channel US band
steps.
and other things being equal, signals will be transmitted
The Czech Republic authorizes 80 channels as well (same and heard the farthest. Since less standardization exists in
as the German 80 channel plan). As in Germany, digital Europe, CB there is more associated with hobbyists than
modes are allowed on certain frequencies (channel 24 with truckers.
27.235 MHz, channel 25 27.245 MHz, channel 52
26.675 MHz, channel 53 26.685 MHz, channel 76 Legal (shortrange) use of CB radio is sometimes im26.915 MHz, and channel 77 26.925 MHz). Internet peded by users of illegal highpower transmitters, which
gateways and radio repeaters are allowed on channels 18 can be heard hundreds of miles away. The other prob(27.175 MHz) and 23 (27.255 MHz). Paging is permit- lem with shortrange CB use is propagation; during
ted on channel 1 (26.965 MHz) and channel 80 (26.955 longrange skip conditions local signals are inaudible
MHz) is the recommended call channel for Czech CB ra- while distant signals boom in as if they were local.
dio operators.
In the United States, the number of users and low enforceUsing radios outside their intended market can be dan- ment nancing by the Federal Communications Commisgerous, as well as illegal, as frequencies used by Citizens sion mean that only the worst oenders are sanctioned,
Band radios from other countries may operate on fre- which makes legitimate operation on the citizens band
quencies close to, or used by, emergency services (for ex- unreliable. Most oenders are not caught for interfering with other CB users; often, their selfmodied equipample, the Indonesian service around 142 MHz operates
on frequencies allocated to a public safety network shared ment generates harmonics and spurs which cause interference to services outside the citizens band and to consumer
with police, re and EMS services in Ontario, Canada).
equipment.
In the Philippines, up to present time, the use of 27 MHz
CB is still banned since the Marcos regime banned it in The maximum legal CB power output level in the U.S.
1980s. A few operators still illegally utilize the 40 CB is 4 watts for AM (un-modulated carrier; modulation can
channels. There are active CB groups that are now asking be four times the carrier power, or 16 watts PEP) and 12
Senator Bongbong Marcos, the son of the late president watts PEP for SSB, as measured at the transmitter antenna
Ferdinand Marcos, to lift the ban and make the use of CB connection. However, external linear ampliers are often
used illegally.
radios legal again.
During the 1970s the FCC banned the sale of linear ampliers capable of operation from 24 to 35 MHz to discourage their use on the CB band, although the use of
10.3 Current use
highpower ampliers continued. Late in 2006, the FCC
amended the regulation to exclude only 26 to 28 MHz
CB was the only practical twoway radio system for the
to facilitate amateur 10-meter operation.[36] Lax enforceindividual consumer, and served several subsets of users
ment enables manufacturers of illegal linear ampliers to
such as truck drivers, radio hobbyists, and those in need
openly advertise their products; many CB dealers include
of shortrange radio communications, such as electrithese ampliers in their catalogs.
cians, plumbers, and carpenters, who needed to communicate between job site and main oce. While some
users have moved on to other radio services, CB is still a
popular hobby in many countries. The 27 MHz frequen- 10.4 Technology
cies used by CB, which require a relatively long aerial and
tend to propagate poorly indoors, discourage the use of At the beginning of the CB radio service, transmitters
handheld radios. Many users of handheld radios (fami- and receivers used vacuum tubes; solid-state transmitlies, hunters and hikers) have moved on to 49 MHz and ters were not widely available until 1965, after the introthe UHF Family Radio Service; those needing a simple duction of RF-power transistors.[37] Walkie-talkie handradio for professional use (e.g., tradesmen) have moved held units became aordable with the use of transistors.
on to dot-color Business Band radios and the VHF Early receivers did not cover all the channels of the serMulti-Use Radio Service.
vice; channels were controlled by plug-in quartz crystals,
CB is still popular among long-haul truck drivers to communicate directions, trac problems and other relevant
matters.[35] The unocial travelers channel in most
of the world is channel 19; in Australia it is channel 8
(27.055 MHz) and UHF channel 40 (477.400 MHz). In

with one of several operating frequencies selected by a


panel control in more expensive units. Superheterodyne
receivers (using one or two conversion stages) were the
norm in good-quality equipment, although low-cost toytype units used super-regenerative receivers. With the

60

CHAPTER 10. CITIZENS BAND RADIO

earliest sets two quartz crystals were needed for transmitting and receiving on each channel, which was costly.
By the mid-1960s mixer circuits made frequencysynthesized radios possible, which reduced cost and allowed full coverage of all 23 channels with a smaller number of crystals (typically 14). The next improvement
came during the mid-1970s; crystal synthesis was replaced by PLL technology using ICs, enabling 40-channel
sets with only one crystal (10.240 MHz). Almost all were
AM-only, although there were a few single sideband sets.
Most CB radios sold in the United States have the following features:
Automatic noise limiter or noise blanker: Reduces Typical center-loaded mobile CB antenna. Note the loading coil,
background noise (such as spark ignition)
which shortens the antennas overall length.
CB/WX switch: Selects weather-radio receiver
Automatic level control (ALC): Limits the transmitter modulation level to reduce distortion
PA: Some transceivers can drive an external speaker
and act as a low-power public address system, or
bullhorn.
RF gain: Adjusts the RF amplier gain of the receiver; used to reduce received background noise,
and to reduce clipping due to over-amplication
of already-strong signals (for example, when the receiver is near the transmitter)
NOR/9/19: Quickly tunes preset channels for calling or emergency use

10.5 Antennas
27 MHz is a relatively long wavelength for mobile communications, and the choice of antenna has a considerable impact on the performance of a CB radio. A common mobile antenna is a quarter-wave vertical whip. This
is roughly nine feet (2.7 m) tall; it is mounted low on
the vehicle body, and often has a spring-and-ball mount
to enhance its exibility when scraping or striking overhead objects. Where a nine-foot whip is undesirable,
shorter antennas include loading coils to make the antenna impedance the same as a physically longer antenna. The loading coil may be on the bottom, middle,
or top of the antenna, while some antennas are wound in
a continuously-loaded helix.

Many truckers use two co-phased antennas, mounted on


SWR: Meter used to monitor reected power caused their outside mirrors. Such an array is intended to enhance performance to the front and back, while reducing
by mismatched antennas and antenna cables
it to the sides (a desirable pattern for long-haul truckers).
However, the eciency of such an arrangement is only an
Volume control
improvement over a single antenna when the co-phased
antennas are separated by approximately eight feet or
Microphone choices include:
more, restricting this design to use mainly on tractortrailers and some full-size pickups and SUVs. Some op Dynamic microphone: Uses magnetic coil and per- erators will use only one of the two antennas; this removes
manent magnet
both the complexity and benet of a true co-phased array,
but gives a symmetrical cosmetic appearance preferred by
Ceramic mic: Uses a piezoelectric element; rugged, some truck drivers.
low-cost but high-impedance
Another mobile antenna is the continuously-loaded halfwave antenna. These do not require a ground plane to
Echo mic: Deliberately introduces distortion and
present a near-50-ohm load to the radio, and are often
echo into transmitted audio
used on berglass vehicles such as snowmobiles or boats.
They are also useful in base stations where circumstances
Electret microphone: Uses an electrostatic method
preclude the use of a ground-plane antenna. Handheld
to convert sound to electrical signals
CBs may use either a telescoping center-loaded whip or
a continuously-loaded rubber ducky antenna.
Noise-canceling microphone: Uses two elements to
Base CB antennas may be vertical for omnidirectional
reduce background noise
coverage, or directional beam antennas may be used
Power mic: An amplied microphone[38]
to direct communications to a particular region. Ground-

10.7. FREEBANDING AND EXPORT RADIOS


plane kits exist as mounting bases for mobile whips, and
have several wire terminals or hardwired ground radials
attached. These kits are designed to have a mobile whip
screwed on top (a full-length, quarter-wave steel whip is
preferred) and mounted on a mast. The ground radials
replace the vehicle body (which is the counterpoise for a
mobile whip in a typical vehicle installation).

10.6 Working skip


Main article: Skywave
All frequencies in the HF spectrum (330 MHz) can be
refracted by charged ions in the ionosphere. Refracting
signals o the ionosphere is called skywave propagation,
and the operator is said to be shooting skip. CB operators have communicated across thousands of miles and
sometimes around the world. Even low-power 27 MHz
signals can sometimes propagate over long distances.
The ability of the ionosphere to bounce signals back to
earth is caused by solar radiation, and the amount of ionization possible is related to the 11-year sunspot cycle. In
times of high sunspot activity, the band can remain open
to much of the world for long periods of time. During
low sunspot activity it may be impossible to use skywave
at all, except during periods of Sporadic-E propagation
(from late spring through mid-summer). Skip contributes
to noise on CB frequencies. In the United States, it is illegal to engage in (or attempt to engage in) CB communications with any station more than 250 km (160 mi) from
an operators location.[39] This restriction exists to keep
CB as a local (line-of-sight) radio service; however, in
the United States the restriction is widely ignored. The
legality of shooting skip is not an issue in most other
countries.[40]

10.7 Freebanding and export radios


Operation on frequencies above or below the citizens
band (on the uppers or lowers) is called freebanding
or outbanding.[41] While frequencies just below the CB
segment (or between the CB segment and the amateur
radio 10-meter band) seem quiet and under-utilized, they
are allocated to other radio services (including government agencies) and unauthorized operation on them is
illegal. Furthermore, illegal transmitters and ampliers
may not meet good engineering practice for harmonic
distortion or "splatter", which may disrupt other communications and make the unapproved equipment obvious to
regulators. Freebanding is done with modied CB or amateur equipment, foreign CB radios which may oer different channels, or with radios intended for export. Legal
operation in one country may be illegal in another; for ex-

61
ample, in the UK until June 2014 only 80 FM channels
were legal.
Unlike amateur radios with continuous frequency tuning,
CBs manufactured for export are channelized. Frequency
selection resembles that of modied American CBs more
than any foreign frequency plan. They typically have a
knob and display that reads up to channel 40, but include
an extra band selector that shifts all 40 channels above
or below the band and a "+10 kHz button to reach the
model control 'A' channels. These radios may have 6 or
even 12 bands, establishing a set of quasi-CB channels on
many unauthorized frequencies. The bands are typically
lettered A through F, with the normal citizens band as D.
For example, a freebander with an export radio who
wants to use 27.635 MHz would choose channel 19
(27.185 MHz) and then shift the radio up one band (+
0.450 MHz). It requires arithmetic on the part of the operator to determine the actual frequency, although more
expensive radios include a frequency counter or a frequency displaytwo dierent components, providing an
identical result. Illegal operations may unintentionally
end up on frequencies very much in use. For instance,
channel 19 shifted two bands up is 28.085 MHz, which
is in a Morse code/data-only part of the 10-meter ham
band. Voice transmissions in a Morse code-only segment
are easily detectable by authorities. Amateur Radio Service [ARS] operators record, locate, and report frequency
trespassing and intrusions of their government or ITU allocations by pirate transmissions or illegal operators to
the FCC for enforcement action.[42]
Many freeband operators use amateur radios modied to
transmit out of band, which is illegal in some countries.
Older amateur radios may require component changes;
for instance, the 1970s Yaesu FT-101 was modied for
CB by replacing a set of crystals used to tune portions
of the 10-meter band, although some variants of the FT101 were sold with the US FCC channels standard and
were capable of transmitting above and below the legal
40 channels by another 10 or more channels.[43] On some
newer radios, the modication may be as simple as disconnecting a jumper wire or a diode. Many types of
amateur transceivers may be found on CB and freeband,
ranging from full-coverage HF transceivers to simpler 10meter mobile radios. In the United States, the FCC bans
the importation and marketing of radios it deems easily
modiable for CB;[44] it is illegal to transmit on CB frequencies with a ham radio except in emergencies where
no other method of communication is available.
A gray market trade in imported CB gear exists in many
countries. In some instances, the sale or ownership of
foreign-specication CB gear is not illegal but its use
is. With the FCCs minimal enforcement of its CB
rules, enthusiasts in the US use export radios or European frequency modulation (FM) CB gear to escape the
crowded AM channels. American AM gear has also been
exported to Europe.

62
Export radios are sold in the United States as 10-meter
Amateur Radio transceivers. Marketing, import and sale
of such radios is illegal if they are distributed as anything
other than Amateur Radio transceivers. It is also illegal
to use these radios outside of the Amateur Radio bands
by anyone in the US, since they are not type-certied for
other radio services and usually exceed authorized power
limits. The use of these radios within the Amateur Radio Service by a licensed Amateur Radio operator within
his/her license privileges is legal, as long as all FCC regulations for Amateur Radio are followed. The term export
radio is a misnomer, since it implies that they cannot be
used in the country in which they are sold and hints that
the radio is legal in another country. However, the typical
export radio has a combination of features, frequency
coverage and output power which make it illegal worldwide; in reality, there is no country to which these radios
may be legally exported.

CHAPTER 10. CITIZENS BAND RADIO

10.10 See also


Personal radio serviceFor an overview of CB-like
services worldwide
UHF CB
Amateur radio
Citizens Band radio in India
27 MHz CB27/81 Bandplan One of the two 27
MHz CB band plans used in the UK. The other is
the same as the American band plan.
FRSA UHF CB system used in the USA, Canada,
Mexico and several South American countries.
GMRSA licensed UHF CB system used in the
USA, similar to the original Class A CB service
List of CB slang
MURSA VHF CB system used in the USA.

10.8 Callbook
A callbook is a directory of radio station call signs. Originally a bound book that resembled a telephone directory, it contains the name and addresses of radio stations
in a given jurisdiction (country). Modern Electrics published the rst callbook in the United States in 1909. Today, the primary purpose of a callbook is to allow radio operators to send a conrmation post card, called a
QSL card to an operator with whom they have communicated via radio. Callbooks have evolved to include on-line
databases that are accessible via the Internet to instantly
obtain the address of another amateur radio operator and
their QSL Managers. The most well known and used online QSL database for the 11 meter / freebander community is QRZ11.COM, designed after its big brother
QRZ.COM for Amateur Radio.[45][46][47][48][49][50]

PMR446A UHF CB system used in most European countries


Ten-code

10.11 References
[1] Canadian General Radio Service
[2] http://www.retrocom.com/wtcollect/27_megacycle_
history_in_the_u.htm 27 Megacycle History, retrieved
2010 Feb 9
[3] Kneitel (1988:13)
[4] Kneitel (1988:14)
[5] FCC Part 95 Overview Retrieved 2011-10-21.
[6] In the Americas, the 220 MHz band is used by ham operators

10.9 Media

[7] ""I Can't Drive 55": the economics of the CB radio phenomenon, Independent Review, The Independent Institute, 15 (3), 2011

During the 1970s and 1980s heyday of CB radio, [8] https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=1893&


many citizens band-themed magazines appeared on newsdat=19750216&id=qm0fAAAAIBAJ&sjid=
ZtUEAAAAIBAJ&pg=841,5104091&hl=en
stands. Two magazines that dominated the time period
were S9 CB Radio and CB Radio Magazine. S9s succes[9] Tweed, Michael, "Back in View, a First Lady With Her
sor was Popular Communications, which had the same
Own Legacy", The New York Times, 31 December 2006
editor under a dierent publisher beginning in 1982. It
covered hobby radio as well as CB. The same publisher [10] http://www.kitten-kaboodle.com/index.php/site/
comments/biography-of-mel-blanc/
produced a magazine called RADIO! for RadioShack
stores in the mid-1990s.
[11] Chilton (1977:12)
In the early 2000s, National Communications Magazine
[12] Chilton (1977:14)
added CB radio coverage to its coverage of scanner radios
and to this day remains the only magazine covering CB [13] Channels 10-15 and 23, after channel 9 was reserved for
radio in North America.
emergency use

10.12. SOURCES

[14] The terms interstation and intrastation appear in the


FCCs Part 95 rules from that time period.
[15] Chilton (1977:120)

63

[37] http://www.qsl.net/k5dh/raytheon/raytheon.html gives


the history of one US manufacturers line of CB
equipment
[38] NewCompanyDriver Learn the basics of CB radio

[16] Radio Information for Boaters. United States Coast


Guard.

[39] FCC Part 95 Subpart D.

[17] http://www.fcc.gov/encyclopedia/
citizens-band-cb-service

[40] http://www.ic.gc.ca/eic/site/smt-gst.nsf/eng/sf01016.
html#General

[18] ACRM: CB Radio History

[41] The term outbanding was introduced by Kneitel in the


August 1979 issue of S9 Magazine.(Kneitel 1988:165)

[19] ACMA: 27 MHz Handphone Stations Class Licence


[20] ACRM: Movement
[21] These roughly corresponded to the present channels 522,
except for the two unique frequencies that are known as
11A(Channel 7 on an 18 channel Australian CB) and 19A
(Channel 16 on an 18 channel Australian CB) or remote
control frequencies but are no longer part of the Australian
27MHz CB band since 40 Channels was introduced. See
ACBRO: Aussie 18 Channel Radio Guide.

[42] ARRL: FCC enforcement actions


[43] (Kneitel 1988:174)
[44] QTH.com: Illegal CB Transceiver List
[45] http://www.seas.upenn.edu/~{}uparc/documents/
First%20Annual%20Official%20Wireless%20Blue%
20Book%20-%201909.pdf
[46] http://www.qrz11.com

[22] for more information visit http://www.uhfcb.com.au

[47] http://www.cq-amateur-radio.com/cq_highlights/2014_
cq/2014_02_cq/CQ_2014_02_OPT.pdf

[23] Matt P. Spinello, Touring Canada With Your CB Rig, in Elementary Electronics magazine, Davis Publications, New
York; Volume 10 No. 2, July/August 1972, pp. 5556

[48] http://qrz11.phpbb8.de/download/file.php?id=44&sud=
21333

[24] Government of Canada Department of Communications,


"TRC 40: Licensing of General Radio Service Equipment, January 1, 1977; retrieved 3 Jan 2010
[25] Indonesian DX Club: CB Radio
[26] http://www.skmm.gov.my/link_file/registers/cma/
ClassAssignment/pdf/Class%20Assign-BI-register.pdf
[27] http://www.skmm.gov.my/link_file/registers/cma/
ClassAssignment/pdf/CA_01_April_2010.pdf.
[28]
[29] Finlo Rohrer (August 14, 2006). "Over and out?" BBC
News Magazine. Retrieved 2011-10-22.
[30] Citizens Band (CB) Scanner Frequencies and Radio Frequency Reference. www.radioreference.com. Retrieved
2015-10-08.
[31] Arrt du 31 mars 1992 relatif aux caractristiques techniques et aux conditions d'exploitation des postes C.B.
[32] http://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/get-cfr.cgi?
TITLE=47&PART=95&SECTION=407&YEAR=
2000&TYPE=TEXT
[33] Channel Lists for 27 & UHF-CB in NZ
[34] An Indonesian government decision regarding CB, with
frequency charts
[35] Alice Adams Trucking:Tractor-Trailer Driver Handbook/Workbook, page 558, the rst DB radio
[36] Omnibus Amateur Radio Report and Order

[49] http://www.dx27.net/viewpage.php?page_id=4
[50] http://www.sugar-delta.it/site/index.php

10.12 Sources
Chilton Automotive Editorial Department (1977).
Chiltons CB Handbook. Radnor, PA: Chilton Book
Company. ISBN 0-8019-6623-X.
Kneitel, Tom (1988). Tomcats Big CB Handbook.
Commack, NY: CRB Research Books. ISBN 0939780-07-0.
GL 226 ( VK3PJB ) Ex Secretary GL Club, Australia

10.13 External links


Citizen Band Radio at DMOZ

Chapter 11

Quadrature amplitude modulation


QAM redirects here. For the digital television stan- tude modulating and phase modulating a single carrier.
dard, see QAM (television). For other uses, see QAM
Phase modulation (analog PM) and phase-shift keying
(disambiguation).
(digital PSK) can be regarded as a special case of QAM,
where the magnitude of the modulating signal is a conQuadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) is both stant, with only the phase varying. This can also be
an analog and a digital modulation scheme. It conveys extended to frequency modulation (FM) and frequencytwo analog message signals, or two digital bit streams, shift keying (FSK), for these can be regarded as a special
by changing (modulating) the amplitudes of two carrier case of phase modulation.
waves, using the amplitude-shift keying (ASK) digital
modulation scheme or amplitude modulation (AM) analog modulation scheme. The two carrier waves of the 11.2 Analog QAM
same frequency, usually sinusoids, are out of phase with
each other by 90 and are thus called quadrature carri90
ers or quadrature components hence the name of the
+V
120
60
scheme. The modulated waves are summed, and the R cy
nal waveform is a combination of both phase-shift keyg
MG
ing (PSK) and amplitude-shift keying (ASK), or, in the
150
30
analog case, of phase modulation (PM) and amplitude
modulation. In the digital QAM case, a nite number of
75%
100%
at least two phases and at least two amplitudes are used.
YL
b
PSK modulators are often designed using the QAM prin+U 0
180
ciple, but are not considered as QAM since the ampliB
yl
tude of the modulated carrier signal is constant. QAM
is used extensively as a modulation scheme for digital
telecommunication systems. Arbitrarily high spectral ef330
210
ciencies can be achieved with QAM by setting a suitable
G
mg
constellation size, limited only by the noise level and linearity of the communications channel.[1]
r CY
240

300

QAM is being used in optical ber systems as bit rates


270
increase; QAM16 and QAM64 can be optically emulated
Analog QAM: measured PAL colour bar signal on a vector analwith a 3-path interferometer.[2][3]
yser screen.

When transmitting two signals by modulating them with


QAM, the transmitted signal will be of the form:

11.1 Introduction
Like all modulation schemes, QAM conveys data by
changing some aspect of a carrier signal, or the carrier
wave, (usually a sinusoid) in response to a data signal.
In the case of QAM, the amplitude of two waves of the
same frequency, 90 out-of-phase with each other (in
quadrature) are changed (modulated or keyed) to represent the data signal. Amplitude modulating two carriers
in quadrature can be equivalently viewed as both ampli-

{
}
s(t) = Re [I(t) + iQ(t)] ei2f0 t
= I(t) cos(2f0 t) Q(t) sin(2f0 t)
where i2 = 1 , I(t) and Q(t) are the modulating signals,
f0 is the carrier frequency and Re{} is the real part.
At the receiver, these two modulating signals can be
demodulated using a coherent demodulator. Such a receiver multiplies the received signal separately with both

64

11.3. QUANTIZED QAM

65

a cosine and sine signal to produce the received estimates where S(f), MI(f) and MQ(f) are the Fourier transforms
of I(t) and Q(t) respectively. Because of the orthogonality (frequency-domain representations) of s(t), I(t) and Q(t),
property of the carrier signals, it is possible to detect the respectively.
modulating signals independently.
In the ideal case I(t) is demodulated by multiplying the
transmitted signal with a cosine signal:

11.3 Quantized QAM

r(t) = s(t) cos(2f0 t)


= I(t) cos(2f0 t) cos(2f0 t) Q(t) sin(2f0 t) cos(2f0 t)
Using standard trigonometric identities, we can write it
as:
1
1
I(t) [1 + cos(4f0 t)] Q(t) sin(4f0 t)
2
2
1
1
= I(t) + [I(t) cos(4f0 t) Q(t) sin(4f0 t)]
2
2

r(t) =

Low-pass ltering r(t) removes the high frequency terms


(containing 4f0 t ), leaving only the I(t) term. This ltered signal is unaected by Q(t) , showing that the in- Digital 16-QAM with example constellation points
phase component can be received independently of the
quadrature component. Similarly, we may multiply s(t) As in many digital modulation schemes, the constellation
by a sine wave and then low-pass lter to extract Q(t) .
diagram is useful for QAM. In QAM, the constellation
points
are usually arranged in a square grid with equal
Analog QAM suers from the same problem as Singlevertical
and horizontal spacing, although other congusideband modulation: the exact phase of the carrier is rerations
are
possible (e.g. Cross-QAM). Since in digital
quired for correct demodulation at the receiver. If the detelecommunications
the data are usually binary, the nummodulating phase is even a little o, it results in crosstalk
ber
of
points
in
the
grid is usually a power of 2 (2, 4,
between the modulated signals. This issue of carrier syn8,
).
Since
QAM
is
usually square, some of these are
chronization at the receiver must be handled somehow
rarethe
most
common
forms are 16-QAM, 64-QAM
in QAM systems. The coherent demodulator needs to
and
256-QAM.
By
moving
to a higher-order constellabe exactly in phase with the received signal, or othertion,
it
is
possible
to
transmit
more bits per symbol. Howwise the modulated signals cannot be independently reever,
if
the
mean
energy
of
the
constellation is to remain
ceived. This is achieved typically by transmitting a burst
the
same
(by
way
of
making
a
fair
comparison), the points
subcarrier or a Pilot signal.
must be closer together and are thus more susceptible to
Analog QAM is used in:
noise and other corruption; this results in a higher bit error rate and so higher-order QAM can deliver more data
NTSC and PAL analog Color television systems, less reliably than lower-order QAM, for constant mean
where the I- and Q-signals carry the components constellation energy. Using higher-order QAM without
of chroma (colour) information. The QAM carrier increasing the bit error rate requires a higher signal-tophase is recovered from a special Colorburst trans- noise ratio (SNR) by increasing signal energy, reducing
mitted at the beginning of each scan line.
noise, or both.
C-QUAM (Compatible QAM) is used in AM If data-rates beyond those oered by 8-PSK are required,
stereo radio to carry the stereo dierence informa- it is more usual to move to QAM since it achieves a
greater distance between adjacent points in the I-Q plane
tion.
by distributing the points more evenly. The complicating
factor is that the points are no longer all the same ampli11.2.1 Fourier analysis of QAM
tude and so the demodulator must now correctly detect
both phase and amplitude, rather than just phase.
In the frequency domain, QAM has a similar spectral pat64-QAM and 256-QAM are often used in digital cable
tern to DSB-SC modulation. Using the properties of the
television and cable modem applications. In the United
Fourier transform, we nd that:
States, 64-QAM and 256-QAM are the mandated modulation schemes for digital cable (see QAM tuner) as standardised by the SCTE in the standard ANSI/SCTE 07
1
i
S(f ) = [MI (f f0 ) + MI (f + f0 )]+ [MQ (f f0 )2013.
MQ (f
+ fthat
0 )] many marketing people will refer to
Note
2
2

66

CHAPTER 11. QUADRATURE AMPLITUDE MODULATION

these as QAM-64 and QAM-256. In the UK, 64-QAM tween them. They are simply added one to the other and
is used for digital terrestrial television (Freeview) whilst sent through the real channel.
256-QAM is used for Freeview-HD.
The sent signal can be expressed in the form:

s(t) =

[vc [n] ht (t nTs ) cos(2f0 t) vs [n] ht (t nTs ) sin(2

n=

where vc [n] and vs [n] are the voltages applied in response


to the n th symbol to the cosine and sine waves respectively.
Receiver
Bit-loading (bits per QAM constellation) on an ADSL line

The receiver simply performs the inverse operation of the


transmitter. Its ideal structure is shown in the picture beCommunication systems designed to achieve very high low with Hr the receive lters frequency response :
levels of spectral eciency usually employ very dense
QAM constellations. For example, current Homeplug
AV2 500-Mbit powerline Ethernet devices use 1024QAM and 4096-QAM,[4] as well as future devices using ITU-T G.hn standard for networking over existing
home wiring (coaxial cable, phone lines and power lines);
4096-QAM provides 12 bits/symbol. Another example is
ADSL technology for copper twisted pairs, whose con- Multiplying by a cosine (or a sine) and by a low-pass lstellation size goes up to 32768-QAM (in ADSL termi- ter it is possible to extract the component in phase (or in
nology this is referred to as bit-loading, or bit per tone, quadrature). Then there is only an ASK demodulator and
32768-QAM being equivalent to 15 bits per tone).[5]
the two ows of data are merged back.
Ultra-high capacity Microwave Backhaul Systems also In practice, there is an unknown phase delay between
use 1024-QAM.[6] With 1024-QAM, Adaptive Coding the transmitter and receiver that must be compensated by
and Modulation (ACM), and XPIC, Vendors can obtain synchronization of the receivers local oscillator (i.e. the
Gigabit capacity in a single 56 MHz channel.[7]
sine and cosine functions in the above gure). In mobile applications, there will often be an oset in the relative frequency as well, due to the possible presence of a
11.3.1 Ideal structure
Doppler shift proportional to the relative velocity of the
transmitter and receiver. Both the phase and frequency
Transmitter
variations introduced by the channel must be compensated by properly tuning the sine and cosine components,
The following picture shows the ideal structure of a QAM which requires a phase reference, and is typically accomtransmitter, with a carrier center frequency f0 and the fre- plished using a Phase-Locked Loop (PLL).
quency response of the transmitters lter Ht :
In any application, the low-pass lter and the receive Hr
lter will be implemented as a single combined lter.
Here they are shown as separate just to be clearer.

11.4 Quantized QAM performance


First the ow of bits to be transmitted is split into two
equal parts: this process generates two independent signals to be transmitted. They are encoded separately just
like they were in an amplitude-shift keying (ASK) modulator. Then one channel (the one in phase) is multiplied
by a cosine, while the other channel (in quadrature) is
multiplied by a sine. This way there is a phase of 90 be-

The following denitions are needed in determining error


rates:

= Number of symbols in modulation constellation

Eb

= Energy-per-bit

Es

= Energy-per-symbol = kEb with k bits per symbol

11.4. QUANTIZED QAM PERFORMANCE

N0

= Noise power spectral density (W/Hz)

Pb

= Probability of bit-error

Pbc

Ps

Psc

Q(x) =

67
The rst rectangular QAM constellation usually encountered is 16-QAM, the constellation diagram for which is
shown here. A Gray coded bit-assignment is also given.
The reason that 16-QAM is usually the rst is that a
brief consideration reveals that 2-QAM and 4-QAM are
in fact binary phase-shift keying (BPSK) and quadrature
phase-shift keying (QPSK), respectively. Also, the errorrate performance of 8-QAM is close to that of 16-QAM
(only about 0.5 dB better), but its data rate is only threequarters that of 16-QAM.

= Probability of bit-error per carrier

= Probability of symbol-error
= Probability of symbol-error per carrier
1
2

1 2

e 2 t dt, x0

Expressions for the symbol-error rate of rectangular


Q(x) is related to the complementary Gaussian error func- QAM are not hard to derive but yield rather unpleasant
(
)
tion by: Q(x) = 12 erfc 12 x , which is the probability that expressions. For an even number of bits per symbol, k
x will be under the tail of the Gaussian PDF towards pos- , exact expressions are available. They are most easily
expressed in a per carrier sense:
itive innity.
The error rates quoted here are those in additive white
Gaussian noise (AWGN).
Where coordinates for constellation points are given in Psc
this article, note that they represent a non-normalised
constellation. That is, if a particular mean average energy so
were required (e.g. unit average energy), the constellation
would need to be linearly scaled.

)
(
) (
1
3 Es
=2 1
Q
M 1 N0
M

Ps = 1 (1 Psc )

11.4.1

Rectangular QAM

The bit-error rate depends on the bit to symbol mapping,


but for Eb /N0 1 and a Gray-coded assignmentso that
we can assume each symbol error causes only one bit
errorthe bit-error rate is approximately

Q
0000

0100

1100

1000

Pbc
0001

0101

1101

1001

0011

0111

1111

1011

Psc
4
1 =
k
k
2

1
1
M

)
Q

3k Eb
M 1 N0

Since the carriers are independent, the overall bit error


rate is the same as the per-carrier error rate, just like
BPSK and QPSK.

Pb = Pbc

An exact and general closed-form expression of the Bit


Error Rates (BER) for rectangular type of Quadrature
Amplitude Modulation (QAM) over AWGN and slow,
0010
0110
1110
1010
at, Rician fading channels were derived analytically.
Consider a (LM)-QAM system with 2 log2 L levels
and 2 log2M levels in the I-channel and Q-channel, reConstellation diagram for rectangular 16-QAM.
spectively and a two-dimensional grey code mapping employed. It was shown[5] that the generalized expression
Rectangular QAM constellations are, in general, sub- for the conditional BER on SNR over AWGN channel
optimal in the sense that they do not maximally space the is
constellation points for a given energy. However, they
have the considerable advantage that they may be easily

transmitted as two pulse amplitude modulation (PAM)


log2 L
log2 M

1
signals on quadrature carriers, and can be easily demodu- Pb (E|) =

Pb (EiL |) +
Pb (EiM |)
log2 (L M ) i=1
lated. The non-square constellations, dealt with below,
i=1
achieve marginally better bit-error rate (BER) but are
where
harder to modulate and demodulate.

68

CHAPTER 11. QUADRATURE AMPLITUDE MODULATION

Q
2
Pb (EiP |) =
P

(12i )P 1

(1)

j2i1
P

j=0

)
j 2i1
1
i1
2

+
Q (2j + 1)
P
2

6
(L2 + M 2 2)

Odd-k QAM
For odd k , such as 8-QAM ( k = 3 ) it is harder to obtain
symbol-error rates, but a tight upper bound is:
(
Ps 4Q

3kEb
(M 1)N0

Two rectangular 8-QAM constellations are shown below


without bit assignments. These both have the same minimum distance between symbol points, and thus the same
symbol-error rate (to a rst approximation).
Constellation diagram for circular 16-QAM.
The exact bit-error rate, Pb will depend on the bitassignment.
Two diagrams of circular QAM constellation are shown,
Note that both of these constellations are seldom used in for 8-QAM and 16-QAM. The circular 8-QAM constelpractice, as the non-rectangular version of 8-QAM is op- lation is known to be the optimal 8-QAM constellation in
timal.
the sense of requiring the least mean power for a given
minimum Euclidean distance. The 16-QAM constellation is suboptimal although the optimal one may be con Constellation diagram for rectangular 8-QAM.
structed along the same lines as the 8-QAM constellation.
Alternative constellation diagram for rectangular 8- The circular constellation highlights the relationship beQAM.
tween QAM and PSK. Other orders of constellation may
be constructed along similar (or very dierent) lines. It
is consequently hard to establish expressions for the er11.4.2 Non-rectangular QAM
ror rates of non-rectangular QAM since it necessarily depends on the constellation. Nevertheless, an obvious upQ
per bound to the rate is related to the minimum Euclidean
distance of the constellation (the shortest straight-line distance between two points):

(1,1)

Ps < (M 1)Q
(1+3,0)

d2min
2N0

Again, the bit-error rate will depend on the assignment of


bits to symbols.
Although, in general, there is a non-rectangular constellation that is optimal for a particular M , they are not often used since the rectangular QAMs are much easier to
modulate and demodulate.

11.4.3 Hierarchical QAM


Constellation diagram for circular 8-QAM.

It is the nature of QAM that most orders of constellations


can be constructed in many dierent ways and it is neither
possible nor instructive to cover them all here. This article
instead presents two, lower-order constellations.

Hierarchical QAM is a form of hierarchical modulation.


For example, hierarchical QAM is used in DVB, where
the constellation points are grouped into a high-priority
QPSK stream and a low-priority 16-QAM stream. The
irregular distribution of constellation points improves the

11.8. EXTERNAL LINKS

69

reception probability of the high-priority stream in low


SNR conditions, at the expense of higher SNR requirements for the low-priority stream.[8]

[5] http://www.itu.int/rec/T-REC-G.992.3-200904-I section 8.6.3 Constellation mapper - maximum number of


bits per constellation BIMAX 15

11.5 Interference and noise

[6] http://www.trangosys.com/products/
point-to-point-wireless-backhaul/licensed-wireless/
trangolink-apex-orion.shtml A Apex Orion
[7] http://www.trangosys.com/products/

In moving to a higher order QAM constellation (higher


point-to-point-wireless-backhaul/licensed-wireless/
data rate and mode) in hostile RF/microwave QAM
trangolink-apex-orion.shtml A Apex Orion
application environments, such as in broadcasting or
telecommunications, multipath interference typically in- [8] http://asp.eurasipjournals.com/content/2010/1/942638
DVB Hierarchical QAM constellation
creases. There is a spreading of the spots in the constellation, decreasing the separation between adjacent states, [9] Howard Friedenberg and Sunil Naik. Hitless Space Dimaking it dicult for the receiver to decode the signal
versity STL Enables IP+Audio in Narrow STL Bands
appropriately. In other words, there is reduced noise
(PDF). 2005 National Association of Broadcasters Annual
immunity. There are several test parameter measureConvention. Retrieved April 17, 2005.
ments which help determine an optimal QAM mode for a
specic operating environment. The following three are 5. Jonqyin (Russell) Sun Linear diversity analysis for
most signicant:[9]
QAM in Rician fading channels, IEEE WOCC 2014
Carrier/interference ratio
Carrier-to-noise ratio
Threshold-to-noise ratio

11.6 See also


Amplitude and phase-shift keying or Asymmetric
phase-shift keying (APSK)
Carrierless Amplitude Phase Modulation (CAP)
In-phase and quadrature components
Modulation for other examples of modulation techniques
Phase-shift keying
QAM tuner for HDTV
Random modulation

11.7 References
[1] UAS UAV communications links Archived April 30,
2011, at the Wayback Machine.
[2] Ciena tests 200G via 16-QAM with Japan-U.S. Cable
Network. lightwave. April 17, 2014. Retrieved 7
November 2016.
[3] Kylia products Archived July 13, 2011, at the Wayback
Machine., dwdm mux demux, 90 degree optical hybrid,
d(q) psk demodulatorssingle polarization
[4] http://www.homeplug.org/media/filer_public/a1/46/
a1464318-f5df-46c5-89dc-7243d8ccfcee/homeplug_
av2_whitepaper_150907.pdf Homeplug_AV2 whitepaper

The notation used here has mainly (but not exclusively)


been taken from
John G. Proakis, "Digital Communications, 3rd Edition",

11.8 External links


Interactive webdemo of QAM constellation with additive noise Institute of Telecommunicatons, University of Stuttgart
QAM bit error rate for AWGN channel online experiment
How imperfections aect QAM constellation
Microwave Phase Shifters Overview by Herley General Microwave
Simulation of dual-polarization QPSK (DP-QPSK)
for 100G optical transmission

Chapter 12

Medium wave
12.1 Propagation characteristics
Wavelengths in this band are long enough that radio waves
are not blocked by buildings and hills and can propagate
beyond the horizon following the curvature of the Earth;
this is called the groundwave. Practical groundwave reception typically extends to 200300 miles, with longer
distances over terrain with higher ground conductivity,
and greatest distances over salt water. Most broadcast
stations use groundwave to cover their listening area.

Typical mast radiator of a commercial medium wave AM broadcasting station, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA

Medium waves can also reect o charged particle layers in the ionosphere and return to Earth at much greater
distances; this is called the skywave. At night, especially
in winter months and at times of low solar activity, the
ionospheric D layer virtually disappears. When this happens, MF radio waves can easily be received many hundreds or even thousands of miles away as the signal will
be reected by the higher F layer. This can allow very
long-distance broadcasting, but can also interfere with
distant local stations. Due to the limited number of available channels in the MW broadcast band, the same frequencies are re-allocated to dierent broadcasting stations several hundred miles apart. On nights of good
skywave propagation, the skywave signals of distant station may interfere with the signals of local stations on the
same frequency. In North America, the North American
Regional Broadcasting Agreement (NARBA) sets aside
certain channels for nighttime use over extended service
areas via skywave by a few specially licensed AM broadcasting stations. These channels are called clear channels,
and they are required to broadcast at higher powers of 10
to 50 kW.

12.2 Use in the Americas


Main article: Medium frequency
See also: North American Regional Broadcasting
Medium wave (MW) is the part of the medium fre- Agreement
quency (MF) radio band used mainly for AM radio broadcasting. For Europe the MW band ranges from 526.5 kHz Initially broadcasting in the United States was restricted
to 1606.5 kHz,[1] using channels spaced every 9 kHz, and to two wavelengths: entertainment was broadcast at 360
in North America an extended MW broadcast band goes meters (833 kHz), with stations required to switch to 485
from 535 kHz to 1705 kHz,[2] using 10 kHz spaced chan- meters (619 kHz) when broadcasting weather forecasts,
nels.
crop price reports and other government reports.[3] This
70

12.4. STEREO AND DIGITAL TRANSMISSIONS


arrangement had numerous practical diculties. Early
transmitters were technically crude and virtually impossible to set accurately on their intended frequency and if (as
frequently happened) two (or more) stations in the same
part of the country broadcast simultaneously the resultant interference meant that usually neither could be heard
clearly. The Commerce Department rarely intervened in
such cases but left it up to stations to enter into voluntary
timesharing agreements amongst themselves. The addition of a third entertainment wavelength, 400 meters,[3]
did little to solve this overcrowding.

71
tional agreement by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU).[7] In most cases there are two power
limits: a lower one for omnidirectional and a higher one
for directional radiation with minima in certain directions. The power limit can also be depending on daytime
and it is possible, that a station may not work at nighttime,
because it would then produce too much interference.
Other countries may only operate low-powered transmitters on the same frequency, again subject to agreement.
For example, Russia operates a high-powered transmitter, located in its Kaliningrad exclave and used for external broadcasting, on 1386 kHz. The same frequency
is also used by low-powered local radio stations in the
United Kingdom, which has approximately 250 mediumwave transmitters of 1 kW and over;[8] other parts of the
United Kingdom can still receive the Russian broadcast.
International mediumwave broadcasting in Europe has
decreased markedly with the end of the Cold War and the
increased availability of satellite and Internet TV and radio, although the cross-border reception of neighbouring
countries broadcasts by expatriates and other interested
listeners still takes place.

In 1923, the Commerce Department realized that as more


and more stations were applying for commercial licenses,
it was not practical to have every station broadcast on
the same three wavelengths. On 15 May 1923, Commerce Secretary Herbert Hoover announced a new bandplan which set aside 81 frequencies, in 10 kHz steps, from
550 kHz to 1350 kHz (extended to 1500, then 1600 and
ultimately 1700 kHz in later years). Each station would
be assigned one frequency (albeit usually shared with stations in other parts of the country and/or abroad), no
longer having to broadcast weather and government reports on a dierent frequency than entertainment. Class Due to the high demand for frequencies in Europe, many
A and B stations were segregated into sub-bands.[4]
countries operate single frequency networks; in Britain,
Nowadays in most of the Americas, mediumwave broad- BBC Radio Five Live broadcasts from various transcast stations are separated by 10 kHz and have two mitters on either 693 or 909 kHz. These transmitters
sidebands of up to 5 kHz in theory, although in prac- are carefully synchronized to minimize interference from
tice stations transmit audio of up to 10 kHz.[5] In the rest more distant transmitters on the same frequency.
of the world, the separation is 9 kHz, with sidebands of
4.5 kHz. Both provide adequate audio quality for voice,
but are insucient for high-delity broadcasting, which
is common on the VHF FM bands. In the US and Canada
the maximum transmitter power is restricted to 50 kilowatts, while in Europe there are medium wave stations
with transmitter power up to 2 megawatts daytime.[6]

Overcrowding on the Medium wave band is a serious


problem in parts of Europe contributing to the early adoption of VHF FM broadcasting by many stations (particularly in Germany). However, in recent years several
European countries (Including Ireland, Poland and, to a
lesser extent Switzerland) have started moving away from
Medium wave altogether with most/all services moving
Most United States AM radio stations are required by exclusively to other bands (usually VHF).
the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) to shut In Germany, almost all Medium wave public-radio broaddown, reduce power, or employ a directional antenna ar- casts were discontinued between 2012 and 2015 to cut
ray at night in order to avoid interference with each other costs and save energy,[9] with the last such remaining produe to night-time only long-distance skywave propagation gramme (Deutschlandradio) being switched o on 31st
(sometimes loosely called skip). Those stations which December 2015.[10]
shut down completely at night are often known as daytimers. Similar regulations are in force for Canadian
stations, administered by Industry Canada; however, daytimers no longer exist in Canada, the last station having 12.4 Stereo and digital transmissigned o in 2013, after migrating to the FM band.

sions

12.3 Use in Europe

See also: AM stereo

Stereo transmission is possible and oered by some


See also: Geneva Frequency Plan of 1975 and FM radio stations in the U.S., Canada, Mexico, the Dominican
Adoption of FM broadcasting worldwide
Republic, Paraguay, Australia, The Philippines, Japan,
South Korea, South Africa, and France. However, there
In Europe, each country is allocated a number of fre- have been multiple standards for AM stereo. C-QUAM
quencies on which high power (up to 2 MW) can be is the ocial standard in the United States as well as other
used; the maximum power is also subject to interna- countries, but receivers that implement the technology

72
are no longer readily available to consumers. Used receivers with AM Stereo can be found. Names such as
FM/AM Stereo or AM & FM Stereo can be misleading and usually do not signify that the radio will decode C-QUAM AM stereo, whereas a set labeled FM
Stereo/AM Stereo or AMAX Stereo will support AM
stereo.
In September 2002, the United States Federal Communications Commission approved the proprietary iBiquity
in-band on-channel (IBOC) HD Radio system of digital
audio broadcasting, which is meant to improve the audio
quality of signals. The Digital Radio Mondiale (DRM)
IBOC system has been approved by the ITU for use outside North America and U.S. territories. Some HD Radio
receivers also support C-QUAM AM stereo, although this
feature is usually not advertised by the manufacturer.

12.5 Antennas

CHAPTER 12. MEDIUM WAVE


5/9 wavelength. The usage of masts taller than 5/9 wavelength (200 electrical degrees; about 410 millivolts per
meter using one kilowatt at one kilometer) with high
power gives a poor vertical radiation pattern, and 195
electrical degrees (about 400 millivolts per meter using
one kilowatt at one kilometer) is generally considered
ideal in these cases. Usually mast antennas are seriesexcited (base driven); the feedline is attached to the mast
at the base, so the base of the antenna is at high electrical
potential and must be supported on a ceramic insulator to
insulate it from the ground. Shunt-excited masts, in which
the base of the mast is at a node of the standing wave
at ground potential and so does not need to be insulated
from the ground have fallen into disuse, except in cases
of exceptionally high power, 1 MW or more, where series excitement might be impractical. If grounded masts
or towers are required, then cage aerials or long-wire aerials are used. Another possibility consists of feeding the
mast or the tower by cables running from the tuning unit
to the guys or crossbars in a certain height.
Directional aerials consist of multiple masts, which need
not to be from the same height. It is also possible to realize directional aerials for mediumwave with cage aerials
where some parts of the cage are fed with a certain phase
dierence.

