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How is equilibrium different from a steady state system?

A steady state occurs in an open system, where there is continual addition of reactants
and removal of products. An example would be an assembly line. An equilibrium occurs
in a closed system, with no additional reactants being added or products being removed.

2. Write the equilibrium expression for each of the following reactions. Be sure to pay attention to
physical states:
a) Br2 (g) + 5 F2 (g)

2 BrF5(g)

K eq

b) 4 HCl (g) + O2(g)

2 H2O (g) + 2 Cl2 (g)

K eq

c) 5 Fe+2(aq) + MnO4-(aq) + 8 H+(aq)

K eq

[ BrF5 ] 2
[ Br2 ][ F2 ]5
[H 2 O] 2 [Cl 2 ] 2
[HCl] 4 [O 2 ]

5 Fe+3(aq) + Mn+2(aq) + 4 H2O(l)

[Fe3 ]5 [Mn 2 ]
[Fe 2 ]5 [MnO 4 ][ H ]8

3. Molecular chlorine decomposes into atoms according to the reaction:

Cl2 (g)

2 Cl (g)

The equilibrium constant for the reaction at 25C is 1.4 x 10-38. Would many chlorine atoms be
present at this temperature? How do you know?
The reactants are clearly favored since Keq is much less than 1. The reactant side of the
equation shows molecular chlorine. Molecular chlorine is thus far more abundant than
individual chlorine atoms.
4. Calculate Keq for this reaction :H2(g) + Cl2(g)
2 HCl
[H2] = 1.0 10 M, [Cl2] = 1.0 10 M, [HCl] = 1.0 10-2 M
K eq

(1.0 10 2 ) 2
[HCl] 2
1.0 10 4

[H 2 ][Cl 2 ] (1.0 10 )(1.0 10 ) 1.0 10 4

5. For the following reaction at equilibrium at 2000C, the concentration of N2 and O2 are both
5.2M. Calculate the concentration of NO at equilibrium.
N2(g) + O2(g)

2 NO(g)

Keq = 6.2 10-4

K eq

[ NO] 2
[ N 2 ][ O 2 ]

Let x represent the value of the unknown concentration, [NO]

Substitute the known and unknown values into the equation & solve
6.2 10 4


Rearrange to isolate x2:

(6.2 10 4 )(5.2)(5.2) x 2
x 2 0.01676
x 2 0.01676
x 0.13M [ NO ]
6. What are three stresses that can affect the position of an equilibrium?
Identify the one stress that will cause the value of Keq to change.
Change in concentration
Change in pressure and/or volume
Change in temperature
Temperature is the only one that will change the value of Keq

7. Suggest four ways to increase the concentration of SO3 in the following equilibrium reaction:
2 SO2(g) + O2(g)

2 SO3(g) + 192.3 kJ

decrease temperature
increase concentration of SO2 and/or O2 by adding more
remove SO3 (decrease its concentration) as it forms
increase pressure / decrease volume

8. Nitric oxide, NO, releases 57.3 kJ/mol when it reacts with oxygen to give nitrogen dioxide.
a) Write a balanced equation for this reaction.
2 NO + O2 2 NO2 + 114.6 kJ
b) Write the equilibrium constant expression for this reaction.
K eq

[ NO 2 ] 2
[ NO] 2 [O 2 ]

c) Predict the effect that increasing the temperature will have on:
1) the equilibrium concentration of all reaction participants (NO, O2, and NO2)
Increase concentration of NO and O2
Decrease concentration of NO2
2) the numerical value of the equilibrium constant, Keq
the value of Keq will decrease
9. This equation is at equilibrium: CO(g) + H2O (g)
CO2 (g) + H2 (g)
If a 10.00L vessel has 2.50 mol CO2 and H2O, and 5.00 mol CO2 and H2 gas at 588K,
a. which way will the reaction proceed? (Kc = 31.4 at 588K)
Since Qc < Kc, it will proceed in the forward direction

b. What are the concentrations of all species at equilibrium?

[CO] & [H2O] = 0.114M while [CO2] & [H2] = 0.636M
10. The following reaction is at equilibrium: 4NH3 (g) + 3O2 (g)
How will the equilibrium shift if:
a. The volume is increased
b. Four moles of Helium gas is added
c. A lit match is placed inside the container
The following reaction is at equilibrium: 4NH3 (g) + 3O2 (g
How will the equilibrium shift if:
a. The volume is increased

6H2O (g) + 2N2 (g)

6H2O (g) + 2N2 (g)

Since the volume is being increased, the pressure is dropping. In response, the
equilibrium will shift right to attempt to make more moles of gas and increase the
b. Four moles of Helium gas is added
The equilibrium will not change. To change a gaseous equilibrium, the partial
pressures of at least one gas need to be changed. Since He is un-reactive with all of the
gases present, the total pressure will change but the partial pressures will not
c. A lit match is placed inside the container
The match is a combustion reaction and requires O2 to proceed. Thus, the oxygen in the
system will be used and the equilibrium will shift left in order to compensate for the
11. For the reaction,

H2 (g) + CO2 (g)

H2O (g) + CO (g)

at 700 C, Kc = 0.534. Calculate the concentration of H2 and CO at equilibrium if a mixture of

85g CO and 55g of H2O is heated to 700 C in a 10.0 L container.

Mol of CO =
= 3mol
Mol of H2O =
= 3mol

((1.008x2)+16 )g/mol

H2 (g) + CO2 (g)


H2O (g) +

CO (g)

Kc = [H2O][ CO] = 0.534

[H2][ CO2]
= (0.3-x)2 = 0.534
= (0.3-x) = 0.534
x = 0.173 M

12. What is constant equilibrium Kp at 1273 C for the reaction,

2CO (g) + O2 (g)
2CO2 (g)
if the Kc is 2.24x 1022 at the same temperature?
Kp = Kc (0.0821 T)n = (2.24 x 1022) (0.0821 x 1546 )-1
= 1.765 x 1020
[H2] = x = 0.173 M

[CO] = 0.3- (0.173) = 0.127 M

13. The Ksp for lead(II) chloride is 1.7x10-5. If you place 3.00g of this solid in water, how much solid will
be left after the system reaches equilibrium?
How much of the above solid will be left if the solid is instead placed in a 0.01M HCl solution?
(Hint: Find the molarity of the disassociated lead ion. It is equal to how much the molarity of the
PbCl2 decreases by since they are in a 1:1 ratio)
No precipitate is left
0.100g of precipitate is left
14. What is the pH of a buffer with 0.75 mol Hypochlorous Acid and 0.50 mol of its conjugate base
in a 200.0mL solution? (KA = 3.5x10-8)
pH = 7.28