For medium-wave (AM) broadcasting, quarter-wave


masts are between 153 feet (47 m) and 463 feet (141
m) high, depending on the frequency. Because such
tall masts can be costly and uneconomic, other types of
antennas are often used, which employ capacitive toploading (electrical lengthening) to achieve equivalent signal strength with vertical masts shorter than a quarter
wavelength.[11] A top hat of radial wires is occasionally
added to the top of mast radiators, to allow the mast to
be made shorter. For local broadcast stations and amateur
stations of under 5 kW, T- and L-antennas are often used,
which consist of one or more horizontal wires suspended
between two masts, attached to a vertical radiator wire. A
popular choice for lower-powered stations is the umbrella
antenna, which needs only one mast one tenth wavelength
or less in height. This antenna uses a single mast insulated
from ground and fed at the lower end against ground. At
the top of the mast, radial top-load wires are connected
(usually about six) which slope downwards at an angle
of 40-45 degrees as far as about one-third of the total
Multiwire T antenna of radio station WBZ, Massachusetts, USA,
height, where they are terminated in insulators and thence
1925. T antennas were the rst antennas used for medium wave
outwards to ground anchors. Thus the umbrella antenna
broadcasting, and are still used at lower power
uses the guy wires as the top-load part of the antenna. In
all these antennas the smaller radiation resistance of the
For broadcasting, mast radiators are the most common short radiator is increased by the capacitance added by
type of antenna used, consisting of a steel lattice guyed the wires attached to the top of the antenna.
mast in which the mast structure itself is used as the
antenna. Stations broadcasting with low power can use In some rare cases dipole antennas are used, which are
masts with heights of a quarter-wavelength (about 310 slung between two masts or towers. Such antennas are
millivolts per meter using one kilowatt at one kilome- intended to radiate a skywave. The medium-wave transter) to 5/8 wavelength (225 electrical degrees; about 440 mitter at Berlin-Britz for transmitting RIAS used a cross
millivolts per meter using one kilowatt at one kilometer), dipole mounted on ve 30.5 metre high guyed masts to
while high power stations mostly use half-wavelength to transmit the skywave to the ionosphere at nighttime.

12.8. EXTERNAL LINKS

12.5.1

Receiving antennas

Typical ferrite rod antenna used in AM radio receivers

73

[5] Subpart A: AM Broadcast Stations, Sec. 73.44 AM


transmission system emission limitations. TITLE 47-TELECOMMUNICATION, CHAPTER I--FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED), PART
73_RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES. U.S. Government
Printing Oce. Revised as of October 1, 2006. Archived
from the original on October 25, 2011. Retrieved 200904-24. Check date values in: |date= (help)

Because at these frequencies atmospheric noise is far [6] MWLIST quick and easy: Europe, Africa and Middle
East. Retrieved 11 December 2015.
above the receiver signal to noise ratio, inecient antennas much smaller than a wavelength can be used for [7] International Telecommunication Union. ITU. Rereceiving. For reception at frequencies below 1.6 MHz,
trieved 2009-04-24.
which includes long and medium waves, loop antennas
are popular because of their ability to reject locally gen- [8] MW channels in the UK. Retrieved 11 December 2015.
erated noise. By far the most common antenna for broad- [9] Fast alle ARD-Radiosender stellen Mittelwelle ein.
cast reception is the ferrite-rod antenna, also known as a
heise.de. 2015-01-06. Retrieved 2015-12-31.
loopstick antenna. The high permeability ferrite core allows it to be compact enough to be enclosed inside the [10] Heumann, Marcus (2015-12-17). Abschied von der Mittelwelle. Der gefrchtete Wellensalat ist Geschichte.
radios case and still have adequate sensitivity.
Deutschlandfunk.de. Retrieved 2015-12-31.

12.6 See also


Medium frequency band
AM radio
Longwave
MW DX
Shortwave
FM radio
Satellite radio
List of European medium wave transmitters
Wave plan of Geneva
DAB Radio

12.7 References
[1] United Kingdom Frequency Allocation Table 2008
(PDF). Ofcom. p. 21. Retrieved 2010-01-26.
[2] U.S. Frequency Allocation Chart (PDF). National
Telecommunications and Information Administration,
U.S. Department of Commerce. October 2003. Retrieved 2009-08-11.
[3] Building the Broadcast Band. Earlyradiohistory.us. Retrieved 2010-05-07.
[4] Christopher H. Sterling; John M. Kittross (2002). Stay
tuned: a history of American broadcasting. Psychology
Press. p. 95. ISBN 0-8058-2624-6.

[11] Weeks, W.L 1968, Antenna Engineering, McGraw Hill


Book Company, Section 2.6

12.8 External links


Building the Broadcast Band the development of
the 520-1700 kHz MW (AM) band
M3 Map of Eective Ground Conductivity in the
USA
MWLIST worldwide database of MW and LW stations
www.mwcircle.org The Medium Wave Circle. A
UK-based club for Medium wave DX'ers and enthusiasts.
- List of long- and mediumwave transmitters with
GoogleMap-Links to transmission sites

Chapter 13

AM broadcasting
AM Radio redirects here. For the song by Everclear,
see AM Radio (song). For the American band, see AM
Radio (band).
AM broadcasting is the process of radio broadcast-

as well as with various digital radio broadcasting services


distributed from terrestrial and satellite transmitters. In
many countries the narrow audio bandwidth (lower audio delity) and higher levels of interference experienced
with AM transmission have led AM broadcasters to specialise in spoken-word programming such as news, sports
and talk radio, leaving transmission of music mainly to
FM and digital broadcasters.

13.1 History
Main article: History of radio
The technology of amplitude modulation (AM) radio
transmission (then called radiotelephony) was developed
between 1900 and 1920. Before AM came into wide use
around 1920, the rst radios transmitted information by
AM and FM modulated signals for radio. AM (Amplitude Modu- wireless telegraphy (radiotelegraphy), in which the radio
lation) and FM (Frequency Modulation) are types of modulation signal did not carry audio (sound) but was switched on and
(coding). The electrical signal from program material, usually o to create pulses that carried text messages in Morse
coming from a studio, is mixed with a carrier wave of a specic code. This was used for private person-to-person comfrequency, then broadcast. In the case of AM, this mixing (modu- munication and message trac, such as telegrams.
lation) is done by altering the amplitude of the carrier wave with
time, according to the original signal. In the case of FM, it is the
frequency of the carrier wave that is varied. A radio receiver
(a radio) contains a demodulator that extracts the original program material from the broadcast wave.

ing using amplitude modulation (AM). AM was the rst


method of impressing sound on a radio signal and is still
widely used today. Commercial and public AM broadcasting is authorized in the medium wave band worldwide, and also in parts of the longwave and shortwave
bands. Radio broadcasting was made possible by the
invention of the amplifying vacuum tube, the Audion
(triode), by Lee de Forest in 1906, which led to the
development of inexpensive vacuum tube AM radio receivers and transmitters during World War I. Commercial AM broadcasting developed from amateur broadcasts around 1920, and was the only commercially important form of radio broadcasting until FM broadcasting
began after World War II. This period is known as the
"Golden Age of Radio". Today, AM competes with FM,

The entrepreneurs who developed AM "radiotelephone"


transmission did not anticipate broadcasting voice and
music into peoples homes.[2] The term broadcasting,
borrowed from agriculture, was applied to this new activity (by either Frank Conrad or RCA historian George
Clark[2] ) around 1920.[2] Prior to 1920 there was no
concept of broadcasting, or that radio listeners could
be a mass market for entertainment.[2] Promoters saw
the practical application for AM as similar to the existing communication technologies of wireless telegraphy, telephone, and telegraph: two-way person-to-person
commercial voice service, a wireless version of the
telephone.[3] Although there were a number of experimental broadcasts during this period, these were mostly
to provide publicity for the inventors products. True radio broadcasting didn't begin until around 1920, when it
sprang up spontaneously among amateur stations. AM remained the dominant method of broadcasting for the next
30 years, a period called the "Golden Age of Radio", until FM broadcasting started to become widespread in the

74

13.1. HISTORY

75

1950s. AM remains a popular, protable entertainment Majorana, Charles Herrold, and Lee de Forest, were
medium today and the dominant form of broadcasting in hampered by the lack of a technology for amplication.
some countries such as Australia and Japan.
The rst practical continuous wave AM transmitters were
based on versions of the Poulsen arc transmitter invented
in 1903,[3] and the huge, expensive Alexanderson alterna13.1.1 Early technologies
tor, developed 1906-1910. The modications necessary
to transmit AM were clumsy and resulted in very low audio quality. Modulation was usually accomplished by a
carbon microphone inserted directly in the antenna wire.
The limited power handling ability of the microphone
severely limited the power of the rst radiotelephones;
in powerful transmitters water-cooled microphones had
to be used. At the receiving end, the unamplied crystal
radio receivers then in use could not drive loudspeakers,
only earphones, so only one member of a family could
listen at a time.

13.1.2 Vacuum tubes


The discovery in 1912 of the amplifying ability of the
Audion (triode) vacuum tube, invented in 1906 by Lee
Farmer listening to US government weather and crop reports us- De Forest, solved the above problems. The vacuum
ing a crystal radio. Public service government time, weather, and tube feedback oscillator invented in 1912 by Alexander
farm broadcasts were the rst radio broadcasts.
Meissner and Edwin Armstrong, was a cheap source of
continuous waves and could be easily modulated to make
an AM transmitter. Nongovernmental radio transmission
was prohibited in many countries during World War 1,
but AM radiotelephony technology advanced greatly due
to wartime research, and after the war the availability of
cheap tubes sparked a great increase in the number of
amateur radio stations experimenting with AM transmission of news or music, giving people more to listen to.
New vacuum tube receivers coming on the market could
power loudspeakers, so the entire family could sit and listen together, and people could dance to broadcast music.
Vacuum tubes remained the central technology of radio
for 50 years, until transistors replaced them in the 1960s,
A family listening to an early broadcast using a crystal radio and they are still used in broadcast transmitters.
around 1920. Crystal radios, used before the advent of powered
vacuum tube radios in the 1920s, could not drive loudspeakers,
so the family must share earphones.

The rst AM voice transmission was made by Canadian


researcher Reginald Fessenden on 23 December 1900,
using a specially designed spark gap transmitter.[4][5]
Fessenden is a signicant gure in the development of
AM radio. He realized that the damped waves produced by the existing spark transmitters, which transmitted text data by wireless telegraphy, could not be used
to transmit sound, but rather continuous wave transmitters were needed.[6] He helped develop one of the rst
the Alexanderson alternator.[4]:3734[5]:400[6][7][8] He also
discovered the principle on which AM modulation is
based,[9][10][11][12][13] heterodyning,[6] and invented one
of the rst detectors able to rectify and receive AM, the
electrolytic detector or liquid baretter, in 1902.[6]

13.1.3 Beginning of broadcasting

German man listening to subscription radio receiver. Broadcast-

The early experiments in AM transmission, conducted ing in Germany began 1922 as a Post Oce monopoly, which
by Fessenden, Valdemar Poulsen, Ernst Ruhmer, Quirino provided this receiver which could only receive one station.

76
These changes caused radio listening to evolve explosively around 1919-1922 from a high-tech hobby to a
hugely popular social and family pastime, the rst electronic mass entertainment medium. In the US, the rst
broadcast stations were hobby and voluntary eorts without explicit advertising, started by a variety of local organizations: amateurs, local businesses looking for promotion, newspapers, schools, clubs, political parties, and
churches. Some naval radio stations broadcast programs
of music to the public at certain hours. Later businesses
learned to use this new medium to sell products, paying
for on-air commercial advertising. US radio broadcasting developed into a private, protmaking business, with
minimal government control on content.

CHAPTER 13. AM BROADCASTING


one owning a radio had to buy.
The rst broadcasts
Who made the rst radio broadcast is a contentious
issue. In the chaotic, freewheeling, experimental atmosphere of early AM wireless, it is dicult to draw a distinction between private and public transmissions. In
many cases, radio listeners tuned into experimental transmissions by the rst stations developing AM modulation,
and the stations began to cater to their unexpected audience with news and music.[2] Some of the early milestones:
1906: G. W. Pickard invents the crystal detector, the
rst cheap radio detector device that is able to rectify an AM signal. Homemade crystal radios spread
rapidly during the next 15 years. Before this, most
receivers used coherers, and only a few radio listeners were equipped with the electrolytic or Fleming
valve detectors that could also receive an AM broadcast.

Atlanta social club holds a radiophone dance in 1920 to music


broadcast from a band across town, with dancers wearing earphones. This phantom dancing became a fad during the radio
craze of the early Roaring 20s.

In Europe, broadcasting took a dierent course. Radio


transmission had always been more tightly controlled by
government in this region, partly because countries were
smaller and closer together; for example, in the UK receiving equipment as well as transmitters had to be licensed. There was a feeling in countries like the UK
and France that the radio spectrum was a national resource which should not be surrendered to private interests, motivated by prot, who would pander solely to
the desire for entertainment. Radio should serve higher
purposes of public information and education. In addition, totalitarian countries for political reasons kept
mass communications media under government control.
So in much of Europe, broadcasting developed as a
government-owned or government-supervised monopoly.
It was largely funded not by on-air commercial advertising as in the US, but by taxes on sales of radios, and user
fees in the form of an annual "receiver license" that any-

Christmas Eve, 1906: Reginald Fessenden broadcast an experimental program of Christmas music
and bible reading, including him playing "O Holy
Night" on the violin, from his Brant Rock, Massachusetts 500 W alternator-transmitter at about 50
kHz[15] to ships of the United Fruit Co. and Navy
ships, which were equipped with his electrolytic detectors.[6][7] It was heard as far south as Norfolk,
VA. This is usually considered the rst entertainment broadcast to the public. There is some doubt
whether this event took place, as the only evidence is
Fessendens own account many years later, but many
subsequent transmissions clearly establish him as the
rst to broadcast voice and music.[16]

1907: Radio entrepreneur Lee de Forest, an opera


bu, between 1907 and 1912 held a half-dozen promotional events in New York in which he broadcast live performances of famous Metropolitan
Opera stars such as Mariette Mazarin, Geraldine
Farrar, and Enrico Caruso with his AM arc
transmitter.[3][17] Very few radio receivers were
equipped to receive it. In another stunt he broadcast phonograph music from the Eiel Tower.[3]
A futurist and publicity hound, De Forest was
one of the rst to realize the possibilities of entertainment broadcasting, which he promoted in
speeches, newspaper articles, and experimental
demonstrations.[3][17] When he equipped the US
Navy Great White Fleet with experimental arc
radiotelephones for their 1908 around-the-world
cruise, he broadcast phonograph music as the ships
entered ports like San Francisco.[3][17]

13.1. HISTORY

77

One of the rst photos of a radio broadcast, French soprano Mariette Mazarin singing into Lee De Forests arc transmitter in New
York City on February 24, 1910.

June 1909: Radio experimenter Charles Herrold


and his students began making regular weekly
broadcasts from his School of Radio station FN
De Forests transmitter broadcasting the Hughes-Wilson presi(later KQW) in San Jose, California,[16][18] on 750
dential election returns November 7, 1916, operated by his enkHz. FN in 1912 became the rst licensed broad- gineer, Charles Logwood
cast station in the US.[19] San Francisco radio station
KCBS claims to be the direct descendant of KQW,
and on that basis has claimed to be the worlds oldest
of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin and operated
broadcast station.
by Prof. Earle M. Terry, had been broadcasting weather reports by radiotelegraphy since 1916.
March 29, 1914: An experimental radio station in
Sometime in 1917 they began AM voice broadcasts
Laeken, near Brussels, Belgium, began broadcastand on January 9, 1919, began the rst regularly
ing regular concerts with an arc transmitter installed
scheduled weather and farm reports in the US.[23]
in 1913, which continued until it was destroyed
Terrys station was considered essential enough by
in WW1.[20] It had begun experimental telephony
the Navy to be allowed to remain on the air during
broadcasts as early as 1910, which from audience
WW1.
demand evolved into gramophone music, then live
concerts.
November 6, 1919: The rst scheduled (announced
in the press) radio broadcast is said to have been
made by Nederlandsche Radio Industrie station
PCGG at The Hague, which began broadcasting
November 1916: De Forest perfected Oscillion
concerts. It found it had a large audience outside
power tubes, capable of use in radio transmitters,
the Netherlands, mostly in the UK.
and inaugurated daily broadcasts of entertainment
and news from his New York Highbridge station,
January 15, 1920: Broadcasting in the UK began
2XG, until civilian radio transmissions were prohibwith impromptu news and phonograph music over
ited in April, 1917 due to the USs entry into World
[21]
2MT, the 15 kW experimental tube transmitter at
War 1. One of the most important prewar US raMarconis factory in Chelmsford, Essex, at a fredio events was his broadcast of the Hughes-Wilson
quency of 120 kHz.[24] On June 15, 1920 in the UKs
presidential election on November 7, 1916, with uprst scheduled broadcast, the Daily Mail newspaper
dates provided by wire from the New York American
[22]
sponsored a concert by the famed Australian opera
oces.
An estimated 7000 radio listeners as far
diva Nellie Melba.[24] Although not many British
as 200 miles from New York heard hourly election
heard it because of a lack of receivers, it was picked
returns interspersed with patriotic music.[22]
up in Berlin, Paris, The Hague, and Newfoundland,
1917: Experimental station 9XM (later WHA),
and caught the publics imagination. Chelmsford
licensed to the physics department of University
continued broadcasting concerts with noted per-

78

CHAPTER 13. AM BROADCASTING


formers. A few months later, in spite of burgeoning popularity, the government without warning shut
the experiment down, ostensibly because of interference with military aircraft radio.[24]

May 20, 1920: Experimental Marconi station XWA


of Montreal (later CFCF, now CINW) began regular
broadcasts, and claims status as the rst commercial
broadcaster in the world.
November 2, 1920: Westinghouse asked an employee, Frank Conrad of Pittsburgh, PA, who during
the war had used Westinghouses exclusive Signal
Corps test license to clandestinely broadcast gramophone music,[2] to set up a radio station to help sell
their radios. The enormously popular KDKA (originally 8XK) in Pittsburgh was the rst commercial
radio station in the US. It began broadcasting (a
phrase coined by Conrad) on election day, November 2, 1920. People learned the results of the Warren Harding-James Cox election from radio stations
before they read it in the newspapers. KDKA is said
to have been a pioneer in a number of areas, such as
broadcasting the rst religious services and sporting
events.

13.1.4

dio monopoly. Instead, in 1919 the US government brokered a patent cross-licensing and market-sharing agreement between the competing US corporate giants AT&T,
Westinghouse, United Fruit, and General Electric. Foreign rms were forbidden to own US radio stations, and
US assets of Marconi and Telefunken were sold to a newly
created rm, the Radio Corporation of America, RCA.
AT&T, Westinghouse, and GE would manufacture radio
equipment, and RCA would be the marketing and transmitting arm. This radio group oligopoly controlled the
US radio industry into the 1940s.
As the US audience for broadcasting grew in 1919-22,
it caught the interest of the big radio corporations, and
they began buying stations. They established agship
stations in major cities to promote their corporate image,
which during this period broadcast top-quality entertainment and news without advertising.

13.1.5 Radio networks


Main article: Radio network
Since longwave radio frequencies were used for interna-

Market concentration

A live radio play being broadcast at NBC studios in New York.


Since recording technology was primitive and costly during the
20s, most programs were broadcast live.
New Yorkers on Wall St. listening to the 1922 World Series from
a radio installed in a car. In 1922 radio broadcasting was an
exciting high-tech novelty.

World War I brought home to nations the strategic importance of long-distance radio; in addition to its military uses in keeping contact with its eets and overseas
forces, a country that didn't have radio could be isolated
by an enemy cutting its submarine telegraph cables. In the
US, before the war, the radio industry was fragmented by
patent monopolies held by competing giant rms, so the
best long-range radio technology was owned by two European rms: the British Marconi Co. and the German
Telefunken. At its entry into the war in 1917, the US
government temporarily took control of the entire US radio industry for the war eort, including the transatlantic
wireless stations of these foreign rms. After the war,
due to fear of foreign ownership of the US radio industry, there was an abortive eort to create a federal ra-

tional wireless telegraphy, broadcasting was mostly limited to the medium waves, whose limited range restricted
them to local audiences. Corporations around 1922 realized that long distance telephone lines, another innovation
made possible around 1915 by the vacuum tube, could be
used to link local radio stations into networks (the word
chains was used until the 1930s) broadcasting common
content, giving corporations a nationwide audience.[25]
United States
In the US, the nationwide telephone carrier AT&T was
the rst to create a network and take the radical step
of commercial advertising. It developed a broadcasting
model based on its telephony business: toll broadcasting. Its agship station, WEAF in New York, in August 1922 was rst to air commercial advertising, selling half-hour and hour blocks of airtime to commercial

13.1. HISTORY

When broadcasting began in 1920, live or phonograph music was


played on air without regard to its copyright status. As radio became a big business in the mid 20s, sheet music publishers, who
owned the rights, sued the stations for copyright infringement,
keeping many popular Jazz Age tunes o the air. This 1925 cartoon shows a rich publisher muzzling two radio performers. Royalty payments were quickly worked out.

sponsors that developed entertainment shows containing commercial messages. It had a monopoly on quality
telephone lines, and by 1924 had linked 12 stations in
Eastern cities into a chain. RCA and Westinghouse attempted to organize their own network around their agship WJZ, but were hampered by AT&Ts refusal to lease
them lines. In 1925 court decisions stripped AT&T of its
monopoly over broadcasting, and it decided to get out of
radio. AT&T sold WEAF to RCA, which formed the
nucleus of the new NBC network. In 1927, to reduce the
chaos on the airwaves, the government came down on
the side of the advertising model, establishing two classes
of broadcast licenses: the A or general public interest
stations which sold time impartially to anyone, received
favorable frequency assignments and ourished, and the
B or nonprot propaganda stations, mainly specialinterest, political or religious stations which represented
a point of view, were phased out.
The adoption of the commercial sponsorship model made
radio broadcasting protable, bringing in a lucrative
stream of income that could be used to buy top-quality
talent. The new business of advertising agencies acted as
middlemen, and by the late 1920s modern radio advertisements were developed. Networks began to see their
true product as their audience, and began to tailor shows
to bring in specic demographics desired by their advertisers. By the 1930s, most of the radio stations in the
country were aliated with networks owned by two companies, NBC and CBS. In 1934, a third, the Mutual Radio
Network was formed as a cooperative owned by its stations.

79

A BBC receiver licence from 1923 (the words BROADCAST LICENCE at top are misleading; it only allowed reception). Anyone
with a broadcast receiver had to have a licence.

United Kingdom
The other country which pioneered broadcasting, the UK,
and its national network the BBC, became the prototype for state-managed monopoly broadcasting.[26] The
abrupt shutdown of the 1920 UK experimental Marconi
broadcasts had caused increasing pressure on the Post
Oce to allow broadcasting.[27] The government wanted
to avoid the chaotic US experience, but also feared a
monopoly by the giant Marconi.[27] On 18 October 1922
it allowed 6 large radio manufacturers to form a consortium, the British Broadcasting Company, which was given
a monopoly on broadcasting, supported by a tax on radio
sets and a license fee on receivers collected by the Post
Oce.[27] Initially its 8 stations were allowed regional
autonomy, but its visionary general manager, John Reith, centralized production in London and lobbied for the
removal of advertising and commercial interests. During Britains General Strike of 1926, when the newspapers were shut down, the BBC was rst allowed to broadcast daytime news, and the country was impressed by
its impartial reporting.[28] In late 1926 Reiths proposals
were adopted, the BBC was nationalised, and an independent nonprot chartered corporation was formed, the
British Broadcasting Corporation supported solely by a 10
shilling receiver license fee.[28]
Under Reith, the BBC enforced strict broadcast standards
on its channels. Both the National and Regional programmes were required to carry a mixture of populist and
high brow programmes.

Other nations
During the 1920s AM broadcasting extended to the
rest of the world. In general, the Middle East, Asian,
and African countries adopted the European model of
centralized government-run radio networks, while Latin
America adopted the US model of private commercial
broadcasting.[26]

80

13.1.6

CHAPTER 13. AM BROADCASTING

Shortwave broadcasting

comedies, childrens shows. Radio news kept people upto-date, and remote reporting allowed them to be vicariThe discovery in the 1920s of the skip or "skywave" ously present at notable events, such as the famous 1937
propagation mechanism, in which high frequency radio Hindenburg disaster.
waves are reected back to Earth beyond the horizon by
In the 1920s the home radio receiver evolved from a
the ionosphere, made the shortwave frequencies above 1
forbidding technological device which was esthetically
MHz, previously considered useless, a useful band for
unattractive and dicult to operate, to a consumer item,
long distance broadcasting.
a piece of furniture, housed in an attractive wooden cabinet, with simple controls designed for anyone to operate,
which occupied a place of honor in the living room. The
13.1.7 Golden Age of Radio
dynamic cone loudspeaker invented in 1924 greatly improved audio frequency response over the previous horn
Main article: Golden Age of Radio
allowing music to be reproduced with good
During the 1920s, 1930s, and 1940s, a period called the speakers,
delity.[29] Prior to the introduction of the high-delity,
long-playing record in the late 1940s, AM radio oered
the highest sound quality available in a home audio device. Luxury models oered large speakers, electric
eye tuning (a special type of vacuum tube, which provided a visual aid in tuning), mechanical push-button
memory of favorite stations, sometimes with booklets
of adhesive labels for the buttons with station call letters,
andan inexpensive but impressive featureshortwave
bands that allowed access to distant, often foreign, stations. Accessory, then factory-installed radios became
available for cars.
Radio eased the isolation of rural life, and allowed people on farms and in towns to keep up with what was happening in the cities. Politicians could speak to millions
of citizens at a time; during the Depression Americans
gathered around their radios to listen to Franklin Roosevelt's "reside chats". This period saw the rise of radio
propaganda as a powerful tool of governments, contributing to the rise of fascist and communist ideologies.

13.1.8 Shortcomings of AM broadcasting


By the 1930s, radio receivers had developed from a high-tech
gadget into a user-friendly home consumer product, like this
Zenith Model 12-S console radio from 1938, a 12-tube superheterodyne with push-button tuning.

Golden Age of Radio, AM radio was the main source


of home entertainment, lling a role similar to the one
television played until the Internet started to replace it
in the 2010s. This was a big change in peoples lives;
for the rst time people were getting entertainment from
outside the home. Instead of having to settle for more traditional forms of entertainment such as oral storytelling
and music from family members, they could listen to Bing
Crosbys crooning, a BBC Shakespeare play, or a baseball game at New Yorks Ebbets Field. New forms of entertainment were created for the new medium, many of
which later migrated to television: radio plays, mystery
serials, soap operas, quiz shows, variety hours, situation

AM radio is often noisy. There is no protection from


static created by lightning, electrical equipment, and
other sources of signal pollution. Especially at night, conict between nearby and distant stations using a single frequency is common, and requires many smaller stations
to operate at much reduced power after sundown. Finally, the 10 kilohertz minimum separation between stations in the United States limits delity to sounds much
lower than the upper limit of human hearing, and the advent of high-delity recording equipment has created a
demand for high-delity radio.
As a result of these shortcomings, especially the noise issue, RCA in 1934 hired Edwin Howard Armstrong to test
his FM broadcasting system, which started to be deployed
in the 1940s, but because of a frequency band change in
1946 would not achieve dominance over AM until the end
of the 1970s.[30]

13.2. OPERATION

13.1.9

81

Competing media

patible Quadrature Amplitude Modulation), and KahnHazeltine independent sideband system. All except the
In the 1940s two new broadcast media evolved in the US Kahn-Hazeltine system used variations on the same idea:
which competed with AM: FM radio and television. By the mono (Left + Right) signal was transmitted in the
the 1950s, the dominance of AM radio over home en- amplitude modulation as before, while the stereo (Left
tertainment ended. Television replaced AM radio as an Right) information was transmitted by phase modulation.
evening family pastime; instead of sitting and listening to In 1980 the FCC chose the Magnavox PMX system as
the radio, families would watch television. By the 1970s the US standard. The FCC was savagely criticized by the
FM radio, due to its superior audio quality, attracted se- other contenders, and lawsuits erupted. In 1982, the FCC
rious audiophiles.
reversed its decision and decided not to enforce a stanThe AM radio industry suered a serious loss of audience
and advertising revenue during this time, and the value of
an AM broadcast license was eventually to decline substantially. The industry coped with this by developing
new narrowcasting strategies. Network broadcasting
gave way to format broadcasting; instead of broadcasting the same programs all over the country, AM stations
specialized in dierent "formats" which appealed to different audience segments: regional and local news, sports,
talk programs, programs targeted at minorities. "Talk
radio", which avoided the need for the broadcaster to pay
music royalties, appeared during this period as a consequence of the less expensive air time, and the need to
develop alternative programming, at reasonable cost, to
replace the lost network programming. Rather than live
music, stations played cheaper recorded music, and developed the "Top 40" format, which capitalized on (and
created) the popularity of new rhythm and blues and rock
music.

dard but allow multiple systems, to let the marketplace


decide. Meanwhile, other nations adopted AM stereo,
many choosing Motorolas C-QUAM. Their choice of a
single standard rather than allowing competing standards
as the US, resulted in greater acceptance of AM stereo in
these markets. In 1993, the FCC made C-QUAM system
the US standard.

Listening habits changed in the 1960s due to the introduction of the revolutionary transistor radio, made possible
by the invention of the transistor in 1946, which greatly
reduced power requirements and allowed people to listen
to radio anywhere using only small batteries. A transistor radio was smaller, lighter, and cooler. Radio became
a ubiquitous companion medium which people could
take with them in their pocket, and listen to while at work,
gardening, or at the beach.

AM radio technology is simpler than frequency modulated (FM) radio, Digital Audio Broadcasting (DAB),
satellite radio or HD (digital) radio. An AM receiver
detects amplitude variations in the radio waves at a particular frequency. It then amplies changes in the signal
voltage to drive a loudspeaker or earphones. The earliest
crystal radio receivers used a crystal diode detector with
no amplication, and required no power source other than
the radio signal itself.

13.1.10

AM stereo

Main article: AM stereo


In the late 1970s, in an unsuccessful eort to stem the
exodus of the music audience to FM, the US AM radio
industry developed technology for broadcasting in stereo.
Stereo is the standard in the music recording industry, and
FM broadcasting had adopted a stereo standard early, in
1961. The technology was challenging because of the
narrow 20 kHz bandwidth of the AM channel, and the
need for backward compatibility with non-stereo AM receivers. In 1975 the US Federal Communications Commission requested proposals for AM stereo standards, and
four competing standards were submitted: Harris Corporation's V-CPM (Variable angle Compatible Phase Multiplex), Magnavox's PMX, Motorola's C-QUAM (Com-

Globally, the adoption of stereo broadcasting was never


great, and declined after 1990. With the continued migration of AM stations away from music to news, sports,
and talk formats, receiver manufacturers saw little reason
to adopt the more expensive stereo tuners, and thus radio
stations have little incentive to upgrade to stereo transmission.

13.2 Operation

In North American broadcasting practice, transmitter


power input to the antenna for commercial AM stations
ranges from about 250 to 50,000 watts. Experimental licenses were issued for up to 500,000 watts radiated power, for stations intended for wide-area communication during disasters. One such superstation was
Cincinnati station WLW, which used such power on occasion before World War II. WLWs superpower transmitter still exists at the stations suburban transmitter site,
but it was decommissioned in the early 1940s and no current commercial broadcaster in the U.S. or Canada is authorized for such power levels. Some other countries do
authorize higher power operation (for example the Mexican station XERF formerly operated at 250,000 watts).
Antenna design must consider the coverage desired and
stations may be required, based on the terms of their license, to directionalize their transmitted signal to avoid
interfering with other stations operating on the same frequency.

82

CHAPTER 13. AM BROADCASTING


The hobby of listening to long distance signals is known
as DX'ing, from an old telegraph abbreviation for distance. Several nonprot hobbyist clubs are devoted to
DXing the AM broadcast band, including the National
Radio Club and International Radio Club of America.
Similarly, people listening to short wave transmissions are
SWLing.

13.3 Broadcast frequency bands


AM radio is broadcast on several frequency bands. The
allocation of these bands is governed by the ITU's Radio
Regulations and, on the national level, by each countrys
An example of the dierence in range of an AM radio signal at telecommunications administration (the FCC in the U.S.,
dierent times.
for example) subject to international agreements. The
frequency ranges given here are those that are allocated
to stations. Because of the bandwidth taken up by the
Medium-wave (medium frequency, MF) and short-wave
sidebands, the range allocated for the band as a whole is
(high frequency, HF) radio signals act dierently during
usually about 5 kHz wider on either side.
daytime and nighttime. During the day, MF signals travel
by groundwave, diracting around the curve of the earth
Long wave is LF waves from 153279 kHz, with
over a distance up to a few hundred kilometers from the
9 kHz channel spacing generally used. Long wave
signal transmitter. However, after sunset, changes in the
is used for radio broadcasting only in ITU region
ionosphere cause MF signals to travel by skywave, en1 (Europe, Africa, and northern and central Asia),
abling radio stations to be heard much farther from their
and is not allocated elsewhere. In the United States,
point of origin than is normal during the day. This pheCanada, Bermuda, and U.S. territories, this band
nomenon can be easily observed by scanning the medium
is mainly reserved for aeronautics navigational aids,
wave radio dial at night. As a result, many broadcast
though a small section of the band could theostations are required as a condition of license to reduce
retically be used for microbroadcasting under the
their broadcasting power signicantly (or use directional
United States Part 15 rules. Due to the propagation
antennas) after sunset, or even to suspend broadcasting
characteristics of long wave signals, the frequencies
entirely during nighttime hours. Such stations are comare used most eectively in latitudes over 50 from
monly referred to as daytimers. In Australia medium
the equator.
wave stations are not required to reduce their power at
night and consequently stations such as the 50,000-watt
Medium wave is MF waves from 526.51,606.5
774 ABC Melbourne can be heard in some parts of New
kHz in ITU regions 1 and 3, with 9 kHz spacing,
Zealand at night.
and 5401610 kHz in ITU region 2 (the AmeriFrom 1941 to 1983, the North American Regional
cas), with 10 kHz spacing. ITU region 2 also auBroadcasting Agreement allowed clear channel status to
thorizes the Extended AM broadcast band between
some stations, meaning that few if any other stations
1610 and 1710 kHz, previously used for police rawere granted permission to broadcast on or near their fredio. Medium wave is the most heavily used band
quency. This allowed an extended coverage area when
for commercial broadcasting. This is the AM raskywave propagation takes over at night, starting at or
dio that most people are familiar with.
near local sunset. Relatively few stations enjoy clear Short wave is HF waves from approximately 2.3
channel status; most local MW stations rely on ground26.1 MHz, divided into 14 broadcast bands. Shortwave coverage only, limiting their target market to their
wave broadcasts generally use a narrow 5 kHz chanown local area. Non-clear channel stations typically have
nel spacing. Short wave is used by audio services inreduced coverage at night, due to noise and the interfertended to be heard at great distances from the transence caused by other stations propagating in via skywave
mitting station. The long range of short wave broadafter dark. The area covered by a local station at night
casts comes at the expense of lower audio delity.
without signicant skywave interference is known as the
The mode of propagation for short wave is diernighttime interference-free (NIF) contour, and is typient (see high frequency). AM is used mostly by
cally specied in mV/m (signal strength). The higher the
broadcast services; other shortwave users may use
NIF value, the stronger the local signal must be to overa modied version of AM such as SSB or an AMride nighttime interference, resulting in a smaller covercompatible version of SSB such as SSB with carrier
age area and fewer listeners able to hear the station withreinserted.
out interference.

13.6. MICROBROADCASTING

83

Frequencies between the broadcast bands are used for transmitted via antenna, but via electric power cables,
other forms of radio communication, and are not broad- which radiate a signal receivable at a short distance from
cast services intended for reception by the general public. wherever the cables run. The signal is normally blocked
by power transformers, so the range depends on the distance before a transformer is encountered. The only surviving use of this technology in the U.S. is in college and
13.4 Limitations
high school radio, and for highway emergency warnings,
for which limited range is adequate, and whose signs diBecause of its relatively low audio quality due to au- rect drivers to an AM frequency e.g., Tune to 1680
dio bandwidth limitations, and its susceptibility to atmo- AM when ashing to receive an emergency message.
spheric and electrical interference, AM broadcasting now
attracts mainly talk radio and news programming, while While uncommon, AM stereo transmissions are possimusic radio and public radio mostly shifted to FM broad- ble using a variety of means. In addition, hybrid digicasting in the late 1970s in the developed countries. How- tal broadcast systems, which combine (mono analog) AM
ever, in the late 1960s and 1970s, top 40 rock and roll sta- and digital broadcasting technology, are now being used
tions in the U.S. and Canada such as WABC and CHUM around the world. In the United States, iBiquity's protransmitted highly processed and extended audio to 11 prietary HD Radio has been adopted and approved by
kHz, successfully attracting huge audiences. In the UK the FCC for medium wave transmissions, while Digital
during the 1980s, the national speech station, BBC Ra- Radio Mondiale is a more open eort often used on the
dio 4, had an FM location, whereas BBC Radio 1, a mu- shortwave bands, and can be used alongside many AM
sic station, was conned to AM broadcasts. Frequency broadcasts. Both of these standards are capable of broadresponse is typically 40 Hz5 kHz with a 50 dB signal to casting audio of signicantly greater delity than that of
standard AM with current bandwidth limitations, and a
noise (S/N) ratio.
theoretical frequency response of 016 kHz, in addition
The limitation on AM delity comes partly from current to stereo sound and text data.
receiver design, and eorts have been made to improve
this, notably the AMAX standards. Moreover, to t more While FM radio can also be received by cable, AM radio
transmitters on the MW broadcast band in the United generally is not available, although AM stations are someStates, maximum transmitted audio bandwidth is limited times converted into FM cable signals. In Canada, cable
to 10.2 kHz by a National Radio Systems Committee operators that oer FM cable services are required by the
(NRSC) standard adopted by the FCC in June 1989, re- CRTC to distribute all locally available AM stations in
sulting in a channel occupied bandwidth of 20.4 kHz. The this manner. In Switzerland a system known as wire
former audio limitation was 15 kHz resulting in a channel broadcasting (Telefonrundspruch in German) transmitted AM signals over telephone lines in the longwave
occupied bandwidth of 30 kHz.
band until 1998, when it was shut down.[31] In the UK,
Modern domestic radio receivers with digital tuning are Rediusion was an early pioneer of AM radio cable disusually incapable of ne-tuning in 1 kHz steps. On ra- tribution.
dios with analog dial tuning (or 1 kHz step capable digital tuning), slight detuning of an AM station could often
improve listenability, where for instance interference is
present to one side only of the RF channel.
13.6 Microbroadcasting
AM radio signals can be severely disrupted in large urban
centres by metal structures, tall buildings and sources of
radio frequency interference (RFI) and electrical noise,
such as electrical motors, uorescent lights, or lightning.
As a result, AM radio in many countries has lost its dominance as a music broadcasting service, and in many cities
is now relegated to news, sports, religious and talk radio stations. Some musical genres particularly country,
oldies, nostalgia and ethnic music survive on AM, especially in areas where FM frequencies are in short supply
or in thinly populated or mountainous areas where FM
coverage is poor.

See also: Low-power broadcasting

Some microbroadcasters and pirate radio broadcasters,


especially those in the United States under the FCCs Part
15 rules, broadcast on AM to achieve greater range than
is possible on the FM band. On mediumwave (AM),
such radio stations are often found between 1610 kHz and
1710 kHz. Hobbyists also use low-power AM (LPAM)
transmitters to provide programming for vintage radio
equipment in areas where AM programming is not widely
available or does not carry programming the listener desires; in such cases the transmitter, which is designed to
cover only the immediate property and perhaps nearby
13.5 Other distribution methods
areas, is connected to a computer, an FM radio or an
MP3 player. Microbroadcasting and pirate radio have
Beginning in the 1950s, carrier current distribution was been greatly supplemented by streaming audio on the Inused. In this modality the AM broadcast signal is not ternet, but some schools or hobbyists still use LPAM as

84
a means of broadcasting as each are distinctly dierent
technologies.

13.7 See also


Amplitude modulation
Amplitude Modulation Signalling System, a digital
system for adding low bitrate information to an AM
broadcast signal.
MW DXing, the hobby of receiving distant AM radio stations on the mediumwave band.
FM broadcasting
History of radio
Extended AM broadcast band
CAM-D, a hybrid digital radio format for AM
broadcasting
List of 50 kW AM radio stations in the United States
Lists of radio stations in North America
Oldest radio station

13.8 References
[1] Nahin, Paul J. (2001). The Science of Radio: With Matlab and Electronics Workbench Demonstration, 2nd Ed.
Springer Science & Business Media. pp. xxxix. ISBN
0387951504.
[2] Greb, Gordon; Adams, Mike (2003). Charles Herrold,
Inventor of Radio Broadcasting. McFarland. pp. 220
221. ISBN 0786483598.
[3] "Lee De Forest as Early Radio Broadcaster" on De Forest.com website excerpted from Adams, Mike (1996).
The Race for the Radiotelephone:1900-1920". The
AWA Review. Antique Wireless Association. 10: 78119.
[4] Sarkar, T. K.; Mailloux, Robert; Oliner, Arthur A.; et al.
(2006). History of Wireless. John Wiley & Sons. p. 408.
ISBN 0-471-78301-3.
[5] Klooster, John W. (2009). Icons of Invention: The Makers of the Modern World from Gutenberg to Gates. ABCCLIO. p. 397. ISBN 0313347433.

CHAPTER 13. AM BROADCASTING

[8] Belrose, John S. (September 1994). Fessenden and the


Early History of Radio Science. The Radioscientist.
IEEE. 5 (3). Retrieved September 10, 2013. on Inst. of
Electrical and Electronic Engineers, Canada website
[9] Superheterodyne Receivers. ES310: Introduction to
Naval Weapons Engineering. Federation of American Scientists. 1998. Retrieved September 10, 2013.
[10] Verghese, George; Hari Balakrishnan (2013). Ch. 14:
Modulation and Demodulation, p. 189,192 (PDF). Lecture Notes Introduction to EECS 2: Digital Communications Systems. Electrical Engineering Dept., Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Retrieved September
10, 2013.
[11] Ch. 1: Amplitude Modulation, p. 2,10-11, 42-43
(PDF). Navy MARS Operator (NMO) course. Military
Auxiliary Radio System National Tranining and Skills
Development website. 2011. Retrieved September 10,
2013.
[12] Bertrand, Ron (2011). Reading 30: AM Transmitters and Receivers (PDF). Online Radio and Electronics
Course. Arcade archive. Retrieved September 10, 2013.
[13] "The process of combining two frequencies in a nonlinear device and producing new frequencies is called mixing,
modulating, heterodyning, beating, or frequency conversion" Bureau of Naval Personnel (1973). Rate Training
Manual 0087-C: Basic Electronics. Courier Dover Publications,. p. 338. ISBN 0486210766.
[14] Richter, William A. (2006). Radio: A Complete Guide to
the Industry. Peter Lang. p. 12. ISBN 0820476331.
[15] Lee, Thomas H. (2004). Planar Microwave Engineering: A Practical Guide to Theory, Measurement, and Circuits, Vol. 1. Cambridge Univ. Press. p. 11. ISBN
0521835267.
[16] Adams, Mike (2011). Lee de Forest: King of Radio, Television, and Film. US: Springer. pp. 99101. ISBN
1461404185.
[17] De Forest, Lee, Sterling, Christopher H.; O'Dell, Cary;
Keith, Michael C., eds. (2011). The Biographical Encyclopedia of American Radio. Routledge. pp. 9496.
ISBN 0415995493.
[18] Herrold, Charles D., Sterling, Christopher H.; O'Dell,
Cary; Keith, Michael C., eds. (2011). The Biographical
Encyclopedia of American Radio. Routledge. pp. 169
170. ISBN 0415995493.
[19] Greb 2003, Charles Herrold, Inventor of Radio Broadcasting, p. 150

[6] Fessenden, Reginald, Sterling, Christopher H.; O'Dell,


Cary; Keith, Michael C., eds. (2011). The Biographical
Encyclopedia of American Radio. Routledge. pp. 136
139. ISBN 0415995493.

[20] The First Radio Broadcast. The Sydney Morning Herald. Sydney, Australia: Fairfax Media. March 29, 1939.
p. 19. Retrieved 27 September 2013.

[7] Davis, L. J. (2012). Fleet Fire: Thomas Edison and the


Pioneers of the Electric Revolution. Skyhorse Publishing
Inc. ISBN 1611456592.

[21] Wireless Transmission of News. Telephony. Chicago:


Telephony Publishing Co. 71 (27): 3233. December
10, 1916. Retrieved December 23, 2015.

13.9. EXTERNAL LINKS

85

[22] Election returns ashed by radio to 7000 amateurs


(PDF). Electrical Experimenter. New York: The Experimenter Publishing Co. 4 (9): 650. January 1917. Retrieved April 3, 2015.
[23] Greb 2003, Charles Herrold, Inventor of Radio Broadcasting, p. 155
[24] Street, Sean (2002). A Concise History of British Radio, 1922-2002. Kelly Publications. pp. 1724. ISBN
1903053145.
[25] Jim Cox (2009). American Radio Networks: A History.
McFarland. pp. 5. ISBN 978-0-7864-5424-2.
[26] Hilmes, Michele (2011). Network Nations: A Transnational History of British and American Broadcasting.
Routledge. p. 6. ISBN 0415883857.
[27] A Concise History of British Radio, 1922-2002.
google.com.
[28] A Concise History of British Radio, 1922-2002.
google.com.
[29] McNicol, Donald (1946) Radios Conquest of Space, p.
336-340
[30] See FM broadcasting in the United States and FM broadcast band.
[31] Sammlung alter Biennophone-Radios.
phone.ch. Retrieved 7 February 2013.

Bienno-

13.9 External links


Building the Broadcast Band the development of
the 5201700 kHz MW (AM) band
Chrome and Glass Shine Again: Hams Give Second
Life to Legendary Transmitters With Names Like
RCA, Collins, Gates and Raytheon
UK radio stations broadcasting on AM

Chapter 14

Heterodyne
This article is about waveform manipulation. For other method of making continuous wave radiotelegraphy siguses, see Heterodyne (disambiguation).
nals audible. Fessendens receiver did not see much apHeterodyning is a radio signal processing technique in- plication because of its local oscillators stability problem. While complex isochronous electromechanical oscillators existed, a stable yet inexpensive local oscillator
Ideal Mixer
was not available until Lee de Forest invented the triode
(Multiplier)
vacuum tube oscillator.[5] In a 1905 patent, Fessenden
stated the frequency stability of his local oscillator was
Input
Output
one part per thousand.[6]
Signal

Signal

Early spark gap radio transmitters sent information exclusively by means of radio telegraphy. In radio telegraphy, the characters of text messages are translated into
the short duration dots and long duration dashes of Morse
code that are broadcast as bursts of radio waves. The
Local
heterodyne detector was not needed to hear the signals
Oscillator
produced by these spark gap transmitters. The transmitted damped wave signals were amplitude modulated at
Frequency mixer symbol used in schematic diagrams.
an audio frequency by the spark. A simple detector produced an audible buzzing sound in the radiotelegraph opvented in 1901 by Canadian inventor-engineer Reginald erators headphones that could be transcribed back into
Fessenden that creates new frequencies by combining alpha-numeric characters.
or mixing two frequencies.[1][2][3] Heterodyning is used
With the advent of the arc converter, continuous wave
to shift one frequency range into another, new one,
(CW) transmitters were adopted. CW Morse code signals
and is also involved in the processes of modulation and
are not amplitude modulated, so a dierent detector was
demodulation.[2][4] The two frequencies are combined in
needed. The direct-conversion detector was invented to
a nonlinear signal-processing device such as a vacuum
make continuous wave radio-frequency signals audible.[7]
tube, transistor, or diode, usually called a mixer.[2] In the
most common application, two signals at frequencies f 1 The heterodyne or beat receiver has a local beat freand f 2 are mixed, creating two new signals, one at the quency oscillator (BFO) that produces a radio signal adsum f 1 + f 2 of the two frequencies, and the other at the justed to be close in frequency to the incoming signal bedierence f 1 f 2 .[3] These new frequencies are called ing received. When the two signals are mixed, a beat
heterodynes. Typically only one of the new frequencies frequency equal to the dierence between the two freis desired, and the other signal is ltered out of the output quencies is created. By adjusting the local oscillator freof the mixer. Heterodynes are related to the phenomenon quency correctly, the beat frequency is in the audio range,
and can be heard as a tone in the receivers earphones
of "beats" in acoustics.
whenever the transmitter signal is present. Thus the
A major application of the heterodyne process is in the
Morse code dots and dashes are audible as beeping
superheterodyne radio receiver circuit, which is used in
sounds. This technique is still used in radio telegraphy,
virtually all modern radio receivers.
the local oscillator now being called the beat frequency
oscillator or BFO. Fessenden coined the word heterodyne from the Greek roots hetero- dierent, and dyn14.1 History
power (cf. or dunamis).[8]
In 1901, Reginald Fessenden demonstrated a directconversion heterodyne receiver or beat receiver as a
86

14.2. APPLICATIONS

14.1.1

Superheterodyne receiver

The most important and widely used application of the


heterodyne technique is in the superheterodyne receiver
(superhet), invented by U.S. engineer Edwin Howard
Armstrong in 1918. In this circuit, the incoming radio
frequency signal from the antenna is mixed with a signal from a local oscillator and converted by the heterodyne technique to a somewhat lower xed frequency signal called the intermediate frequency (IF). This IF signal is amplied and ltered, before being applied to a
detector that extracts the audio signal, which is sent to
the loudspeaker.
The advantage of this technique is that the dierent frequencies of the dierent stations received are all converted to the same IF before amplication and ltering. The complicated amplier and bandpass lter stages,
which in previous receivers had to be made tunable to
work at the dierent station frequencies, in the superheterodyne can be built to work at one xed frequency,
the IF, simplifying their design. Another advantage is
that the IF is at a considerably lower frequency than the
RF frequency of the incoming radio signal.
The superior superheterodyne system replaced the earlier TRF and regenerative receiver designs, and since the
1930s almost all commercial radio receivers have been
superheterodynes.

14.2 Applications
Heterodyning, also called frequency conversion, is used
very widely in communications engineering to generate
new frequencies and move information from one frequency channel to another. Besides its use in the superheterodyne circuit found in almost all radio and television receivers, it is used in radio transmitters, modems,
satellite communications and set-top boxes, radar, radio
telescopes, telemetry systems, cell phones, cable television converter boxes and headends, microwave relays,
metal detectors, atomic clocks, and military electronic
countermeasures (jamming) systems.

14.2.1

Up and down converters

In large scale telecommunication networks such as


telephone network trunks, microwave relay networks,
cable television systems, and communication satellite
links, large bandwidth capacity links are shared by many
individual communication channels by using heterodyning to move the frequency of the individual signals up to
dierent frequencies, which share the channel. This is
called frequency division multiplexing (FDM).

87
don't interfere with one another. At the cable source or
headend, electronic upconverters convert each incoming
television channel to a new, higher frequency. They do
this by mixing the television signal frequency, fCH with
a local oscillator at a much higher frequency fLO, creating a heterodyne at the sum fCH + fLO, which is added
to the cable. At the consumers home, the cable set top
box has a downconverter that mixes the incoming signal
at frequency fCH + fLO with the same local oscillator frequency fLO creating the dierence heterodyne, converting the television channel back to its original frequency:
(fCH + fLO) fLO = fCH. Each channel is moved to
a dierent higher frequency. The original lower basic
frequency of the signal is called the baseband, while the
higher channel it is moved to is called the passband.

14.2.2 Analog videotape recording


Many analog videotape systems rely on a downconverted
color subcarrier to record color information in their limited bandwidth. These systems are referred to as heterodyne systems or color-under systems. For instance,
for NTSC video systems, the VHS (and S-VHS) recording system converts the color subcarrier from the NTSC
standard 3.58 MHz to ~629 kHz.[9] PAL VHS color subcarrier is similarly downconverted (but from 4.43 MHz).
The now-obsolete 3/4 U-matic systems use a heterodyned ~688 kHz subcarrier for NTSC recordings (as does
Sony's Betamax, which is at its basis a 1/2 consumer version of U-matic), while PAL U-matic decks came in two
mutually incompatible varieties, with dierent subcarrier
frequencies, known as Hi-Band and Low-Band. Other
videotape formats with heterodyne color systems include
Video-8 and Hi8.[10]
The heterodyne system in these cases is used to convert quadrature phase-encoded and amplitude modulated
sine waves from the broadcast frequencies to frequencies
recordable in less than 1 MHz bandwidth. On playback,
the recorded color information is heterodyned back to the
standard subcarrier frequencies for display on televisions
and for interchange with other standard video equipment.
Some U-matic (3/4) decks feature 7-pin mini-DIN connectors to allow dubbing of tapes without a heterodyne
up-conversion and down-conversion, as do some industrial VHS, S-VHS, and Hi8 recorders.

14.2.3 Music synthesis

The theremin, an electronic musical instrument, traditionally uses the heterodyne principle to produce a variable audio frequency in response to the movement of the
musician's hands in the vicinity of one or more antennas, which act as capacitor plates. The output of a xed
For example, a coaxial cable used by a cable television radio frequency oscillator is mixed with that of an oscilsystem can carry 500 television channels at the same time lator whose frequency is aected by the variable capacbecause each one is given a dierent frequency, so they itance between the antenna and the thereminist as that

88

CHAPTER 14. HETERODYNE

person moves her or his hand near the pitch control an- The right hand side shows that the resulting signal is the
tenna. The dierence between the two oscillator frequen- dierence of two sinusoidal terms, one at the sum of the
cies produces a tone in the audio range.
two original frequencies, and one at the dierence, which
The ring modulator is a type of heterodyne incorporated can be considered to be separate signals.
into some synthesizers or used as a stand-alone audio ef- Using this trigonometric identity, the result of multiplying
fect.
two sine wave signals, sin(2f1 t) and sin(2f2 t) can be
calculated:

14.2.4

Optical heterodyning

Optical heterodyne detection (an area of active research)


is an extension of the heterodyning technique to higher
(visible) frequencies. This technique could greatly improve optical modulators, increasing the density of information carried by optical bers. It is also being applied
in the creation of more accurate atomic clocks based on
directly measuring the frequency of a laser beam. See
NIST subtopic 9.07.9-4.R for a description of research
on one system to do this.[11][12]
Since optical frequencies are far beyond the manipulation capacity of any feasible electronic circuit, all photon
detectors are inherently energy detectors not oscillating
electric eld detectors. However, since energy detection
is inherently square-law detection, it intrinsically mixes
any optical frequencies present on the detector. Thus,
sensitive detection of specic optical frequencies necessitates optical heterodyne detection, in which two dierent (close-by) wavelengths of light illuminate the detector so that the oscillating electrical output corresponds to
the dierence between their frequencies. This allows extremely narrow band detection (much narrower than any
possible color lter can achieve) as well as precision measurements of phase and frequency of a light signal relative
to a reference light source, as in a laser Doppler vibrometer.

sin(2f1 t) sin(2f2 t) =

1
1
cos[2(f1 f2 )t] cos[2(f1 +f2 )t]
2
2

The result is the sum of two sinusoidal signals, one at the


sum f 1 + f 2 and one at the dierence f 1 f 2 of the original frequencies

14.3.1 Mixer
The two signals combine in a device called a mixer. As
seen in the previous section, an ideal mixer would be a
device that multiplies the two signals. Some widely used
mixer circuits, such as the Gilbert cell, operate in this
way, but they are limited to lower frequencies. However,
any nonlinear electronic component also multiplies signals applied to it, producing heterodyne frequencies in its
outputso a variety of nonlinear components serve as
mixers. A nonlinear component is one in which the output current or voltage is a nonlinear function of its input. Most circuit elements in communications circuits
are designed to be linear. This means they obey the
superposition principle; if F(v) is the output of a linear
element with an input of v:

This phase sensitive detection has been applied for


Doppler measurements of wind speed, and imaging F (v1 + v2 ) = F (v1 ) + F (v2 )
through dense media. The high sensitivity against background light is especially useful for lidar.
So if two sine wave signals at frequencies f 1 and f 2 are
In optical Kerr eect (OKE) spectroscopy, optical het- applied to a linear device, the output is simply the sum
erodyning of the OKE signal and a small part of the probe of the outputs when the two signals are applied sepasignal produces a mixed signal consisting of probe, het- rately with no product terms. Thus, the function F must
erodyne OKE-probe and homodyne OKE signal. The be nonlinear to create heterodynes (mixer products). A
probe and homodyne OKE signals can be ltered out, perfect multiplier only produces mixer products at the
sum and dierence frequencies (f 1 f 2 ), but more genleaving the heterodyne signal for detection.
eral nonlinear functions produce higher order mixer products: nf 1 + mf 2 for integers n and m. Some mixer
designs, such as double-balanced mixers, suppress some
14.3 Mathematical principle
high order undesired products, while other designs, such
as harmonic mixers exploit high order dierences.
Heterodyning is based on the trigonometric identity:
Examples of nonlinear components that are used as mixers are vacuum tubes and transistors biased near cuto (class C), and diodes. Ferromagnetic core inductors
1
1
sin 1 sin 2 = cos(1 2 ) cos(1 + 2 )
driven into saturation can also be used at lower frequen2
2
cies. In nonlinear optics, crystals that have nonlinear
The product on the left hand side represents the multipli- characteristics are used to mix laser light beams to crecation (mixing) of a sine wave with another sine wave. ate heterodynes at optical frequencies.

14.5. NOTES

14.3.2

Output of a mixer

To demonstrate mathematically how a nonlinear component can multiply signals and generate heterodyne frequencies, the nonlinear function F can be expanded in
a power series (MacLaurin series):

F (v) = 1 v + 2 v 2 + 3 v 3 +
To simplify the math, the higher order terms above 2 are
indicated by an ellipsis (". . .) and only the rst terms are
shown. Applying the two sine waves at frequencies 1 =
2f 1 and 2 = 2f 2 to this device:

vout = F (A1 sin 1 t + A2 sin 2 t)

89
Homodyne
Superheterodyne receiver
Transverter
Intermodulation a problem with strong higherorder terms produced in some non-linear mixers

14.5 Notes
[1] Christopher E. Cooper (January 2001). Physics. Fitzroy
Dearborn Publishers. pp. 25. ISBN 978-1-57958-3583. Retrieved 27 July 2013.
[2] United States Bureau of Naval Personnel (1973). Basic
Electronics. USA: Courier Dover. p. 338. ISBN 0-48621076-6.

vout = 1 (A1 sin 1 t+A2 sin 2 t)+2 (A1 sin 1 t+A2 sin 2 t)2 +

[3] Graf, Rudolf F. (1999). Modern dictionary of electronics,

2p. 344. ISBN 0-7506-9866-7.


2
Newnes.
vout = 1 (A1 sin 1 t+A2 sin 2 t)+2 (A21 sin2 1 t+2A1 A2 sin7th
1Ed.
t sinUSA:
2 t+A
2 sin 2 t)+

It can be seen that the second term above contains a product of the two sine waves. Simplifying with trigonometric
identities:

vout

[4] Horowitz, Paul; Wineld Hill (1989). The Art of Electronics, 2nd Ed. London: Cambridge University Press.
pp. 885, 897. ISBN 0-521-37095-7.

[5] Nahin 2001, p. 91, stating Fessendens circuit was ahead


of its time, however, as there simply was no technology
= 1 (A1 sin 1 t + A2 sin 2 t)
available then with which to build the required
) local oscil( 2
lator with the necessary
A22 frequency stability. Figure 7.10
A1
[1 cos 21 t] + A1 A2 [cos(1 t 2 t) cos(
2 t)] +1907 [1
cos 22 t] +
+ 2
shows1 ta+
simplied
2
2 heterodyne detector.

vout = 2 A1 A2 cos(1 2 )t2 A1 A2 cos(1 +2 )t+ [6] Fessenden 1905, p. 4


So the output contains sinusoidal terms with frequencies [7] Ashley, Charles Grinnell; Heyward, Charles Brian (1912).
Wireless Telegraphy and Wireless Telephony. Chicago:
at the sum 1 + 2 and dierence 1 2 of the two
American School of Correspondence. pp. 103/15
original frequencies. It also contains terms at the original
104/16.
frequencies and at multiples of the original frequencies
21 , 22 , 31 , 32 , etc.; the latter are called harmonics, [8] Tapan K. Sarkar, History of wireless, page 372
as well as more complicated terms at frequencies of M1
1
+ N2 , called intermodulation products. These unwanted [9] Videotape formats using 2 -inch-wide (13 mm) tape ; Retrieved
2007-01-01
frequencies, along with the unwanted heterodyne frequency, must be ltered out of the mixer output by an [10] Poynton, Charles. Digital Video and HDTV: Algorithms
electronic lter to leave the desired heterodyne.
and Interfaces San Francisco: Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, 2003 PP 582, 583 ISBN 1-55860-792-7

14.4 See also


Beat receptor
Direct-conversion receiver heterodyne conversion
of a signal directly to baseband instead of to an intermediate frequency
Heterodyne detection
Optical heterodyne detection
Beat (acoustics)
Edwin Howard Armstrong
Electroencephalography

[11] Contract Details: Robust Nanopopous Ceramic Microsensor Platform


[12] Contract Details: High Pulsed Power Varactor Multipliers
for Imaging

14.6 References
US 1050441, Fessenden, Reginald A., Electric Signaling Apparatus, published July 27, 1905, issued
January 14, 1913
Glinsky, Albert (2000), Theremin: Ether Music and
Espionage, Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press,
ISBN 0-252-02582-2

90
Nahin, Paul J. (2001), The Science of Radio with
Matlab and Electronics Workbench Demonstrations
(second ed.), New York: Springer-Verlag, AIP
Press, ISBN 0-387-95150-4

14.7 External links


Hogan, John V. L. (April 1921), The Heterodyne
Receiver, Electric Journal, 18: 116
US 706740, Fessenden, Reginald A., Wireless Signaling, published September 28, 1901, issued August 12, 1902
US 1050728, Fessenden, Reginald A., Method of
Signaling, published August 21, 1906, issued January 14, 1913

CHAPTER 14. HETERODYNE

Chapter 15

Detector (radio)
In electronics, a detector is an older term for an electronic
component in a radio receiver that recovers information
contained in a modulated radio wave. The term dates
from the rst three decades of radio (1886-1916). Unlike modern radio stations which transmit sound (an audio
signal) on the radio carrier wave, the rst radio transmitters transmitted information by wireless telegraphy, using dierent length pulses of radio waves to spell out text
messages in Morse code. So early radio receivers did not
have to extract an audio signal (sound) from the incoming radio signal, but only detect the presence or absence
of the radio signal, to produce clicks in the receivers earphones representing the Morse code symbols. The device
that did this was called a detector. A variety of dierent
detector devices, such as the coherer, electrolytic detec- A coherer detector, useful only for Morse code signals.
tor, and magnetic detector, were used during the wireless
telegraphy era.
After sound (amplitude modulation, AM) transmission began around 1920, the term evolved to mean a
demodulator, a nonlinear rectier (usually a crystal diode
or a vacuum tube) which extracted the audio signal from
the radio frequency carrier wave. This is its current
meaning, although modern detectors usually consist of A simple envelope detector
semiconductor diodes, transistors, or integrated circuits.
In a superheterodyne receiver the term is also sometimes used to refer to the mixer, the tube or transistor
which converts the incoming radio frequency signal to the
intermediate frequency. The mixer is called the rst detector, while the demodulator that extracts the audio signal from the intermediate frequency is called the second
detector.

15.1 Amplitude modulation detectors


15.1.1

form a low pass lter. If the resistor and capacitor are


correctly chosen, the output of this circuit will be a nearly
identical voltage-shifted version of the original signal.
An early form of envelope detector was the cats whisker,
which was used in the crystal set radio receiver. A later
version using a crystal diode is still used in crystal radio
sets today. The limited frequency response of the headset
eliminates the RF component, making the low pass lter
unnecessary. More sophisticated envelope detectors include the plate detector, grid-leak detector and transistor
equivalents of them, innite-impedance detectors (peak
detector circuits), and precision rectiers.

Envelope detector
15.1.2 Product detector

One major technique is known as envelope detection.


The simplest form of envelope detector is the diode detector that consists of a diode connected between the input and output of the circuit, with a resistor and capacitor
in parallel from the output of the circuit to the ground to

A product detector is a type of demodulator used for AM


and SSB signals, where the original carrier signal is removed by multiplying the received signal with a signal at
the carrier frequency (or near to it). Rather than convert-

91

92

CHAPTER 15. DETECTOR (RADIO)


radio may detect the sound of an FM broadcast by the
phenomenon of slope detection which occurs when the
radio is tuned slightly above or below the nominal broadcast frequency. Frequency variation on one sloping side
of the radio tuning curve gives the amplied signal a corresponding local amplitude variation, to which the AM
detector is sensitive. Slope detection gives inferior distortion and noise rejection compared to the following dedicated FM detectors that are normally used.

15.2.1 Phase detector

D1

E1

A phase detector is a nonlinear device whose output represents the phase dierence between the two oscillating
input signals. It has two inputs and one output: a reference signal is applied to one input and the phase or frequency modulated signal is applied to the other. The output is a signal that is proportional to the phase dierence
between the two inputs.
In phase demodulation the information is contained in the
amount and rate of phase shift in the carrier wave.

15.2.2 The Foster-Seeley discriminator


A simple crystal radio with no tuned circuit can be used to listen
to strong AM broadcast signals

ing the envelope of the signal into the decoded waveform


by rectication as an envelope detector would, the product detector takes the product of the modulated signal and
a local oscillator, hence the name. By heterodyning, the
received signal is mixed (in some type of nonlinear device) with a signal from the local oscillator, to give sum
and dierence frequencies to the signals being mixed,
just as a rst mixer stage in a superhet would produce an
intermediate frequency; the beat frequency in this case,
the low frequency modulating signal is recovered and the
unwanted high frequencies ltered out from the output of
the product detector.
Product detector circuits are analog multipliers and so essentially ring modulators or synchronous detectors and
closely related to some phase-sensitive detector circuits.
They can be implemented using something as simple as
ring of diodes or a single dual-gate Field Eect Transistor to anything as sophisticated as an Integrated Circuit
containing a Gilbert cell.

Main article: Foster-Seeley discriminator


The Foster-Seeley discriminator[1][2] is a widely used FM
detector. The detector consists of a special center-tapped
transformer feeding two diodes in a full wave DC rectier
circuit. When the input transformer is tuned to the signal
frequency, the output of the discriminator is zero. When
there is no deviation of the carrier, both halves of the
center tapped transformer are balanced. As the FM signal swings in frequency above and below the carrier frequency, the balance between the two halves of the centertapped secondary is destroyed and there is an output voltage proportional to the frequency deviation.

15.2.3 Ratio detector

The ratio detector[3][4][5][6] is a variant of the FosterSeeley discriminator, but one diode conducts in an opposite direction, and using a tertiary winding in the preceding transformer. The output in this case is taken between the sum of the diode voltages and the center tap.
The output across the diodes is connected to a large value
capacitor, which eliminates AM noise in the ratio detector output. The ratio detector has the advantage over the
15.2 Frequency and phase modula- Foster-Seeley discriminator that it will not respond to AM
signals, thus potentially saving a limiter stage; however
tion detectors
the output is only 50% of the output of a discriminator
for the same input signal. The ratio detector has wider
AM detectors cannot demodulate FM and PM signals be- bandwidth but more distortion than the Foster-Seeley discause both have a constant amplitude. However an AM criminator.

15.3. PHASE-LOCKED LOOP DETECTOR

93
nal FM signal and a square wave whose frequency equals
the FM signals center frequency. The XOR gate produces an output pulse whose duration equals the dierence between the times at which the square wave and the
received FM signal pass through zero volts. As the FM
signals frequency varies from its unmodulated center frequency (which is also the frequency of the square wave),
the output pulses from the XOR gate become longer or
shorter. (In essence, this quadrature detector converts an
FM signal into a pulse-width modulated (PWM) signal.)
When these pulses are ltered, the lters output rises as
the pulses grow longer and its output falls as the pulses
grow shorter. In this way, one recovers the original signal
that was used to modulate the FM carrier.

15.2.5 Other FM detectors


Less common, specialized, or obsolescent types of detectors include:[7]
Travis[8] or double tuned circuit discriminator using
two non-interacting tuned circuits above and below
the nominal center frequency
A ratio detector using solid-state diodes

Weiss discriminator which uses a single LC tuned


circuit or crystal

15.2.4

Pulse count discriminator which converts the frequency to a train of constant amplitude pulses, producing a voltage directly proportional to the frequency.

Quadrature detector

In quadrature detectors, the received FM signal is split


into two signals. One of the two signals is then passed
through a high-reactance capacitor, which shifts the phase
of that signal by 90 degrees. This phase-shifted signal is
then applied to an LC circuit, which is resonant at the FM
signals unmodulated, center, or carrier frequency. If
the received FM signals frequency equals the center frequency, then the two signals will have a 90-degree phase
dierence and they are said to be in phase quadrature
hence the name of this method. The two signals are
then multiplied together in an analog or digital device,
which serves as a phase detector; that is, a device whose
output is proportional to the phase dierence between
two signals. In the case of an unmodulated FM signal,
the phase detectors output is after the output has been
ltered; that is, averaged over time constant; namely,
zero. However, if the received FM signal has been modulated, then its frequency will vary from the center frequency. In this case, the resonant LC circuit will further
shift the phase of the signal from the capacitor, so that
the signals total phase shift will be the sum of the 90 degrees thats imposed by the capacitor and the positive or
negative phase change thats imposed by the LC circuit.
Now the output from the phase detector will dier from
zero, and in this way, one recovers the original signal that
was used to modulate the FM carrier.
This detection process can also be accomplished by combining, in an exclusive-OR (XOR) logic gate, the origi-

15.3 Phase-locked loop detector


The phase-locked loop detector requires no frequencyselective LC network to accomplish demodulation. In
this system, a voltage controlled oscillator (VCO) is phase
locked by a feedback loop, which forces the VCO to follow the frequency variations of the incoming FM signal.
The low-frequency error voltage that forces the VCOs
frequency to track the frequency of the modulated FM
signal is the demodulated audio output.

15.4 See also


Cats whisker detector
Coherer
Tuner (radio)
Electrolytic detector
Foster-Seeley discriminator
Grid-leak detector

94
Hot wire barretter
Magnetic detector
Plate detector
Demodulation
Tikker
Wunderlich detector

15.5 References
[1] US 2121103, Seeley, Stuart W., Frequency Variation Response Circuits, issued June 21, 1938
[2] Foster, D. E.; Seeley, S. W. (March 1937), Automatic
tuning, simplied circuits, and design practice, Proceedings of the Institute of Radio Engineers, 25 (3): 289313,
doi:10.1109/jrproc.1937.228940, part 1.
[3] US 2497840, Seeley, Stuart William, Angle Modulation
Detector, issued February 14, 1950
[4] US 2561089, Anderson, Earl I., issued July 17, 1951
[5] Report L.B.645: Ratio detectors for FM receivers
(15 September 1945) issued by the Radio Corporation
of America, RCA Laboratories Industry Service Division,
711 Fifth Avenue, N.Y., N.Y. Reprinted in Radio, pages
18-20 (October 1945).
[6] Seeley, Stuart W.; Avins, Jack (June 1947), The ratio
detector, RCA Review, 8 (2): 201236
[7] D. S. Evans and G. R. Jessup, VHF-UHF Manual (3rd Edition), Radio Society of Great Britain,London, 1976 pages
4-48 through 4-51
[8] Charles Travis, Automatic oscillator frequency control
system U.S. patent: 2,294,100 (led: 4 February 1935;
issued: August 1942). See also: Charles Travis, Automatic frequency control, Proceedings of the Institute of
Radio Engineers, vol. 23, no. 10, pages 1125-1141 (October 1935).

15.6 External links


Simple block diagrams and descriptions of key circuits
for FM transmitters and receivers:

CHAPTER 15. DETECTOR (RADIO)

Chapter 16

Rectier
For other uses, see Rectier (disambiguation).
the rectier is smoothed by an electronic lter (usually a
A rectier is an electrical device that converts capacitor) to produce a steady current.
More complex circuitry that performs the opposite function, converting DC to AC, is called an inverter.

16.1 Rectier devices


Before the development of silicon semiconductor rectiers, vacuum tube thermionic diodes and copper oxideor selenium-based metal rectier stacks were used.[1]
With the introduction of semiconductor electronics, vacuum tube rectiers became obsolete, except for some enthusiasts of vacuum tube audio equipment. For power
rectication from very low to very high current, semiconductor diodes of various types (junction diodes, Schottky
diodes, etc.) are widely used.

A rectier diode (silicon controlled rectier) and associated


mounting hardware. The heavy threaded stud attaches the device to a heatsink to dissipate heat.

alternating current (AC), which periodically reverses direction, to direct current (DC), which ows in only
one direction. The process is known as rectication.
Physically, rectiers take a number of forms, including
vacuum tube diodes, mercury-arc valves, copper and selenium oxide rectiers, semiconductor diodes, siliconcontrolled rectiers and other silicon-based semiconductor switches. Historically, even synchronous electromechanical switches and motors have been used. Early radio
receivers, called crystal radios, used a "cats whisker" of
ne wire pressing on a crystal of galena (lead sulde) to
serve as a point-contact rectier or crystal detector.
Rectiers have many uses, but are often found serving
as components of DC power supplies and high-voltage
direct current power transmission systems. Rectication
may serve in roles other than to generate direct current
for use as a source of power. As noted, detectors of radio
signals serve as rectiers. In gas heating systems ame
rectication is used to detect presence of a ame.
Because of the alternating nature of the input AC sine
wave, the process of rectication alone produces a DC
current that, though unidirectional, consists of pulses of
current. Many applications of rectiers, such as power
supplies for radio, television and computer equipment,
require a steady constant DC current (as would be produced by a battery). In these applications the output of

Other devices that have control electrodes as well as acting as unidirectional current valves are used where more
than simple rectication is requirede.g., where variable output voltage is needed. High-power rectiers, such
as those used in high-voltage direct current power transmission, employ silicon semiconductor devices of various
types. These are thyristors or other controlled switching
solid-state switches, which eectively function as diodes
to pass current in only one direction.

16.2 Rectier circuits


Rectier circuits may be single-phase or multi-phase
(three being the most common number of phases). Most
low power rectiers for domestic equipment are singlephase, but three-phase rectication is very important for
industrial applications and for the transmission of energy
as DC (HVDC).

16.2.1 Single-phase rectiers


Half-wave rectication
In half-wave rectication of a single-phase supply, either
the positive or negative half of the AC wave is passed,

95

96

CHAPTER 16. RECTIFIER

while the other half is blocked. Because only one half turns are required on the transformer secondary to obtain
of the input waveform reaches the output, mean voltage the same output voltage than for a bridge rectier, but the
is lower. Half-wave rectication requires a single diode power rating is unchanged.
in a single-phase supply, or three in a three-phase supply. Rectiers yield a unidirectional but pulsating direct
current; half-wave rectiers produce far more ripple than
full-wave rectiers, and much more ltering is needed to
eliminate harmonics of the AC frequency from the output.
Full-wave rectier using a center tap transformer and 2 diodes.

Half-wave rectier

The no-load output DC voltage of an ideal half-wave rectier for a sinusoidal input voltage is:[2]

Vrms =

Vpeak
2

Vdc =

Vpeak

where:
V , V the DC or average output voltage,
V , the peak value of the phase input voltages,
V , the root mean square (RMS) value of output voltage.

Full-wave rectier, with vacuum tube having two anodes.

The average and RMS no-load output voltages of an ideal


single-phase full-wave rectier are:

Full-wave rectication
A full-wave rectier converts the whole of the input waveform to one of constant polarity (positive or negative) at
its output. Full-wave rectication converts both polarities
of the input waveform to pulsating DC (direct current),
and yields a higher average output voltage. Two diodes
and a center tapped transformer, or four diodes in a bridge
conguration and any AC source (including a transformer
without center tap), are needed.[3] Single semiconductor
diodes, double diodes with common cathode or common
anode, and four-diode bridges, are manufactured as single components.

Vdc = Vav =

2Vpeak

Vpeak
Vrms =
2
Very common double-diode rectier vacuum tubes contained a single common cathode and two anodes inside
a single envelope, achieving full-wave rectication with
positive output. The 5U4 and 5Y3 were popular examples of this conguration.

16.2.2 Three-phase rectiers


Graetz bridge rectier: a full-wave rectier using four diodes.

For single-phase AC, if the transformer is center-tapped,


then two diodes back-to-back (cathode-to-cathode or
anode-to-anode, depending upon output polarity required) can form a full-wave rectier. Twice as many

Single-phase rectiers are commonly used for power supplies for domestic equipment. However, for most industrial and high-power applications, three-phase rectier circuits are the norm. As with single-phase rectiers,
three-phase rectiers can take the form of a half-wave
circuit, a full-wave circuit using a center-tapped transformer, or a full-wave bridge circuit.

16.2. RECTIFIER CIRCUITS

97
eect, can be thought of as a six-phase, half-wave circuit.
Before solid state devices became available, the half-wave
circuit, and the full-wave circuit using a center-tapped
transformer, were very commonly used in industrial rectiers using mercury-arc valves.[4] This was because the
three or six AC supply inputs could be fed to a corresponding number of anode electrodes on a single tank,
sharing a common cathode.
With the advent of diodes and thyristors, these circuits
have become less popular and the three-phase bridge circuit has become the most common circuit.

Three-phase bridge rectier

3-phase AC input, half- and full-wave rectied DC output waveforms

Thyristors are commonly used in place of diodes to create


a circuit that can regulate the output voltage. Many devices that provide direct current actually generate three- Disassembled automobile alternator, showing the six diodes that
phase AC. For example, an automobile alternator con- comprise a full-wave three-phase bridge rectier.
tains six diodes, which function as a full-wave rectier
for battery charging.
For an uncontrolled three-phase bridge rectier, six
diodes are used, and the circuit again has a pulse number of six. For this reason, it is also commonly referred
Three-phase, half-wave circuit
to as a six-pulse bridge.
An uncontrolled three-phase, half-wave circuit requires
three diodes, one connected to each phase. This is the
simplest type of three-phase rectier but suers from relatively high harmonic distortion on both the AC and DC
connections. This type of rectier is said to have a pulsenumber of three, since the output voltage on the DC side
contains three distinct pulses per cycle of the grid frequency.
Three-phase, full-wave circuit using center-tapped
transformer

For low-power applications, double diodes in series, with


the anode of the rst diode connected to the cathode of
the second, are manufactured as a single component for
this purpose. Some commercially available double diodes
have all four terminals available so the user can congure
them for single-phase split supply use, half a bridge, or
three-phase rectier.
For higher-power applications, a single discrete device
is usually used for each of the six arms of the bridge.
For the very highest powers, each arm of the bridge may
consist of tens or hundreds of separate devices in parallel (where very high current is needed, for example in
aluminium smelting) or in series (where very high voltages are needed, for example in high-voltage direct current power transmission).

If the AC supply is fed via a transformer with a center tap,


a rectier circuit with improved harmonic performance
can be obtained. This rectier now requires six diodes,
one connected to each end of each transformer secondary For a three-phase full-wave diode rectier, the ideal, nowinding. This circuit has a pulse-number of six, and in load average output voltage is

98

CHAPTER 16. RECTIFIER


With supply inductance taken into account, the output
voltage of the rectier is reduced to:

Vdc = Vav =

3VLLpeak
cos( + )

The overlap angle is directly related to the DC current,


and the above equation may be re-expressed as:

Vdc = Vav =

3VLLpeak
cos() 6f Lc Id

Where:
Three-phase full-wave bridge rectier circuit using thyristors as
the switching elements, ignoring supply inductance

L , the commutating inductance per phase


I , the direct current

3 3Vpeak
Vdc = Vav =

Twelve-pulse bridge

If thyristors are used in place of diodes, the output voltage


is reduced by a factor cos():

3 3Vpeak
Vdc = Vav =
cos

Or, expressed in terms of the line to line input voltage:[5]

Vdc = Vav =

3VLLpeak
cos

Where:

Twelve pulse bridge rectier using thyristors as the switching elements

Although better than single-phase rectiers or threephase half-wave rectiers, six-pulse rectier circuits still
produce considerable harmonic distortion on both the AC
and DC connections. For very high-power rectiers the
V , the peak value of the phase (line to neutwelve-pulse bridge connection is usually used. A twelvetral) input voltages,
pulse bridge consists of two six-pulse bridge circuits con, ring angle of the thyristor (0 if diodes are
nected in series, with their AC connections fed from a
used to perform rectication)
supply transformer that produces a 30 phase shift between the two bridges. This cancels many of the characThe above equations are only valid when no current is teristic harmonics the six-pulse bridges produce.
drawn from the AC supply or in the theoretical case when
the AC supply connections have no inductance. In prac- The 30 degree phase shift is usually achieved by using a
tice, the supply inductance causes a reduction of DC out- transformer with two sets of secondary windings, one in
put voltage with increasing load, typically in the range star (wye) connection and one in delta connection.
1020% at full load.
VLL , the peak value of the line to line input
voltages,

The eect of supply inductance is to slow down the transfer process (called commutation) from one phase to the
next. As result of this is that at each transition between a
pair of devices, there is a period of overlap during which
three (rather than two) devices in the bridge are conducting simultaneously. The overlap angle is usually referred
to by the symbol (or u), and may be 20 30 at full load.

16.2.3 Voltage-multiplying rectiers


Main article: voltage multiplier
The simple half-wave rectier can be built in two electrical congurations with the diode pointing in opposite
directions, one version connects the negative terminal of
the output direct to the AC supply and the other connects

16.3. RECTIFIER EFFICIENCY

99
trailing boost stage or primary high voltage (HV) source,
are used in HV laser power supplies, powering devices
such as cathode ray tubes (CRT) (like those used in CRT
based television, radar and sonar displays), photon amplifying devices found in image intensifying and photo
multiplier tubes (PMT), and magnetron based radio frequency (RF) devices used in radar transmitters and microwave ovens. Before the introduction of semiconductor electronics, transformerless powered vacuum tube receivers powered directly from AC power sometimes used
voltage doublers to generate about 170 VDC from a 100
120 V power line.

16.3 Rectier eciency


Switchable full bridge/voltage doubler.

the positive terminal of the output direct to the AC supply. By combining both of these with separate output
smoothing it is possible to get an output voltage of nearly
double the peak AC input voltage. This also provides a
tap in the middle, which allows use of such a circuit as a
split rail power supply.
A variant of this is to use two capacitors in series for the
output smoothing on a bridge rectier then place a switch
between the midpoint of those capacitors and one of the
AC input terminals. With the switch open, this circuit
acts like a normal bridge rectier. With the switch closed,
it act like a voltage doubling rectier. In other words, this
makes it easy to derive a voltage of roughly 320 V (15%,
approx.) DC from any 120 V or 230 V mains supply in
the world, this can then be fed into a relatively simple
switched-mode power supply. However, for a given desired ripple, the value of both capacitors must be twice
the value of the single one required for a normal bridge
rectier; when the switch is closed each one must lter
the output of a half-wave rectier, and when the switch
is open the two capacitors are connected in series with an
equivalent value of half one of them.

Rectier eciency () is dened as the ratio of DC output


power to the input power from the AC supply. Even with
ideal rectiers with no losses, the eciency is less than
100% because some of the output power is AC power
rather than DC which manifests as ripple superimposed
on the DC waveform. For a half-wave rectier eciency
is very poor,[6]

Pin =

Vpeak Ipeak

2
2

(the divisors are 2 rather than 2 because no power is


delivered on the negative half-cycle)
Vpeak Ipeak

Thus maximum eciency for a half-wave rectier is,


Pout =

Pout
4
= 2 40.5%
Pin

Similarly, for a full-wave rectier,


=

Pout
8
= 2 81.0%
Pin

Eciency is reduced by losses in transformer windings


and power dissipation in the rectier element itself. Eciency can be improved with the use of smoothing circuits
which reduce the ripple and hence reduce the AC content
of the output. Three-phase rectiers, especially threephase full-wave rectiers, have much greater eciencies
because the ripple is intrinsically smaller. In some threephase and multi-phase applications the eciency is high
enough that smoothing circuitry is unnecessary.[7]
=

Cockcroft Walton voltage multiplier

Cascaded diode and capacitor stages can be added to


make a voltage multiplier (Cockroft-Walton circuit).
These circuits are capable of producing a DC output 16.4 Rectier losses
voltage potential tens of times that of the peak AC input voltage, but are limited in current capacity and reg- A real rectier characteristically drops part of the input
ulation. Diode voltage multipliers, frequently used as a voltage (a voltage drop, for silicon devices, of typically

100
0.7 volts plus an equivalent resistance, in general nonlinear)and at high frequencies, distorts waveforms in
other ways. Unlike an ideal rectier, it dissipates some
power.
An aspect of most rectication is a loss from the peak input voltage to the peak output voltage, caused by the builtin voltage drop across the diodes (around 0.7 V for ordinary silicon pn junction diodes and 0.3 V for Schottky
diodes). Half-wave rectication and full-wave rectication using a center-tapped secondary produces a peak
voltage loss of one diode drop. Bridge rectication has a
loss of two diode drops. This reduces output voltage, and
limits the available output voltage if a very low alternating
voltage must be rectied. As the diodes do not conduct
below this voltage, the circuit only passes current through
for a portion of each half-cycle, causing short segments of
zero voltage (where instantaneous input voltage is below
one or two diode drops) to appear between each hump.

CHAPTER 16. RECTIFIER

V1
50Hz
0

+VO

D1

C1

R1
0V
GND

RC-Filter Rectier: This circuit was designed and simulated using


Multisim 8 software.

is reduced by the resistance of the transformer windings.


In extreme cases where many rectiers are loaded onto a
power distribution circuit, peak currents may cause diculty in maintaining a correctly shaped sinusoidal voltage
on the ac supply.

To limit ripple to a specied value the required capacitor


Peak loss is very important for low voltage rectiers (for
size is proportional to the load current and inversely proexample, 12 V or less) but is insignicant in high-voltage
portional to the supply frequency and the number of outapplications such as HVDC.
put peaks of the rectier per input cycle. The load current
and the supply frequency are generally outside the control
of the designer of the rectier system but the number of
16.5 Rectier output smoothing
peaks per input cycle can be aected by the choice of
rectier design.
A half-wave rectier only gives one peak per cycle, and
for this and other reasons is only used in very small power
supplies. A full wave rectier achieves two peaks per cycle, the best possible with a single-phase input. For threephase inputs a three-phase bridge gives six peaks per cycle. Higher numbers of peaks can be achieved by using
transformer networks placed before the rectier to convert to a higher phase order.
To further reduce ripple, a capacitor-input lter can be
used. This complements the reservoir capacitor with a
choke (inductor) and a second lter capacitor, so that
a steadier DC output can be obtained across the termiThe AC input (yellow) and DC output (green) of a half-wave nals of the lter capacitor. The choke presents a high
[8]
rectier with a smoothing capacitor. Note the ripple in the DC impedance to the ripple current. For use at power-line
frequencies inductors require cores of iron or other magsignal.
netic materials, and add weight and size. Their use in
While half-wave and full-wave rectication can deliver power supplies for electronic equipment has therefore
unidirectional current, neither produces a constant volt- dwindled in favour of semiconductor circuits such as voltage. Producing steady DC from a rectied AC supply re- age regulators.
quires a smoothing circuit or lter.[8] In its simplest form A more usual alternative to a lter, and essential if the
this can be just a reservoir capacitor or smoothing capac- DC load requires very low ripple voltage, is to follow the
itor, placed at the DC output of the rectier. There is still reservoir capacitor with an active voltage regulator ciran AC ripple voltage component at the power supply fre- cuit. The reservoir capacitor must be large enough to
quency for a half-wave rectier, twice that for full-wave, prevent the troughs of the ripple dropping below the minwhere the voltage is not completely smoothed.
imum voltage required by the regulator to produce the
Sizing of the capacitor represents a tradeo. For a given
load, a larger capacitor reduces ripple but costs more and
creates higher peak currents in the transformer secondary
and in the supply that feeds it. The peak current is set in
principle by the rate of rise of the supply voltage on the
rising edge of the incoming sine-wave, but in practice it

required output voltage. The regulator serves both to signicantly reduce the ripple and to deal with variations in
supply and load characteristics. It would be possible to
use a smaller reservoir capacitor (these can be large on
high-current power supplies) and then apply some ltering as well as the regulator, but this is not a common strat-

16.7. RECTIFICATION TECHNOLOGIES


egy. The extreme of this approach is to dispense with the
reservoir capacitor altogether and put the rectied waveform straight into a choke-input lter. The advantage of
this circuit is that the current waveform is smoother and
consequently the rectier no longer has to deal with the
current as a large current pulse, but instead the current
delivery is spread over the entire cycle. The disadvantage, apart from extra size and weight, is that the voltage
output is much lower approximately the average of an
AC half-cycle rather than the peak.

101
Thyristors are used in various classes of railway rolling
stock systems so that ne control of the traction motors
can be achieved. Gate turn-o thyristors are used to produce alternating current from a DC supply, for example
on the Eurostar Trains to power the three-phase traction
motors.[9]

16.7 Rectication technologies


16.7.1 Electromechanical

16.6 Applications
The primary application of rectiers is to derive DC
power from an AC supply (AC to DC converter). Virtually all electronic devices require DC, so rectiers are
used inside the power supplies of virtually all electronic
equipment.
Converting DC power from one voltage to another is
much more complicated. One method of DC-to-DC conversion rst converts power to AC (using a device called
an inverter), then uses a transformer to change the voltage, and nally recties power back to DC. A frequency
of typically several tens of kilohertz is used, as this requires much smaller inductance than at lower frequencies
and obviates the use of heavy, bulky, and expensive ironcored units.

Before about 1905 when tube type rectiers were developed, power conversion devices were purely electromechanical in design. Mechanical rectication systems
used some form of rotation or resonant vibration (e.g.
vibrators) driven by electromagnets, which operated a
switch or commutator to reverse the current.
These mechanical rectiers were noisy and had high
maintenance requirements. The moving parts had friction, which required lubrication and replacement due
to wear. Opening mechanical contacts under load resulted in electrical arcs and sparks that heated and eroded
the contacts. They also were not able to handle AC
frequencies above several thousand cycles per second.

Synchronous rectier
To convert alternating into direct current in electric locomotives, a synchronous rectier may be used . It consists of a synchronous motor driving a set of heavy-duty
electrical contacts. The motor spins in time with the AC
frequency and periodically reverses the connections to
the load at an instant when the sinusoidal current goes
through a zero-crossing. The contacts do not have to
switch a large current, but they must be able to carry a
large current to supply the locomotives DC traction motors.

Output voltage of a full-wave rectier with controlled thyristors

Rectiers are also used for detection of amplitude modulated radio signals. The signal may be amplied before
detection. If not, a very low voltage drop diode or a diode
biased with a xed voltage must be used. When using a
rectier for demodulation the capacitor and load resistance must be carefully matched: too low a capacitance
makes the high frequency carrier pass to the output, and
too high makes the capacitor just charge and stay charged.
Rectiers supply polarised voltage for welding. In such
circuits control of the output current is required; this is
sometimes achieved by replacing some of the diodes in
a bridge rectier with thyristors, eectively diodes whose
voltage output can be regulated by switching on and o
with phase red controllers.

Vibrating rectier
Main article: Mechanical rectier
These consisted of a resonant reed, vibrated by an alternating magnetic eld created by an AC electromagnet,
with contacts that reversed the direction of the current on
the negative half cycles. They were used in low power devices, such as battery chargers, to rectify the low voltage
produced by a step-down transformer. Another use was
in battery power supplies for portable vacuum tube radios, to provide the high DC voltage for the tubes. These
operated as a mechanical version of modern solid state
switching inverters, with a transformer to step the battery
voltage up, and a set of vibrator contacts on the transformer core, operated by its magnetic eld, to repeatedly
break the DC battery current to create a pulsing AC to

102

CHAPTER 16. RECTIFIER


[11]

but it would only be suitable for use at very low voltages because of the low breakdown voltage and the risk
of electric shock. A more complex device of this kind
was patented by G. W. Carpenter in 1928 (US Patent
1671970).[12]
When two dierent metals are suspended in an electrolyte
solution, direct current owing one way through the solution sees less resistance than in the other direction. Electrolytic rectiers most commonly used an aluminum anode and a lead or steel cathode, suspended in a solution
of tri-ammonium ortho-phosphate.
The rectication action is due to a thin coating of aluminum hydroxide on the aluminum electrode, formed
A vibrator battery charger from 1922. It produced 6A DC at 6V
by rst applying a strong current to the cell to build up
to charge automobile batteries.
the coating. The rectication process is temperaturesensitive, and for best eciency should not operate above
power the transformer. Then a second set of rectier con- 86 F (30 C). There is also a breakdown voltage where
tacts on the vibrator rectied the high AC voltage from the coating is penetrated and the cell is short-circuited.
the transformer secondary to DC.
Electrochemical methods are often more fragile than mechanical methods, and can be sensitive to usage variations, which can drastically change or completely disrupt
Motor-generator set
the rectication processes.
Similar electrolytic devices were used as lightning
Main articles: Motor-generator and Rotary converter
A motor-generator set, or the similar rotary converter, is arresters around the same era by suspending many
aluminium cones in a tank of tri-ammonium orthophosphate solution. Unlike the rectier above, only aluminium electrodes were used, and used on A.C., there
was no polarization and thus no rectier action, but the
chemistry was similar.[13]
The modern electrolytic capacitor, an essential component of most rectier circuit congurations was also developed from the electrolytic rectier.

A small motor-generator set

not strictly a rectier as it does not actually rectify current, but rather generates DC from an AC source. In
an M-G set, the shaft of an AC motor is mechanically
coupled to that of a DC generator. The DC generator
produces multiphase alternating currents in its armature
windings, which a commutator on the armature shaft converts into a direct current output; or a homopolar generator produces a direct current without the need for a
commutator. M-G sets are useful for producing DC for
railway traction motors, industrial motors and other highcurrent applications, and were common in many highpower D.C. uses (for example, carbon-arc lamp projectors for outdoor theaters) before high-power semiconduc- 16.7.3
tors became widely available.

16.7.2

Plasma type

Electrolytic

The development of vacuum tube technology in the early


The electrolytic rectier[10] was a device from the early 20th century resulted in the invention of various tubetwentieth century that is no longer used. A home-made type rectiers, which largely replaced the noisy, ineversion is illustrated in the 1913 book The Boy Mechanic cient mechanical rectiers.

16.7. RECTIFICATION TECHNOLOGIES

103
rating of more than 1 GW and 450 kV.[14][15]

Mercury-arc
Main article: Mercury-arc valve

Argon gas electron tube

Early

3-phase

industrial

mercury vapor rectier tube

150 kV mercury-arc valve


at Manitoba Hydro power station, Radisson, Canada
converted AC hydropower to DC for transmission to
distant cities.
Tungar bulbs from 1917, 2 ampere (left) and 6 ampere

A rectier used in high-voltage direct current (HVDC)


power transmission systems and industrial processing between about 1909 to 1975 is a mercury-arc rectier or
mercury-arc valve. The device is enclosed in a bulbous glass vessel or large metal tub. One electrode, the
cathode, is submerged in a pool of liquid mercury at the
bottom of the vessel and one or more high purity graphite
electrodes, called anodes, are suspended above the pool.
There may be several auxiliary electrodes to aid in starting and maintaining the arc. When an electric arc is established between the cathode pool and suspended anodes,
a stream of electrons ows from the cathode to the anodes through the ionized mercury, but not the other way
(in principle, this is a higher-power counterpart to ame
rectication, which uses the same one-way current transmission properties of the plasma naturally present in a
ame).
These devices can be used at power levels of hundreds of
kilowatts, and may be built to handle one to six phases of
AC current. Mercury-arc rectiers have been replaced by
silicon semiconductor rectiers and high-power thyristor
circuits in the mid 1970s. The most powerful mercuryarc rectiers ever built were installed in the Manitoba Hydro Nelson River Bipole HVDC project, with a combined

The General Electric Tungar rectier was an argon gaslled electron tube device with a tungsten lament cathode and a carbon button anode. It operated similarly to
the thermionic vacuum tube diode, but the gas in the tube
ionized during forward conduction, giving it a much lower
forward voltage drop so it could rectify lower voltages.
It was used for battery chargers and similar applications
from the 1920s until lower-cost metal rectiers, and later
semiconductor diodes, supplanted it. These were made
up to a few hundred volts and a few amperes rating, and
in some sizes strongly resembled an incandescent lamp
with an additional electrode.
The 0Z4 was a gas-lled rectier tube commonly used in
vacuum tube car radios in the 1940s and 1950s. It was
a conventional full-wave rectier tube with two anodes
and one cathode, but was unique in that it had no lament (thus the 0 in its type number). The electrodes
were shaped such that the reverse breakdown voltage was
much higher than the forward breakdown voltage. Once
the breakdown voltage was exceeded, the 0Z4 switched
to a low-resistance state with a forward voltage drop of
about 24 V.

104

16.7.4

CHAPTER 16. RECTIFIER

Diode vacuum tube (valve)

have both and allow the player to choose.[16]

Main article: Diode


The thermionic vacuum tube diode, originally called the 16.7.5

Solid state

Crystal detector
Main article: cats-whisker detector
The cats-whisker detector was the earliest type of semi-

Vacuum tube diodes

Fleming valve, was invented by John Ambrose Fleming


in 1904 as a detector for radio waves in radio receivers,
and evolved into a general rectier. It consisted of an
evacuated glass bulb with a lament heated by a separate
current, and a metal plate anode. The lament emitted
electrons by thermionic emission (the Edison eect), discovered by Thomas Edison in 1884, and a positive voltage on the plate caused a current of electrons through the
tube from lament to plate. Since only the lament produced electrons, the tube would only conduct current in
one direction, allowing the tube to rectify an alternating
current.

Galena cats whisker detector

conductor diode. It consisted of a crystal of some


semiconducting mineral, usually galena (lead sulde),
with a light springy wire touching its surface. Invented by
Jagadish Chandra Bose and developed by G. W. Pickard
around 1906, it served as the radio wave rectier in the
rst widely used radio receivers, called crystal radios. Its
fragility and limited current capability made it unsuitable
Vacuum diode rectiers were widely used in power supfor power supply applications. It became obsolete around
plies in vacuum tube consumer electronic products, such
1920, but later versions served as microwave detectors
as phonographs, radios, and televisions, for example the
and mixers in radar receivers during World War 2.
All American Five radio receiver, to provide the high DC
plate voltage needed by other vacuum tubes. Full-wave
versions with two separate plates were popular because Selenium and copper oxide rectiers
they could be used with a center-tapped transformer to
make a full-wave rectier. Vacuum rectiers were made Main article: Metal rectier
for very high voltages, such as the high voltage power sup- Once common until replaced by more compact and less
ply for the cathode ray tube of television receivers, and costly silicon solid-state rectiers in the 1970s, these
the kenotron used for power supply in X-ray equipment. units used stacks of metal plates and took advantage
However, compared to modern semiconductor diodes, of the semiconductor properties of selenium or copper
vacuum rectiers have high internal resistance due to oxide.[17] While selenium rectiers were lighter in weight
space charge and therefore high voltage drops, causing and used less power than comparable vacuum tube rectihigh power dissipation and low eciency. They are rarely ers, they had the disadvantage of nite life expectancy,
able to handle currents exceeding 250 mA owing to the increasing resistance with age, and were only suitable to
limits of plate power dissipation, and cannot be used for use at low frequencies. Both selenium and copper oxide
low voltage applications, such as battery chargers. An- rectiers have somewhat better tolerance of momentary
other limitation of the vacuum tube rectier is that the voltage transients than silicon rectiers.
heater power supply often requires special arrangements Typically these rectiers were made up of stacks of metal
to insulate it from the high voltages of the rectier circuit. plates or washers, held together by a central bolt, with the
In musical instrument amplication (especially for electric guitars), the slight delay or sag between a signal
increase (for instance, when a guitar chord is struck hard
and fast) and the corresponding increase in output voltage is a notable eect of tube rectication, and results in
compression. The choice between tube rectication and
diode rectication is a matter of taste; some ampliers

number of stacks determined by voltage; each cell was


rated for about 20 V. An automotive battery charger rectier might have only one cell: the high-voltage power
supply for a vacuum tube might have dozens of stacked
plates. Current density in an air-cooled selenium stack
was about 600 mA per square inch of active area (about
90 mA per square centimeter).

16.8. CURRENT RESEARCH

105

Two of three high-power thyristor valve stacks used for long distance transmission of power from Manitoba Hydro dams. Compare with mercury-arc system from the same dam-site, above.
Selenium rectier

Silicon and germanium diodes


Main article: Diode
In the modern world, silicon diodes are the most widely
used rectiers for lower voltages and powers, and have
largely replaced earlier germanium diodes. For very high
voltages and powers, the added need for controllability
has in practice led to replacing simple silicon diodes with
high-power thyristors (see below) and their newer actively
gate-controlled cousins.

o thyristors (GTO), have made smaller high voltage DC


power transmission systems economical. All of these devices function as rectiers.
As of 2009 it was expected that these high-power silicon self-commutating switches, in particular IGBTs
and a variant thyristor (related to the GTO) called the
integrated gate-commutated thyristor (IGCT), would be
scaled-up in power rating to the point that they would
eventually replace simple thyristor-based AC rectication systems for the highest power-transmission DC
applications.[18]

16.8 Current research


High power: thyristors (SCRs) and newer siliconA major area of research is to develop higher frequency
based voltage sourced converters
rectiers, that can rectify into terahertz and light frequencies. These devices are used in optical heterodyne detecMain article: high-voltage direct current
tion, which has myriad applications in optical ber communication and atomic clocks. Another prospective apIn high-power applications, from 1975 to 2000, most plication for such devices is to directly rectify light waves
mercury valve arc-rectiers were replaced by stacks of picked up by tiny antenna, called nantennas, to produce
very high power thyristors, silicon devices with two ex- DC electric power.[19] It is thought that arrays of nantentra layers of semiconductor, in comparison to a simple nas could be a more ecient means of producing solar
power than solar cells.
diode.
In medium-power transmission applications, even more
complex and sophisticated voltage sourced converter
(VSC) silicon semiconductor rectier systems, such as
insulated gate bipolar transistors (IGBT) and gate turn-

A related area of research is to develop smaller rectiers, because a smaller device has a higher cuto frequency. Research projects are attempting to develop
a unimolecular rectier, a single organic molecule that

106

CHAPTER 16. RECTIFIER

would function as a rectier.

[11] How To Make An Electrolytic Rectier.


books.com. Retrieved 2012-03-15.

16.9 See also

[12] US patent 1671970, Glenn W. Carpenter, Liquid Rectier, issued 1928-06-05

AC adapter
Active rectication
Capacitor
Diode
Direct current
High-voltage direct current
Inverter
Ripple
Synchronous rectication
Vienna rectier

16.10 References

Chestof-

[13] American Technical Society (1920). Cyclopedia of applied electricity. 2. American technical society. p. 487.
Retrieved 8 January 2013.
[14] Pictures of a mercury-arc rectier in operation can be seen
here: Belsize Park deep shelter rectier 1, Belsize Park
deep shelter rectier 2
[15] Sood, Vijay K. HVDC and FACTS Controllers: Applications Of Static Converters In Power Systems. SpringerVerlag. p. 1. ISBN 978-1-4020-7890-3. The rst 25
years of HVDC transmission were sustained by converters having mercury arc valves till the mid-1970s. The
next 25 years till the year 2000 were sustained by linecommutated converters using thyristor valves. It is predicted that the next 25 years will be dominated by forcecommutated converters [4]. Initially, this new forcecommutated era has commenced with Capacitor Commutated Converters (CCC) eventually to be replaced by selfcommutated converters due to the economic availability
of high-power switching devices with their superior characteristics.

[1] Morris, Peter Robin (1990). A History of the World Semiconductor Industry. p. 18. ISBN 978-0-86341-227-1.

[16] Hunter, Dave (September 2013). Whats The Big Deal


About Tube Rectication?". Guitar Player. p. 136.

[2] Lander, Cyril W. (1993). 2. Rectifying Circuits. Power


electronics (3rd ed.). London: McGraw-Hill. ISBN 9780-07-707714-3.

[17] H. P. Westman et al., (ed), Reference Data for Radio Engineers, Fifth Edition, 1968, Howard W. Sams and Co., no
ISBN, Library of Congress Card No. 43-14665 chapter
13

[3] Williams, B. W. (1992). Chapter 11. Power electronics


: devices, drivers and applications (2nd ed.). Basingstoke:
Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-333-57351-8.
[4] Hendrik Rissik (1941). Mercury-arc current convertors
[sic] : an introduction to the theory and practice of vapourarc discharge devices and to the study of rectication phenomena. Sir I. Pitman & sons, ltd. Retrieved 8 January
2013.
[5] Kimbark, Edward Wilson (1971). Direct current transmission. (4. printing. ed.). New York: Wiley-Interscience.
p. 508. ISBN 978-0-471-47580-4.
[6] Analog and Digital Electronics, Rectier and clipper
circuit, pages 4 and 5, retrieved 25 April 2015.
[7] Wendy Middleton, Mac E. Van Valkenburg (eds), Reference Data for Engineers: Radio, Electronics, Computer,
and Communications, p. 14. 13, Newnes, 2002 ISBN 07506-7291-9.
[8] Archived 16 February 2012 at the Wayback Machine.
[9] Mansell, A.D.; Shen, J. (1 January 1994). Pulse converters in traction applications. Power Engineering Journal.
8 (4): 183. doi:10.1049/pe:19940407.
[10] Hawkins, Nehemiah (1914). 54. Rectiers. Hawkins
Electrical Guide: Principles of electricity, magnetism, induction, experiments, dynamo. New York: T. Audel. Retrieved 8 January 2013.

[18] Arrillaga, Jos; Liu, Yonghe H; Watson, Neville R; Murray,


Nicholas J. Self-Commutating Converters for High Power
Applications. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-0-47068212-8.
[19] Idaho National Laboratory (2007). Harvesting the suns
energy with antennas. Retrieved 2008-10-03.

Chapter 17

Fleming valve

The rst prototype Fleming valves, built October 1904.

Early commercial Fleming valves used in radio receivers, 1919

The Fleming valve, also called the Fleming oscillation


valve, was a vacuum tube (or thermionic valve) invented in 1904 by John Ambrose Fleming as a detector
for early radio receivers used in electromagnetic wireless
telegraphy. It was the rst practical vacuum tube and the
rst thermionic diode, a vacuum tube whose purpose is to
conduct current in one direction and block current owing in the opposite direction. The thermionic diode was
later widely used as a rectier a device which converts alternating current (AC) into direct current (DC)
in the power supplies of a wide range of electronic devices, until largely replaced by the semiconductor diode
in the 1960s. The Fleming valve was the forerunner of all
vacuum tubes, which dominated electronics for 50 years.
The IEEE has described it as one of the most important
developments in the history of electronics,[1] and it is on
the List of IEEE Milestones for electrical engineering.

Fleming valve schematic from US Patent 803,684.

17.1 How it works


The valve consists of an evacuated glass bulb containing
two electrodes: a cathode in the form of a "lament", a
loop of carbon or ne tungsten wire, similar to that used
in the light bulbs of the time, and an anode (plate) consisting of a sheet metal plate. Although in early versions the
anode was a at metal plate placed next to the cathode,
in later versions it became a metal cylinder surrounding
the cathode. In some versions, a grounded copper screen
surrounded the bulb to shield against the inuence of external electric elds.

107

108

CHAPTER 17. FLEMING VALVE


was about 3,500 kilometres (2,200 mi). Although the
contact, reported November 12, 1901, was widely heralded as a great scientic advance at the time, there is also
some skepticism about the claim, because the received
signal, the three dots of the Morse code letter S, was so
weak the primitive receiver had diculty distinguishing it
from atmospheric radio noise caused by static discharges,
leading later critics to suggest it may have been random
noise. Regardless, it was clear to Fleming that reliable
transatlantic communication with the existing transmitter required more sensitive receiving apparatus.

Valve receiver made by Marconi Co. has two Fleming valves, in


case one burns out

In operation, a separate current ows through the cathode


lament, heating it so that some of the electrons in the
metal gain sucient energy to escape their parent atoms
into the vacuum of the tube, a process called thermionic
emission. The AC current to be rectied is applied between the lament and the plate. When the plate has a
positive voltage with respect to the lament, the electrons
are attracted to it and an electric current ows from lament to plate. In contrast, when the plate has a negative
voltage with respect to the lament, the electrons are not
attracted to it and no current ows through the tube (unlike the lament, the plate does not emit electrons). As
current can pass through the valve in one direction only,
it therefore "recties" an AC current to a pulsing DC current.
This simple operation was somewhat complicated by the
presence of residual air in the valve, as the vacuum pumps
of Flemings time were unable to create as high a vacuum
as exists in modern vacuum tubes. At high voltages, the
valve could become unstable and oscillate, but this occurred at voltages far above those normally used.

17.2 History
The Fleming valve was the rst practical application of
thermionic emission, discovered in 1873 by Frederick
Guthrie. As a result of his work on the incandescent light
bulb, Thomas Edison made his own discovery of the phenomenon in 1880, which led to it being called the Edison
eect. Edison was granted a patent for this device as part
of an electrical indicator in 1884, but did not nd a practical use for it. Professor Fleming of University College
London consulted for the Edison Electric Light Company
from 1881-1891, and subsequently for the Marconi Wireless Telegraph Company.
In 1901 Fleming designed the transmitter used by
Guglielmo Marconi in the rst transmission of radio
waves across the Atlantic from Poldhu, England, to Nova
Scotia, Canada. The distance between the two points

Thermionic diode valves derived from the Fleming valve, from


the 1930s (left) to the 1970s (right)

The receiver for the transatlantic demonstration employed a coherer, which had poor sensitivity and degraded
the tuning of the receiver. This led Fleming to look for
a detector which was more sensitive and reliable while
at the same time being better suited for use with tuned
circuits.[2][3] In 1904 Fleming tried an Edison eect bulb
for this purpose, and found that it worked well to rectify high frequency oscillations and thus allow detection
of the rectied signals by a galvanometer. On November
16, 1904, he applied for a US patent for what he termed
an oscillation valve. This patent was subsequently issued
as number 803,684 and found immediate utility in the
detection of messages sent by Morse code.

17.2.1 Oscillation valves


The Fleming valve proved to be the start of a technological revolution. After reading Flemings 1905 paper on
his oscillation valve, American engineer Lee DeForest in
1906 created a three-element vacuum tube, the Audion,
by adding a wire grid between cathode and anode. It was
the rst electronic amplifying device, allowing the creation of ampliers and continuous wave oscillators. De
Forest quickly rened his device into the triode, which
became the basis of long-distance telephone and radio
communications, radars, and early digital computers for
50 years, until the advent of the transistor in the 1960s.
Fleming sued De Forest for infringing his valve patents,
resulting in decades of expensive and disruptive litigation,
which were not settled until 1943 when the United States
Supreme Court ruled Flemings patent invalid.[4]

17.4. EXTERNAL LINKS

17.2.2

Power applications

Later, when vacuum tube equipment began to be powered


from wall power by transformers instead of batteries, the
Fleming valve was developed into a rectier to produce
the DC plate (anode) voltage required by other vacuum
tubes. Around 1914 Irving Langmuir at General Electric developed a high voltage version called the Kenotron
which was used to power x-ray tubes. As a rectier, the
tube was used for high voltage applications but its high
internal resistance made it inecient in low voltage, high
current applications. Until vacuum tube equipment was
replaced by transistors in the 1970s, radios and televisions
usually had one or more diode tubes.

17.3 References and notes


17.3.1

109
U.S. Patent 1,306,208, Jun 10, 1919 : Fleming valve
circuit improvement by R. A. Weagant
U.S. Patent 1,338,889, May 4, 1920 : Fleming valve
improvement by R. A. Weagant
U.S. Patent 1,347,894, Jul 27, 1920 : Inverter converter by L. W. Chubb
U.S. Patent 1,380,206, May 31, 1921 : Fleming
valve improvement by R. A. Weagant
U.S. Patent RE16,363, Jun 15, 1926 : Inverter converter by L. W. Chubb
U.S. Patent 1,668,060, May 1, 1928 : Fleming valve
circuit improvement by P. E. Edelman
U.S. Patent 2,472,760, Jun 7, 1949 : Electrode improvement by H. L. Ratchford

Citations

[1] "Milestones:Fleming Valve, 1904. IEEE Global History


Network. IEEE. Retrieved 29 July 2011.

17.4 External links

[2] Radio Communications: A Brief Synopsis

IEEE History Center

[3] John Ambrose Fleming (1849-1945) By W A Atherton,


Published in Wireless World August 1990

November 1904: Fleming discovers the thermionic


(or oscillation) valve, or 'diode'

[4] The Supreme Court invalidated the patent because of an


improper disclaimer and later maintained the technology
in the patent was known art when led. For more see,
Misreading the Supreme Court: A Puzzling Chapter in
the History of Radio. Mercurians.org.

17.3.2

Patents

Issued
U.S. Patent 803,684 - Instrument for converting alternating electric currents into continuous currents
(Fleming valve patent)
Cited by
U.S. Patent 1,290,438, Jan 7, 1910 : Fleming valve
improvement by R. A. Weagant
U.S. Patent 954,619, Apr 12, 1910 : John Ambrose
Fleming patent
U.S. Patent 1,379,706, Mar 10, 1917 : Fleming
valve improvement by R. A. Weagant
U.S. Patent 1,252,520, Jan 8, 1918 : Fleming valve
improvement by R. A. Weagant
U.S. Patent 1,278,535, Sep 10, 1918 : Fleming
valve improvement by R. A. Weagant
U.S. Patent 1,289,981, Dec 31, 1918 : Fleming
valve improvement by R. A. Weagant

Spark Museum
Reverse Time Page

Chapter 18

Continuous wave
A continuous wave or continuous waveform (CW)
is an electromagnetic wave of constant amplitude and
frequency; a sine wave. In mathematical analysis, it
is considered to be of innite duration. Continuous
wave is also the name given to an early method of
radio transmission, in which a sinusoidal carrier wave is
switched on and o. Information is carried in the varying
duration of the on and o periods of the signal, for example by Morse code in early radio. In early wireless telegraphy radio transmission, CW waves were also known
as undamped waves, to distinguish this method from
damped wave transmission as eected by early spark gap
style transmitters.

18.1 Radio
Very early radio transmitters used a spark gap to produce radio-frequency oscillations in the transmitting antenna. The signals produced by these spark-gap transmitters consisted of strings of brief pulses of sinusoidal
radio frequency oscillations which died out rapidly to
zero, called damped waves. The disadvantage of damped
waves was that their energy was spread over an extremely
wide band of frequencies; they had wide bandwidth. As a
result they produced electromagnetic interference (RFI)
that spread over the transmissions of stations at other frequencies.

unbroken continuous sine wave theoretically has no


bandwidth; all its energy is concentrated at a single
frequency, so it doesn't interfere with transmissions
on other frequencies. Continuous waves could not be
produced with an electric spark, but were achieved with
the vacuum tube electronic oscillator, invented around
1913 by Edwin Armstrong and Alexander Meissner. In
order to transmit information, the continuous wave must
be turned o and on with a telegraph key to produce the
dierent length pulses, dots and dashes, that spell
out text messages in Morse code, so a continuous wave
radiotelegraphy signal consists of pulses of sine waves
with a constant amplitude interspersed with gaps of no
signal. Damped wave spark transmitters were replaced
by continuous wave vacuum tube transmitters around
1920, and damped wave transmissions were nally
outlawed in 1934.

18.1.1 Key clicks


Not to be confused with Hammond organ Key click.
In on-o carrier keying, if the carrier wave is turned on
or o abruptly, communications theory can show that the
bandwidth will be large; if the carrier turns on and o
more gradually, the bandwidth will be smaller. The bandwidth of an on-o keyed signal is related to the data transmission rate as: Bn = BK where Bn is the necessary
bandwidth in hertz, B is the keying rate in signal changes
per second (baud rate), and K is a constant related to the
expected radio propagation conditions; K=1 is dicult
for a human ear to decode, K=3 or K=5 is used when
fading or multipath propagation is expected. [1] What is
transmitted in the extra bandwidth used by a transmitter
that turns on/o more abruptly is known as key clicks.
Certain types of power ampliers used in transmission
may increase the eect of key clicks.

This motivated eorts to produce radio frequency oscillations that decayed more slowly; had less damping. There
is an inverse relation between the rate of decay (the time
constant) of a damped wave and its bandwidth; the longer
the damped waves take to decay toward zero, the narrower the frequency band the radio signal occupies, so
the less it interferes with other transmissions. As more
transmitters began crowding the radio spectrum, reducing the frequency spacing between transmissions, government regulations began to limit the maximum damping
or decrement a radio transmitter could have. Manufac- The rst transmitters capable of producing continuous
turers produced spark transmitters which generated long wave, the Alexanderson alternator and vacuum tube
oscillators, became widely available after World War I.
ringing waves with minimal damping.
It was realized that the ideal radio wave for Early radio transmitters could not be modulated to transradiotelegraphic communication would be a sine mit speech, and so CW radio telegraphy was the only
wave with zero damping, a continuous wave. An form of communication available. CW still remains a
110

18.3. LASER PHYSICS

111

18.3 Laser physics


In laser physics and engineering, continuous wave or
CW refers to a laser that produces a continuous output beam, sometimes referred to as free-running, as
opposed to a q-switched, gain-switched or modelocked
laser, which has a pulsed output beam.

18.4 See also


A commercially manufactured paddle for use with electronic
keyer to generate Morse code

Amplitude modulation
The CW Operators Club
Damped wave

viable form of radio communication, many years after


voice transmission was perfected, because simple transmitters could be used, and because its signals are the form
of modulation best able to penetrate interference. The
low bandwidth of the code signal, due in part to low information transmission rate, allowed very selective lters
to be used in the receiver which blocked out much of the
atmospheric noise that would otherwise reduce the intelligibility of the signal.
Continuous-wave radio was called radiotelegraphy because like the telegraph, it worked by means of a simple
switch to transmit Morse code. However, instead of controlling the electricity in a cross-country wire, the switch
controlled the power sent to a radio transmitter. This
mode is still in common use by amateur radio operators.
In military communications and amateur radio, the terms
CW and Morse code are often used interchangeably,
despite the distinctions between the two. Morse code may
be sent using direct current in wires, sound, or light, for
example. A carrier wave is keyed on and o to represent the dots and dashes of the code elements. The carriers amplitude and frequency remains constant during
each code element. At the receiver, the received signal is mixed with a heterodyne signal from a BFO (beat
frequency oscillator) to change the radio frequency impulses to sound. Though most commercial trac has now
ceased operation using Morse it is still popular with amateur radio operators. Non-directional beacons used in air
navigation use Morse to transmit their identier.

18.2 Radar
A continuous-wave radar system is one where a continuous wave is transmitted by one aerial while a second aerial
receives the reected radio energy.

On-o keying
Tikker
Types of radio emissions

18.5 References
[1] L. D. Wolfgang, C. L. Hutchinson (ed) The ARRL Handbook for Radio Amateurs, Sixty Eighth Edition, (ARRL,
1991) ISBN 0-87259-168-9, pages 9-8, 9-9

CW Bandwidth Described

Chapter 19

Alexanderson alternator
transmit sound. Eorts were made to invent transmitters
that would produce continuous waves, a sinusoidal alternating current at a single frequency.
In an 1891 lecture, Frederick Thomas Trouton pointed
out that, if an electrical alternator were run at a great
enough cycle speed (that is, if it turned fast enough
and was built with a large enough number of magnetic
poles on its armature) it would generate continuous waves
at radio frequency.[2] Starting with Elihu Thomson in
1889,[3][4][5][6] a series of researchers built high frequency
alternators, Nikola Tesla[7][8] (1891, 15 kHz), Salomons
and Pyke[8] (1891, 9 kHz), Parsons and Ewing (1892,
14 kHz.), Siemens[8] (5 kHz), B. G. Lamme[8] (1902, 10
kHz), but none was able to reach the frequencies required
for radio transmission, above 20 kHz.[5]

Alexanderson Alternator in the Grimeton VLF transmitter.

An Alexanderson alternator is a rotating machine invented by Ernst Alexanderson in 1904 for the generation
of high-frequency alternating current for use as a radio
transmitter. It was one of the rst devices capable of generating the continuous radio waves needed for transmission of amplitude modulation (sound) by radio. It was
used from about 1910 in a few superpower longwave
radiotelegraphy stations to transmit transoceanic message
trac by Morse code to similar stations all over the world.
Although obsolete by the early 1920s due to the development of vacuum-tube transmitters, the Alexanderson
alternator continued to be used until World War 2. It is
on the list of IEEE Milestones as a key achievement in
Alexanderson 200-kW motor-alternator set installed at the US
electrical engineering.[1]
Navys New Brunswick, NJ station, 1920.

19.1 History
19.1.1

19.1.2 Construction

Prior developments

After radio waves were discovered in 1887, the rst generation of radio transmitter, the spark gap transmitters,
produced strings of damped waves, pulses of radio waves
which died out to zero quickly. By the 1890s it was realized that damped waves had disadvantages; their energy
was spread over a broad frequency bandwidth so transmitters on dierent frequencies interfered with each other,
and they could not be modulated with an audio signal to

In 1904, Reginald Fessenden contracted with General


Electric for an alternator that generated a frequency of
100,000 hertz for continuous wave radio. The alternator was designed by Ernst Alexanderson. The Alexanderson alternator was extensively used for long-wave radio
communications by shore stations, but was too large and
heavy to be installed on most ships. In 1906 the rst
50-kilowatt alternators were delivered. One was to Reginald Fessenden at Brant Rock, Massachusetts, another to
John Hays Hammond, Jr. in Gloucester, Massachusetts

112

19.2. DESIGN

113

and another to the American Marconi Company in New


Brunswick, New Jersey.
Alexanderson would receive a patent in 1911 for his device. The Alexanderson alternator followed Fessendens
rotary spark-gap transmitter as the second radio transmitter to be modulated to carry the human voice. Until
the invention of vacuum-tube (valve) oscillators in 1913
such as the Armstrong oscillator, the Alexanderson alternator was an important high-power radio transmitter, and
allowed amplitude modulation radio transmission of the
human voice. The last remaining operable Alexanderson
alternator is at the VLF transmitter Grimeton in Sweden
Rotor of 200 kW alternator
and was in regular service until 1996. It continues to be
operated for a few minutes on Alexanderson Day, which
is either the last Sunday in June or rst Sunday in July
every year.

19.1.3

Stations

19.1.4

US Navy stations

Starting in 1942 four stations were operated by US Navy:


the station at Haiku, Hawaii until 1958, Bolinas until
1946, Marion, and Tuckerton (both until 1948). Two alternators were shipped to Hawaii in 1942, one each from
Marion, MA and Bolinas, CA. Haiku received one. The
other went to Guam but returned to Haiku after World
War 2. Haiku began operation of the rst 200 kW alternator in 1943. The second alternator went into operation at Haiku in 1949. Both alternators were sold for
salvage in 1969, possibly to Kreger Company of California. The Marion station was transferred in 1949 to the
US Air Force and used until 1957 for the transmission of
weather forecasts to the arctic as well as for the Basen to
Greenland, Labrador, and Iceland. One of the alternators was scrapped in 1961 and another one was handed
over to the US oce of standard, it now resides in a
Smithsonian Institution warehouse. The two machines in
Brazil were never used because of organizational problems there. They were returned to Radio Central after
1946.

Closeup of above rotor. It has 300 narrow slots cut through the
rotor. The teeth between the slots are the magnetic poles of the
machine.

The machine operates by variable reluctance (similar to


an electric guitar pickup), changing the magnetic ux
linking two coils. The periphery of the rotor is embraced
by a circular iron stator with a C-shaped cross-section,
divided into narrow poles, the same number as the rotor
has, carrying two sets of coils. One set of coils is energized with direct current and produces a magnetic eld in
the air gap in the stator, which passes axially (sideways)
through the rotor.

As the rotor turns, alternately either an iron section of


the disk is in the gap between each pair of stator poles,
allowing a high magnetic ux to cross the gap, or else a
non-magnetic slot is in the stator gap, allowing less magnetic ux to pass. Thus the magnetic ux through the
19.2 Design
stator varies sinusoidally at a rapid rate. These changes
in ux induce a radio-frequency voltage in a second set
The Alexanderson alternator works similarly to an AC of coils on the stator.
electric generator, but generates higher-frequency current, in the radio range. The rotor has no conductive The RF collector coils are all interconnected by an outwindings or electrical connections; it consists of a solid put transformer, whose secondary winding is connected
disc of high tensile strength magnetic steel, with narrow to the antenna circuit. Modulation or telegraph keying of
slots cut in its circumference to create a series of nar- the radio frequency energy was done by a magnetic amrow teeth that function as magnetic poles. The space plier, which was also used for amplitude modulation and
between the teeth is lled with nonmagnetic material, to voice transmissions.
give the rotor a smooth surface to decrease aerodynamic The frequency of the current generated by an Alexandrag. The rotor is turned at a high speed by an electric derson alternator in hertz is the product of the number
of rotor poles and the revolutions per second. Higher
motor.

114

CHAPTER 19. ALEXANDERSON ALTERNATOR

radio frequencies thus require more poles, a higher rotational speed, or both. Alexanderson alternators were
used to produce radio waves in the very low frequency
(VLF) range, for transcontinental wireless communication. A typical alternator with an output frequency of 100
kHz had 300 poles and rotated at 20,000 revolutions per
minute (RPM) (330 revolutions per second). To produce
high power, the clearance between the rotor and stator
had to be kept to only 1 mm. The manufacture of precision machines rotating at such high speeds presented
many new problems, and Alexanderson transmitters were
bulky and very expensive.

19.2.1

Frequency control

The output frequency of the transmitter is proportional


to the speed of the rotor. To keep the frequency constant, the speed of the electric motor turning it was controlled with a feedback loop. In one method, a sample
of the output signal is applied to a high-Q tuned circuit,
whose resonant frequency is slightly above the output frequency. The generators frequency falls on the skirt of
the LC circuits impedance curve, where the impedance
increases rapidly with frequency. The output of the LC
circuit is rectied, and the resulting voltage is compared
with a constant reference voltage to produce a feedback
signal to control the motor speed. If the output frequency
gets too high, the impedance presented by the LC circuit increases, and the amplitude of the RF signal getting
through the LC circuit drops. The feedback signal to the
motor drops, and the motor slows down. Thus the alternator output frequency is locked to the tuned circuit
resonant frequency.

19.3 Performance advantages


A large Alexanderson alternator might produce 500 kW
of output radio-frequency energy and would be water- or
oil-cooled. One such machine had 600 pole pairs in the
stator winding, and the rotor was driven at 2170 RPM, for
an output frequency near 21.7 kHz. To obtain higher frequencies, higher rotor speeds were required, up to 20,000
RPM.
Along with the arc converter invented in 1903, the
Alexanderson alternator was one of the rst radio transmitters that generated continuous waves. In contrast,
the earlier spark-gap transmitters generated a string of
damped waves. These were electrically noisy"; the energy of the transmitter was spread over a wide frequency
range, so they interfered with other transmissions and operated ineciently. With a continuous-wave transmitter, all of the energy was concentrated within narrow
frequency band, so for a given output power they could
communicate over longer distances. In addition, continuous waves could be modulated with an audio signal to

carry sound. The Alexanderson alternator was one of the


rst transmitters to be used for AM transmission.
The Alexanderson alternator produced purer continuous waves than the arc converter, whose nonsinusoidal
output generated signicant harmonics, so the alternator
was preferred for long-distance telegraphy.

19.4 Disadvantages
Because of the extremely high rotational speed compared
to a conventional alternator, the Alexanderson alternator required continuous maintenance by skilled personnel. Ecient lubrication and oil or water cooling was essential for reliability which was dicult to achieve with
the lubricants available at the time. In fact, early editions
of the British Navys Admiralty Handbook of Wireless
Telegraphy cover this in considerable detail, mostly as an
explanation as to why The Navy did not use that particular technology. However, the US Navy did.
Other major problems were that changing the operating frequency was a lengthy and complicated process,
and unlike a spark transmitter, the carrier signal could
not be switched on and o at will. The latter problem
greatly complicated listening through (that is, stopping
the transmission to listen for any answer). There was also
the risk that it would allow enemy vessels to detect the
presence of the ship.
Because of the limits of the number of poles and rotational speed of a machine, the Alexanderson alternator is
at most capable of transmission in the lower mediumwave
band, with shortwave and upper bands being physically
impossible.

19.5 See also


Alexanderson Day
Tonewheel
Resolver (electrical)

19.6 Notes
[1] "Milestones:Alexanderson Radio Alternator, 1904.
IEEE Global History Network. IEEE. Retrieved 29 July
2011.
[2] earlyradiohistory.us 1892alt.htm
[3] Prof. Thomsons new alternating generator. The Electrical Engineer. Electrical Engineer Co. 11 (154): 437.
April 15, 1891. Retrieved April 18, 2015.
[4] Thomson, Elihu (September 12, 1890). letter. The
Electrician. London. 25: 529530. Retrieved April 18,
2015.

19.8. EXTERNAL LINKS

[5] Aitken, Hugh G.J. (2014). The Continuous Wave: Technology and American Radio, 1900-1932. Princeton Univ.
Press. p. 53. ISBN 1400854601.
[6] Fessenden, R. A. (1908). Wireless Telephony. Annual
Report of the Smithsonian Institution. Government Printing Oce: 172. Retrieved April 18, 2015.
[7] U.S. Patent 447,920, Nikola Tesla "Method of Operating
Arc-Lamps" (March 10, 1891)
[8] Fleming, John Ambrose (1910). The principles of electric
wave telegraphy and telephony, 2nd Ed. London: Longmans, Green and Co. pp. 510.

19.7 References
Antique Wireless Association - column edited by
Frank Lotito
David E. Fisher and Marshall J. Fisher, Tube, the
Invention of Television Counterpoint, Washington
D.C. USA, (1996) ISBN 1-887178-17-1
Hammond, John Winthrop. Men and Volts, the Story
of General Electric. Philadelphia & New York: J. B.
Lippincot (1941), pp. 349-352, 372.
Notes from the Navy Institute proceedings 1952
from M.G. Abernathy les.
Letter to M.G. Abernathy from G. Warren Clark
Captain USNR (Ret)
Letter to Mr. Mayes from Lt. Francis J. Kishima
Commanding Ocer USCG Omega Station Hawaii
Milestones:Yosami Radio Transmitting Station,
1929
E. F. W. Alexanderson, U.S. Patent 1,008,577 High
Frequency Alternator
N. Tesla, U.S. Patent 447,921

19.8 External links


Description of the 200 kW alternator at New
Brunswick
Alexanderson Alternators at Haiku Valley Oahu
Alexanderson Alternators at Marion, Massachusetts

115

Chapter 20

Lee de Forest
Lee de Forest (August 26, 1873 June 30, 1961) was
an American inventor, self-described Father of Radio, and a pioneer in the development of sound-on-lm
recording used for motion pictures. He had over 180
patents, but also a tumultuous careerhe boasted that
he made, then lost, four fortunes. He was also involved
in several major patent lawsuits, spent a substantial part
of his income on legal bills, and was even tried (and acquitted) for mail fraud. His most famous invention, in
1906, was the three-element "Audion" (triode) vacuum
tube, the rst practical amplication device. Although De
Forest had only a limited understanding of how it worked,
it was the foundation of the eld of electronics, making possible radio broadcasting, long distance telephone
lines, and talking motion pictures, among countless other
applications.

to become a famousand richinventor, and perpetually short of funds, he sought to interest companies with a
series of devices and puzzles he created, and expectantly
submitted essays in prize competitions, all with little success.
After completing his undergraduate studies, in September, 1896 de Forest began three years of postgraduate
work. However, his electrical experiments had a tendency to blow fuses, causing building-wide blackouts.
Even after being warned to be more careful, he managed
to douse the lights during an important lecture by Professor Charles Hastings, who responded by having de Forest
expelled from Sheeld.

With the outbreak of the SpanishAmerican War in


1898, de Forest enrolled in the Connecticut Volunteer
Militia Battery as a bugler, but the war ended and he
was mustered out without ever leaving the state. He then
completed his studies at Yales Sloane Physics Labora20.1 Early life
tory, earning a Doctorate in 1899 with a dissertation on
the Reection of Hertzian Waves from the Ends of ParLee de Forest was born in 1873 in Council Blus, Iowa, allel Wires, supervised by theoretical physicist Willard
the son of Anna Margaret (ne Robbins) and Henry Swift Gibbs.[3]
DeForest.[1][2] He was a direct descendant of Jess de
Forest, the leader of a group of Walloon Huguenots who
ed Europe in the 17th Century due to religious persecu20.2 Early radio work
tion.
De Forests father was a Congregational Church minister
who hoped his son would also become a pastor. In 1879
the elder de Forest became president of the American
Missionary Associations Talladega College in Talladega,
Alabama, a school open to all of either sex, without regard to sect, race, or color, and which primarily educated
African-Americans. Many of the local white citizens resented the school and its mission, and Lee spent most of
his youth in Talladega isolated from the white community, with several close friends among the black children
of the town.

De Forest was convinced there was a great future in radiotelegraphic communication (then known as "wireless
telegraphy"), but Italian Guglielmo Marconi, who received his rst patent in 1896, was already making impressive progress in both Europe and the United States.
One drawback to Marconis approach was his use of a
coherer as a receiver, which, while providing for permanent records, was also slow (after each received Morse
code dot or dash, it had to be tapped to restore operation), insensitive, and not very reliable. De Forest was
determined to devise a better system, including a selfrestoring detector that could receive transmissions by ear,
thus making it capable of receiving weaker signals and
also allowing faster Morse code sending speeds.

De Forest prepared for college by attending Mount Hermon Boys School in Mount Hermon, Massachusetts for
two years, beginning in 1891. In 1893, he enrolled in a
three-year course of studies at Yale University's Sheeld
Scientic School in New Haven, Connecticut, on a $300 After making unsuccessful inquiries about employment
per year scholarship that had been established for rela- with Nikola Tesla and Marconi, de Forest struck out on
tives of David de Forest. Convinced that he was destined his own. His rst job after leaving Yale was with the
116

20.3. AMERICAN DE FOREST WIRELESS TELEGRAPH COMPANY

De Forest, some time between 1914 and 1922, with two of his
Audions, a small 1 watt receiving tube (left), and a later 250-watt
transmitting power tube (right), which he called an oscillion.

Western Electric Companys telephone lab in Chicago,


Illinois. While there he developed his rst receiver, which
was based on ndings by two German scientists, Drs. A.
Neugschwender and Emil Aschkinass. Their original design consisted of a mirror in which a narrow, moistened
slit had been cut through the silvered back. Attaching
a battery and telephone receiver, they could hear sound
changes in response to radio signal impulses. De Forest,
along with Ed Smythe, a co-worker who provided nancial and technical help, developed variations they called
responders.

117

The race eort turned out to be an almost total failure. The Freeman transmitter broke down in a t of
rage, de Forest threw it overboard and had to be replaced by an ordinary spark coil. Even worse, the American Wireless Telephone and Telegraph Company, which
claimed its ownership of Amos Dolbear's 1886 patent for
wireless communication meant it held a monopoly for all
wireless communication in the United States, had also
set up a powerful transmitter. None of these companies had eective tuning for their transmitters, so only
one could transmit at a time without causing mutual interference. Although an attempt was made to have the
three systems avoid conicts by rotating operations over
ve-minute intervals, the agreement broke down, resulting in chaos as the simultaneous transmissions clashed
with each other.[5] De Forest ruefully noted that under
these conditions the only successful wireless communication was done by visual semaphore wig-wag ags.[6]
(The 1903 International Yacht races would be a repeat
of 1901 Marconi worked for the Associated Press, de
Forest for the Publishers Press Association, and the unaliated International Wireless Company (successor to
1901s American Wireless Telephone and Telegraph) operated a high-powered transmitter that was primarily used
to drown out the other two.) [7]

20.3 American De Forest Wireless


Telegraph Company
Despite this setback, de Forest remained in the New York
City area, in order to raise interest in his ideas and capital to replace the small working companies that had been
formed to promote his work thus far. In January, 1902
he met a promoter, Abraham White, who would become
de Forests main sponsor for the next ve years. White
envisioned bold and expansive plans that enticed the inventor however, he was also dishonest and much of
the new enterprise would be built on wild exaggeration
and stock fraud. To back de Forests eorts, White incorporated the American DeForest Wireless Telegraph
Company, with himself as the companys president, and
de Forest the Scientic Director. The company claimed
as its goal the development of world-wide wireless.

A series of short-term positions followed, including three


unproductive months with Professor Johnsons American
Wireless Telegraph Company in Milwaukee, Wisconsin,
and work as an assistant editor of the Western Electrician
in Chicago. With radio research his main priority, de Forest next took a night teaching position at the Lewis Institute, which freed him to conduct experiments at the Armour Institute.[4] By 1900, using a spark-coil transmitter
and his responder receiver, de Forest expanded his transmitting range to about seven kilometers (four miles). Professor Clarence Freeman of the Armour Institute became The original responder receiver (also known as the goo
interested in de Forests work and developed a new type anti-coherer) proved to be too crude to be commercialized, and de Forest struggled to develop a non-infringing
of spark transmitter.
De Forest soon felt that Smythe and Freeman were hold- device for receiving radio signals. In 1903, Reginald
ing him back, so in the fall of 1901 he made the bold Fessenden demonstrated an electrolytic detector, and de
decision to go to New York to compete directly with Forest developed a variation, which he called the spade
Marconi in transmitting race results for the International detector, claiming it did not infringe on Fessendens
Yacht races. Marconi had already made arrangements to patents. Fessenden, and the U.S. courts, did not agree,
provide reports for the Associated Press, which he had and court injunctions enjoined American De Forest from
successfully done for the 1899 contest. De Forest con- using the device.
tracted to do the same for the smaller Publishers Press Meanwhile, White set in motion a series of highly visiAssociation.
ble promotions for American DeForest: Wireless Auto

118

CHAPTER 20. LEE DE FOREST


along the Atlantic Coast and Great Lakes, and equipped
shipboard stations. But the main focus was selling stock
at ever more inated prices, spurred by the construction
of promotional inland stations. Most of these inland stations had no practical use and were abandoned once the
local stock sales slowed.
De Forest eventually came into conict with his companys management. His main complaint was the limited
support he got for conducting research, while company
ocials were upset with de Forests inability to develop
a practical receiver free of patent infringement. (This
problem was nally resolved with the invention of the
carborundum crystal detector by another company employee, General H. H. Dunworthy).[10] On November 28,
1906, in exchange for $1000 (half of which was claimed
by an attorney) and the rights to some early Audion detector patents, de Forest turned in his stock and resigned
from the company that bore his name. American DeForest was then reorganized as the United Wireless Telegraph Company, and would be the dominant U.S. radio
communications rm, albeit propped up by massive stock
fraud, until its bankruptcy in 1912.

20.4 Radio Telephone Company

American DeForest Wireless Telegraph Companys observation


tower, 1904 Louisiana Purchase Exposition at Saint Louis, Missouri

De Forest moved quickly to re-establish himself as an independent inventor, working in his own laboratory in the
Parker Building in New York City. The Radio Telephone
Company was incorporated in order to promote his inventions, with James Dunlop Smith, a former American DeForest salesman, as president, and de Forest the vice president. (De Forest preferred the term "radio", which up to
now had been primarily used in Europe, over "wireless".)

20.4.1 Arc radiotelephone development

No.1 was positioned on Wall Street to send stock


quotes using an unmued spark transmitter to loudly
draw the attention of potential investors, in early 1904
two stations were established at Wei-hai-Wei on the
Chinese mainland and aboard the Chinese steamer SS
Haimun, which allowed war correspondent Captain Lionel James of The Times of London to report on the brewing Russo-Japanese War,[8] and later that year a tower,
with DEFOREST arrayed in lights, was erected on the
grounds of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition in Saint
Louis, Missouri, where the company won a gold medal
for its radiotelegraph demonstrations. (Marconi withdrew from the Exposition when he learned de Forest
would be there).[9]
The companys most important early contract was the
construction, in 1905-1906, of ve high-powered radiotelegraph stations for the U.S. Navy, located in
Panama, Pensacola and Key West, Florida, Guantanamo,
Cuba, and Puerto Rico. It also installed shore stations

Ohio Historical Marker. On July 18, 1907 Lee de Forest transmitted the rst ship-to-shore messages that were sent by radiotelephone

At the 1904 Louisiana Purchase Exposition, Valdemar

20.4. RADIO TELEPHONE COMPANY


Poulsen had presented a paper on a new type of transmitter, known as an arc set, which, unlike the discontinuous pulses produced by spark transmitters, created steady continuous wave signals that could be used
for amplitude modulated (AM) full audio transmissions.
Although Poulsen had patented his invention, de Forest
claimed to have come up with a variation that allowed him
to avoid infringing on Poulsens work. Using his sparkless arc transmitter, de Forest rst transmitted audio
across a lab room on December 31, 1906, and by February was making experimental transmissions, including
music produced by Thaddeus Cahill's telharmonium, that
were heard throughout the city.

119
of the earliest experimental entertainment radio broadcasts. Eugenia Farrar sang I Love You Truly in an unpublicized test from his laboratory in 1907, and in 1908,
on de Forests Paris honeymoon, musical selections were
broadcast from the Eiel Tower as a part of demonstrations of the arc-transmitter. In early 1909, in what may
have been the rst public speech by radio, de Forests
mother-in-law, Harriot Stanton Blatch, made a broadcast
supporting womens surage.[13]
More ambitious demonstrations followed. A series of
tests in conjunction with the Metropolitan Opera House
in New York City were conducted to determine whether
it was practical to broadcast opera performances live
from the stage. Tosca was performed on January 12,
1910, and the next days test included Italian tenor Enrico
Caruso.[14][15] On February 24, the Manhattan Opera
Companys Mme. Mariette Mazarin sang La Habanera
from Carmen over a transmitter located in De Forests
lab.[16] But these tests showed that the idea was not yet
technically feasible, and de Forest would not make any
additional entertainment broadcasts until late 1916, when
more capable vacuum-tube equipment became available.

On July 18, 1907, de Forest made the rst ship-to-shore


transmissions by radiotelephone race reports for the
Annual Inter-Lakes Yachting Association (I-LYA) Regatta held on Lake Erie which were sent from the
steam yacht Thelma to his assistant, Frank E. Butler, located in the Foxs Dock Pavilion on South Bass Island.[11]
De Forest also interested the U.S. Navy in his radiotelephone, which placed a rush order to have 26 arc sets installed for its Great White Fleet around-the-world voyage
that began in late 1907. However, at the conclusion of the
circumnavigation the sets were declared to be too unreliable to meet the Navys needs and removed.[12]
20.4.3 Grid Audion detector
The company set up a network of radiotelephone stations
along the Atlantic coast and the Great Lakes, for coastal Main article: Audion
ship navigation. However, the installations proved unprotable, and by 1911 the parent company and its sub- De Forests most famous invention was the grid Audion,
sidiaries were on the brink of bankruptcy.
which was the rst successful three-element (triode)

20.4.2

Initial broadcasting experiments

vacuum tube, and the rst device which could amplify


electrical signals. He traced its inspiration to 1900, when,
experimenting with a spark-gap transmitter, he briey
thought that the ickering of a nearby gas ame might be
in response to electromagnetic pulses. With further tests
he soon determined that the cause of the ame uctuations actually was due to air pressure changes produced
by the loud sound of the spark.[17] Still, he was intrigued
by the idea that, properly congured, it might be possible
to use a ame or something similar to detect radio signals.

After determining that an open ame was too susceptible


to ambient air currents, de Forest investigated whether
ionized gases, heated and enclosed in a partially evacuated glass tube, could be used instead. In 1905 to 1906 he
developed various congurations of glass-tube devices,
which he gave the general name of Audions. The rst
Audions had only two electrodes, and on October 25,
1906,[18] de Forest led a patent for diode vacuum tube
detector, that was granted U.S. patent number 841387 on
January 15, 1907. Subsequently, a third control electrode was added, originally as a surrounding metal cylinder or a wire coiled around the outside of the glass tube.
[19]
February 24, 1910 radio broadcast by Mme. Mariette Mazarin None of these initial designs worked particularly well.
of the Manhattan Opera Company. From page 333 of the August De Forest gave a presentation of his work to date to the
October 26, 1906 New York meeting of the American
1922 issue of Radio Broadcast.
Institute of Electrical Engineers, which was reprinted in
De Forest also used the arc-transmitter to conduct some two parts in late 1907 in the Scientic American Supple-

120
ment.[20] He was insistent that a small amount of residual gas was necessary for the tubes to operate properly.
However, he also admitted that I have arrived as yet at
no completely satisfactory theory as to the exact means by
which the high-frequency oscillations aect so markedly
the behavior of an ionized gas.

CHAPTER 20. LEE DE FOREST


not have the funds needed to renew them).[22]
Because of its limited uses and the great variability in
the quality of individual units, the grid Audion would be
rarely used during the rst half-decade after its invention.
In 1908, John V. L. Hogan reported that The Audion is
capable of being developed into a really ecient detector, but in its present forms is quite unreliable and entirely
too complex to be properly handled by the usual wireless
operator.[23]

20.5 Employment at Federal Telegraph

De Forest grid Audion from 1906.

In late 1906, de Forest made a breakthrough when he recongured the control electrode, changing it from outside
the glass to a zig-zag wire inside the tube, positioned in
the center between the cathode "lament" and the anode
"plate" electrodes. He reportedly called the zig-zag control wire a "grid" due to its similarity to the gridiron
lines on American football playing elds.[21] Experiments
conducted with his assistant, John V. L. Hogan, convinced him that he had discovered an important new radio detector, and he quickly prepared a patent application
which was led on January 29, 1907, and received U.S.
patent number 879,532 on February 18, 1908. Because
the grid-control Audion was the only conguration to become commercially valuable, the earlier versions were
forgotten, and the term Audion later became synonymous with just the grid type. It later also became known
as the triode.
The grid Audion was the rst device to amplify, albeit
only slightly, the strength of received radio signals. However, to many observers it appeared that de Forest had
done nothing more than add the grid electrode to an existing detector conguration, the Fleming valve, which also
consisted of a lament and plate enclosed in an evacuated
glass tube. De Forest passionately denied the similarly of
the two devices, claiming his invention was a relay that
amplied currents, while the Fleming valve was merely a
rectier that converted alternating current to direct current. (For this reason, de Forest objected to his Audion
being referred to as a valve.) The U.S. courts were not
convinced, and ruled that the grid Audion did in fact infringe on the Fleming valve patent, now held by Marconi.
On the other hand, Marconi admitted that the addition of
the third electrode was a patentable improvement, and the
two sides agreed to license each other so that both could
manufacture three-electrode tubes in the United States.
(De Forests European patents had lapsed because he did

California Historical Landmark No. 836, located at the eastern


corner of Channing Street and Emerson Avenue in Palo Alto, California, stands at the former location of the Federal Telegraph
laboratory, and references Lee de Forests development there, in
19111913, of the rst vacuum-tube amplier and oscillator.

In May 1910, the Radio Telephone Company and its subsidiaries were reorganized as the North American Wireless Corporation, but nancial diculties meant that the
companys activities had nearly come to a halt. De Forest
moved to San Francisco, California, and in early 1911
took a research job at the Federal Telegraph Company,
which produced long-range radiotelegraph systems using
high-powered Poulsen arcs.

20.5.1 Audio frequency amplication


One of de Forests areas of research at Federal Telegraph
was improving the reception of signals, and he came up
with the idea of strengthening the audio frequency output
from a grid Audion by feeding it into a second tube for
additional amplication. He called this a cascade amplier, which eventually consisted of chaining together up
to three Audions.
At this time the American Telephone and Telegraph
Company was researching ways to amplify telephone signals to provide better long-distance service, and it was

20.6. REORGANIZED RADIO TELEPHONE COMPANY


recognized that de Forests device had potential as a telephone line repeater. In mid-1912 an associate, John
Stone Stone, contacted AT&T to arrange for de Forest
to demonstrate his invention. It was found that de Forests gassy version of the Audion could not handle even
the relatively low voltages used by telephone lines. (Due
to the way he constructed the tubes, de Forests Audions
would cease to operate with too high a vacuum.) However, careful research by Dr. Harold D. Arnold and his
team at AT&Ts Western Electric subsidiary determined
that by improving the tubes design, it could be more fully
evacuated, and the high vacuum allowed it to successfully
operate at telephone line voltages. With these changes the
Audion evolved into a modern electron-discharge vacuum
tube, using electron ows rather than ions.[24] (Dr. Irving
Langmuir at the General Electric Corporation made similar ndings, and both he and Arnold attempted to patent
the high vacuum construction, but the U.S. Supreme
Court ruled in 1931 that this modication could not be
patented).

121

Audion advertisement, Electrical Experimenter magazine, 1916

ness, and originally maintained a policy that retailers had


to require their customers to return a worn out tube before they could get a replacement. This style of business
encouraged others to make and sell unlicensed vacuum
tubes which did not impose a return policy. One of the
boldest was Audio Tron Sales Company founded in 1915
by Elmer T. Cunningham of San Francisco, whose Audio
Tron tubes cost less but were of equal or higher quality.
The de Forest company sued Audio Tron Sales, eventually settling out of court.[26]

After a delay of ten months, in July, 1913 AT&T, through


a third party who disguised his link to the telephone company, purchased the wire rights to seven Audion patents
for $50,000. De Forest had hoped for a higher payment,
but was again in bad nancial shape and was unable to
bargain for more. In 1915, AT&T used the innovation to
In April, 1917, the companys remaining commercial raconduct the rst transcontinental telephone calls, in condio patent rights were sold to AT&Ts Western Electric
junction with the Panama-Pacic International Exposisubsidiary for $250,000.[27] During World War One, the
tion at San Francisco.
Radio Telephone Company prospered from sales of radio equipment to the military. However, it also became
known for the poor quality of its vacuum tubes, especially
20.6 Reorganized Radio Telephone compared to those produced by major industrial manufacturers such as General Electric and Western Electric.

Company

Radio Telephone Company ocials had engaged in some


of the same stock selling excesses that had taken place
at American DeForest, and as part of the U.S. governments crackdown on stock fraud, in March, 1912 de Forest, plus four other company ocials, was arrested and
charged with use of the mails to defraud. Their trials
took place in late 1913, and while three of the defendants
were found guilty, de Forest was acquitted. With the legal problems behind him, de Forest reorganized his company as the DeForest Radio Telephone Company, and established a laboratory at 1391 Sedgewick Avenue in the
Highbridge section of the Bronx in New York City. The
companys limited nances were boosted by the sale, in
October 1914, of the commercial Audion patent rights
for radio signalling to AT&T for $90,000, with de Forest
retaining the rights for sales for amateur and experimental use.[25] In October, 1915 AT&T conducted test radio
transmissions from the Navys station in Arlington, Virginia that were heard as far away as Paris and Hawaii.

20.6.1 Regeneration controversy


Beginning in 1912 there was increased investigation of
vacuum-tube capabilities, simultaneously by numerous
inventors in multiple countries, who identied additional
important uses for the device. These overlapping discoveries led to complicated legal disputes over priority, perhaps the most bitter being one in the United States between de Forest and Edwin Howard Armstrong over the
discovery of regeneration (also known as the feedback
circuit and, by de Forest, as the ultra-audion).[28]

Beginning in 1913 Armstrong prepared papers and


gave demonstrations which comprehensively documented
how to employ three-element vacuum tubes in circuits
that amplied signals to stronger levels than previously
thought possible, and which could also generate high
power oscillations usable for radio transmissions. In
late 1913 Armstrong applied for patents covering the
regenerative circuit, and on October 6, 1914 U.S. patent
[29]
The Radio Telephone Company began selling Oscillion 1,113,149 was issued for his discovery.
power tubes to amateurs, suitable for radio transmissions. U.S. patent law included a provision for challenging
The company wanted to keep a tight hold on the tube busi- grants if another inventor could prove prior discovery.

122
With an eye on increasing the value of the patent portfolio that would be sold to Western Electric in 1917, beginning in 1915 de Forest led a series of patent applications that largely copied Armstrongs claims, in the hopes
of having the priority of the competing applications upheld by an interference hearing at the patent oce. Based
on a notebook entry recorded at the time, de Forest asserted that, while working on the cascade amplier, he
had stumbled across the feedback principle on August
6, 1912, which was then used in the spring of 1913 to
operate a low-powered transmitter for heterodyne reception of Federal Telegraph arc transmissions. However,
there was also strong evidence that de Forest was unaware of the full signicance of this discovery, as shown
by his lack of follow-up and continuing misunderstanding of the physics involved. In particular, it appeared that
he was unaware of the potential for further development
until he became familiar with Armstrongs research. De
Forest was not alone in the interference determination
the patent oce identied four competing claimants for
its hearings, consisting of Armstrong, de Forest, General
Electrics Langmuir, and a German, Alexander Meissner,
whose application would be seized by the Oce of Alien
Property Custodian during World War One.[30]

CHAPTER 20. LEE DE FOREST


action of the oscillating and non-oscillating audion, but
the organizations board refused to let him, stating that it
strongly arms the original award.[32] The practical effect of de Forests victory was that his company was free
to sell products that used regeneration, for during the controversy, which became more a personal feud than a business dispute, Armstrong tried to block the company from
even being licensed to sell equipment under his patent.
De Forest regularly responded to articles which he
thought exaggerated Armstrongs contributions
animosity that continued even after Armstrongs 1954
suicide. Following the publication of Carl Dreher's E.
H. Armstrong, the Hero as Inventor in the August,
1956 Harpers magazine, de Forest wrote the author,
describing Armstrong as exceedingly arrogant, brow
beating, even brutal..., and defending the Supreme
Court decision in his favor.[33]

20.6.2 Renewed broadcasting activities

The subsequent legal proceedings become divided between two groups of court cases. The rst court action began in 1919 when Armstrong, with Westinghouse, which
purchased his patent, sued the De Forest company in district court for infringement of patent 1,113,149. On May
17, 1921 the court ruled that the lack of awareness and
understanding on de Forests part, in addition to the fact
that he had made no immediate advances beyond his initial observation, made implausible his attempt to prevail
as inventor.
However, a second series of court cases, which were the
result of the patent oce interference proceeding, had a
dierent outcome. The interference board had also sided
with Armstrong, and de Forest appealed its decision to
the District of Columbia district court. On May 8, 1924,
that court concluded that the evidence, beginning with the
1912 notebook entry, was sucient to establish de Forests priority. Now on the defensive, Armstrongs side
tried to overturn the decision, but these eorts, which
twice went before the U.S. Supreme Court, in 1928 and Lee DeForest broadcasting Columbia phonograph records, from
page 52 of the November 4, 1916 The Music Trade Review.
1934, were unsuccessful.[31]
This judicial ruling meant that Lee de Forest was now
legally recognized in the United States as the inventor of
regeneration. However, much of the engineering community continued to consider Armstrong to be the actual developer, with de Forest viewed as someone who
skillfully used the patent system to get credit for an invention to which he had barely contributed. Following
the 1934 Supreme Court decision, Armstrong attempted
to return his Institute of Radio Engineers (present day
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) Medal
of Honor, which had been awarded to him in 1917 in
recognition of his work and publications dealing with the

In the summer of 1915, the company received an Experimental license for station 2XG,[34] located at its
Highbridge laboratory. In late 1916, de Forest renewed the entertainment broadcasts he had suspended in
1910, now using the superior capabilities of vacuum-tube
equipment.[35] 2XGs debut program aired on October
26, 1916,[36] as part of an arrangement with the Columbia
Gramophone record company to promote its recordings, which included announcing the title and 'Columbia
Gramophone Company' with each playing.[37] Beginning November 1, the Highbridge Station oered a
nightly schedule featuring the Columbia recordings.

20.7. PHONOFILM SOUND-ON-FILM PROCESS


These broadcasts were also used to advertise the products of the DeForest Radio Co., mostly the radio parts,
with all the zeal of our catalogue and price list, until
comments by Western Electric engineers caused de Forest enough embarrassment to make him decide to eliminate the direct advertising.[38] The station also made the
rst audio broadcast of election reports in earlier elections, stations which broadcast results had used Morse
code providing news of the November 1916 WilsonHughes presidential election.[39] The New York American
installed a private wire and bulletins were sent out every
hour. About 2000 listeners heard The Star-Spangled Banner and other anthems, songs, and hymns.
With the entry of the United States into World War One
on April 6, 1917, all civilian radio stations were ordered
to shut down, so 2XG was silenced for the duration of
the war. The ban on civilian stations was lifted on October 1, 1919, and 2XG soon renewed operation, with the
Brunswick-Balke-Collender company now supplying the
phonograph records.[40] In early 1920, de Forest moved
the stations transmitter from the Bronx to Manhattan, but
did not have permission to do so, so district Radio Inspector Arthur Batcheller ordered the station o the air.
De Forests response was to return to San Francisco in
March, taking 2XGs transmitter with him. A new station, 6XC, was established as The California Theater
station, which de Forest later stated was the rst radiotelephone station devoted solely to broadcasting to the
public.[41]
Later that year a de Forest associate, Clarence C.S.
Thompson, established Radio News & Music, Inc., in order to lease de Forest radio transmitters to newspapers interested in setting up their own broadcasting stations.[42]
In August, 1920, The Detroit News began operation
of The Detroit News Radiophone, initially with the
callsign 8MK, which later became broadcasting station
WWJ.

20.7 Phonolm sound-on-lm process


Main article: Phonolm

123
synchronization with the picture.
From October 1921 to September 1922, de Forest lived
in Berlin, Germany, meeting the Tri-Ergon developers
and investigating other European sound lm systems. In
April 1922 he announced that he would soon have a
workable sound-on-lm system.[43] On March 12, 1923
he demonstrated Phonolm to the press;[44] this was followed on April 12, 1923 by a private demonstration to
electrical engineers at the Engineering Society Buildings
Auditorium at 33 West 39th Street in New York City.[45]
In November 1922, de Forest established the De Forest
Phonolm Company, located at 314 East 48th Street in
New York City. But none of the Hollywood movie studios expressed interest in his invention, and because at
this time these studios controlled all the major theater
chains, this meant de Forest was limited to showing his
lms in independent theaters. (The Phonolm Company
would le for bankruptcy in September 1926.)
After recording stage performances (such as in
vaudeville), speeches, and musical acts, on April
15, 1923 de Forest premiered 18 Phonolm short lms
at the independent Rivoli Theater in New York City.
Starting in May 1924, Max and Dave Fleischer used
the Phonolm process for their Song Car-Tune series
of cartoonsfeaturing the "Follow the Bouncing Ball"
gimmick. However, de Forests choice of primarily
lming short vaudeville acts, instead of full-length
features, limited the appeal of Phonolm to Hollywood
studios.
De Forest also worked with Freeman Harrison Owens and
Theodore Case, using their work to perfect the Phonolm
system. However, de Forest had a falling out with both
men. Due to de Forests continuing misuse of Theodore
Cases inventions and failure to publicly acknowledge
Cases contributions, the Case Research Laboratory proceeded to build its own camera. That camera was used by
Case and his colleague Earl Sponable to record President
Coolidge on August 11, 1924, which was one of the lms
shown by de Forest and claimed by him to be the product
of his inventions.
Believing that de Forest was more concerned with his own
fame and recognition than he was with actually creating a
workable system of sound lm, and because of his continuing attempts to downplay the contributions of the Case
Research Laboratory in the creation of Phonolm, Case
severed his ties with de Forest in the fall of 1925. Case
successfully negotiated an agreement to use his patents
with studio head William Fox, owner of Fox Film Corporation, who marketed the innovation as Fox Movietone.
Hollywood introduced a competing method for sound
lm, the Vitaphone sound-on-disc process developed by
Warner Brothers, with the August 6, 1926 release of the
John Barrymore lm Don Juan.

In 1921 de Forest ended most of his radio research in


order to concentrate on developing an optical sound-onlm process called Phonolm. In 1919 he led the rst
patent for the new system, which improved upon earlier
work by Finnish inventor Eric Tigerstedt and the German
partnership Tri-Ergon. Phonolm recorded the electrical
waveforms produced by a microphone photographically
onto lm, using parallel lines of variable shades of gray,
an approach known as variable density, in contrast to
variable area systems used by processes such as RCA In 1927 and 1928, Hollywood expanded its use of soundPhotophone. When the movie lm was projected, the on-lm systems, including Fox Movietone and RCA
recorded information was converted back into sound, in Photophone. Meanwhile, theater chain owner Isadore

124
Schlesinger purchased the UK rights to Phonolm and released short lms of British music hall performers from
September 1926 to May 1929. Almost 200 Phonolm
shorts were made, and many are preserved in the collections of the Library of Congress and the British Film Institute.

CHAPTER 20. LEE DE FOREST


planted vacuum-tube technology. For this reason de Forest has been called one of the founders of the electronic
age.[53][54]

De Forests archives were donated by his widow to the


Perham Electronic Foundation, which in 1973 opened the
Foothills Electronics Museum at Foothill College in Los
Altos, California. In 1991 the college closed the museum,
breaking its contract. The foundation won a lawsuit and
was awarded $775,000.[55] The holdings were placed in
20.8 Later years and death
storage for twelve years, before being acquired in 2003
by History San Jos and put on display as The Perham
In April 1923, the De Forest Radio Telephone & TeleCollection of Early Electronics.[56]
graph Company, which manufactured de Forests Audions for commercial use, was sold to a group headed by
Edward Jewett of Jewett-Paige Motors, which expanded
the companys factory to cope with rising demand for 20.10 Awards and recognition
radios. The sale also bought the services of de Forest,
who was focusing his attention on newer innovations.[46]
Charter member, in 1912, of the Institute of Radio
De Forests nances were badly hurt by the stock marEngineers (IRE).
ket crash of 1929, and research in mechanical television
proved unprotable. In 1934, he established a small shop
Received the 1922 IRE Medal of Honor, in recogto produce diathermy machines, and, in a 1942 interview,
nition for his invention of the three-electrode amplistill hoped to make at least one more great invention.[47]
er and his other contributions to radio.[57]
De Forest was a vocal critic of many of the developments
Awarded the 1923 Franklin Institute Elliott Cresson
in the entertainment side of the radio industry. In 1940 he
Medal for inventions embodied in the Audion.
sent an open letter to the National Association of Broadcasters in which he demanded: What have you done
Received the 1946 American Institute of Electrical
with my child, the radio broadcast? You have debased
Engineers Edison Medal, For the profound technithis child, dressed him in rags of ragtime, tatters of jive
cal and social consequences of the grid-controlled
and boogie-woogie. That same year, de Forest and early
vacuum tube which he had introduced.
TV engineer Ulises Armand Sanabria presented the concept of a primitive unmanned combat air vehicle using a
Honorary Academy Award Oscar presented by the
television camera and a jam resistant radio control in a
Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences in
Popular Mechanics issue.[48] In 1950 his autobiography,
1960, in recognition of his pioneering inventions
Father of Radio, was published, although it sold poorly.
which brought sound to the motion picture.[58]
De Forest was the guest celebrity on the May 22, 1957,
episode of the television show This Is Your Life, where he
was introduced as the father of radio and the grandfather of television.[49] He suered a severe heart attack in
1958, after which he remained mostly bedridden.[50] He
died in Hollywood on June 30, 1961, aged 87, and was
interred in San Fernando Mission Cemetery in Los Angeles, California.[51] De Forest died relatively poor, with
just $1,250 in his bank account.[52]

20.9 Legacy

Honored February 8, 1960 with a star on the


Hollywood Walk of Fame.[59]
DeVry University was originally named the De Forest Training School by its founder Dr. Herman A.
De Vry, who was a friend and colleague of de Forest.

20.11 Personal life


20.11.1 Marriages

The grid Audion, which de Forest called my greatest in- De Forest was married four times, with the rst three
vention, and the vacuum tubes developed from it, domi- marriages ending in divorce:
nated the eld of electronics for forty years, making possible long-distance telephone service, radio broadcast Lucille Sheardown in February 1906. Divorced being, television, and many other applications. It could
fore the end of the year.
also be used as an electronic switching element, and was
Nora Stanton Blatch Barney (18831971) on Februlater used in early digital electronics, including the rst
ary 14, 1908. They had a daughter, Harriet, but were
electronic computers, although the 1948 invention of the
transistor would lead to microchips that eventually supdivorced by 1911.

20.12. QUOTES

125

20.11.3 Religious views


Although raised in a strongly religious Protestant household, de Forest later became an agnostic. In his autobiography, he wrote that in the summer of 1894 there was an
important shift in his beliefs: Through that Freshman vacation at Yale I became more of a philosopher than I have
ever since. And thus, one by one, were my childhoods
rm religious beliefs altered or reluctantly discarded.

20.12 Quotes
De Forest was given to expansive predictions, many of
which were not borne out, but he also made many correct predictions, including microwave communication
and cooking.
I discovered an Invisible Empire of the Air, intangible, yet solid as granite.[61]

Mary Mayo, his third wife

Mary Mayo (18921957) in December 1912. According to census records, in 1920 they were living
with their infant daughter, Deena (born ca. 1919);
divorced October 5, 1930 (per Los Angeles Times).
Mayo died December 30, 1957 in a re in Los Angeles (Los Angeles Times, December 31, 1957)
Marie Mosquini (18991983) on October 10, 1930;
Mosquini was a silent lm actress, and they remained married until his death in 1961.

20.11.2

Politics

De Forest was a conservative Republican and fervent anticommunist and anti-fascist. In 1932, in the midst of
the Great Depression, he voted for Franklin Roosevelt,
but later came to resent him, calling Roosevelt Americas rst Fascist president. In 1949, he sent letters
to all members of Congress urging them to vote against
socialized medicine, federally subsidized housing, and an
excess prots tax. In 1952, he wrote to newly elected
Vice President Richard Nixon, urging him to prosecute
with renewed vigor your valiant ght to put out Communism from every branch of our government. In December 1953, he cancelled his subscription to The Nation,
accusing it of being lousy with Treason, crawling with
Communism.[60]

I foresee great renements in the eld of shortpulse microwave signaling, whereby several simultaneous programs may occupy the same channel, in
sequence, with incredibly swift electronic communication. [...] Short waves will be generally used in
the kitchen for roasting and baking, almost instantaneously. 1952 [62]
So I repeat that while theoretically and technically
television may be feasible, yet commercially and nancially, I consider it an impossibility; a development of which we need not waste little time in
dreaming. 1926[63]
To place a man in a multi-stage rocket and project
him into the controlling gravitational eld of the
moon where the passengers can make scientic observations, perhaps land alive, and then return to
earthall that constitutes a wild dream worthy of
Jules Verne. I am bold enough to say that such a
man-made voyage will never occur regardless of all
future advances. 1957[64]
I do not foresee 'spaceships to the moon or Mars.
Mortals must live and die on Earth or within its atmosphere!" 1952[62]
As a growing competitor to the tube amplier
comes now the Bell Laboratories transistor, a threeelectrode germanium crystal of amazing amplication power, of wheat-grain size and low cost. Yet
its frequency limitations, a few hundred kilocycles,
and its strict power limitations will never permit
its general replacement of the Audion amplier.
1952[62]
I came, I saw, I inventedits that simpleno need
to sit and thinkits all in your imagination.

126

20.13 Patents
Patent images in TIFF format
U.S. Patent 748,597 Wireless Signaling Device
(directional antenna), led December 1902, issued
January 1904;
U.S. Patent 824,637 Oscillation Responsive Device (vacuum tube detector diode), led January
1906, issued June 1906;

CHAPTER 20. LEE DE FOREST

20.14 See also


Metropolitan Opera radio broadcasts
Birth of public radio broadcasting

20.15 References
[1] Lee De Forest in the 1900 US Census in Milwaukee, Wisconsin

U.S. Patent 827,523 Wireless Telegraph System


(separate transmitting and receiving antennas), led
December 1905, issued July 1906;

[2] Lee De Forest in the 1920 US Census in the Bronx, New


York

U.S. Patent 827,524 Wireless Telegraph System,


led January 1906 issued July 1906;

[3] Father of Radio: The Autobiography of Lee de Forest,


1950.

U.S. Patent 836,070 Oscillation Responsive Device (vacuum tube detector no grid), led May
1906, issued November 1906;

[4] The two Institutes merged in 1940 to become the Illinois


Institute of Technology physics department.

U.S. Patent 841,386 Wireless Telegraphy (tunable


vacuum tube detector no grid), led August 1906,
issued January 1907;
U.S. Patent 841,387 Device for Amplifying Feeble
Electrical Currents (...), led August 1906, issued
January 1907;
U.S. Patent 876,165 Wireless Telegraph Transmitting System (antenna coupler), led May 1904, issued January 1908;

[5] Wireless Telegraphy That Sends No Messages Except By


Wire, New York Herald, October 28, 1901, page 4.
[6] De Forest, page 126.
[7] Cuss Words in the Wireless, New York Sun, August 27,
1903, page 1.
[8] A Modern Campaign: War and Wireless in the Far East by
David Fraser, 1905.
[9] Inventing American Broadcasting: 1899-1922 by Susan J.
Douglas, 1987, page 97.

U.S. Patent 879,532 Space Telegraphy (increased


sensitivity detector clearly shows grid), led January 1907, issued February 18, 1908;

[10] Wireless Communication in the United States: The Early


Development of American Radio Operating Companies by
Thorn L. Mayes, 1989, page 44.

U.S. Patent 926,933 Wireless Telegraphy";

[11] Reporting Yacht Races by Wireless Telephony, Electrical World, August 10, 1907, pages 293294.

U.S. Patent 926,934 Wireless Telegraph Tuning


[12] History of Communications-Electronics in the United States
Device";
U.S. Patent 926,935 Wireless Telegraph Transmitter, led February 1906, issued July 1909;

Navy by Captain L. S. Howeth, USN (Retired), 1963,


The Radio Telephone Failure, pages 169172.

U.S. Patent 926,936 Space Telegraphy";

[13] Barnard Girls Test Wireless 'Phones, New York Times,


February 26, 1909, page 7.

U.S. Patent 926,937 Space Telephony";

[14] Today in History, Jan 13. Retrieved 2008-06-24.

U.S. Patent 979,275 Oscillation Responsive Device (parallel plates in Bunsen ame) led February
1905, issued December 1910;

[15] The MetOpera Database (archives)


[16] Radio Telephone Experiments, Modern Electrics, May,
1910, page 63.

U.S. Patent 1,025,908 Transmission of Music by


[17] Father of Radio: The Autobiography of Lee de Forest,
Electromagnetic Waves";
U.S. Patent 1,101,533 Wireless Telegraphy (directional antenna/direction nder), led June 1906,
issued June 1914;
U.S. Patent 1,214,283 Wireless Telegraphy.

1950, page 114. The notebook recordings of the 1900


experiments, including the determination that the ickering was due to sound only, are reproduced on this page.
[18] US 841387, De Forest, Lee, Device for Amplifying Feeble Electrical Currents, issued 15 January 1907

20.15. REFERENCES

[19] What Everyone Should Know About Radio History: Part


II by J. H. Morecroft, Radio Broadcast, August, 1922,
page 299: "[De Forest] took out a patent in 1905 on a bulb
having two hot laments connected in a peculiar manner,
the intended functioning of which is not at all apparent to
one comprehending the radio art.
[20] The Audion: A New Receiver for Wireless Telegraphy
by Lee de Forest, Scientic American Supplement: No.
1665, November 30, 1907, pages 348350 and No. 1666,
December 7, 1907, pages 354356.
[21] An alternate explanation was given by early associate
Frank Butler, who stated that de Forest coined the term
because the control electrode looked just like a roaster
grid. (How the Term 'Grid' Originated, Communications magazine, December, 1930, page 41.)
[22] DeForest, page 322.
[23] The Audion; A Third Form of the Gas Detector by John
L. Hogan, Jr., Modern Electrics, October, 1908, page 233.
[24] The Continuous Wave: Technology and American Radio,
1900-1932 by Hugh G. J. Aitken, 1985, pages 235244.
[25] DeForest, page 327.
[26] Tyne, Gerald E. J. (1977). The Saga of the Vacuum Tube.
Indianapolis, IN: Howard W. Sams & Company. pp. 119
and 162. ISBN 0-672-21471-7.
[27] DeForest, page 340.
[28] Armstrong, Edwin H. Edwin Armstrong: Pioneer of the
Airwaves. Living Legacies. Columbia University. Retrieved 2015-10-30.

127

[38] Ibid., pages 337-338.


[39] Election Returns Flashed by Radio to 7,000 Amateurs,
The Electrical Experimenter, January, 1917, page 650.
[40] De Forest, page 350.
[41] "'Broadcasting' News by Radiotelephone (letter from Lee
de Forest), Electrical World, April 23, 1921, page 936.
[42] The initial advertisements for Radio News & Music, Inc.,
appeared on page 20 of the March 13, 1920 The Fourth
Estate, and page 202 of the March 18, 1920 Printers Ink.
[43] Lee de Forest and Phonolm at Virtual Broadway website
[44] Randy Alfred, Wired magazine (March 12, 2008)
[45] ASCE website entry
[46] Auto Interests Buy DeForest Radio Co., The New York
Times, April 6, 1923, page 19.
[47] "'Magnicent Failure'" by Samuel Lubell, Saturday
Evening Post, January 31, 1942, page 49).
[48] Robot Television Bomber Popular Mechanics June 1940
[49] Highlights of this episode, as well as a lm clip of his 1940
NAB letter, are included in the 1992 Ken Burns PBS documentary Empire of the Air: The Men Who Made Radio.
[50] Empire of the Air: The Men Who Made Radio. PBS: 1992.
[51] Lee De Forest, 87, Radio Pioneer, Dies; Lee De Forest,
Inventor, Is Dead at 87. New York Times. July 2, 1961.
Hollywood, California, July 1, 1961. Dr. Lee De Forest,
the inventor known as the father of radio, died last night
at his home. He was 87 years old.

[29] Empire of the Air by Tom Lewis, 1991, pages 77, 87.

[52] Empire of the Air: The Men Who Made Radio

[30] Ibid., page 192.

[53] Quantum Generations: A History of Physics in the Twentieth Century by Helge Kragh, 2002, page 127: "...De Forests invention of the triode (or audion) was the starting
point of the electronic age.

[31] Ibid., pages 193198, 203.


[32] Armstrong, Edwin H. Biography. Encyclopedia Britannica. Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2015-10-30.
[33] Lewis, Tom (1991). Empire of the Air (rst ed.). Harper
Collins. pp. 218219. ISBN 0-06-018215-6.
[34] Special Land Stations, Radio Service Bulletin, July,
1915, page 3. The 2 in 2XGs callsign indicated that
the station was located in the 2nd Radio Inspection district, while the X signied that it held an Experimental
license.

[54] Dawn of the Electronic Age by Frederick Nebeker, 2009,


page 15: The triode vacuum-tube is one of the small
number of technical devices... that have radically changed
human culture. It dened a new realm of technology, that
of electronics...
[55] Millard, Max (October 1993). Lee de Forest, Class of
1893:Father of the Electronics Age. Northeld Mount
Hermon Alumni Magazine. Retrieved 2011-01-20.

[35] De Forest, page 243. He noted that he had been totally


unaware of the fact that in the little audion tube, which I
was then using only as a radio detector, lay dormant the
principle of oscillation which, had I but realized it, would
have caused me to unceremoniously dump into the ash
can all of the ne arc mechanisms which I had ever constructed...

[56] The Perham Collection. History San Jos. 2011.


Archived from the original on April 26, 2015. Retrieved
March 22, 2016.

[36] Columbia Used to Demonstrate Wireless Telephone,


The Music Trade Review, November 4, 1916, page 52.

[59] Hollywood Walk of Fame: Lee De Forest.

[37] De Forest, page 337.

[57] IEEE Global History Network (2011). IEEE Medal of


Honor. IEEE History Center. Retrieved 7 July 2011.
[58] The 32nd Academy Awards: Memorable Moments.

[60] James A. Hijya, Lee De Forest and the Fatherhood of Radio (1992), Lehigh University Press, pages 119-120

128

CHAPTER 20. LEE DE FOREST

[61] Campbell, Richard, Christopher R. Martin, and Bettina


Fabos. Sounds and Images. Media and Culture: An Introduction to Mass Communication. Boston: Bedford/St.
Martins, 2000. 113, additional text.

Stephen Greenes Who said Lee de Forest was the


Father of Radio"?

[62] Dawn of the Electronic Age. Popular Mechanics. January 1952. Retrieved 2007-07-21.

Cole, A. B., "Practical Pointers on the Audion: Sales


Manager De Forest Radio Tel. & Tel. Co., QST,
March, 1916, pages 4144:

[63] Gawlinski, Mark (2003). Interactive television production.


Focal Press. p. 89. ISBN 0-240-51679-6.
[64] De Forest Says Space Travel Is Impossible, Lewiston
Morning Tribune via Associated Press, February 25, 1957

20.16 Further reading


The Continuous Wave: Technology and American
Radio, 1900-1932 by Hugh G. J. Aitken, 1985.
"'Magnicant Failure'" by Samuel Lubell, Saturday
Evening Post, three parts: January 17, 1942 (pages
911,7576, 78, 80), January 24, 1942 (pages 20
21, 2728, 38, and 43), and January 31, 1942 (pages
27, 38, 40-42, 46, 4849).
De Forest and the Triode Detector by Robert A.
Chipman, Scientic American, March, 1965, pages
93101.
Saga of the Vacuum Tube by Gerald E. J. Tyne (Indianapolis, IN: Howard W. Sams and Company,
1977). Tyne was a research associate with the
Smithsonian Institution. Details de Forests activities from the invention of the Audion to 1930.
Empire of the Air: The Men Who Made Radio by Ken
Burns a PBS Documentary Video 1992. Focuses on
three of the individuals who made signicant contributions to the early radio industry in the United
States: De Forest, David Sarno and Edwin Armstrong. LINK
A History of the Regeneration Circuit: From Invention to Patent Litigation by Prof. Sungook Hong,
University, Seoul, Korea, 2004 (treatise on the regeneration controversy)

20.17 External links


Lee de Forest, American Inventor
Dr. Lee De Forest internet radio project & forum
Lee de Forest at the Internet Movie Database
Lee De Forest at IEEE
Lee De Forest at National Inventors Hall of Fame
De Forest Phonolm Sound Movie with Eddie Cantor (1923) on YouTube

Eugenii Katzs Lee De Forest

Hong, Sungook, "A History of the Regeneration Circuit: From Invention to Patent Litigation" University,
Seoul, Korea (PDF)
PBS, "Monkeys"; a lm on the Audion operation
(QuickTime movie)
"De Forest, Lee". The Cyclopdia of American Biography. 1918.
Adams, Mike, Lee de Forest and the Invention of
Sound Movies, 1918-1926, The AWA Review (vol.
26, 2013).
Historic photograph 1924. De Forest Phonolm
Co. Inc. on White House grounds.

Chapter 21

Amplier
This article is about electronic ampliers. For other uses, ampliers, and transresistance ampliers. A further dissee Amplier (disambiguation).
tinction is whether the output is a linear or nonlinear repAn amplier, electronic amplier or (informally) amp resentation of the input. Ampliers can also be categorized by their physical placement in the signal chain.[1]

The rst practical electronic device that could amplify


was the triode vacuum tube, invented in 1906 by Lee
De Forest, which led to the rst ampliers around 1912.
Vacuum tubes were used in almost all ampliers until the
1960s - 1970s when the transistor invented in 1947 replaced them. Today most ampliers use transistors, but
vacuum tubes are still used in some applications.

Vo
Vi

21.1 History

is an electronic device that can increase the power of a


signal (a time-varying voltage or current). An amplier
functions by taking power from a power supply and controlling the output to match the input signal shape but with
a larger amplitude. In this sense, an amplier modulates
the output of the power supply based upon the properties
of the input signal. An amplier is eectively the opposite of an attenuator: while an amplier provides gain, an
attenuator provides loss.

The development of audio communication technology;


the telephone and intercom around 1880 and the rst
AM radio transmitters and receivers around 1905 created a need to somehow make an electrical audio signal
louder. Before the invention of electronic ampliers,
mechanically coupled carbon microphones were used as
crude ampliers in telephone repeaters. After the turn of
the century it was found that negative resistance mercury
lamps could amplify, and were also tried in repeaters.[2]
The rst practical electronic device that could amplify
was the Audion (triode) vacuum tube, invented in 1906
by Lee De Forest, which led to the rst ampliers around
1912. The terms amplier and amplication (from
the Latin amplicare, 'to enlarge or expand'[3] ) were rst
used for this new capability around 1915 when triodes
became widespread.[3]

An amplier can either be a discrete piece of equipment


or an electrical circuit contained within another device.
Amplication is fundamental to modern electronics, and
ampliers are widely used in almost all electronic equipment. Ampliers can be categorized in dierent ways.
One is by the frequency of the electronic signal being
amplied; audio ampliers amplify signals in the audio
(sound) range of less than 20 kHz, RF ampliers amplify frequencies in the radio frequency range between 20
kHz and 300 GHz. Another is which quantity, voltage or
current is being amplied; ampliers can be divided into
voltage ampliers, current ampliers, transconductance

The amplifying vacuum tube revolutionized electrical


technology, creating the new eld of electronics, the technology of active electrical devices. It made possible long
distance telephone lines, public address systems, radio
broadcasting, talking motion pictures, practical audio
recording, radar, television, and the rst computers. For
50 years virtually all consumer electronic devices used
vacuum tubes. Early tube ampliers often had positive
feedback (regeneration), which could increase gain but
also make the amplier unstable and prone to oscillation.
Much of the mathematical theory of ampliers was developed at Bell Telephone Laboratories during the 1920s

Graph of the input vi (t) (blue) and output voltage vo (t) (red)
of an ideal linear amplier with an arbitrary signal applied as
input. Amplication means increasing the amplitude (voltage or
current) of a time-varying signal by a given factor, as shown
here. In this example the amplier has a voltage gain of 2; that
is at any instant vo = 2vi

129

130

CHAPTER 21. AMPLIFIER


Gain, the ratio between the magnitude of output and
input signals
Bandwidth, the width of the useful frequency range
Eciency, the ratio between the power of the output
and total power consumption
Linearity, the extent to which the proportion between input and output amplitude is the same for
high amplitude and low amplitude input
Noise, a measure of undesired noise mixed into the
output
Output dynamic range, the ratio of the largest and
the smallest useful output levels
Slew rate, the maximum rate of change of the output
Rise time, settling time, ringing and overshoot that
characterize the step response
Stability, the ability to avoid self-oscillation

21.3 Amplier categorisation

De Forests prototype audio amplier, 1914. His Audion (triode) vacuum tube had a voltage gain of about 5, so this 3 stage
amplier had a gain of about 125

Ampliers are described according to the properties of


their inputs, their outputs, and how they relate.[4] All ampliers have gain, a multiplication factor that relates the
magnitude of some property of the output signal to a
property of the input signal. The gain may be specied as
the ratio of output voltage to input voltage (voltage gain),
output power to input power (power gain), or some combination of current, voltage, and power. In many cases
the property of the output that varies is dependent on
the same property of the input, making the gain unitless
(though often expressed in decibels (dB)).

to 1940s. Distortion levels in early ampliers were high,


usually around 5%, until 1934, when Harold Black developed negative feedback; this allowed the distortion levels
to be greatly reduced, at the cost of lower gain. Other advances in the theory of amplication were made by Harry Most ampliers are designed to be linear. That is, they
Nyquist and Hendrik Wade Bode.
provide constant gain for any normal input level and outThe vacuum tube was the only amplifying device (besides put signal. If an ampliers gain is not linear, the output
specialized power devices such as the magnetic ampli- signal can become distorted. There are, however, cases
er and amplidyne) for 40 years, and dominated electron- where variable gain is useful. Certain signal processing
[1]
ics until 1947, when the rst transistor, the BJT, was in- applications use exponential gain ampliers.
vented. The replacement of bulky, fragile vacuum tubes Ampliers are usually designed to function well in a
with transistors during the 1960s and 1970s created an- specic application, for example: radio and television
other revolution in electronics, making possible the rst transmitters and receivers, high-delity (hi-) stereo
really portable electronic devices, such as the transistor equipment, microcomputers and other digital equipment,
radio developed in 1954. Today most ampliers use and guitar and other instrument ampliers. Every amplitransistors, but vacuum tubes are still used in some high er includes a least one active device, such as a vacuum
power applications such as radio transmitters.
tube or transistor.

21.2 Figures of merit

21.3.1 Active devices

All ampliers include some form of active device: this


is the device that does the actual amplication. The active device can be a discrete component (like a single
Amplier quality is characterized by a list of specica- MOSFET) or part of an integrated circuit (as in an options that include:
amp).
Main article: Amplier gures of merit

21.3. AMPLIFIER CATEGORISATION

131

Transistor ampliers
See also: Transistor, Bipolar junction transistor, Fieldeect transistor, JFET, and MOSFET
Transistor ampliers (or solid state ampliers) are the
most common type of amplier in use today. A transistor
is used as the active element. The gain of the amplier
is determined by the properties of the transistor itself as
well as the circuit it is contained within.
Common active devices in transistor ampliers include
bipolar junction transistors (BJTs) and metal oxide semiconductor eld-eect transistors (MOSFETs).
Applications are numerous, some common examples are
audio ampliers in a home stereo or PA system, RF high
power generation for semiconductor equipment, to RF
and microwave applications such as radio transmitters.
Transistor-based amplication can be realized using various congurations: for example a bipolar junction transistor can realize common base, common collector or
common emitter amplication; a MOSFET can realize
common gate, common source or common drain amplication. Each conguration has dierent characteristics.
Vacuum-tube ampliers
Main article: Valve amplier
Vacuum-tube ampliers (also known as tube ampliers
or valve ampliers) use a vacuum tube as the active device. While semiconductor ampliers have largely displaced valve ampliers for low power applications, valve
ampliers can be much more cost eective in high power
applications such as radar, countermeasures equipment,
and communications equipment. Many microwave ampliers are specially designed valve ampliers, such as
the klystron, gyrotron, traveling wave tube, and crossedeld amplier, and these microwave valves provide much
greater single-device power output at microwave frequencies than solid-state devices.[5] Tube ampliers are also
still used in some high end audio equipment, thanks to
their reputation for producing a unique "tube sound".
Magnetic ampliers
Main article: Magnetic amplier

An ECC83 tube glowing inside a preamp

being aected by radioactivity.


Negative resistance devices
Negative resistances can be used as ampliers, such as the
tunnel diode amplier.[7][8]

21.3.2 Amplier architectures


Ampliers can also be categorised by the way they amplify the input signal.

Magnetic ampliers are devices somewhat similar to a


Power amplier
transformer where one winding is used to control the saturation of a magnetic core and hence alter the impedance A power amplier is an amplier designed primarily
of the other winding.[6]
to increase the power available to a load. In practice,
They have largely fallen out of use due to development amplier power gain depends on the source and load
in semiconductor ampliers but are still useful in HVDC impedances, as well as the inherent voltage and current
control, and in nuclear power control circuitry to their not gain. A radio frequency (RF) amplier design typically

132

CHAPTER 21. AMPLIFIER

optimizes impedances for power transfer, while audio and


instrumentation amplier designs normally optimize input and output impedance for least loading and highest
signal integrity. An amplier that is said to have a gain of
20 dB might have a voltage gain of 20 dB and an available power gain of much more than 20 dB (power ratio
of 100)yet actually deliver a much lower power gain
if, for example, the input is from a 600 ohm microphone
and the output connects to a 47 kilohm input socket for
a power amplier. In general the power amplier is the
last 'amplier' or actual circuit in a signal chain (the output stage) and is the amplier stage that requires attention
to power eciency. Eciency considerations lead to the
various classes of power amplier based on the biasing
of the output transistors or tubes: see power amplier
classes below.
An LM741 general purpose op-amp

Power ampliers by application


Audio power ampliers: typically used to drive Dierential ampliers
loudspeakers, will often have two output channels
Main article: Fully dierential amplier
and deliver equal power to each
RF power ampliertypical in transmitter nal A fully dierential amplier is similar to the operational
stages (see also: Linear amplier)
amplier, but also has dierential outputs. These are usually constructed using BJTs or FETs.
Servo motor controllers: amplify a control voltage
A dierential amplier is the rst stage of an op-amp, a
where linearity is not important
dierential amplier consists of two transistors which are
Piezoelectric audio amplierincludes a DC-to- emitter coupled. Types of dierential ampliers:
DC converter to generate the high voltage output required to drive piezoelectric speakers[9]

Power amplier circuits


clude the following types:

Dierential mode

Power amplier circuits in- Vd= V1-V2


Common mode

Vacuum tube/valve, hybrid or transistor power ampliers


Push-pull output or single-ended output stages

It is the average between the input voltages V2 and V1


Vc=V1+V2/2
Distributed ampliers

Operational ampliers (op-amps)


Main article: Distributed amplier
Main articles: Operational amplier and Instrumentation
amplier
These use balanced transmission lines to separate individual single stage ampliers, the outputs of which are
An operational amplier is an amplier circuit which typ- summed by the same transmission line. The transmisically has very high open loop gain and dierential inputs. sion line is a balanced type with the input at one end
Op amps have become very widely used as standardized and on one side only of the balanced transmission line
gain blocks in circuits due to their versatility; their gain, and the output at the opposite end is also the opposite
bandwidth and other characteristics can be controlled by side of the balanced transmission line. The gain of each
feedback through an external circuit. Though the term to- stage adds linearly to the output rather than multiplies one
day commonly applies to integrated circuits, the original on the other as in a cascade conguration. This allows a
operational amplier design used valves, and later designs higher bandwidth to be achieved than could otherwise be
used discrete transistor circuits.
realised even with the same gain stage elements.

21.4. CLASSIFICATION OF AMPLIFIER STAGES AND SYSTEMS


Switched mode ampliers

133

Musical instrument ampliers

These nonlinear ampliers have much higher eciencies Main article: Instrument amplier
than linear amps, and are used where the power saving
justies the extra complexity. Class-D ampliers are the An audio power amplier is usually used to amplify sigmain example of this type of amplicationsee below. nals such as music or speech. In the mid 1960s, guitar and
bass ampliers began to gain popularity because of their
relatively low price ($50) and guitars being the most popular instruments as well.[13] Several factors are especially
21.3.3 Applications
important in the selection of musical instrument ampliers (such as guitar ampliers) and other audio ampliers
Video ampliers
(although the whole of the sound system components
such as microphones to loudspeakers aect these paVideo ampliers are designed to process video signals and rameters):
have varying bandwidths depending on whether the video
signal is for SDTV, EDTV, HDTV 720p or 1080i/p etc..
Frequency response not just the frequency range
The specication of the bandwidth itself depends on what
but the requirement that the signal level varies so litkind of lter is usedand at which point (1 dB or 3
tle across the audible frequency range that the hudB for example) the bandwidth is measured. Certain reman ear notices no variation. A typical specication
quirements for step response and overshoot are necessary
for audio ampliers may be 20 Hz to 20 kHz +/- 0.5
for an acceptable TV image.[10]
dB.
Power output the power level obtainable with little
distortion, to obtain a suciently loud sound pressure level from the loudspeakers.

Oscilloscope vertical ampliers


These deal with video signals that drive an oscilloscope
display tube, and can have bandwidths of about 500 MHz.
The specications on step response, rise time, overshoot,
and aberrations can make designing these ampliers difcult. One of the pioneers in high bandwidth vertical ampliers was the Tektronix company.[11]

Microwave ampliers
Travelling wave tube ampliers
Traveling wave tube

Low distortion all ampliers and transducers distort to some extent. They cannot be perfectly linear, but aim to pass signals without aecting the
harmonic content of the sound more than the human
ear can tolerate. That tolerance of distortion, and indeed the possibility that some warmth or second
harmonic distortion (tube sound) improves the musicality of the sound, are subjects of great debate.

Before coming onto the music scene, ampliers were


heavily used in cinema. In the premiere of Noahs Ark
Main article: in 1929, the movies director (Michael Kurtiz) used the
amplier for a festival following the movies premiere.[14]

Traveling wave tube ampliers (TWTAs) are used for


21.4 Classication of amplier
high power amplication at low microwave frequencies.
They typically can amplify across a broad spectrum of
stages and systems
frequencies; however, they are usually not as tunable as
klystrons.[12]
Many alternative classications address dierent aspects
of amplier designs, and they all express some particular
perspective relating the design parameters to the objectives of the circuit. Amplier design is always a comproKlystrons Main article: Klystron
mise of numerous factors, such as cost, power consumption, real-world device imperfections, and a multitude of
Klystrons are specialized linear-beam vacuum-devices, performance specications. Below are several dierent
designed to provide high power, widely tunable ampli- approaches to classication:
cation of millimetre and sub-millimetre waves. Klystrons
are designed for large scale operations and despite having
a narrower bandwidth than TWTAs, they have the advan- 21.4.1 Input and output variables
tage of coherently amplifying a reference signal so its output may be precisely controlled in amplitude, frequency Electronic ampliers use one variable presented as either
a current and voltage. Either current or voltage can be
and phase.

134

CHAPTER 21. AMPLIFIER


ative to the input. The common collector arrangement
applies the input voltage between base and collector, and
to take the output voltage between emitter and collector. This causes negative feedback, and the output voltage
tends to follow the input voltage. This arrangement is also
used as the input presents a high impedance and does not
load the signal source, though the voltage amplication is
less than one. The common-collector circuit is, therefore,
better known as an emitter follower, source follower, or
cathode follower.

The four types of dependent sourcecontrol variable on left,


output variable on right

21.4.3 Unilateral or bilateral

An amplier whose output exhibits no feedback to


used as input and either as output, leading to four types
its input side is described as 'unilateral'. The input
of ampliers.[1] In idealized form they are represented by
impedance of a unilateral amplier is independent of
each of the four types of dependent source used in linear
load, and output impedance is independent of signal
analysis, as shown in the gure, namely:
source impedance.[18]
Each type of amplier in its ideal form has an ideal inAn amplier that uses feedback to connect part of the
put and output resistance that is the same as that of the
output back to the input is a bilateral amplier. Bilatcorresponding dependent source:[15]
eral amplier input impedance depends on the load, and
In practice the ideal impedances are not possible to output impedance on the signal source impedance. All
achieve. For any particular circuit, a small-signal anal- ampliers are bilateral to some degree; however they may
ysis is often used to nd the actual impedance. A small- often be modeled as unilateral under operating conditions
signal AC test current Ix is applied to the input or output where feedback is small enough to neglect for most purnode, all external sources are set to AC zero, and the cor- poses, simplifying analysis (see the common base article
responding alternating voltage Vx across the test current for an example).
source determines the impedance seen at that node as R
An amplier design often deliberately applies negative
= Vx / Ix.[16]
feedback to tailor amplier behavior. Some feedAmpliers designed to attach to a transmission line at in- back, positive or negative, is unavoidable and often
put and output, especially RF ampliers, do not t into undesirableintroduced, for example, by parasitic elethis classication approach. Rather than dealing with ments, such as inherent capacitance between input and
voltage or current individually, they ideally couple with output of devices such as transistors, and capacitive couan input or output impedance matched to the transmis- pling of external wiring. Excessive frequency-dependent
sion line impedance, that is, match ratios of voltage to positive feedback can turn an amplier into an oscillator.
current. Many real RF ampliers come close to this
Linear unilateral and bilateral ampliers can be repreideal. Although, for a given appropriate source and load
sented as two-port networks.
impedance, RF ampliers can be characterized as amplifying voltage or current, they fundamentally are amplifying power.[17]

21.4.4 Inverting or non-inverting

21.4.2

Common terminal

Another way to classify ampliers is by the phase relationship of the input signal to the output signal. An 'inverting' amplier produces an output 180 degrees out of
phase with the input signal (that is, a polarity inversion
or mirror image of the input as seen on an oscilloscope).
A 'non-inverting' amplier maintains the phase of the input signal waveforms. An emitter follower is a type of
non-inverting amplier, indicating that the signal at the
emitter of a transistor is following (that is, matching with
unity gain but perhaps an oset) the input signal. Voltage follower is also non inverting type of amplier having
unity gain.

One set of classications for ampliers is based on which


device terminal is common to both the input and the output circuit. In the case of bipolar junction transistors,
the three classes are common emitter, common base, and
common collector. For eld-eect transistors, the corresponding congurations are common source, common
gate, and common drain; for vacuum tubes, common
cathode, common grid, and common plate. The common
emitter (or common source, common cathode, etc.) is
most often congured to provide amplication of a voltage applied between base and emitter, and the output sig- This description can apply to a single stage of an amplinal taken between collector and emitter is inverted, rel- er, or to a complete amplier system.

21.4. CLASSIFICATION OF AMPLIFIER STAGES AND SYSTEMS

21.4.5

Function

Other ampliers may be classied by their function or


output characteristics. These functional descriptions usually apply to complete amplier systems or sub-systems
and rarely to individual stages.
A servo amplier indicates an integrated feedback
loop to actively control the output at some desired
level. A DC servo indicates use at frequencies down
to DC levels, where the rapid uctuations of an audio
or RF signal do not occur. These are often used in
mechanical actuators, or devices such as DC motors
that must maintain a constant speed or torque. An
AC servo amp can do this for some ac motors.
A linear amplier responds to dierent frequency
components independently, and does not generate
harmonic distortion or Intermodulation distortion.
No amplier can provide perfect linearity (even
the most linear amplier has some nonlinearities,
since the amplifying devicestransistors or vacuum
tubesfollow nonlinear power laws such as squarelaws and rely on circuitry techniques to reduce those
eects).
A nonlinear amplier generates signicant distortion and so changes the harmonic content; there are
situations where this is useful. Amplier circuits intentionally providing a non-linear transfer function
include:
a device like a Silicon Controlled Rectier or
a transistor used as a switch may be employed
to turn either fully ON or OFF a load such as
a lamp based on a threshold in a continuously
variable input.

135
is still modulated by the relatively large gaincontrol DC voltage.
AM detector circuits that use amplication
such as Anode-bend detectors, Precision rectiers and Innite impedance detectors (so excluding unamplied detectors such as Catswhisker detectors), as well as peak detector
circuits, rely on changes in amplication based
on the signal's instantaneous amplitude to derive a direct current from an alternating current
input.
Operational amplier comparator and detector
circuits.

A wideband amplier has a precise amplication


factor over a wide frequency range, and is often used
to boost signals for relay in communications systems. A narrowband amp amplies a specic narrow range of frequencies, to the exclusion of other
frequencies.
An RF amplier amplies signals in the radio frequency range of the electromagnetic spectrum, and
is often used to increase the sensitivity of a receiver
or the output power of a transmitter.[19]
An audio amplier amplies audio frequencies.
This category subdivides into small signal amplication, and power amps that are optimised to driving
speakers, sometimes with multiple amps grouped
together as separate or bridgeable channels to accommodate dierent audio reproduction requirements. Frequently used terms within audio ampliers include:

a Class C RF amplier may be chosen because


it can be very ecientbut is non-linear.
Following such an amplier with a "tank"
tuned circuit can reduce unwanted harmonics (distortion) suciently to make it useful in
transmitters, or some desired harmonic may be
selected by setting the resonant frequency of
the tuned circuit to a higher frequency rather
than fundamental frequency in frequency multiplier circuits.

Preamplier (preamp), which may include a


phono preamp with RIAA equalization, or
tape head preamps with CCIR equalisation lters. They may include lters or tone control
circuitry.
Power
amplier
(normally
drives
loudspeakers), headphone ampliers, and
public address ampliers.
Stereo ampliers imply two channels of output (left and right), though the term simply means solid sound (referring to threedimensional)so quadraphonic stereo was
used for ampliers with four channels. 5.1
and 7.1 systems refer to Home theatre systems with 5 or 7 normal spatial channels, plus
a subwoofer channel.

Automatic gain control circuits require an


ampliers gain be controlled by the timeaveraged amplitude so that the output amplitude varies little when weak stations are
being received. The non-linearities are assumed arranged so the relatively small signal
amplitude suers from little distortion (crosschannel interference or intermodulation) yet

Buer ampliers, which may include emitter followers, provide a high impedance input for a device
(perhaps another amplier, or perhaps an energyhungry load such as lights) that would otherwise
draw too much current from the source. Line drivers
are a type of buer that feeds long or interferenceprone interconnect cables, possibly with dierential
outputs through twisted pair cables.

a non-linear amplier in an analog computer or


true RMS converter for example can provide a
special transfer function, such as logarithmic
or square-law.

136

CHAPTER 21. AMPLIFIER

A special type of amplieroriginally used in Direct coupled amplier, using no impedance and
analog computersis widely used in measuring in- bias matching components
This class of amplier was very uncommon in the
struments for signal processing, and many other
vacuum tube days when the anode (output) voltage
uses. These are called operational ampliers or
was at greater than several hundred volts and the
op-amps. The operational name is because this
grid (input) voltage at a few volts minus. So they
type of amplier can be used in circuits that perform
were only used if the gain was specied down to
mathematical algorithmic functions, or operations
DC (e.g., in an oscilloscope). In the context of
on input signals to obtain specic types of output sigmodern electronics developers are encouraged to
nals. Modern op-amps are usually provided as inteuse directly coupled ampliers whenever possible.
grated circuits, rather than constructed from discrete
In FET and CMOS technologies direct coupling is
components. A typical modern op-amp has dierdominant since gates of MOSFETs theoretically
ential inputs (one inverting, one non-inverting)
pass no current through themselves. Therefore, DC
and one output. An idealised op-amp has the folcomponent of the input signals is automatically
lowing characteristics:
ltered.
Innite input impedance (so it does not load
the circuitry at its input)
Zero output impedance

21.4.7 Frequency range

Innite gain
Zero propagation delay
The performance of an op-amp with these characteristics
is entirely dened by the (usually passive) components
that form a negative feedback loop around it. The amplier itself does not aect the output. All real-world opamps fall short of the idealised specication abovebut
some modern components have remarkable performance
and come close in some respects.

21.4.6

Interstage coupling method

See also: multistage ampliers


Ampliers are sometimes classied by the coupling
method of the signal at the input, output, or between
stages. Dierent types of these include:
Resistive-capacitive (RC) coupled amplier, using a
network of resistors and capacitors
By design these ampliers cannot amplify DC signals as the capacitors block the DC component of
the input signal. RC-coupled ampliers were used
very often in circuits with vacuum tubes or discrete
transistors. In the days of the integrated circuit a
few more transistors on a chip are much cheaper
and smaller than a capacitor.

Depending on the frequency range and other properties


ampliers are designed according to dierent principles.
Frequency ranges down to DC are only used when
this property is needed. DC amplication leads to
specic complications that are avoided if possible;
DC-blocking capacitors can be added to remove
DC and sub-sonic frequencies from audio ampliers.
Depending on the frequency range specied dierent design principles must be used. Up to the MHz
range only discrete properties need be considered;
e.g., a terminal has an input impedance.
As soon as any connection within the circuit gets
longer than perhaps 1% of the wavelength of the
highest specied frequency (e.g., at 100 MHz the
wavelength is 3 m, so the critical connection length
is approx. 3 cm) design properties radically change.
For example, a specied length and width of a
PCB trace can be used as a selective or impedancematching entity.
Above a few hundred MHz, it gets dicult to use
discrete elements, especially inductors. In most
cases, PCB traces of very closely dened shapes are
used instead.

Inductive-capacitive (LC) coupled amplier, using a


network of inductors and capacitors
This kind of amplier is most often used in selective
radio-frequency circuits.
The frequency range handled by an amplier might be
Transformer coupled amplier, using a transformer specied in terms of bandwidth (normally implying a reto match impedances or to decouple parts of the cir- sponse that is 3 dB down when the frequency reaches the
specied bandwidth), or by specifying a frequency recuits
Quite often LC-coupled and transformer-coupled sponse that is within a certain number of decibels beampliers cannot be distinguished as a transformer tween a lower and an upper frequency (e.g. 20 Hz to 20
is some kind of inductor.
kHz plus or minus 1 dB).

21.5. POWER AMPLIFIER CLASSES

21.5 Power amplier classes

137
deviate substantially from their ideal values. These
classes use harmonic tuning of their output networks
to achieve higher eciency and can be considered a
subset of class C due to their conduction-angle characteristics.

Power amplier circuits (output stages) are classied as


A, B, AB and C for analog designsand class D and E for
switching designsbased on the proportion of each input
cycle (conduction angle) during which an amplifying device passes current.[20] The image of the conduction angle
21.5.2
derives from amplifying a sinusoidal signal. If the device
is always on, the conducting angle is 360. If it is on for
only half of each cycle, the angle is 180. The angle of
ow is closely related to the amplier power eciency.
The various classes are introduced below, followed by a
more detailed discussion under their individual headings
further down.

Class A

In the illustrations below, a bipolar junction transistor is


shown as the amplifying device. However the same attributes are found with MOSFETs or vacuum tubes.

21.5.1

Conduction angle classes


Class-A amplier

Class A 100% of the input signal is used (conduction


angle = 360). The active element remains
Amplifying devices operating in class A conduct over the
conducting[21] all of the time.
entire range of the input cycle. A class-A amplier is
Class B 50% of the input signal is used ( = 180); the distinguished by the output stage devices being biased for
active element carries current half of each cycle, and class A operation. Subclass A2 is sometimes used to refer
to vacuum-tube class-A stages that drive the grid slightly
is turned o for the other half.
positive on signal peaks for slightly more power than norClass AB Class AB is intermediate between class A and mal class A (A1; where the grid is always negative[22][23] ).
B, the two active elements conduct more than half This, however, incurs higher signal distortion.
of the time.
Class C Less than 50% of the input signal is used (con- Advantages of class-A ampliers
duction angle < 180).
Class-A designs are simpler than other classes; for
example class -AB and -B designs require two conA Class D amplier uses some form of pulse-width
nected devices in the circuit (pushpull output), each
modulation to control the output devices; the conduction
to handle one half of the waveform; class A can use
angle of each device is no longer related directly to the
a single device (single-ended).
input signal but instead varies in pulse width. These are
sometimes called digital ampliers because the output
The amplifying element is biased so the device is
device is switched fully on or o, and not carrying current
always conducting, the quiescent (small-signal) colproportional to the signal amplitude.
lector current (for transistors; drain current for FETs
or anode/plate current for vacuum tubes) is close
Additional classes There are several other amplier
to the most linear portion of its transconductance
classes, although they are mainly variations of the
curve.
previous classes. For example, class-G and class Because the device is never 'o' there is no turn
H ampliers are marked by variation of the supon time, no problems with charge storage, and genply rails (in discrete steps or in a continuous fasherally better high frequency performance and feedion, respectively) following the input signal. Wasted
back loop stability (and usually fewer high-order
heat on the output devices can be reduced as exharmonics).
cess voltage is kept to a minimum. The amplier
that is fed with these rails itself can be of any class.
The point where the device comes closest to beThese kinds of ampliers are more complex, and
ing 'o' is not at 'zero signal', so the problems of
are mainly used for specialized applications, such
crossover distortion associated with class-AB and as very high-power units. Also, class-E and class-F
B designs is avoided.
ampliers are commonly described in literature for
Best for low signal levels of radio receivers due to
radio-frequency applications where eciency of the
low distortion.
traditional classes is important, yet several aspects

138

CHAPTER 21. AMPLIFIER

Disadvantage of class-A ampliers

Transistors are much cheaper, and so more elaborate designs that give greater eciency but use more parts are
Class-A ampliers are inecient. A theoretical ef- still cost-eective. A classic application for a pair of
ciency of 50% is obtainable in a push-pull topol- class-A devices is the long-tailed pair, which is excepogy, and only 25% in a single-ended topology, un- tionally linear, and forms the basis of many more comless deliberate use of nonlinearities is made (such as plex circuits, including many audio ampliers and almost
in square-law output stages).[24] In a power am- all op-amps.
plier, this not only wastes power and limits operClass-A ampliers may be used in output stages of opation with batteries, but increases operating costs
amps[28] (although the accuracy of the bias in low cost
and requires higher-rated output devices. Ineop-amps such as the 741 may result in class A or class AB
ciency comes from the standing current that must
or class B performance, varying from device to device or
be roughly half the maximum output current, and
with temperature). They are sometimes used as mediuma large part of the power supply voltage is present
power, low-eciency, and high-cost audio power ampliacross the output device at low signal levels. If high
ers. The power consumption is unrelated to the output
output power is needed from a class-A circuit, the
power. At idle (no input), the power consumption is espower supply and accompanying heat becomes sigsentially the same as at high output volume. The result is
nicant. For every watt delivered to the load, the
low eciency and high heat dissipation.
amplier itself, at best, uses an extra watt. For high
power ampliers this means very large and expensive power supplies and heat sinks.
21.5.3 Class B

Class-A power amplier designs have largely been superseded by more ecient designs, though their simplicity
makes them popular with some hobbyists. There is a market for expensive high delity class-A amps considered
a cult item among audiophiles[25] mainly for their absence of crossover distortion and reduced odd-harmonic
and high-order harmonic distortion. They also ll a niche
market for recreations of vintage guitar ampliers, due to
their unique tone.
Class-B amplier

Single-ended and triode class-A ampliers


Class-B ampliers only amplify half of the input wave
Some hobbyists who prefer class-A ampliers also pre- cycle, thus creating a large amount of distortion, but
fer the use of thermionic valve (tube) designs instead of their eciency is greatly improved and is much bettransistors, for several reasons:
ter than class A.[29] Class-B ampliers are also favoured
in battery-operated devices, such as transistor radios.
Single-ended output stages have an asymmetrical Class B has a maximum theoretical eciency of /4
transfer function, meaning that even-order harmon- ( 78.5%).[24] This is because the amplifying element
ics in the created distortion tend to not cancel out is switched o altogether half of the time, and so can(as they do in pushpull output stages). For tubes, not dissipate power. A single class-B element is rarely
or FETs, most distortion is second-order harmonics, found in practice, though it has been used for driving the
from the square law transfer characteristic, which loudspeaker in the early IBM Personal Computers with
to some produces a warmer and more pleasant beeps, and it can be used in RF power amplier where
the distortion levels are less important. However, class C
sound.[26][27]
is more commonly used for this.
For those who prefer low distortion gures, the use
of tubes with class A (generating little odd-harmonic A practical circuit using class-B elements is the pushpull
distortion, as mentioned above) together with sym- stage, such as the very simplied complementary pair armetrical circuits (such as pushpull output stages, or rangement shown below. Here, complementary or quasibalanced low-level stages) results in the cancellation complementary devices are each used for amplifying the
of most of the even distortion harmonics, hence the opposite halves of the input signal, which is then recombined at the output. This arrangement gives excellent efremoval of most of the distortion.
ciency, but can suer from the drawback that there is a
Historically, valve ampliers often used a class-A small mismatch in the cross-over region at the joins
power amplier simply because valves are large and between the two halves of the signal, as one output deexpensive; many class-A designs use only a single vice has to take over supplying power exactly as the other
device.
nishes. This is called crossover distortion. An improve-

21.5. POWER AMPLIFIER CLASSES

139

ment is to bias the devices so they are not completely o Sometimes a numeral is added for vacuum-tube stages.
when they are not in use. This approach is called class If grid current is not permitted to ow, the class is AB1 .
AB operation.
If grid current is allowed to ow (adding more distorgiving slightly higher output power) the class is
Class B ampliers oer higher eciency than class A tion, but
[23]
AB
.
2
amplier using a single active device.

21.5.4

Class AB

21.5.5 Class C

Class-C amplier
Class-AB pushpull amplier

Class-C ampliers conduct less than 50% of the input signal and the distortion at the output is high, but high eciencies (up to 90%) are possible. The usual application
for class-C ampliers is in RF transmitters operating at a
single xed carrier frequency, where the distortion is controlled by a tuned load on the amplier. The input signal
is used to switch the active device causing pulses of current to ow through a tuned circuit forming part of the
load.[31]

Class AB is widely considered a good compromise for


ampliers, since much of the time the music signal is
quiet enough that the signal stays in the class A region,
where it is amplied with good delity, and by denition if passing out of this region, is large enough that the
distortion products typical of class B are relatively small.
The crossover distortion can be reduced further by using
negative feedback.
The class-C amplier has two modes of operation: tuned
In class-AB operation, each device operates the same way and untuned.[32] The diagram shows a waveform from
as in class B over half the waveform, but also conducts a a simple class-C circuit without the tuned load. This is
small amount on the other half.[30] As a result, the re- called untuned operation, and the analysis of the wavegion where both devices simultaneously are nearly o forms shows the massive distortion that appears in the sig(the dead zone) is reduced. The result is that when nal. When the proper load (e.g., an inductive-capacitive
the waveforms from the two devices are combined, the lter plus a load resistor) is used, two things happen. The
crossover is greatly minimised or eliminated altogether. rst is that the outputs bias level is clamped with the avThe exact choice of quiescent current (the standing cur- erage output voltage equal to the supply voltage. This is
rent through both devices when there is no signal) makes why tuned operation is sometimes called a clamper. This
a large dierence to the level of distortion (and to the risk restores the waveform to its proper shape, despite the amof thermal runaway, that may damage the devices). Of- plier having only a one-polarity supply. This is directly
ten, bias voltage applied to set this quiescent current must related to the second phenomenon: the waveform on the
be adjusted with the temperature of the output transis- center frequency becomes less distorted. The residual
tors. (For example, in the circuit at the beginning of the distortion is dependent upon the bandwidth of the tuned
article, the diodes would be mounted physically close to load, with the center frequency seeing very little distorthe output transistors, and specied to have a matched tion, but greater attenuation the farther from the tuned
temperature coecient.) Another approach (often used frequency that the signal gets.
with thermally tracking bias voltages) is to include small The tuned circuit resonates at one frequency, the xed
value resistors in series with the emitters.
carrier frequency, and so the unwanted frequencies are
Class AB sacrices some eciency over class B in favor
of linearity, thus is less ecient (below 78.5% for fullamplitude sinewaves in transistor ampliers, typically;
much less is common in class-AB vacuum-tube ampliers). It is typically much more ecient than class A.

suppressed, and the wanted full signal (sine wave) is extracted by the tuned load. The signal bandwidth of the
amplier is limited by the Q-factor of the tuned circuit
but this is not a serious limitation. Any residual harmonics can be removed using a further lter.

140

CHAPTER 21. AMPLIFIER

In practical class-C ampliers a tuned load is invariably


used. In one common arrangement the resistor shown in
the circuit above is replaced with a parallel-tuned circuit
consisting of an inductor and capacitor in parallel, whose
components are chosen to resonate the frequency of the
input signal. Power can be coupled to a load by transformer action with a secondary coil wound on the inductor. The average voltage at the collector is then equal to
the supply voltage, and the signal voltage appearing across
the tuned circuit varies from near zero to near twice the
supply voltage during the RF cycle. The input circuit is biased so that the active element (e.g., transistor) conducts
for only a fraction of the RF cycle, usually one third (120
degrees) or less.[33]

function as electronic switches instead of linear gain devices; they are either on or o. The analog signal is converted to a stream of pulses that represents the signal by
pulse-width modulation, pulse-density modulation, deltasigma modulation or a related modulation technique before being applied to the amplier. The time average
power value of the pulses is directly proportional to the
analog signal, so after amplication the signal can be converted back to an analog signal by a passive low-pass lter. The purpose of the output lter is to smooth the pulse
stream to an analog signal, removing the high frequency
spectral components of the pulses. The frequency of the
output pulses is typically ten or more times the highest
frequency in the input signal to amplify, so that the lter can adequately reduce the unwanted harmonics and
The active element conducts only while the collector volt[34]
age is passing through its minimum. By this means, accurately reproduce the input.
power dissipation in the active device is minimised, and The main advantage of a class-D amplier is power eeciency increased. Ideally, the active element would ciency. Because the output pulses have a xed amplitude,
pass only an instantaneous current pulse while the volt- the switching elements (usually MOSFETs, but vacuum
age across it is zero: it then dissipates no power and 100% tubes, and at one time bipolar transistors, were used) are
eciency is achieved. However practical devices have a switched either completely on or completely o, rather
limit to the peak current they can pass, and the pulse must than operated in linear mode. A MOSFET operates with
therefore be widened, to around 120 degrees, to obtain a the lowest resistance when fully on and thus (excluding
reasonable amount of power, and the eciency is then when fully o) has the lowest power dissipation when in
6070%.[33]
that condition. Compared to an equivalent class-AB device, a class-D ampliers lower losses permit the use of
a smaller heat sink for the MOSFETs while also reduc21.5.6 Class D
ing the amount of input power required, allowing for a
lower-capacity power supply design. Therefore, class-D
Main article: Class D amplier
ampliers are typically smaller than an equivalent classIn the class-D amplier the active devices (transistors) AB amplier.

Input

C
Low-pass lter
Switching controller
and output stage
Triangular wave generator

Block diagram of a basic switching or PWM (class-D) amplier.

Boss Audio class-D mono amplier with a low-pass lter for


powering subwoofers

Another advantage of the class-D amplier is that it can


operate from a digital signal source without requiring a
digital-to-analog converter (DAC) to convert the signal
to analog form rst. If the signal source is in digital form,
such as in a digital media player or computer sound card,
the digital circuitry can convert the binary digital signal
directly to a pulse-width modulation signal that is applied
to the amplier, simplifying the circuitry considerably.
Class-D ampliers are widely used to control motors
but are now also used as power ampliers, with extra circuitry that converts analogue to a much higher frequency
pulse width modulated signal. Switching power supplies
have even been modied into crude class-D ampliers
(though typically these only reproduce low-frequencies
with acceptable accuracy).
High quality class-D audio power ampliers have now appeared on the market. These designs have been said to rival traditional AB ampliers in terms of quality. An early
use of class-D ampliers was high-power subwoofer ampliers in cars. Because subwoofers are generally limited
to a bandwidth of no higher than 150 Hz, switching speed
for the amplier does not have to be as high as for a full
range amplier, allowing simpler designs. Class-D ampliers for driving subwoofers are relatively inexpensive
in comparison to class-AB ampliers.

21.5. POWER AMPLIFIER CLASSES

141

The letter D used to designate this amplier class is simply the next letter after C and, although occasionally used
as such, does not stand for digital. Class-D and class-E
ampliers are sometimes mistakenly described as digital because the output waveform supercially resembles
a pulse-train of digital symbols, but a class-D amplier
merely converts an input waveform into a continuously
pulse-width modulated analog signal. (A digital waveform would be pulse-code modulated.)

21.5.7

Additional classes

Class E
The class-E/F amplier is a highly ecient switching
power amplier, typically used at such high frequencies
that the switching time becomes comparable to the duty
time. As said in the class-D amplier, the transistor is
connected via a serial LC circuit to the load, and connected via a large L (inductor) to the supply voltage. The
supply voltage is connected to ground via a large capacitor to prevent any RF signals leaking into the supply. The
class-E amplier adds a C (capacitor) between the transistor and ground and uses a dened L1 to connect to the
supply voltage.

rameters and the constraint that the voltage is not only


restored, but peaks at the original voltage, the four parameters (L, L0 , C and C0 ) are determined. The class-E
amplier takes the nite on resistance into account and
tries to make the current touch the bottom at zero. This
means that the voltage and the current at the transistor
are symmetric with respect to time. The Fourier transform allows an elegant formulation to generate the complicated LC networks and says that the rst harmonic is
passed into the load, all even harmonics are shorted and
all higher odd harmonics are open.
Class E uses a signicant amount of second-harmonic
voltage. The second harmonic can be used to reduce the
overlap with edges with nite sharpness. For this to work,
energy on the second harmonic has to ow from the load
into the transistor, and no source for this is visible in the
circuit diagram. In reality, the impedance is mostly reactive and the only reason for it is that class E is a class
F (see below) amplier with a much simplied load network and thus has to deal with imperfections.
In many amateur simulations of class-E ampliers, sharp
current edges are assumed nullifying the very motivation
for class E and measurements near the transit frequency
of the transistors show very symmetric curves, which look
much similar to class-F simulations.
The class-E amplier was invented in 1972 by Nathan O.
Sokal and Alan D. Sokal, and details were rst published
in 1975.[35] Some earlier reports on this operating class
have been published in Russian and Polish.

+Vcc
L1

L0

C0
Class F

T1

RL

Class-E amplier

The following description ignores DC, which can be


added easily afterwards. The above-mentioned C and L
are in eect a parallel LC circuit to ground. When the
transistor is on, it pushes through the serial LC circuit into
the load and some current begins to ow to the parallel LC
circuit to ground. Then the serial LC circuit swings back
and compensates the current into the parallel LC circuit.
At this point the current through the transistor is zero and
it is switched o. Both LC circuits are now lled with energy in C and L0 . The whole circuit performs a damped
oscillation. The damping by the load has been adjusted
so that some time later the energy from the Ls is gone
into the load, but the energy in both C0 peaks at the original value to in turn restore the original voltage so that
the voltage across the transistor is zero again and it can
be switched on.

In pushpull ampliers and in CMOS, the even harmonics of both transistors just cancel. Experiment shows that
a square wave can be generated by those ampliers. Theoretically square waves consist of odd harmonics only. In
a class-D amplier, the output lter blocks all harmonics;
i.e., the harmonics see an open load. So even small currents in the harmonics suce to generate a voltage square
wave. The current is in phase with the voltage applied
to the lter, but the voltage across the transistors is out
of phase. Therefore, there is a minimal overlap between
current through the transistors and voltage across the transistors. The sharper the edges, the lower the overlap.

While in class D, transistors and the load exist as two separate modules, class F admits imperfections like the parasitics of the transistor and tries to optimise the global
system to have a high impedance at the harmonics. Of
course there must be a nite voltage across the transistor
to push the current across the on-state resistance. Because
the combined current through both transistors is mostly in
the rst harmonic, it looks like a sine. That means that in
the middle of the square the maximum of current has to
ow, so it may make sense to have a dip in the square
or in other words to allow some overswing of the voltage
With load, frequency, and duty cycle (0.5) as given pa- square wave. A class-F load network by denition has to

142

CHAPTER 21. AMPLIFIER

transmit below a cuto frequency and reect above.


Any frequency lying below the cuto and having its second harmonic above the cuto can be amplied, that is
an octave bandwidth. On the other hand, an inductivecapacitive series circuit with a large inductance and a tunable capacitance may be simpler to implement. By reducing the duty cycle below 0.5, the output amplitude can
be modulated. The voltage square waveform degrades,
but any overheating is compensated by the lower overall
power owing. Any load mismatch behind the lter can
only act on the rst harmonic current waveform, clearly
only a purely resistive load makes sense, then the lower
the resistance, the higher the current.
Class F can be driven by sine or by a square wave, for
a sine the input can be tuned by an inductor to increase
gain. If class F is implemented with a single transistor,
the lter is complicated to short the even harmonics. All
previous designs use sharp edges to minimise the overlap.
Rail voltage modulation

Classes G and H
U (V)

Ampli class G

+ Vss

+ Vs

- Vs

- Vss

Idealized class-G rail voltage modulation

U (V)

Ampli class H

+ Vss

+ Vs

- Vs

- Vss

Basic schematic of a class-H conguration


Idealized class-H rail voltage modulation

There is a variety of amplier designs that enhance


class-AB output stages with more ecient techniques
to achieve greater eciency with low distortion. These
designs are common in large audio ampliers since the
heatsinks and power transformers would be prohibitively
large (and costly) without the eciency increases. The
terms class G and class H are used interchangeably
to refer to dierent designs, varying in denition from
one manufacturer or paper to another.

Class-G ampliers (which use rail switching to decrease power consumption and increase eciency) are
more ecient than class-AB ampliers. These ampliers provide several power rails at dierent voltages and
switch between them as the signal output approaches each
level. Thus, the amplier increases eciency by reducing
the wasted power at the output transistors. Class-G ampliers are more ecient than class AB but less ecient
when compared to class D, however, they do not have the
electromagnetic interference eects of class D.

21.6. IMPLEMENTATION
Class-H ampliers take the idea of class G one step further creating an innitely variable supply rail. This is done
by modulating the supply rails so that the rails are only a
few volts larger than the output signal at any given time.
The output stage operates at its maximum eciency all
the time. Switched-mode power supplies can be used to
create the tracking rails. Signicant eciency gains can
be achieved but with the drawback of more complicated
supply design and reduced THD performance. In common designs, a voltage drop of about 10V is maintained
over the output transistors in Class H circuits. The picture
above shows positive supply voltage of the output stage
and the voltage at the speaker output. The boost of the
supply voltage is shown for a real music signal.
The voltage signal shown is thus a larger version of the
input, but has been changed in sign (inverted) by the
amplication. Other arrangements of amplifying device
are possible, but that given (that is, common emitter,
common source or common cathode) is the easiest to understand and employ in practice. If the amplifying element is linear, the output is a faithful copy of the input, only larger and inverted. In practice, transistors are
not linear, and the output only approximates the input.
nonlinearity from any of several sources is the origin of
distortion within an amplier. The class of amplier (A,
B, AB or C) depends on how the amplifying device is
biased. The diagrams omit the bias circuits for clarity.

143
Dohertys design, even with zero modulation, a transmitter could achieve at least 60% eciency.[36]
As a successor to Western Electric for broadcast transmitters, the Doherty concept was considerably rened by
Continental Electronics Manufacturing Company of Dallas, TX. Perhaps, the ultimate renement was the screengrid modulation scheme invented by Joseph B. Sainton.
The Sainton amplier consists of a class-C primary or
carrier stage in parallel with a class-C auxiliary or peak
stage. The stages are split and combined through 90degree phase shifting networks as in the Doherty amplier. The unmodulated radio frequency carrier is applied
to the control grids of both tubes. Carrier modulation is
applied to the screen grids of both tubes. The bias point
of the carrier and peak tubes is dierent, and is established such that the peak tube is cuto when modulation
is absent (and the amplier is producing rated unmodulated carrier power) whereas both tubes contribute twice
the rated carrier power during 100% modulation (as four
times the carrier power is required to achieve 100% modulation). As both tubes operate in class C, a signicant
improvement in eciency is thereby achieved in the nal stage. In addition, as the tetrode carrier and peak
tubes require very little drive power, a signicant improvement in eciency within the driver stage is achieved
as well (317C, et al.).[37] The released version of the Sainton amplier employs a cathode-follower modulator, not
a pushpull modulator. Previous Continental Electronics
designs, by James O. Weldon and others, retained most
of the characteristics of the Doherty amplier but added
screen-grid modulation of the driver (317B, et al.).

Any real amplier is an imperfect realization of an ideal


amplier. An important limitation of a real amplier is
that the output it generates is ultimately limited by the
power available from the power supply. An amplier saturates and clips the output if the input signal becomes The Doherty amplier remains in use in very-high-power
too large for the amplier to reproduce or exceeds oper- AM transmitters, but for lower-power AM transmitters,
ational limits for the device.
vacuum-tube ampliers in general were eclipsed in the
1980s by arrays of solid-state ampliers, which could be
switched on and o with much ner granularity in response to the requirements of the input audio. HowDoherty ampliers
ever, interest in the Doherty conguration has been revived by cellular-telephone and wireless-Internet applicaMain article: Doherty amplier
tions where the sum of several constant envelope users
creates an aggregate AM result. The main challenge of
The Doherty amplier is a hybrid conguration. It was the Doherty amplier for digital transmission modes is in
invented in 1934 by William H. Doherty for Bell Labo- aligning the two stages and getting the class-C amplier
ratorieswhose sister company, Western Electric, man- to turn on and o very quickly.
ufactured radio transmitters. The Doherty amplier consists of a class-B primary or carrier stages in parallel with Recently, Doherty ampliers have found widespread use
a class-C auxiliary or peak stage. The input signal splits to in cellular base station transmitters for GHz frequencies.
drive the two ampliers, and a combining network sums Implementations for transmitters in mobile devices have
the two output signals. Phase shifting networks are used also been demonstrated.
in inputs and outputs. During periods of low signal level,
the class-B amplier eciently operates on the signal and
the class-C amplier is cuto and consumes little power. 21.6 Implementation
During periods of high signal level, the class-B amplier
delivers its maximum power and the class-C amplier de- Ampliers are implemented using active elements of diflivers up to its maximum power. The eciency of previ- ferent kinds:
ous AM transmitter designs was proportional to modula The rst active elements were relays. They were for
tion but, with average modulation typically around 20%,
example used in transcontinental telegraph lines: a
transmitters were limited to less than 50% eciency. In

144

CHAPTER 21. AMPLIFIER

weak current was used to switch the voltage of a bat- The input signal is coupled through capacitor C1 to the
tery to the outgoing line.
base of transistor Q1. The capacitor allows the AC signal to pass, but blocks the DC bias voltage established by
For transmitting audio, carbon microphones were resistors R1 and R2 so that any preceding circuit is not
used as the active element. This was used to modu- aected by it. Q1 and Q2 form a dierential amplier
late a radio-frequency source in one of the rst AM (an amplier that multiplies the dierence between two
audio transmissions, by Reginald Fessenden on Dec. inputs by some constant), in an arrangement known as a
24, 1906.[38]
long-tailed pair. This arrangement is used to conveniently
Power control circuitry used magnetic ampliers un- allow the use of negative feedback, which is fed from the
til the latter half of the twentieth century when high output to Q2 via R7 and R8.
power FETs, and their easy interfacing to the newly The negative feedback into the dierence amplier aldeveloped digital circuitry, took over.
lows the amplier to compare the input to the actual out Audio and most low power ampliers used vacuum put. The amplied signal from Q1 is directly fed to the
tubes exclusively until the 1960s. Today, tubes are second stage, Q3, which is a common emitter stage that
used for specialist audio applications such as guitar provides further amplication of the signal and the DC
ampliers and audiophile ampliers. Many broad- bias for the output stages, Q4 and Q5. R6 provides the
load for Q3 (a better design would probably use some
cast transmitters still use vacuum tubes.
form of active load here, such as a constant-current sink).
In the 1960s, the transistor started to take over. So far, all of the amplier is operating in class A. The outThese days, discrete transistors are still used in high- put pair are arranged in class-AB pushpull, also called
a complementary pair. They provide the majority of
power ampliers and in specialist audio devices.
the current amplication (while consuming low quiescent
Beginning in the 1970s, more and more transistors current) and directly drive the load, connected via DCwere connected on a single chip therefore creating blocking capacitor C2. The diodes D1 and D2 provide
the integrated circuit. A large number of ampli- a small amount of constant voltage bias for the output
ers commercially available today are based on in- pair, just biasing them into the conducting state so that
tegrated circuits.
crossover distortion is minimized. That is, the diodes
push the output stage rmly into class-AB mode (assumFor special purposes, other active elements have been ing that the base-emitter drop of the output transistors is
used. For example, in the early days of the satellite com- reduced by heat dissipation).
munication, parametric ampliers were used. The core
circuit was a diode whose capacitance was changed by an This design is simple, but a good basis for a practical deRF signal created locally. Under certain conditions, this sign because it automatically stabilises its operating point,
RF signal provided energy that was modulated by the ex- since feedback internally operates from DC up through
tremely weak satellite signal received at the earth station. the audio range and beyond. Further circuit elements
would probably be found in a real design that would rollo the frequency response above the needed range to prevent the possibility of unwanted oscillation. Also, the use
21.6.1 Amplier circuit
of xed diode bias as shown here can cause problems if
the diodes are not both electrically and thermally matched
to the output transistors if the output transistors turn
+V supply
R1
R3
R4
on too much, they can easily overheat and destroy themQ3
selves, as the full current from the power supply is not
Q4
Input
limited at this stage.
D1
Output

C1

Q1

Q2

D2
R7

R2

R5

Q5

R8

C2

R6
0V (ground)

A practical amplier circuit

The practical amplier circuit to the right could be the


basis for a moderate-power audio amplier. It features a
typical (though substantially simplied) design as found
in modern ampliers, with a class-AB pushpull output
stage, and uses some overall negative feedback. Bipolar
transistors are shown, but this design would also be realizable with FETs or valves.

A common solution to help stabilise the output devices


is to include some emitter resistors, typically one ohm or
so. Calculating the values of the circuits resistors and capacitors is done based on the components employed and
the intended use of the amp.
Two most common circuits:
A Cascode amplier is a two-stage circuit consisting
of a transconductance amplier followed by a buer
amplier.
A Log amplier is a linear circuit in which output
voltage is a constant times the natural logarithm of
input.[39]

21.7. SEE ALSO

145

For the basics of radio frequency ampliers using valves, the DC component of the output signal is set to the midsee Valved RF ampliers.
point between the maximum voltages available from the
power supply. Most ampliers use several devices at each
stage; they are typically matched in specications except
21.6.2 Notes on implementation
for polarity. Matched inverted polarity devices are called
complementary pairs. Class-A ampliers generally use
Real world ampliers are imperfect.
only one device, unless the power supply is set to provide
both positive and negative voltages, in which case a dual
The power supply may inuence the output, so must device symmetrical design may be used. Class-C ampliers, by denition, use a single polarity supply.
be considered in the design.
Ampliers often have multiple stages in cascade to increase gain. Each stage of these designs may be a different type of amp to suit the needs of that stage. For
instance, the rst stage might be a class-A stage, feeding a class-AB pushpull second stage, which then drives
a class-G nal output stage, taking advantage of the
The amplier circuit has an open loop perfor- strengths of each type, while minimizing their weakmance. This is described by various parame- nesses.
ters (gain, slew rate, output impedance, distortion,
bandwidth, signal to noise ratio, etc.).
A power amplier is eectively an input signal
controlled power regulator. It regulates the power
sourced from the power supply or mains to the ampliers load. The power output from a power amplier cannot exceed the power input to it.

Many modern ampliers use negative feedback


techniques to hold the gain at the desired value and
reduce distortion. Negative loop feedback has the
intended eect of electrically damping loudspeaker
motion, thereby damping the mechanical dynamic
performance of the loudspeaker.
When assessing rated amplier power output, it is
useful to consider the applied load, the signal type
(e.g., speech or music), required power output duration (i.e., short-time or continuous), and required
dynamic range (e.g., recorded or live audio).
In high-powered audio applications that require long
cables to the load (e.g., cinemas and shopping centres) it may be more ecient to connect to the load
at line output voltage, with matching transformers
at source and loads. This avoids long runs of heavy
speaker cables.
Prevent instability or overheating requires care to
ensure solid state ampliers are adequately loaded.
Most have a rated minimum load impedance.
A summing circuit is typical in applications that
must combine many inputs or channels to form a
composite output. It is best to combine multiple
channels for this.[40]
All ampliers generate heat through electrical
losses. The amplier must dissipate this heat via
convection or forced air cooling. Heat can damage
or reduce electronic component service life. Designers and installers must also consider heating effects on adjacent equipment.
Dierent power supply types result in many dierent
methods of bias. Bias is a technique by which active devices are set to operate in a particular region, or by which

21.7 See also


Class-T amplier
Charge transfer amplier
Distributed amplier
Faithful amplication
Guitar amplier
Instrument amplier
Instrumentation amplier
Low noise amplier
Magnetic amplier
Negative feedback amplier
Operational amplier
Optical amplier
Power added eciency
Programmable gain amplier
RF power amplier
Valve audio amplier

21.8 References
[1] Patronis, Gene (1987). Ampliers. In Glen Ballou.
Handbook for Sound Engineers: The New Audio Cyclopedia. Howard W. Sams & Co. p. 493. ISBN 0-67221983-2.

146

[2] Sungook, Hong (2001). Wireless: From Marconis BlackBox to the Audion. MIT Press. p. 165. ISBN
0262082985.
[3] Harper, Douglas (2001). Amplify. Online Etymology
Dictionary. Etymonline.com. Retrieved July 10, 2015.
[4] Robert Boylestad and Louis Nashelsky (1996). Electronic
Devices and Circuit Theory, 7th Edition. Prentice Hall
College Division. ISBN 978-0-13-375734-7.
[5] Robert S. Symons (1998). Tubes: Still vital after
all these years. IEEE Spectrum. 35 (4): 5263.
doi:10.1109/6.666962.
[6] Mammano, Bob (2001). Magnetic Amplier Control for
Simple, Low-Cost, Secondary Regulation (PDF). Texas
Instruments.
[7] Negative Resistance Revived. users.tpg.com.au. Retrieved 2016-06-20.
[8] Munsterman, G.T. (June 1965). Tunnel-Diode Microwave Ampliers (PDF). APL Technical Digest. 4: 2
10.
[9] Mark Cherry, Maxim Engineering journal, volume 62,
Amplier Considerations in Ceramic Speaker Applications, p.3, accessed 2012-10-01

CHAPTER 21. AMPLIFIER

[20] Understanding Amplier Operating Classes"". electronicdesign.com. Retrieved 2016-06-20.


[21] RCA Receiving Tube Manual, RC-14 (1940) p 12
[22] ARRL Handbook, 1968; page 65
[23] Amplier classes. www.duncanamps.com. Retrieved
2016-06-20.
[24] Amplier Eciency. sound.westhost.com. Retrieved
2016-06-20.
[25] Jerry Del Colliano (20 February 2012), Pass Labs XA30.5
Class-A Stereo Amp Reviewed, Home Theater Review,
Luxury Publishing Group Inc.
[26] Ask the Doctors: Tube vs. Solid-State Harmonics
[27] Volume cranked up in amp debate
[28] Biasing Op-Amps into Class A. tangentsoft.net. Retrieved 2016-06-20.
[29] Class B Amplier - Class-B Transistor Amplier Tutorial. Basic Electronics Tutorials. 2013-07-25. Retrieved
2016-06-20.
[30] Class
AB
Power
Ampliers.
www.
learnabout-electronics.org. Retrieved 2016-06-20.

[10] What is a video amplier, video booster ampliers - Future Electronics. www.futureelectronics.com. Retrieved
2016-06-20.

[31] Class C power amplier circuit diagram and theory. Output characteristics DC load line. www.circuitstoday.com.
Retrieved 2016-06-20.

[11] Orwiler, Bob (December 1969). Vertical Amplier Circuits (PDF). Tektronix, Inc.

[32] A.P. Malvino, Electronic Principles (2nd Ed.1979. ISBN


0-07-039867-4) p.299.

[12] Travelling Wave Tube Ampliers. www.r-type.org. Retrieved 2016-06-20.

[33] Electronic and Radio Engineering, R.P.Terman, McGraw


Hill, 1964

[13] Rood, George. Music Concerns Seek New Volume With


Amplier. New York Times. Retrieved 23 February
2015.

[34] Class D Ampliers: Fundamentals of Operation and Recent Developments - Application Note - Maxim. www.
maximintegrated.com. Retrieved 2016-06-20.

[14] Amplier Fills Need in Picture: Loud Speaker Only


Method Found to Carry Directions During Turmoil. Los
Angeles Times.

[35] N. O. Sokal and A. D. Sokal, Class E A New Class


of High-Eciency Tuned Single-Ended Switching Power
Ampliers, IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, vol. SC10, pp. 168176, June 1975. HVK

[15] This table is a Zwicky box; in particular, it encompasses


all possibilities. See Fritz Zwicky.
[16] Small signal analysis of Complex amplier circuits.
www.eeherald.com. Retrieved 2016-06-20.
[17] John Everett (1992). Vsats: Very Small Aperture Terminals. IET. ISBN 0-86341-200-9.
[18] Administrator. Microwaves101 | Active Directivity of
Ampliers. www.microwaves101.com. Retrieved 201606-20.
[19] Roy, Apratim; Rashid, S. M. S. (5 June 2012). A
power ecient bandwidth regulation technique for a
low-noise high-gain RF wideband amplier. Central
European Journal of Engineering. 2 (3): 383391.
Bibcode:2012CEJE....2..383R.
doi:10.2478/s13531012-0009-1.

[36] US patent 2210028, William H. Doherty, Amplier, issued 1940-08-06, assigned to Bell Telephone Laboratories
[37] US patent 3314034, Joseph B. Sainton, High Eciency
Amplier and PushPull Modulator, issued 1967-04-11,
assigned to Continental Electronics Manufacturing Company
[38] Lee, Thomas (2004). The Design of CMOS RadioFrequency Integrated Circuits. New York, NY: Cambridge
University Press. p. 8. ISBN 978-0-521-83539-8.
[39] Malina, Roger. Visual Art, Sound, Music and Technology.
[40] Shortess, George. Interactive Sound Installations Using
Microcomputers. JSTOR 1578331.

21.9. EXTERNAL LINKS

21.9 External links


Rane audios guide to amplier classes
Design and analysis of a basic class D amplier
Conversion: distortion factor to distortion attenuation and THD
An alternate topology called the grounded bridge
amplier - pdf
Contains an explanation of dierent amplier
classes - pdf
Reinventing the power amplier - pdf
Anatomy of the power amplier, including information about classes
Tons of Tones - Site explaining non linear distortion
stages in Amplier Models
Class D audio ampliers, white paper - pdf
Class E Radio Transmitters - Tutorials, Schematics,
Examples, and Construction Details

147

Chapter 22

Transmitter
For biologic transmitters, see transmitter substance.
Generators of radio waves for heating or industrial purIn electronics and telecommunications a transmitter or poses, such as microwave ovens or diathermy equipment,
are not usually called transmitters even though they often
have similar circuits.
The term is popularly used more specically to refer to a
broadcast transmitter, a transmitter used in broadcasting,
as in FM radio transmitter or television transmitter. This
usage typically includes both the transmitter proper, the
antenna, and often the building it is housed in.
An unrelated use of the term is in industrial process control, where a transmitter is a telemetry device which
converts measurements from a sensor into a signal, and
sends it, usually via wires, to be received by some display
or control device located a distance away.

Commercial FM broadcasting transmitter at radio station


WDET-FM, Wayne State University, Detroit, USA. It broadcasts
at 101.9 MHz with a radiated power of 48 kW.

A radio transmitter is usually part of a radio communication system which uses electromagnetic waves (radio waves) to transport
information (in this case sound) over a distance.

radio transmitter is an electronic device which generates a radio frequency alternating current. When a connected antenna is excited by this alternating current, the
antenna emits radio waves.
In addition to their use in broadcasting, transmitters
are necessary component parts of many electronic devices that communicate by radio, such as cell phones,
wireless computer networks, Bluetooth enabled devices,
garage door openers, two-way radios in aircraft, ships,
spacecraft, radar sets and navigational beacons. The
term transmitter is usually limited to equipment that
generates radio waves for communication purposes; or
radiolocation, such as radar and navigational transmitters.

22.1 Description
A transmitter can be a separate piece of electronic equipment, or an electrical circuit within another electronic
device. A transmitter and a receiver combined in one
unit is called a transceiver. The term transmitter is often
abbreviated XMTR or TX in technical documents.
The purpose of most transmitters is radio communication
of information over a distance. The information is provided to the transmitter in the form of an electronic signal, such as an audio (sound) signal from a microphone,
a video (TV) signal from a video camera, or in wireless
networking devices a digital signal from a computer. The
transmitter combines the information signal to be carried
with the radio frequency signal which generates the radio waves, which is called the carrier signal. This process
is called modulation. The information can be added to
the carrier in several dierent ways, in dierent types of
transmitters. In an amplitude modulation (AM) transmitter, the information is added to the radio signal by varying its amplitude. In a frequency modulation (FM) transmitter, it is added by varying the radio signals frequency
slightly. Many other types of modulation are used.
The antenna may be enclosed inside the case or attached
to the outside of the transmitter, as in portable devices
such as cell phones, walkie-talkies, and garage door openers. In more powerful transmitters, the antenna may

148

22.2. HISTORY

149

be located on top of a building or on a separate tower,


and connected to the transmitter by a feed line, that is a
transmission line.
Radio transmitters

A garage door opener control


contains a low-power 2.4 GHz transmitter that sends
coded commands to the garage door mechanism to open
or close.
35 kW, Continental 816R-5B FM transmitter, belonging to American FM
radio station KWNR broadcasting on 95.5 MHz in Las
Vegas

An RFID chip (next to rice


grain) contains a tiny transmitter that transmits an identication number. They are incorporated into consumer
products, and even implanted in pets.
Modern
amateur radio transceiver, the ICOM IC-746PRO. It
can transmit on the amateur bands from 1.8 MHz to 144
MHz with an output power of 100 W

In a wireless computer
network, wireless routers like this contain a 2.4 GHz
transmitter that sends downloaded web pages and email
to local computers.
A
CB
radio
transceiver, a two way radio transmitting on 27 MHz
with a power of 4 W, that can be operated without a
license
Consumer products that contain transmitters

22.2 History

Main article: History of radio


The rst primitive radio transmitters (called Hertzian oscillators) were built by German physicist Heinrich Hertz
in 1887 during his pioneering investigations of radio
waves. These generated radio waves by a high voltage spark between two conductors. Beginning in 1895
Guglielmo Marconi developed the rst practical radio
communication systems using spark transmitters. They
Both the handset and the base of couldn't transmit audio and instead transmitted informaa cordless phone contain low power 2.4 GHz radio tion by telegraphy, the operator spelling out text messages
transmitters to communicate with each other.
in Morse code. These spark-gap transmitters were used
during the rst three decades of radio (1887-1917), called
the wireless telegraphy or spark era. Because they generated damped waves, spark transmitters were electrically
noisy"; their energy was spread over a broad band of
frequencies, creating radio noise which interfered with
other transmitters. Two short-lived competing transmitter technologies came into use after the turn of the century, which were the rst continuous wave transmitters:

150

CHAPTER 22. TRANSMITTER


World War II using vacuum tubes. In recent years, the
need to conserve crowded radio spectrum bandwidth has
driven the development of new types of transmitters such
as spread spectrum.

Guglielmo
Marconi's spark gap transmitter, with which he performed the rst experiments in practical radio communication in 1895-1897

Hertz and the rst radio transmitter

High power spark gap transmitter in Australia around 1910.

the Alexanderson alternator and Poulsen arc transmitters,


which were used into the 1920s.
All these early technologies were replaced by vacuum
tube transmitters in the 1920s, which used the feedback
oscillator invented by Edwin Armstrong and Alexander
Meissner around 1912, based on the Audion (triode) vacuum tube invented by Lee De Forest in 1906. Vacuum tube transmitters took over because they were inexpensive and produced continuous waves, which could
be modulated to transmit audio (sound) using amplitude
modulation (AM). This made possible commercial AM
radio broadcasting, which began in about 1920. Practical frequency modulation (FM) transmission was invented by Edwin Armstrong in 1933, who showed that
it was less vulnerable to noise and static than AM, and
the rst FM radio station was licensed in 1937. Experimental television transmission had been conducted by radio stations since the late 1920s, but practical television
broadcasting didn't begin until the 1940s. The development of radar during World War II was a great stimulus to the evolution of high frequency transmitters in the
UHF and microwave ranges, using new devices such as
the magnetron, klystron, and traveling wave tube. The invention of the transistor allowed the development in the
1960s of small portable transmitters such as wireless microphones and walkie-talkies, although the rst walkietalkie was actually produced for the military during

1
MW US Navy Poulsen arc transmitter which generated
continuous waves using an electric arc in a magnetic
eld, a technology used from 1903 until the 1920s

An
Alexanderson alternator, a huge rotating machine
used as a radio transmitter for a short period from about
1910 until vacuum tube transmitters took over in the
1920s

22.4. LEGAL RESTRICTIONS

151
In an FSK (frequency-shift keying) transmitter, which transmits digital data, the frequency
of the carrier is shifted between two frequencies which represent the two binary digits, 0
and 1.
Many other types of modulation are also used.
In large transmitters the oscillator and modulator together are often referred to as the exciter.

One of the rst


vacuum tube AM radio transmitters, built by Lee De
Forest in 1914. The early Audion (triode) tube is visible
at right.

22.3 How it works


A radio transmitter is an electronic circuit which transforms electric power from a battery or electrical mains
into a radio frequency alternating current, which reverses
direction millions to billions of times per second. The energy in such a rapidly reversing current can radiate o a
conductor (the antenna) as electromagnetic waves (radio
waves). The transmitter also impresses information such
as an audio or video signal onto the radio frequency current to be carried by the radio waves. When they strike
the antenna of a radio receiver, the waves excite similar
(but less powerful) radio frequency currents in it. The
radio receiver extracts the information from the received
waves. A practical radio transmitter usually consists of
these parts:

An RF amplier to increase the power of the signal,


to increase the range of the radio waves.
An impedance matching (antenna tuner) circuit to
match the impedance of the transmitter to the
impedance of the antenna (or the transmission line
to the antenna), to transfer power eciently to the
antenna. If these impedances are not equal, it causes
a condition called standing waves, in which the
power is reected back from the antenna toward the
transmitter, wasting power and sometimes overheating the transmitter.
In higher frequency transmitters, in the UHF and
microwave range, oscillators that operate stably at the
output frequency cannot be built. In these transmitters
the oscillator usually operates at a lower frequency, and
is multiplied by frequency multipliers to get a signal at the
desired frequency.

22.4 Legal restrictions

A power supply circuit to transform the input electriIn most parts of the world, use of transmitters is strictly
cal power to the higher voltages needed to produce
controlled by law because of the potential for dangerthe required power output.
ous interference with other radio transmissions (for ex An electronic oscillator circuit to generate the radio ample to emergency communications). Transmitters
frequency signal. This usually generates a sine wave must be licensed by governments, under a variety of
of constant amplitude often called the carrier wave, license classes depending on use such as broadcast,
because it serves to carry the information through marine radio, Airband, Amateur and are restricted to cerspace. In most modern transmitters this is a crystal tain frequencies and power levels. A body called the
oscillator in which the frequency is precisely con- International Telecommunications Union (ITU) allocates
the frequency bands in the radio spectrum to various
trolled by the vibrations of a quartz crystal.
classes of users. In some classes each transmitter is given
A modulator circuit to add the information to be a unique call sign consisting of a string of letters and numtransmitted to the carrier wave produced by the os- bers which must be used as an identier in transmissions.
cillator. This is done by varying some aspect of The operator of the transmitter usually must hold a govthe carrier wave. The information is provided to ernment license, such as a general radiotelephone operthe transmitter either in the form of an audio sig- ator license, which is obtained by passing a test demonnal, which represents sound, a video signal, or for strating adequate technical and legal knowledge of safe
data in the form of a binary digital signal.
radio operation.
In an AM (amplitude modulation) transmitter An exception is made allowing the unlicensed use of
the amplitude (strength) of the carrier wave is low-power short-range transmitters in devices such as
varied in proportion to the modulation signal. cell phones, cordless telephones, wireless microphones,
In an FM (frequency modulation) transmitter walkie-talkies, Wi and Bluetooth devices, garage door
the frequency of the carrier is varied by the openers, and baby monitors. In the US, these fall unmodulation signal.
der Part 15 of the Federal Communications Commission

152
(FCC) regulations. Although they can be operated without a license, these devices still generally must be typeapproved before sale.

22.5 See also


List of transmission sites
Radio transmitter design
Transmitter station
Transposer
Television transmitter

22.6 References
22.7 External links
International Telecommunication Union
Jim Hawkins Radio and Broadcast Technology
Page
WCOV-TVs Transmitter Technical Website
Major UK television transmitters including change
of group information, see Transmitter Planning section.
Details of UK digital television transmitters
Richard Moores Anorak Zone Photo Gallery of UK
TV and Radio transmission sites

CHAPTER 22. TRANSMITTER

Chapter 23

Arc converter

1 megawatt Poulsen arc transmitter used by the U.S. Navy around


1918 in shore radio stations to communicate with its eet worldwide, one of the largest arc transmitters ever built.

The arc converter, sometimes called the arc transmitter, or Poulsen arc after Danish engineer Valdemar
Poulsen who invented it in 1903,[1][2] was a variety of
spark transmitter used in early wireless telegraphy. The
arc converter used an electric arc to convert direct current electricity into radio frequency alternating current. It
was used as a radio transmitter from 1903 until the 1920s
when it was replaced by vacuum tube transmitters. One
of the rst transmitters that could generate continuous sinusoidal waves, it was one of the rst technologies used
to transmit sound (amplitude modulation) by radio. It is
on the list of IEEE Milestones as a historic achievement
in electrical engineering.[3]

23.1 History
Elihu Thomson discovered that a carbon arc shunted with
a series tuned circuit would sing. This singing arc
was probably limited to audio frequencies.[4] Bureau of
Standards credits William Duddell with the shunt resonant circuit around 1900.[5]
The English engineer William Duddell discovered how to
make a resonant circuit using a carbon arc lamp. Duddells musical arc operated at audio frequencies, and
Duddell himself concluded that it was impossible to make
the arc oscillate at radio frequencies.
Valdemar Poulsen, who had demonstrated the 'Telegra-

Poulsens rst arc converter, from 1903

phone' (the worlds rst magnetic recording device) at the


Paris Exhibition of 1900, succeeded in raising the eciency and frequency to the desired level. Poulsens arc
could generate frequencies of up to 200 kilohertz and was
patented in 1903.
After a few years of development the arc technology
was transferred to Germany and Great Britain in 1906
by Poulsen, his collaborator Peder Oluf Pedersen and
their nancial backers. In 1909 the American patents
as well as a few arc converters were bought by Cyril F.
Elwell. The subsequent development in Europe and the
United States was rather dierent, since in Europe there
were severe diculties for many years implementing the
Poulsen technology, whereas in the United States an extended commercial radiotelegraph system was soon established with the Federal Telegraph Company. Later the
US Navy also adopted the Poulsen system. Only the arc
converter with passive frequency conversion was suitable
for portable and maritime use. This made it the most important mobile radio system for about a decade until it
was superseded by vacuum tube systems.

153

154

CHAPTER 23. ARC CONVERTER


tinguished during an output cycle. The Duddell arc is an
example of the rst case, but the rst case is not practical
for RF transmitters. In the second case, the condenser
AC discharge current is large enough to extinguish the
arc but not large enough to restart the arc in the opposite direction. This second case is the Poulsen arc. In the
third case, the arc extinguishes but may reignite when the
condenser current reverses. The third case is a quenched
spark gap and produces damped oscillations.
The Poulsen arc converter has a tuned circuit connected
across the arc. The arc converter consisted of a chamber in which the arc burned in hydrogen gas between a
carbon cathode and a water-cooled copper anode. Above
and below this chamber there were two series eld coils
surrounding and energizing the two poles of the magnetic
circuit. These poles projected into the chamber, one on
each side of the arc to provide a magnetic eld.
It was most successful when operated in the frequency
range of a few kilohertz to a few tens of kilohertz. The
antenna tuning had to be selective enough to suppress the
harmonic output of the arc converter.

23.3 Keying

Circuit of basic arc converter, from Poulsens 1904 paper (labels


added).

In 1922, the Bureau of Standards stated, the arc is the


most widely used transmitting apparatus for high-power,
long-distance work. It is estimated that the arc is now
responsible for 80 per cent of all the energy actually radiated into space for radio purposes during a given time,
leaving amateur stations out of consideration.[6]

23.2 Description
Unlike the existing radio transmitter of the time, the
spark-gap transmitter, the arc converter produces undamped or continuous waves (CW). This was an important feature as the use of damped waves resulted in lower
transmitter eciency and communications eectiveness,
while covering the RF spectrum with interference. This
more rened method for generating continuous-wave radio signals was initially developed by Danish inventor
Valdemar Poulsen.

Since the arc took some time to strike and operate in a stable fashion, normal on-o keying could not be used. Instead, a form of frequency shift keying was employed.[8]
In this compensation-wave method, the arc operated continuously, and the key altered the frequency of the arc
by one to ve percent. The signal at the unwanted frequency was called the compensation-wave. In arc transmitters up to 70 kW, the key typically shorted out a few
turns in the antenna coil.[9] For larger arcs, the arc output would be transformer coupled to the antenna inductor, and the key would short out a few bottom turns of
the grounded secondary.[10] Therefore, the mark (key
closed) was sent at one frequency, and the space (key
open) at another frequency. If these frequencies were far
enough apart, and the receiving stations receiver had adequate selectivity, the receiving station would hear standard CW when tuned to the mark frequency.
The compensation wave method used a lot of spectrum
bandwidth. It not only transmitted on the two intended
frequencies, but also the harmonics of those frequencies. Arc converters are rich in harmonics. Sometime
around 1921, the Preliminary International Communications Conference[11] prohibited the compensation wave
method because it caused too much interference.[4]

The need for the emission of signals at two dierent frequencies was eliminated by the development of uniwave
methods.[12] In one uniwave method, called the ignition
method, keying would start and stop the arc. The arc
There are three cases for an arc oscillator.[7] In the rst chamber would have a striker rod that shorted out the
case, the AC current in the condenser i0 is much smaller two electrodes through a resistor and extinguished the
than the DC supply current i1 , and the arc is never ex- arc. The key would energize an electromagnet that would

23.6. FURTHER READING


move the striker and reignite the arc. For this method to
work, the arc chamber had to be hot. The method was
feasible for arc converters up to about 5 kW.
The second uniwave method is the absorption method,
and it involves two tuned circuits and a single-pole,
double-throw, make-before-break key. When the key is
down, the arc is connected to the tuned antenna coil and
antenna. When the key is up, the arc is connected to a
tuned dummy antenna called the back shunt. The back
shunt was a second tuned circuit consisting of an inductor, a capacitor, and load resistor in series.[13][14] This second circuit is tuned to roughly the same frequency as the
transmitted frequency; it keeps the arc running, and it absorbs the transmitter power. The absorption method is
apparently due to W. A. Eaton.[4]
The design of switching circuit for the absorption method
is signicant. It is switching a high voltage arc, so the
switchs contacts must have some form of arc suppression. Eaton had the telegraph key drive electromagnets
that operated a relay. That relay used four sets of switch
contacts in series for each of the two paths (one to the antenna and one to the back shunt). Each relay contact was
bridged by a resistor. Consequently, the switch was never
completely open, but there was a lot of attenuation.[15]

23.4 See also


History of radio

155

[9] Bureau of Standards 1922, gure 228. The series resonant


tuned circuit would be the antenna coil in series with the
antenna.
[10] Bureau of Standards 1922, gure 229
[11] Possibly the Preliminary International Conference on Electrical Communications, 1920; see
http://www.archives.gov/research/guide-fed-records/
groups/043.html at 43.2.11
[12] Bureau of Standards 1922, pp. 416419
[13] Bureau of Standards 1922, gure 229-A
[14] Eaton 1921
[15] Eaton 1921, p. 115

Bureau of Standards (1922), The Principles Underlying Radio Communication (40) (Second ed.), U.S.
Army Signal Corps, Radio Communications Pamphlet. Revised to April 24, 1921. http://www.
forgottenbooks.org
Eaton, W. A. (April 1921), Description of a UniWave Signaling System for Arc Transmitters, Electric Journal, 18: 114115
Little, D. G. (April 1921), Continuous Wave Radio
Communication, Electric Journal, 18: 124129.
Elihu Thomson made singing arc before Duddell, p.
125.

Transmitter
Mercury arc valve
Tikker

23.5 References
[1] US 789449, Poulsen, Valdemar, Method of producing alternating currents with a high number of vibrations, published 10 June 1903, issued 9 May 1905
[2] Poulsen, Valdemar (12 September 1904). System for
producing continuous electric oscillations. Transactions
of the International Electrical Congress, St. Louis, 1904,
Vol. 2. J. R. Lyon Co. pp. 963971. Retrieved 22
September 2013.
[3] "Milestones:Poulsen-Arc Radio Transmitter, 1902.
IEEE Global History Network. IEEE. Retrieved 29 July
2011.
[4] Little 1921, p. 125
[5] Bureau of Standards 1922, p. 404
[6] Bureau of Standards 1922, p. 400
[7] Bureau of Standards 1922, pp. 404405
[8] Bureau of Standards 1922, pp. 415416

23.6 Further reading


Elwell, C. F. (1923), The Poulsen Arc Generator,
London: Ernest Benn Limited
Howeth, Linwood S. (1963), History of
Communications-Electronics in the United States
Navy, U.S. Govt. Printing Oce
Morecroft, J. H.; Pinto, A.; Curry, W. A. (1921),
Principles of Radio Communication, New York:
John Wiley & Sons Inc.
Morse, A. H. (1925), Radio: Beam and Broadcast,
London: Ernest Benn Limited. History of radio
in 1925. Page 25: Professor Elihu Thomson, of
America, applied for a patent on an arc method of
producing high-frequency currents. His invention
incorporated a magnetic blowout and other essential features of the arc of to-day, but the electrodes
were of metal and not enclosed in a gas chamber.
Cites to US Patent 500630. Pages 3031 (1900):
William Du Bois Duddell, of London, applied for
a patent on a static method of generating alternating
currents from a direct-current supply, which method
followed very closely upon the lines of that of Elihu
Thomson of 1892. Duddell suggested electrodes of

156

CHAPTER 23. ARC CONVERTER


carbon, but he proposed no magnetic blow-out. He
stated that his invention could be used for producing
oscillations of high frequency and constant amplitude which could be used with advantage in wireless telegraphy, especially where it was required
to tune the transmitter to syntony. Duddells invention (Br. Pat. 21,629/00) became the basis for the
Poulsen Arc, and also of an interesting transmitter
evolved by Von Lepel. Page 31 (1903): Valdemar
Poulsen, of Copenhagen, successfully applied for a
patent upon a generator, as disclosed by Duddell in
1900, plus magnetic blow-out proposed by Thomson in 1892, and a hydrogenous vapour in which to
immerse the arc. (Br. Pate 15,599/03; U.S. Pat
789,449.)" Also Ch. IV, pp 7577, The Poulsen
Arc. Renements by C. F. Elwell.

Pedersen, P. O. (August 1917), On the Poulsen Arc


and its Theory, Proceedings of the Institute of Radio
Engineers, 5 (4): 255319, A really satisfactory theory of the operation of the Poulsen arc does not exist
at present, a satisfactory theory being one which will
enable the calculation of the results, the necessary
data being given.

23.7 External links


http://oz6gh.byethost33.com/poulsenarc.htm,
Modulation of the Poulsen arc, from the book Radio
Telephony, 1918 by Alfred N. Goldsmith.
http://www.stenomuseet.dk/person/hb.ukref.htm,
English summary of the Danish Ph.D. dissertation,
The Arc Transmitter - a Comparative Study of
the Invention, Development and Innovation of the
Poulsen System in Denmark, England and the United
States, by Hans Buhl, 1995
http://pe2bz.philpem.me.uk/Comm/-%
20ELF-VLF/-%20Info/-%20History/
PoulsenArcOscillator/poulsen1.htm

Chapter 24

Microphone
For the indie lm, see Microphone (lm).
Microphones redirects here. For the indie band, see
The Microphones.
A microphone, colloquially nicknamed mic or mike

A Sennheiser dynamic microphone

ations of a sound wave to an electrical signal. The most


common are the dynamic microphone, which uses a coil
of wire suspended in a magnetic eld; the condenser
microphone, which uses the vibrating diaphragm as a
capacitor plate, and the piezoelectric microphone, which
uses a crystal of piezoelectric material. Microphones typically need to be connected to a preamplier before the
signal can be recorded or reproduced.

24.1 History
In order to speak to larger groups of people, a need arose
to increase the volume of the human voice. The earliest
devices used to achieve this were acoustic megaphones.
An AKG C214 condenser microphone with shock mount
Some of the rst examples, from fth century BC
Greece, were theater masks with horn-shaped mouth
(/mak/),[1] is a transducer that converts sound into an openings that acoustically amplied the voice of actors
electrical signal.
in amphitheatres.[2] In 1665, the English physicist Robert
Microphones are used in many applications such as Hooke was the rst to experiment with a medium other
telephones, hearing aids, public address systems for con- than air with the invention of the "lovers telephone" made
cert halls and public events, motion picture production, of stretched wire with a cup attached at each end.[3]
live and recorded audio engineering, two-way radios, German inventor Johann Philipp Reis designed an early
megaphones, radio and television broadcasting, and in sound transmitter that used a metallic strip attached to a
computers for recording voice, speech recognition, VoIP, vibrating membrane that would produce intermittent curand for non-acoustic purposes such as ultrasonic sensors rent. Better results were achieved with the liquid transor knock sensors.
mitter design in Scottish-American Alexander Graham
Several dierent types of microphone are in use, which Bell's telephone of 1876 the diaphragm was attached
employ dierent methods to convert the air pressure vari- to a conductive rod in an acid solution.[4] These systems,
157

158

CHAPTER 24. MICROPHONE


The rst microphone that enabled proper voice telephony
was the (loose-contact) carbon microphone. This was
independently developed by David Edward Hughes in
England and Emile Berliner and Thomas Edison in the
US. Although Edison was awarded the rst patent (after
a long legal dispute) in mid-1877, Hughes had demonstrated his working device in front of many witnesses
some years earlier, and most historians credit him with
its invention.[5][6][7][8] The carbon microphone is the direct prototype of todays microphones and was critical
in the development of telephony, broadcasting and the
recording industries.[9] Thomas Edison rened the carbon microphone into his carbon-button transmitter of
1886.[7][10] This microphone was employed at the rst
ever radio broadcast, a performance at the New York
Metropolitan Opera House in 1910.[11][12]

Johann Philipp Reis

however, gave a very poor sound quality.

Jack Brown interviews Humphrey Bogart and Lauren Bacall for


broadcast to troops overseas during World War II.

In 1916, C. Wente of Bell Labs developed the next breakthrough with the rst condenser microphone.[13] In 1923,
the rst practical moving coil microphone was built.
The Marconi Skykes or "magnetophon", developed by
Captain H. J. Round, was the standard for BBC studios in
London.[14] This was improved in 1930 by Alan Blumlein
and Herbert Holman who released the HB1A and was the
best standard of the day.[15]
Also in 1923, the ribbon microphone was introduced,
another electromagnetic type, believed to have been developed by Harry F. Olson, who essentially reverseengineered a ribbon speaker.[16] Over the years these microphones were developed by several companies, most
notably RCA that made large advancements in pattern
control, to give the microphone directionality. With television and lm technology booming there was demand
for high delity microphones and greater directionality. Electro-Voice responded with their Academy Awardwinning shotgun microphone in 1963.

David Edward Hughes invented a carbon microphone in the


1870s.

During the second half of 20th century development advanced quickly with the Shure Brothers bringing out the
SM58 and SM57. Digital was pioneered by Milab in
1999 with the DM-1001.[17] The latest research developments include the use of bre optics, lasers and interferometers.

24.3. VARIETIES

159

24.2 Components

Electronic symbol for a microphone

The sensitive transducer element of a microphone is


called its element or capsule. Sound is rst converted to
mechanical motion by means of a diaphragm, the motion
of which is then converted to an electrical signal. A complete microphone also includes a housing, some means of
bringing the signal from the element to other equipment,
and often an electronic circuit to adapt the output of the
capsule to the equipment being driven. A wireless microphone contains a radio transmitter.

Inside the Oktava 319 condenser microphone

microphones. With a DC-biased microphone, the plates


are biased with a xed charge (Q). The voltage maintained
across the capacitor plates changes with the vibrations in
the air, according to the capacitance equation (C = Q V),
where Q = charge in coulombs, C = capacitance in farads
and V = potential dierence in volts. The capacitance
of the plates is inversely proportional to the distance be24.3 Varieties
tween them for a parallel-plate capacitor. The assembly
of xed and movable plates is called an element or capMicrophones categorized by their transducer principle, sule.
such as condenser, dynamic, etc., and by their directional A nearly constant charge is maintained on the capacitor.
characteristics. Sometimes other characteristics such as As the capacitance changes, the charge across the capacdiaphragm size, intended use or orientation of the princi- itor does change very slightly, but at audible frequencies
pal sound input to the principal axis (end- or side-address) it is sensibly constant. The capacitance of the capsule
of the microphone are used to describe the microphone. (around 5 to 100 pF) and the value of the bias resistor
(100 M to tens of G) form a lter that is high-pass for
the audio signal, and low-pass for the bias voltage. Note
24.3.1 Condenser
that the time constant of an RC circuit equals the product
The condenser microphone, invented at Bell Labs in of the resistance and capacitance.
1916 by E. C. Wente,[18] is also called a capacitor micro- Within the time-frame of the capacitance change (as
phone or electrostatic microphonecapacitors were much as 50 ms at 20 Hz audio signal), the charge is
historically called condensers. Here, the diaphragm acts practically constant and the voltage across the capacitor
as one plate of a capacitor, and the vibrations produce changes instantaneously to reect the change in capacichanges in the distance between the plates. There are two tance. The voltage across the capacitor varies above and
types, depending on the method of extracting the audio below the bias voltage. The voltage dierence between
signal from the transducer: DC-biased microphones, and the bias and the capacitor is seen across the series resisradio frequency (RF) or high frequency (HF) condenser tor. The voltage across the resistor is amplied for perfor-

160
mance or recording. In most cases, the electronics in the
microphone itself contribute no voltage gain as the voltage dierential is quite signicant, up to several volts for
high sound levels. Since this is a very high impedance circuit, current gain only is usually needed, with the voltage
remaining constant.

CHAPTER 24. MICROPHONE


NT2000 or CAD M179.
A valve microphone is a condenser microphone that uses
a vacuum tube (valve) amplier.[19] They remain popular
with enthusiasts of tube sound.

Electret condenser
Main article: Electret microphone
An electret microphone is a type of capacitor micro-

AKG C451B small-diaphragm condenser microphone

RF condenser microphones use a comparatively low RF


voltage, generated by a low-noise oscillator. The signal
from the oscillator may either be amplitude modulated
by the capacitance changes produced by the sound waves
moving the capsule diaphragm, or the capsule may be
part of a resonant circuit that modulates the frequency
of the oscillator signal. Demodulation yields a low-noise
audio frequency signal with a very low source impedance.
The absence of a high bias voltage permits the use of
a diaphragm with looser tension, which may be used to
achieve wider frequency response due to higher compliance. The RF biasing process results in a lower electrical impedance capsule, a useful by-product of which is
that RF condenser microphones can be operated in damp
weather conditions that could create problems in DCbiased microphones with contaminated insulating surfaces. The Sennheiser MKH series of microphones use
the RF biasing technique.
Condenser microphones span the range from telephone
transmitters through inexpensive karaoke microphones to
high-delity recording microphones. They generally produce a high-quality audio signal and are now the popular choice in laboratory and recording studio applications. The inherent suitability of this technology is due
to the very small mass that must be moved by the incident sound wave, unlike other microphone types that
require the sound wave to do more work. They require
a power source, provided either via microphone inputs
on equipment as phantom power or from a small battery. Power is necessary for establishing the capacitor
plate voltage, and is also needed to power the microphone
electronics (impedance conversion in the case of electret
and DC-polarized microphones, demodulation or detection in the case of RF/HF microphones). Condenser microphones are also available with two diaphragms that can
be electrically connected to provide a range of polar patterns (see below), such as cardioid, omnidirectional, and
gure-eight. It is also possible to vary the pattern continuously with some microphones, for example the Rde

First patent on foil electret microphone by G. M. Sessler et al.


(pages 1 to 3)

phone invented by Gerhard Sessler and Jim West at Bell


laboratories in 1962.[20] The externally applied charge described above under condenser microphones is replaced
by a permanent charge in an electret material. An electret
is a ferroelectric material that has been permanently
electrically charged or polarized. The name comes from
electrostatic and magnet; a static charge is embedded in
an electret by alignment of the static charges in the material, much the way a magnet is made by aligning the
magnetic domains in a piece of iron.
Due to their good performance and ease of manufacture, hence low cost, the vast majority of microphones
made today are electret microphones; a semiconductor manufacturer[21] estimates annual production at over
one billion units. Nearly all cell-phone, computer, PDA
and headset microphones are electret types. They are
used in many applications, from high-quality recording
and lavalier use to built-in microphones in small sound
recording devices and telephones. Though electret microphones were once considered low quality, the best
ones can now rival traditional condenser microphones
in every respect and can even oer the long-term stability and ultra-at response needed for a measurement
microphone. Unlike other capacitor microphones, they
require no polarizing voltage, but often contain an integrated preamplier that does require power (often incorrectly called polarizing power or bias). This preamplier
is frequently phantom powered in sound reinforcement
and studio applications. Monophonic microphones designed for personal computer (PC) use, sometimes called
multimedia microphones, use a 3.5 mm plug as usually
used, without power, for stereo; the ring, instead of carrying the signal for a second channel, carries power via
a resistor from (normally) a 5 V supply in the computer.

24.3. VARIETIES

161

Stereophonic microphones use the same connector; there 24.3.3 Ribbon


is no obvious way to determine which standard is used by
Main article: Ribbon microphone
equipment and microphones.
Ribbon microphones use a thin, usually corrugated metal
Only the best electret microphones rival good DCpolarized units in terms of noise level and quality; electret microphones lend themselves to inexpensive massproduction, while inherently expensive non-electret condenser microphones are made to higher quality.

24.3.2

Dynamic

Patti Smith singing into a Shure SM58 (dynamic cardioid type)


microphone

The dynamic microphone (also known as the movingcoil microphone) works via electromagnetic induction.
They are robust, relatively inexpensive and resistant to
moisture. This, coupled with their potentially high gain
before feedback, makes them ideal for on-stage use.
Dynamic microphones use the same dynamic principle as in a loudspeaker, only reversed. A small movable induction coil, positioned in the magnetic eld
of a permanent magnet, is attached to the diaphragm.
When sound enters through the windscreen of the microphone, the sound wave moves the diaphragm. When
the diaphragm vibrates, the coil moves in the magnetic
eld, producing a varying current in the coil through
electromagnetic induction. A single dynamic membrane
does not respond linearly to all audio frequencies. Some
microphones for this reason utilize multiple membranes
for the dierent parts of the audio spectrum and then
combine the resulting signals. Combining the multiple
signals correctly is dicult and designs that do this are
rare and tend to be expensive. There are on the other
hand several designs that are more specically aimed towards isolated parts of the audio spectrum. The AKG
D 112, for example, is designed for bass response rather
than treble.[22] In audio engineering several kinds of microphones are often used at the same time to get the best
results.

Edmund Lowe using a ribbon microphone

ribbon suspended in a magnetic eld. The ribbon is electrically connected to the microphones output, and its vibration within the magnetic eld generates the electrical signal. Ribbon microphones are similar to moving
coil microphones in the sense that both produce sound by
means of magnetic induction. Basic ribbon microphones
detect sound in a bi-directional (also called gure-eight,
as in the diagram below) pattern because the ribbon is
open on both sides. Also, because the ribbon is much
less mass it responds to the air velocity rather than the
sound pressure. Though the symmetrical front and rear
pickup can be a nuisance in normal stereo recording, the
high side rejection can be used to advantage by positioning a ribbon microphone horizontally, for example above
cymbals, so that the rear lobe picks up only sound from
the cymbals. Crossed gure 8, or Blumlein pair, stereo
recording is gaining in popularity, and the gure-eight response of a ribbon microphone is ideal for that application.
Other directional patterns are produced by enclosing
one side of the ribbon in an acoustic trap or bae,
allowing sound to reach only one side. The classic
RCA Type 77-DX microphone has several externally adjustable positions of the internal bae, allowing the selection of several response patterns ranging from gureeight to unidirectional. Such older ribbon microphones, some of which still provide high quality sound
reproduction, were once valued for this reason, but a good

162

CHAPTER 24. MICROPHONE

low-frequency response could only be obtained when the


ribbon was suspended very loosely, which made them
relatively fragile. Modern ribbon materials, including
new nanomaterials[23] have now been introduced that
eliminate those concerns, and even improve the eective dynamic range of ribbon microphones at low frequencies. Protective wind screens can reduce the danger of damaging a vintage ribbon, and also reduce plosive artifacts in the recording. Properly designed wind
screens produce negligible treble attenuation. In common
with other classes of dynamic microphone, ribbon microphones don't require phantom power; in fact, this voltage
can damage some older ribbon microphones. Some new
modern ribbon microphone designs incorporate a preamplier and, therefore, do require phantom power, and circuits of modern passive ribbon microphones, i.e., those
without the aforementioned preamplier, are specically
designed to resist damage to the ribbon and transformer
by phantom power. Also there are new ribbon materials available that are immune to wind blasts and phantom
power.

24.3.4

Carbon

Main article: Carbon microphone


A carbon microphone, also known as a carbon button microphone (or sometimes just a button microphone), uses
a capsule or button containing carbon granules pressed
between two metal plates like the Berliner and Edison microphones. A voltage is applied across the metal plates,
causing a small current to ow through the carbon. One of
the plates, the diaphragm, vibrates in sympathy with incident sound waves, applying a varying pressure to the carbon. The changing pressure deforms the granules, causing the contact area between each pair of adjacent granules to change, and this causes the electrical resistance
of the mass of granules to change. The changes in resistance cause a corresponding change in the current owing
through the microphone, producing the electrical signal.
Carbon microphones were once commonly used in telephones; they have extremely low-quality sound reproduction and a very limited frequency response range, but are
very robust devices. The Boudet microphone, which used
relatively large carbon balls, was similar to the granule
carbon button microphones.[24]

this amplier eect was the oscillation caused by feedback, resulting in an audible squeal from the old candlestick telephone if its earphone was placed near the
carbon microphone.

24.3.5 Piezoelectric
A crystal microphone or piezo microphone[25] uses the
phenomenon of piezoelectricitythe ability of some materials to produce a voltage when subjected to pressure
to convert vibrations into an electrical signal. An example of this is potassium sodium tartrate, which is a
piezoelectric crystal that works as a transducer, both as
a microphone and as a slimline loudspeaker component.
Crystal microphones were once commonly supplied with
vacuum tube (valve) equipment, such as domestic tape
recorders. Their high output impedance matched the
high input impedance (typically about 10 megohms) of
the vacuum tube input stage well. They were dicult
to match to early transistor equipment, and were quickly
supplanted by dynamic microphones for a time, and later
small electret condenser devices. The high impedance of
the crystal microphone made it very susceptible to handling noise, both from the microphone itself and from the
connecting cable.
Piezoelectric transducers are often used as contact microphones to amplify sound from acoustic musical instruments, to sense drum hits, for triggering electronic samples, and to record sound in challenging environments,
such as underwater under high pressure. Saddle-mounted
pickups on acoustic guitars are generally piezoelectric devices that contact the strings passing over the saddle. This
type of microphone is dierent from magnetic coil pickups commonly visible on typical electric guitars, which
use magnetic induction, rather than mechanical coupling,
to pick up vibration.

24.3.6 Fiber optic


A ber optic microphone converts acoustic waves into
electrical signals by sensing changes in light intensity, instead of sensing changes in capacitance or magnetic elds
as with conventional microphones. [26][27]
During operation, light from a laser source travels through
an optical ber to illuminate the surface of a reective
diaphragm. Sound vibrations of the diaphragm modulate the intensity of light reecting o the diaphragm in
a specic direction. The modulated light is then transmitted over a second optical ber to a photo detector,
which transforms the intensity-modulated light into analog or digital audio for transmission or recording. Fiber
optic microphones possess high dynamic and frequency
range, similar to the best high delity conventional microphones.

Unlike other microphone types, the carbon microphone


can also be used as a type of amplier, using a small
amount of sound energy to control a larger amount of
electrical energy. Carbon microphones found use as early
telephone repeaters, making long distance phone calls
possible in the era before vacuum tubes. These repeaters
worked by mechanically coupling a magnetic telephone
receiver to a carbon microphone: the faint signal from the
receiver was transferred to the microphone, where it modulated a stronger electric current, producing a stronger
electrical signal to send down the line. One illustration of Fiber optic microphones do not react to or inuence

24.3. VARIETIES

163
motion of the laser spot from the returning beam is detected and converted to an audio signal.
In a more robust and expensive implementation, the returned light is split and fed to an interferometer, which
detects movement of the surface by changes in the optical
path length of the reected beam. The former implementation is a tabletop experiment; the latter requires an extremely stable laser and precise optics.

The Optoacoustics 1140 ber optic microphone

A new type of laser microphone is a device that uses a


laser beam and smoke or vapor to detect sound vibrations
in free air. On 25 August 2009, U.S. patent 7,580,533 issued for a Particulate Flow Detection Microphone based
on a laser-photocell pair with a moving stream of smoke
or vapor in the laser beams path. Sound pressure waves
cause disturbances in the smoke that in turn cause variations in the amount of laser light reaching the photo detector. A prototype of the device was demonstrated at
the 127th Audio Engineering Society convention in New
York City from 9 through 12 October 2009.

24.3.8 Liquid

any electrical, magnetic, electrostatic or radioactive elds


(this is called EMI/RFI immunity). The ber optic miMain article: Water microphone
crophone design is therefore ideal for use in areas where
conventional microphones are ineective or dangerous,
such as inside industrial turbines or in magnetic resonance Early microphones did not produce intelligible speech,
until Alexander Graham Bell made improvements includimaging (MRI) equipment environments.
ing a variable-resistance microphone/transmitter. Bells
Fiber optic microphones are robust, resistant to environliquid transmitter consisted of a metal cup lled with wamental changes in heat and moisture, and can be proter with a small amount of sulfuric acid added. A sound
duced for any directionality or impedance matching. The
wave caused the diaphragm to move, forcing a needle to
distance between the microphones light source and its
move up and down in the water. The electrical resisphoto detector may be up to several kilometers without
tance between the wire and the cup was then inversely
need for any preamplier or other electrical device, makproportional to the size of the water meniscus around the
ing ber optic microphones suitable for industrial and
submerged needle. Elisha Gray led a caveat for a versurveillance acoustic monitoring.
sion using a brass rod instead of the needle. Other minor
Fiber optic microphones are used in very specic appli- variations and improvements were made to the liquid mication areas such as for infrasound monitoring and noise- crophone by Majoranna, Chambers, Vanni, Sykes, and
canceling. They have proven especially useful in medical Elisha Gray, and one version was patented by Reginald
applications, such as allowing radiologists, sta and pa- Fessenden in 1903. These were the rst working microtients within the powerful and noisy magnetic eld to con- phones, but they were not practical for commercial apverse normally, inside the MRI suites as well as in remote plication. The famous rst phone conversation between
control rooms.[28] Other uses include industrial equip- Bell and Watson took place using a liquid microphone.
ment monitoring and audio calibration and measurement,
high-delity recording and law enforcement.

24.3.9 MEMS
24.3.7

Laser

Main article: Laser microphone


Laser microphones are often portrayed in movies as spy
gadgets, because they can be used to pick up sound at a
distance from the microphone equipment. A laser beam
is aimed at the surface of a window or other plane surface
that is aected by sound. The vibrations of this surface
change the angle at which the beam is reected, and the

Main article: Microelectromechanical systems


The MEMS (MicroElectrical-Mechanical System) microphone is also called a microphone chip or silicon microphone. A pressure-sensitive diaphragm is etched directly into a silicon wafer by MEMS processing techniques, and is usually accompanied with integrated
preamplier. Most MEMS microphones are variants of
the condenser microphone design. Digital MEMS microphones have built in analog-to-digital converter (ADC)

164

CHAPTER 24. MICROPHONE

circuits on the same CMOS chip making the chip a


digital microphone and so more readily integrated with
modern digital products. Major manufacturers producing MEMS silicon microphones are Wolfson Microelectronics (WM7xxx) now Cirrus Logic,[29] InvenSense
(product line sold by Analog Devices [30] ), Akustica (AKU200x), Inneon (SMM310 product), Knowles
Electronics, Memstech (MSMx), NXP Semiconductors
(division bought by Knowles [31] ), Sonion MEMS, Vesper, AAC Acoustic Technologies,[32] and Omron.[33]

tional. A pressure-gradient microphone uses a diaphragm


that is at least partially open on both sides. The pressure
dierence between the two sides produces its directional
characteristics. Other elements such as the external shape
of the microphone and external devices such as interference tubes can also alter a microphones directional response. A pure pressure-gradient microphone is equally
sensitive to sounds arriving from front or back, but insensitive to sounds arriving from the side because sound
arriving at the front and back at the same time creates
no gradient between the two. The characteristic direcMore recently, there has been increased interest and research into making piezoelectric MEMS microphones tional pattern of a pure pressure-gradient microphone is
like a gure-8. Other polar patterns are derived by crewhich are a signicant architectural and material change
ating a capsule that combines these two eects in dier[34]
from existing condenser style MEMS designs.
ent ways. The cardioid, for instance, features a partially
closed backside, so its response is a combination of pressure and pressure-gradient characteristics.[35]
24.3.10 Speakers as microphones
A loudspeaker, a transducer that turns an electrical signal
into sound waves, is the functional opposite of a micro- 24.5 Polar patterns
phone. Since a conventional speaker is constructed much
like a dynamic microphone (with a diaphragm, coil and (Microphone facing top of page in diagram, parallel to
magnet), speakers can actually work in reverse as mi- page):
crophones. The resulting signal typically oers reduced
quality including limited high-end frequency response
Omnidirectional
and poor sensitivity. In practical use, speakers are sometimes used as microphones in applications where high
Bi-directional or Figure of 8
quality and sensitivity are not needed such as intercoms,
walkie-talkies or video game voice chat peripherals, or
Subcardioid
when conventional microphones are in short supply.
Cardioid
However, there is at least one practical application that
exploits those weaknesses: the use of a medium-size
Hypercardioid
woofer placed closely in front of a kick drum (bass
drum) in a drum set to act as a microphone. A com Supercardioid
mercial product example is the Yamaha Subkick, a 6.5 Shotgun
inch (170 mm) woofer shock-mounted into a 10 drum
shell used in front of kick drums. Since a relatively massive membrane is unable to transduce high frequencies A microphones directionality or polar pattern indicates
while being capable of tolerating strong low-frequency how sensitive it is to sounds arriving at dierent angles
transients, the speaker is often ideal for picking up the about its central axis. The polar patterns illustrated above
kick drum while reducing bleed from the nearby cymbals represent the locus of points that produce the same sigand snare drums. Less commonly, microphones them- nal level output in the microphone if a given sound presselves can be used as speakers, but due to their low power sure level (SPL) is generated from that point. How the
handling and small transducer sizes, a tweeter is the most physical body of the microphone is oriented relative to
practical application. One instance of such an application the diagrams depends on the microphone design. For
was the STC microphone-derived 4001 super-tweeter, large-membrane microphones such as in the Oktava (picwhich was successfully used in a number of high quality tured above), the upward direction in the polar diagram
loudspeaker systems from the late 1960s to the mid-70s. is usually perpendicular to the microphone body, com-

24.4 Capsule design and directivity


The inner elements of a microphone are the primary
source of dierences in directivity. A pressure microphone uses a diaphragm between a xed internal volume
of air and the environment, and responds uniformly to
pressure from all directions, so it is said to be omnidirec-

monly known as side re or side address. For small


diaphragm microphones such as the Shure (also pictured
above), it usually extends from the axis of the microphone
commonly known as end re or top/end address.
Some microphone designs combine several principles in
creating the desired polar pattern. This ranges from
shielding (meaning diraction/dissipation/absorption) by
the housing itself to electronically combining dual membranes.

24.5. POLAR PATTERNS

24.5.1

165

Omnidirectional

An omnidirectional (or nondirectional) microphones


response is generally considered to be a perfect sphere in
three dimensions. In the real world, this is not the case.
As with directional microphones, the polar pattern for an
omnidirectional microphone is a function of frequency.
The body of the microphone is not innitely small and,
as a consequence, it tends to get in its own way with respect to sounds arriving from the rear, causing a slight
attening of the polar response. This attening increases
as the diameter of the microphone (assuming its cylindrical) reaches the wavelength of the frequency in question. Therefore, the smallest diameter microphone gives
the best omnidirectional characteristics at high frequen- University Sound US664A dynamic supercardioid microphone
cies.
The wavelength of sound at 10 kHz is 1.4 (3.5 cm). The
smallest measuring microphones are often 1/4 (6 mm) in
diameter, which practically eliminates directionality even
up to the highest frequencies. Omnidirectional microphones, unlike cardioids, do not employ resonant cavities
as delays, and so can be considered the purest microphones in terms of low coloration; they add very little to
the original sound. Being pressure-sensitive they can also
have a very at low-frequency response down to 20 Hz
or below. Pressure-sensitive microphones also respond
much less to wind noise and plosives than directional (velocity sensitive) microphones.
An example of a nondirectional microphone is the round
black eight ball.[36]

24.5.2

Unidirectional

A unidirectional microphone is primarily sensitive to


sounds from only one direction. The diagram above illustrates a number of these patterns. The microphone
faces upwards in each diagram. The sound intensity for
a particular frequency is plotted for angles radially from
0 to 360. (Professional diagrams show these scales and
include multiple plots at dierent frequencies. The diagrams given here provide only an overview of typical
pattern shapes, and their names.)

tional transducer microphones achieve their patterns by


sensing pressure gradient, putting them very close to the
sound source (at distances of a few centimeters) results in
a bass boost due to the increased gradient. This is known
as the proximity eect.[37] The SM58 has been the most
commonly used microphone for live vocals for more than
50 years[38] demonstrating the importance and popularity
of cardioid mics.
A cardioid microphone is eectively a superposition of
an omnidirectional and a gure-8 microphone; for sound
waves coming from the back, the negative signal from
the gure-8 cancels the positive signal from the omnidirectional element, whereas for sound waves coming from
the front, the two add to each other. A hyper-cardioid
microphone is similar, but with a slightly larger gure-8
contribution leading to a tighter area of front sensitivity
and a smaller lobe of rear sensitivity. A super-cardioid
microphone is similar to a hyper-cardioid, except there is
more front pickup and less rear pickup. While any pattern between omni and gure 8 is possible by adjusting
their mix, common denitions state that a hypercardioid
is produced by combining them at a 3:1 ratio, producing nulls at 109.5, while supercardioid is produced with
about a 5:3 ratio, with nulls at 126.9. The sub-cardioid
microphone has no null points. It is produced with about
7:3 ratio with 3-10 dB level between the front and back
pickup. [39][40]

Cardioid, Hypercardioid, Supercardioid, Subcar24.5.3


dioid
The most common unidirectional microphone is a cardioid microphone, so named because the sensitivity pattern is heart-shaped, i.e. a cardioid. The cardioid
family of microphones are commonly used as vocal or
speech microphones, since they are good at rejecting
sounds from other directions. In three dimensions, the
cardioid is shaped like an apple centred around the microphone which is the stem of the apple. The cardioid
response reduces pickup from the side and rear, helping
to avoid feedback from the monitors. Since these direc-

Bi-directional

Figure 8 or bi-directional microphones receive sound


equally from both the front and back of the element. Most
ribbon microphones are of this pattern. In principle they
do not respond to sound pressure at all, only to the change
in pressure between front and back; since sound arriving from the side reaches front and back equally there
is no dierence in pressure and therefore no sensitivity to sound from that direction. In more mathematical terms, while omnidirectional microphones are scalar
transducers responding to pressure from any direction, bi-

166

CHAPTER 24. MICROPHONE

directional microphones are vector transducers responding to the gradient along an axis normal to the plane of
the diaphragm. This also has the eect of inverting the
output polarity for sounds arriving from the back side.

24.5.4

Shotgun and parabolic

An Audio-Technica shotgun microphone

A Sony parabolic reector, without a microphone. The microphone would face the reector surface and sound captured by
the reector would bounce towards the microphone.

The interference tube of a shotgun microphone. The capsule is


at the base of the tube.

Shotgun microphones are the most highly directional of


simple rst-order unidirectional types. At low frequencies they have the classic polar response of a hypercardioid but at medium and higher frequencies an interference tube gives them an increased forward response. This
is achieved by a process of cancellation of o-axis waves
entering the longitudinal array of slots. A consequence of
this technique is the presence of some rear lobes that vary
in level and angle with frequency, and can cause some coloration eects. Due to the narrowness of their forward
sensitivity, shotgun microphones are commonly used on
television and lm sets, in stadiums, and for eld recording of wildlife.

space. If the microphone is placed in, or very close to,


one of these boundaries, the reections from that surface have the same timing as the direct sound, thus giving
the microphone a hemispherical polar pattern and improved intelligibility. Initially this was done by placing
an ordinary microphone adjacent to the surface, sometimes in a block of acoustically transparent foam. Sound
engineers Ed Long and Ron Wickersham developed the
concept of placing the diaphragm parallel to and facing
the boundary.[41] While the patent has expired, Pressure
Zone Microphone and PZM are still active trademarks
of Crown International, and the generic term boundary
microphone is preferred. While a boundary microphone
was initially implemented using an omnidirectional element, it is also possible to mount a directional microphone close enough to the surface to gain some of the
benets of this technique while retaining the directional
properties of the element. Crowns trademark on this approach is Phase Coherent Cardioid or PCC, but there
are other makers who employ this technique as well.

24.6 Application-specic designs


24.5.5

Boundary or PZM

Several approaches have been developed for eectively


using a microphone in less-than-ideal acoustic spaces,
which often suer from excessive reections from one
or more of the surfaces (boundaries) that make up the

A lavalier microphone is made for hands-free operation.


These small microphones are worn on the body. Originally, they were held in place with a lanyard worn around
the neck, but more often they are fastened to clothing
with a clip, pin, tape or magnet. The lavalier cord may

24.7. POWERING

167

be hidden by clothes and either run to an RF transmitter so that it can pick up environmental sounds to be subin a pocket or clipped to a belt (for mobile use), or run tracted from the main diaphragms signal. After the two
directly to the mixer (for stationary applications).
signals have been combined, sounds other than the inA wireless microphone transmits the audio as a radio or tended source are greatly reduced, substantially increasoptical signal rather than via a cable. It usually sends its ing intelligibility. Other noise-canceling designs use one
signal using a small FM radio transmitter to a nearby re- diaphragm that is aected by ports open to the sides and
ceiver connected to the sound system, but it can also use rear of the microphone, with the sum being a 16 dB rejecinfrared waves if the transmitter and receiver are within tion of sounds that are farther away. One noise-canceling
headset design using a single diaphragm has been used
sight of each other.
prominently by vocal artists such as Garth Brooks and
A contact microphone picks up vibrations directly from Janet Jackson.[42] A few noise-canceling microphones are
a solid surface or object, as opposed to sound vibrations throat microphones.
carried through air. One use for this is to detect sounds
of a very low level, such as those from small objects or
insects. The microphone commonly consists of a mag- 24.7 Powering
netic (moving coil) transducer, contact plate and contact
pin. The contact plate is placed directly on the vibrating part of a musical instrument or other surface, and the Microphones containing active circuitry, such as most
contact pin transfers vibrations to the coil. Contact mi- condenser microphones, require power to operate the accrophones have been used to pick up the sound of a snails tive components. The rst of these used vacuum-tube
heartbeat and the footsteps of ants. A portable version of circuits with a separate power supply unit, using a multithis microphone has recently been developed. A throat pin cable and connector. With the advent of solid-state
microphone is a variant of the contact microphone that amplication, the power requirements were greatly repicks up speech directly from a persons throat, which it duced and it became practical to use the same cable conis strapped to. This lets the device be used in areas with ductors and connector for audio and power. During the
ambient sounds that would otherwise make the speaker 1960s several powering methods were developed, mainly
in Europe. The two dominant methods were initially deinaudible.
ned in German DIN 45595 as de:Tonaderspeisung or
A parabolic microphone uses a parabolic reector to col- T-power and DIN 45596 for phantom power. Since the
lect and focus sound waves onto a microphone receiver, in 1980s, phantom power has become much more common,
much the same way that a parabolic antenna (e.g. satellite because the same input may be used for both powered
dish) does with radio waves. Typical uses of this micro- and unpowered microphones. In consumer electronics
phone, which has unusually focused front sensitivity and such as DSLRs and camcorders, plug-in power is more
can pick up sounds from many meters away, include na- common, for microphones using a 3.5 mm phone plug
ture recording, outdoor sporting events, eavesdropping, connector. Phantom, T-power and plug-in power are delaw enforcement, and even espionage. Parabolic micro- scribed in international standard IEC 61938.[43]
phones are not typically used for standard recording applications, because they tend to have poor low-frequency
response as a side eect of their design.
24.8 Connectors
A stereo microphone integrates two microphones in one
unit to produce a stereophonic signal. A stereo microphone is often used for broadcast applications or eld
recording where it would be impractical to congure two
separate condenser microphones in a classic X-Y conguration (see microphone practice) for stereophonic recording. Some such microphones have an adjustable angle of
coverage between the two channels.
A noise-canceling microphone is a highly directional design intended for noisy environments. One such use is
in aircraft cockpits where they are normally installed as
boom microphones on headsets. Another use is in live
event support on loud concert stages for vocalists involved
with live performances. Many noise-canceling microphones combine signals received from two diaphragms
Electronic symbol for a microphone
that are in opposite electrical polarity or are processed
electronically. In dual diaphragm designs, the main diThe most common connectors used by microphones are:
aphragm is mounted closest to the intended source and
the second is positioned farther away from the source
Male XLR connector on professional microphones

168

CHAPTER 24. MICROPHONE

inch (sometimes referred to as 6.3 mm) phone professional-quality microphones with USB connections
connector on less expensive musicians micro- have begun to appear, designed for direct recording into
phones, using an unbalanced 1/4 inch (6.3 mm) TS computer-based software.
phone connector. Harmonica microphones commonly use a high impedance 1/4 inch (6.3 mm) TS
connection to be run through guitar ampliers.
3.5 mm (sometimes referred to as 1/8 inch mini)
stereo (sometimes wired as mono) mini phone plug 24.8.1 Impedance-matching
on prosumer camera, recorder and computer microphones.
Microphones have an electrical characteristic called
impedance, measured in ohms (), that depends on the
design. In passive microphones, this value describes the
electrical resistance of the magnet coil (or similar mechanism). In active microphones, this value describes the
output resistance of the amplier circuitry. Typically, the
rated impedance is stated.[44] Low impedance is considered under 600 . Medium impedance is considered between 600 and 10 k. High impedance is above 10 k.
Owing to their built-in amplier, condenser microphones
typically have an output impedance between 50 and 200
.[45]
The output of a given microphone delivers the same
power whether it is low or high impedance. If a microphone is made in high and low impedance versions, the
high impedance version has a higher output voltage for
a given sound pressure input, and is suitable for use with
vacuum-tube guitar ampliers, for instance, which have a
high input impedance and require a relatively high signal
input voltage to overcome the tubes inherent noise. Most
professional microphones are low impedance, about 200
or lower. Professional vacuum-tube sound equipment
incorporates a transformer that steps up the impedance of
the microphone circuit to the high impedance and voltage
needed to drive the input tube. External matching transformers are also available that can be used in-line between
a low impedance microphone and a high impedance input.
Low-impedance microphones are preferred over high
impedance for two reasons: one is that using a highimpedance microphone with a long cable results in high
frequency signal loss due to cable capacitance, which
forms a low-pass lter with the microphone output
impedance. The other is that long high-impedance cables
tend to pick up more hum (and possibly radio-frequency
interference (RFI) as well). Nothing is damaged if the
impedance between microphone and other equipment is
mismatched; the worst that happens is a reduction in signal or change in frequency response.
A microphone with a USB connector, made by Blue Microphones

Some microphones use other connectors, such as a 5pin XLR, or mini XLR for connection to portable equipment. Some lavalier (or lapel, from the days of attaching the microphone to the news reporters suit lapel) microphones use a proprietary connector for connection to
a wireless transmitter, such as a radio pack. Since 2005,

Some microphones are designed not to have their


impedance matched by the load they are connected to.[46]
Doing so can alter their frequency response and cause distortion, especially at high sound pressure levels. Certain
ribbon and dynamic microphones are exceptions, due to
the designers assumption of a certain load impedance being part of the internal electro-acoustical damping circuit
of the microphone.[47]

24.9. MEASUREMENTS AND SPECIFICATIONS

169

A comparison of the far eld on-axis frequency response of the


Oktava 319 and the Shure SM58

produce a desirable coloration of the sound. There is an


international standard for microphone specications,[44]
but few manufacturers adhere to it. As a result, comparison of published data from dierent manufacturers
is dicult because dierent measurement techniques are
used. The Microphone Data Website has collated the
technical specications complete with pictures, response
curves and technical data from the microphone manufacturers for every currently listed microphone, and even a
Neumann D-01 digital microphone and Neumann DMI-8 8few obsolete models, and shows the data for them all in
channel USB Digital Microphone Interface
one common format for ease of comparison.. Caution
should be used in drawing any solid conclusions from this
or any other published data, however, unless it is known
24.8.2 Digital microphone interface
that the manufacturer has supplied specications in acThe AES42 standard, published by the Audio Engineer- cordance with IEC 60268-4.
ing Society, denes a digital interface for microphones. A frequency response diagram plots the microphone senMicrophones conforming to this standard directly out- sitivity in decibels over a range of frequencies (typically
put a digital audio stream through an XLR or XLD male 20 Hz to 20 kHz), generally for perfectly on-axis sound
connector, rather than producing an analog output. Dig- (sound arriving at 0 to the capsule). Frequency response
ital microphones may be used either with new equip- may be less informatively stated textually like so: 30 Hz
ment with appropriate input connections that conform to 16 kHz 3 dB. This is interpreted as meaning a nearly
the AES42 standard, or else via a suitable interface box. at, linear, plot between the stated frequencies, with variStudio-quality microphones that operate in accordance ations in amplitude of no more than plus or minus 3 dB.
with the AES42 standard are now available from a num- However, one cannot determine from this information
ber of microphone manufacturers.
how smooth the variations are, nor in what parts of the
spectrum they occur. Note that commonly made statements such as 20 Hz20 kHz are meaningless witha decibel measure of tolerance. Directional micro24.9 Measurements and specica- out
phones frequency response varies greatly with distance
from the sound source, and with the geometry of the
tions
sound source. IEC 60268-4 species that frequency reBecause of dierences in their construction, micro- sponse should be measured in plane progressive wave conphones have their own characteristic responses to sound. ditions (very far away from the source) but this is seldom
This dierence in response produces non-uniform phase practical. Close talking microphones may be measured
and frequency responses. In addition, microphones are with dierent sound sources and distances, but there is
not uniformly sensitive to sound pressure, and can accept no standard and therefore no way to compare data from
diering levels without distorting. Although for scientic dierent models unless the measurement technique is deapplications microphones with a more uniform response scribed.
are desirable, this is often not the case for music record- The self-noise or equivalent input noise level is the sound
ing, as the non-uniform response of a microphone can level that creates the same output voltage as the micro-

170
phone does in the absence of sound. This represents the
lowest point of the microphones dynamic range, and is
particularly important should you wish to record sounds
that are quiet. The measure is often stated in dB(A),
which is the equivalent loudness of the noise on a decibel scale frequency-weighted for how the ear hears, for
example: 15 dBA SPL (SPL means sound pressure
level relative to 20 micropascals). The lower the number the better. Some microphone manufacturers state
the noise level using ITU-R 468 noise weighting, which
more accurately represents the way we hear noise, but
gives a gure some 1114 dB higher. A quiet microphone typically measures 20 dBA SPL or 32 dB SPL 468weighted. Very quiet microphones have existed for years
for special applications, such the Brel & Kjaer 4179,
with a noise level around 0 dB SPL. Recently some microphones with low noise specications have been introduced in the studio/entertainment market, such as models from Neumann and Rde that advertise noise levels
between 57 dBA. Typically this is achieved by altering
the frequency response of the capsule and electronics to
result in lower noise within the A-weighting curve while
broadband noise may be increased.
The maximum SPL the microphone can accept is measured for particular values of total harmonic distortion
(THD), typically 0.5%. This amount of distortion is generally inaudible, so one can safely use the microphone at
this SPL without harming the recording. Example: 142
dB SPL peak (at 0.5% THD)". The higher the value, the
better, although microphones with a very high maximum
SPL also have a higher self-noise.

CHAPTER 24. MICROPHONE


V/Pa standard and measured in plain decibels, resulting in
a negative value. Again, a higher value indicates greater
sensitivity, so 60 dB is more sensitive than 70 dB.

24.10 Measurement microphones


Some microphones are intended for testing speakers,
measuring noise levels and otherwise quantifying an
acoustic experience. These are calibrated transducers
and are usually supplied with a calibration certicate that
states absolute sensitivity against frequency. The quality
of measurement microphones is often referred to using
the designations Class 1, Type 2 etc., which are references not to microphone specications but to sound level
meters.[48] A more comprehensive standard[49] for the description of measurement microphone performance was
recently adopted.
Measurement microphones are generally scalar sensors of
pressure; they exhibit an omnidirectional response, limited only by the scattering prole of their physical dimensions. Sound intensity or sound power measurements
require pressure-gradient measurements, which are typically made using arrays of at least two microphones, or
with hot-wire anemometers.

The clipping level is an important indicator of maximum


usable level, as the 1% THD gure usually quoted under 24.10.1 Calibration
max SPL is really a very mild level of distortion, quite
inaudible especially on brief high peaks. Clipping is much
more audible. For some microphones the clipping level Main article: Measurement microphone calibration
may be much higher than the max SPL.
The dynamic range of a microphone is the dierence in
SPL between the noise oor and the maximum SPL. If
stated on its own, for example 120 dB, it conveys signicantly less information than having the self-noise and
maximum SPL gures individually.
Sensitivity indicates how well the microphone converts
acoustic pressure to output voltage. A high sensitivity
microphone creates more voltage and so needs less amplication at the mixer or recording device. This is a
practical concern but is not directly an indication of the
microphones quality, and in fact the term sensitivity is
something of a misnomer, transduction gain being perhaps more meaningful, (or just output level) because
true sensitivity is generally set by the noise oor, and too
much sensitivity in terms of output level compromises
the clipping level. There are two common measures. The
(preferred) international standard is made in millivolts
per pascal at 1 kHz. A higher value indicates greater sensitivity. The older American method is referred to a 1

To take a scientic measurement with a microphone, its


precise sensitivity must be known (in volts per pascal).
Since this may change over the lifetime of the device,
it is necessary to regularly calibrate measurement microphones. This service is oered by some microphone manufacturers and by independent certied testing labs. All microphone calibration is ultimately traceable to primary standards at a national measurement institute such as NPL in the UK, PTB in Germany and NIST
in the United States, which most commonly calibrate using the reciprocity primary standard. Measurement microphones calibrated using this method can then be used
to calibrate other microphones using comparison calibration techniques.
Depending on the application, measurement microphones
must be tested periodically (every year or several months,
typically) and after any potentially damaging event, such
as being dropped (most such microphones come in foampadded cases to reduce this risk) or exposed to sounds
beyond the acceptable level.

24.12. WINDSCREENS

171

24.11 Arrays

The shielding material used wire gauze, fabric or foam


is designed to have a signicant acoustic impedance.
The relatively low particle-velocity air pressure changes
Main article: Microphone array
that constitute sound waves can pass through with minimal attenuation, but higher particle-velocity wind is imA microphone array is any number of microphones oper- peded to a far greater extent. Increasing the thickness of
ating in tandem. There are many applications:
the material improves wind attenuation but also begins
to compromise high frequency audio content. This limits
Systems for extracting voice input from ambient the practical size of simple foam screens. While foams
noise (notably telephones, speech recognition sys- and wire meshes can be partly or wholly self-supporting,
soft fabrics and gauzes require stretching on frames, or
tems, hearing aids)
laminating with coarser structural elements.
Surround sound and related technologies
Since all wind noise is generated at the rst surface the
Locating objects by sound: acoustic source local- air hits, the greater the spacing between shield periphery
ization, e.g., military use to locate the source(s) of and microphone capsule, the greater the noise attenuation. For an approximately spherical shield, attenuation
artillery re. Aircraft location and tracking.
increases by (approximately) the cube of that distance.
High delity original recordings
Thus larger shields are always much more ecient than
smaller ones.[50] With full basket windshields there is an
3D spatial beamforming for localized acoustic deadditional pressure chamber eect, rst explained by Jotection of subcutaneous sounds
erg Wuttke,[51] which, for two-port (pressure gradient)
microphones, allows the shield/microphone combination
Typically, an array is made up of omnidirectional micro- to act as a high-pass acoustic lter.
phones distributed about the perimeter of a space, linked
Since turbulence at a surface is the source of wind noise,
to a computer that records and interprets the results into
reducing gross turbulence can add to noise reduction.
a coherent form.
Both aerodynamically smooth surfaces, and ones that prevent powerful vortices being generated, have been used
successfully. Historically, articial fur has proved very
24.12 Windscreens
useful for this purpose since the bres produce microturbulence and absorb energy silently. If not matted by
wind and rain, the fur bres are very transparent acoustically, but the woven or knitted backing can give signicant attenuation. As a material it suers from being dicult to manufacture with consistency, and to keep in pristine condition on location. Thus there is an interest (DPA
5100, Rycote Cyclone) to move away from its use.[52]
In the studio and on stage, pop-screens and foam shields
can be useful for reasons of hygiene, and protecting microphones from spittle and sweat. They can also be useful
coloured idents. On location the basket shield can contain
a suspension system to isolate the microphone from shock
and handling noise.
Microphone with its windscreen removed.

See also: Pop lter


Windscreens (or windshields the terms are interchangeable) provide a method of reducing the eect of
wind on microphones. While pop-screens give protection
from unidirectional blasts, foam hats shield wind into
the grille from all directions, and blimps / zeppelins / baskets entirely enclose the microphone and protect its body
as well. This last point is important because, given the
extreme low frequency content of wind noise, vibration
induced in the housing of the microphone can contribute
substantially to the noise output.

Stating the eciency of wind noise reduction is an inexact science, since the eect varies enormously with frequency, and hence with the bandwidth of the microphone
and audio channel. At very low frequencies (10100 Hz)
where massive wind energy exists, reductions are important to avoid overloading of the audio chain particularly
the early stages. This can produce the typical wumping sound associated with wind, which is often syllabic
muting of the audio due to LF peak limiting. At higher
frequencies 200 Hz to ~3 kHz the aural sensitivity
curve allows us to hear the eect of wind as an addition
to the normal noise oor, even though it has a far lower
energy content. Simple shields may allow the wind noise
to be 10 dB less apparent; better ones can achieve nearer

172
to a 50 dB reduction. However the acoustic transparency,
particularly at HF, should also be indicated, since a very
high level of wind attenuation could be associated with
very mued audio.
Various microphone covers
Two recordings being madea blimp is being used
on the left. An open-cell foam windscreen is being
used on the right.
Dead cat and a dead kitten windscreens. The
dead kitten covers a stereo microphone for a DSLR
camera. The dierence in name is due to the size of
the fur.

24.13 See also


Geophonetransducer for sound within the earth
Hydrophonetransducer for sound in water
Ionophoneplasma-based microphone
Microphone connector
Microphone practiceexamples of usage
Nominal impedance
Shock mountMicrophone mount that suspends
the microphone in elastic straps

24.14 References
[1] Zimmer, Ben (29 July 2010). How Should 'Microphone'
be Abbreviated?". The New York Times. Retrieved 10
September 2010.
[2] Montgomery, Henry C (1959). Amplication and High
Fidelity in the Greek Theater. The Classical Journal. 54
(6): 242245. JSTOR 3294133.
[3] McVeigh, Daniel (2000). An Early History of the Telephone: 16641866: Robert Hookes Acoustic Experiments and Acoustic Inventions. Archived from the original on 2003-09-03.
[4] MacLeod, Elizabeth 1999 Alexander Graham Bell: an inventive life. Kids Can Press, Toronto
[5] Paul J. Nahin (2002). Oliver Heaviside: The Life, Work,
and Times of an Electrical Genius of the Victorian Age.
JHU Press. p. 67.
[6] Bob Estreich. David Edward Hughes.
[7] Huurdeman, Anton (2003). The Worldwide History of
Telecommunications. John Wiley & Sons.
[8] David Hughes. Retrieved 2012-12-17.

CHAPTER 24. MICROPHONE

[9] David Edward Hughes: Concertinist and Inventor


(PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-12-31.
Retrieved 2012-12-17.
[10] A brief history of microphones (PDF). Retrieved 201212-17.
[11] Lee De Forest (18731961)". Television International
Magazine. 2011-01-17. Archived from the original on
2011-01-17. Retrieved Dec 4, 2013.
[12] Cory, Troy (2003-01-21). ""Radio Boys & The
SMART-DAAF BOYS"". Archived from the original on
January 21, 2003.
[13] Fagen, M.D. A History of Engineering and Science in the
Bell System: The Early Years (18751925). New York:
Bell Telephone Laboratories, 1975
[14] Hennessy, Brian 2005 The Emergence of Broadcasting in
Britain Devon Southerleigh
[15] Robjohns, Hugh (2001). A Brief History of Microphones (PDF). Microphone Data Book. Archived from
the original (PDF) on 2010-11-25.
[16] 1931 Harry F. Olson and Les Anderson, RCA Model
44 Ribbon Microphone. Mix Magazine. Sep 1, 2006.
Archived from the original on 2008-03-24. Retrieved 10
April 2013.
[17] History The evolution of an audio revolution. Shure
Americas. Archived from the original on 2012-09-15.
Retrieved 13 April 2013.
[18] Bell Laboratories and The Development of Electrical
Recording. Stokowski.org (Leopold Stokowski site).
[19] Institute BV Amsterdam, SAE. Microphones. Practical
Creative Media Education. Retrieved 2014-03-07.
[20] Sessler, G.M.; West, J.E. (1962). Self-biased condenser microphone with high capacitance. Journal of
the Acoustical Society of America. 34 (11): 17871788.
doi:10.1121/1.1909130.
[21] Archived August 19, 2010, at the Wayback Machine.
[22] AKG D 112 Large-diaphragm dynamic microphone for
bass instruments"
[23] Local rms strum the chords of real music innovation.
Mass High Tech: the Journal of New England Technology.
February 8, 2008.
[24] Boudets Microphone. Machine-History.com.
[25] http://www.pitt.edu/~{}qiw4/Academic/ME2080/
ZnO%20circular%20microphone.pdf
[26] Paritsky, Alexander; Kots, A. (1997). Fiber optic microphone as a realization of ber optic positioning sensors. Proc. of International Society for Optical Engineering (SPIE). 3110: 408409. doi:10.1117/12.281371.
[27] US patent 6462808, Alexander Paritsky and Alexander
Kots, Small optical microphone/sensor, issued 200210-08

24.15. EXTERNAL LINKS

[28] Karlin, Susan. Case Study: Can You Hear Me Now?".


rt-image.com. Valley Forge Publishing. Archived from
the original on 2011-07-15.
[29] Cirrus Logic Completes Acquisition of Wolfson Microelectronics. MarketWatch.com. Retrieved 2014-08-21.
[30] Analog Devices To Sell Microphone Product Line To InvenSense. MarketWatch.com. Retrieved 2015-11-27.
[31] Knowles Completes Acquisition of NXPs Sound Solutions Business. Knowles. Retrieved 2011-07-05.
[32] MEMS Microphone Will Be Hurt by Downturn in
Smartphone Market. Seeking Alpha. Retrieved 200908-23.

173

24.15 External links


Info, Pictures and Soundbytes from vintage microphones
Microphone sensitivity conversiondB re 1 V/Pa
and transfer factor mV/Pa
Searchable database of specs and component info
from 1000+ microphones
Microphone construction and basic placement advice
History of the Microphone

[33] OMRON to Launch Mass-production and Supply of


MEMS Acoustic Sensor Chip -Worlds rst MEMS sensor capable of detecting the lower limit of human audible
frequencies-". Retrieved 2009-11-24.

Large vs. Small Diaphragms in Omnidirectional


Microphones

[34] MEMS Mics Taking Over. EETimes.

Measurement/Engineering Grade Microphone Basics

[35] Bartlett, Bruce. How A Cardioid Microphone Works.


[36] History & Development of Microphone. Lloyd Microphone Classics.
[37] Proximity Eect. Geo Martin, Introduction to Sound
Recording.
[38] History The evolution of an audio revolution. Shure.
Retrieved 2013-07-30.
[39] Dave Berners (December 2005). Ask the Doctors: The
Physics of Mid-Side (MS) Miking. Universal Audio WebZine. Universal Audio. Retrieved 2013-07-30.
[40] Directional Patterns of Microphones. Retrieved 201307-30.
[41] (US 4361736)
[42] Crown Audio. Tech Made Simple. The Crown Dieroid Microphone Archived May 10, 2012, at the Wayback
Machine.
[43] http://webstore.iec.ch/webstore/webstore.nsf/Artnum_
PK/48193
[44] International Standard IEC 60268-4
[45] Eargle, John; Chris Foreman (2002). Audio Engineering
for Sound Reinforcement. Milwaukee: Hal Leonard Corporation. p. 66. ISBN 0-634-04355-2.
[46] Archived April 28, 2010, at the Wayback Machine.
[47] Robertson, A. E.: Microphones Illie Press for BBC,
19511963
[48] IEC Standard 61672 and ANSI S1.4
[49] IEC 61094
[50] Blasted microphones (PDF).
[51] Joerg Wuttke - Microphones and Wind.
[52] Rycote Cyclone.

Guide to Condenser Microphones

Chapter 25

FM broadcasting

AM and FM modulated signals for radio. AM (Amplitude Modulation) and FM (Frequency Modulation) are types of modulation
(coding). The electrical signal from program material, usually
coming from a studio, is mixed with a carrier wave of a specic
frequency, then broadcast. In the case of AM, this mixing (modulation) is done by altering the amplitude of the carrier wave with
time, according to the original signal. In the case of FM, it is the
frequency of the carrier wave that is varied. A radio receiver
(a radio) contains a demodulator that extracts the original program material from the broadcast wave.

FM Radio Broadcasting : Big Picture in Full Electromagnetic


Spectrum

FM broadcasting is a method of radio broadcasting using frequency modulation (FM) technology. Invented in
1933 by American engineer Edwin Armstrong, it is used
worldwide to provide high-delity sound over broadcast
radio. FM broadcasting is capable of better sound quality
than AM broadcasting, the chief competing radio broadcasting technology, so it is used for most music broadcasts. FM radio stations use the VHF frequencies. The
term FM band describes the frequency band in a given
country which is dedicated to FM broadcasting.

25.1 Broadcast bands


Main article: FM broadcast band

A commercial 35 kW FM radio transmitter built in the late 1980s.


It belongs to FM radio station KWNR in Las Vegas, NV, USA, and
broadcasts at a frequency of 95.5 MHz.

Throughout the world, the FM broadcast band falls within exceptions:


the VHF part of the radio spectrum. Usually 87.5 to
108.0 MHz is used,[1] or some portion thereof, with few
In the former Soviet republics, and some former
174

25.2. MODULATION CHARACTERISTICS

175

Eastern Bloc countries, the older 6574 MHz band


is also used. Assigned frequencies are at intervals
of 30 kHz. This band, sometimes referred to as
the OIRT band, is slowly being phased out in many
countries. In those countries the 87.5108.0 MHz
band is referred to as the CCIR band.
In Japan, the band 7695 MHz is used.
The frequency of an FM broadcast station (more strictly
its assigned nominal center frequency) is usually an exact multiple of 100 kHz. In most of South Korea, the
Americas, the Philippines and the Caribbean, only odd
multiples are used. In some parts of Europe, Greenland
and Africa, only even multiples are used. In the UK odd
or even are used. In Italy, multiples of 50 kHz are used.
There are other unusual and obsolete FM broadcasting
standards in some countries, including 1, 10, 30, 74, 500,
and 300 kHz. However, to minimise inter-channel interference, stations operating from the same or geographically close transmitter sites tend to keep to at least a 500
kHz frequency separation even when closer frequency
spacing is technically permitted, with closer tunings reserved for more distantly spaced transmitters, as potentially interfering signals are already more attenuated and
so have less eect on neighboring frequencies.

FM has better rejection of static (RFI) than AM. This was shown
in a dramatic demonstration by General Electric at its New York
lab in 1940. The radio had both AM and FM receivers. With
a million volt arc as a source of interference behind it, the AM
receiver produced only a roar of static, while the FM receiver
clearly reproduced a music program from Armstrongs experimental FM transmitter in New Jersey.

25.2 Modulation characteristics


25.2.1

Modulation

Frequency modulation or FM is a form of modulation


which conveys information by varying the frequency of
a carrier wave; the older amplitude modulation or AM
varies the amplitude of the carrier, with its frequency remaining constant. With FM, frequency deviation from
the assigned carrier frequency at any instant is directly
proportional to the amplitude of the input signal, determining the instantaneous frequency of the transmitted signal. Because transmitted FM signals use more
bandwidth than AM signals, this form of modulation is
commonly used with the higher (VHF or UHF) frequen- Armstrongs rst prototype FM broadcast transmitter, located in
cies used by TV, the FM broadcast band, and land mobile the Empire State Building, New York City, which he used for seradio systems.
cret tests of his system between 1934 and 1935. Licensed as experimental station W2XDG, it transmitted on 41 MHz at a power
of 2 kW

25.2.2

Pre-emphasis and de-emphasis

Random noise has a triangular spectral distribution in


an FM system, with the eect that noise occurs predominantly at the highest audio frequencies within the
baseband. This can be oset, to a limited extent, by
boosting the high frequencies before transmission and reducing them by a corresponding amount in the receiver.
Reducing the high audio frequencies in the receiver also
reduces the high-frequency noise. These processes of

boosting and then reducing certain frequencies are known


as pre-emphasis and de-emphasis, respectively.
The amount of pre-emphasis and de-emphasis used is dened by the time constant of a simple RC lter circuit. In
most of the world a 50 s time constant is used. In the
Americas and South Korea, 75 s is used. This applies
to both mono and stereo transmissions. For stereo, preemphasis is applied to the left and right channels before

176
multiplexing.

CHAPTER 25. FM BROADCASTING


purposes. The Halstead system was rejected due to lack
of high frequency stereo separation and reduction in the
main channel signal-to-noise ratio. The GE and Zenith
systems, so similar that they were considered theoretically
identical, were formally approved by the FCC in April
1961 as the standard stereo FM broadcasting method
in the United States and later adopted by most other
countries.[3]

The amount of pre-emphasis that can be applied is limited by the fact that many forms of contemporary music contain more high-frequency energy than the musical styles which prevailed at the birth of FM broadcasting. They cannot be pre-emphasized as much because it
would cause excessive deviation of the FM carrier. Systems more modern than FM broadcasting tend to use either programme-dependent variable pre-emphasis; e.g., It is important that stereo broadcasts be compatible with
dbx in the BTSC TV sound system, or none at all.
mono receivers. For this reason, the left (L) and right
(R) channels are algebraically encoded into sum (L+R)
and dierence (LR) signals. A mono receiver will use
just the L+R signal so the listener will hear both channels
25.2.3 Stereo FM
through the single loudspeaker. A stereo receiver will add
the dierence signal to the sum signal to recover the left
Long before FM stereo transmission was considered, FM
channel, and subtract the dierence signal from the sum
multiplexing of other types of audio level information was
to recover the right channel.
experimented with.[2] The original station to experiment
with multiplexing was W2XDG (New York City) on 41 The (L+R) Main channel signal is transmitted as baseMHz, located on the 85th oor of the Empire State Build- band audio limited to the range of 30 Hz to 15 kHz.
The (LR) signal is amplitude modulated onto a 38 kHz
ing.
double-sideband suppressed-carrier (DSB-SC) signal ocThese FM multiplex transmissions started in November
cupying the baseband range of 23 to 53 kHz.
1934 and consisted of the main channel audio program
and three subcarriers: a fax program, a synchronizing sig- A 19 kHz pilot tone, at exactly half the 38 kHz sub-carrier
nal for the fax program and a telegraph order channel. frequency and with a precise phase relationship to it, as
These original FM multiplex subcarriers were amplitude dened by the formula below, is also generated. This
is transmitted at 810% of overall modulation level and
modulated.
used by the receiver to regenerate the 38 kHz sub-carrier
Two musical programs, consisting of both the Red and
with the correct phase.
Blue Network program feeds of the NBC Radio Network,
were simultaneously transmitted using the same system of The nal multiplex signal from the stereo generator consubcarrier modulation as part of a studio-to-transmitter tains the Main Channel (L+R), the pilot tone, and the
like system. In April 1935, the AM subcarriers were re- sub-channel (LR). This composite signal, along with any
other sub-carriers, modulates the FM transmitter.
placed by FM subcarriers, with much improved results.
The rst FM subcarrier transmissions emanating from
Major Armstrongs experimental station KE2XCC at
Alpine, New York occurred in 1948. These transmissions consisted of two-channel audio programs, binaural
audio programs and a fax program. The original subcarrier frequency used at KE2XCC was 27.5 kHz. The IF
bandwidth was +/5 kHz, as the only goal at the time was
to relay AM radio-quality audio. This transmission system notably used a 75 microsecond audio pre-emphasis, a
technical innovation that became part of the original FM
Stereo Multiplex Standard.

The instantaneous deviation of the transmitter carrier frequency due to the stereo audio and pilot tone (at 10%
modulation) is
[

[
0.9 A+B
+
2
75 kHz [4]

AB
2

]
]
sin 4fp t + 0.1 sin 2fp t

where A and B are the pre-emphasized left and right audio signals and fp =19 kHz is the frequency of the pilot
tone. Slight variations in the peak deviation may occur
In the late 1950s, several systems to add stereo to FM in the presence of other subcarriers or because of local
radio were considered by the FCC. Included were sys- regulations.
tems from 14 proponents including Crosby, Halstead, Another way to look at the resulting signal is that it alElectrical and Musical Industries, Ltd (EMI), Zenith, and ternates between left and right at 38 kHz, with the phase
General Electric. The individual systems were evaluated determined by the 19 kHz pilot signal.[5]
for their strengths and weaknesses during eld tests in
Uniontown, Pennsylvania using KDKA-FM in Pittsburgh Converting the multiplex signal back into left and right
as the originating station. The Crosby system was re- audio signals is performed by a decoder, built into stereo
jected by the FCC because it was incompatible with exist- receivers.
ing subsidiary communications authorization (SCA) ser- In order to preserve stereo separation and signal-to-noise
vices which used various subcarrier frequencies includ- parameters, it is normal practice to apply pre-emphasis to
ing 41 and 67 kHz. Many revenue-starved FM stations the left and right channels before encoding, and to apply
used SCAs for storecasting and other non-broadcast de-emphasis at the receiver after decoding.

25.2. MODULATION CHARACTERISTICS

177

Stereo FM signals are more susceptible to noise and mul- (now called WWWW-FM) in Ann Arbor/Saline, Michitipath distortion than are mono FM signals.[6]
gan under the guidance of Chief Engineer Brian Jerey
[8]
In addition, for a given RF level at the receiver, the signal- Brown.
to-noise ratio for the stereo signal will be worse than for
the mono receiver. For this reason many stereo FM re25.2.5
ceivers include a stereo/mono switch to allow listening
in mono when reception conditions are less than ideal,
and most car radios are arranged to reduce the separation as the signal-to-noise ratio worsens, eventually going
to mono while still indicating a stereo signal is being received.

25.2.4

Other subcarrier services

Quadraphonic FM

In 1969, Louis Dorren invented the Quadraplex system


of single station, discrete, compatible four-channel FM Typical spectrum of composite baseband signal
broadcasting. There are two additional subcarriers in the
Quadraplex system, supplementing the single one used in
FM broadcasting has included SCA capability since its
standard stereo FM. The baseband layout is as follows:
inception, as it was seen as another service which licensees could use to create additional income.[9] Initially
50 Hz to 15 kHz Main Channel (sum of all 4 chan- the users of SCA services were private analog audio channels) (LF+LR+RF+RR) signal, for mono FM listen- nels which could be used internally or rented out, for exing compatibility.
ample Muzak type services. Radio reading services for
the
blind became a common use, and remain so, and there
23 to 53 kHz (sine quadrature subcarrier) (LF+LR)
were
experiments with quadraphonic sound. If a station
- (RF+RR) Left minus Right dierence signal. This
does
not
broadcast in stereo, everything from 23 kHz on
signals modulation in algebraic sum and dierence
up
can
be
used for other services. The guard band around
with the Main channel is used for 2 channel stereo
19
kHz
(4
kHz) must still be maintained, so as not to
listener compatibility.
trigger stereo decoders on receivers. If there is stereo,
23 to 53 kHz (cosine quadrature 38 kHz subcarrier) there will typically be a guard band between the upper
(LF+RR) - (LR+RF) Diagonal dierence. This sig- limit of the DSBSC stereo signal (53 kHz) and the lower
nals modulation in algebraic sum and dierence limit of any other subcarrier.
with the Main channel and all the other subcarriers
Digital services are now also available. A 57 kHz subis used for the Quadraphonic listener.
carrier (phase locked to the third harmonic of the stereo
61 to 91 kHz (sine quadrature 76 kHz subcarrier) pilot tone) is used to carry a low-bandwidth digital Radio
(LF+RF) - (LR+RR) Front-back dierence. This Data System signal, providing extra features such as
signals modulation in algebraic sum and dierence Alternative Frequency (AF) and Network (NN). This
with the main channel and all the other subcarriers narrowband signal runs at only 1,187.5 bits per second,
thus is only suitable for text. A few proprietary systems
is also used for the Quadraphonic listener.
are used for private communications. A variant of RDS
105 kHz SCA subcarrier, phase-locked to 19 kHz is the North American RBDS or smart radio system.
pilot, for reading services for the blind, background In Germany the analog ARI system was used prior to
music, etc.
RDS for broadcasting trac announcements to motorists
(without disturbing other listeners). Plans to use ARI for
The normal stereo signal can be considered as switching other European countries led to the development of RDS
between left and right channels at 38 kHz, appropriately as a more powerful system. RDS is designed to be capaband limited. The quadraphonic signal can be considered ble of being used alongside ARI despite using identical
as cycling through LF, LR, RF, RR, at 76 kHz.[7]
subcarrier frequencies.
There were several variations on this sy