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<a href=Finite Elements in Analysis and Design 91 (2014) 115 126 Contents lists available at S c i e n c e D i r e c t Finite Elements in Analysis and Design journal homepage: w w w . e l s e v i e r . c o m / l o c a t e / n e l Numerical analysis and optimal design for new automotive door sealing with variable cross-section Zhu Wenfeng , Wang Jie, Lin Peijian College of Mechanical Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 201804, China article info Article history: Received 18 July 2013 Received in revised form 27 May 2014 Accepted 30 June 2014 Available online 17 August 2014 Keywords: Variable cross-section Geometrical optimization Door seal closing effort Finite element analysis abstract Automotive door sealing system isolates passenger compartment from water, dust and wind noise. It has the most direct in fl uences on door-closing performance, which is determined by cross-section design in terms of its appropriate Compression Load De fl ection (CLD) property. Traditional sealing structure has uniform geometrical cross-section. It has the shortcomings of bad fi tting in corner parts with large curvatures, causing inaccurate door-closing effort design. Regarding the door panel's complex 3D pro fi le, numerical analysis and optimal design for new sealing with variable cross-section are developed in this paper. Firstly, the whole sealing is partitioned into several parts. For four nearly straight segments, conventional 2D numerical analysis can still be used to obtain desired geometrical con fi guration. For other four curved corner parts with large curvatures, 3D numerical analysis of door closing is applied. Secondly, 2D geometrical cross-section optimization is proposed. Instead of three variables in previous research, fi ve variables are selected for featuring cross-section geometry and used for next CAD reconstruction with more precision. After comparison between Back Propagation (BP) neural network and the Kriging surrogate model, BP neural network which performs better and ef fi cient in this automotive design optimization fi eld is applied for extracting nonlinear mapping between fi ve cross- section parameters and compression load, which were parallely optimized by Genetic Algorithm (GA) and its ef fi ciency and accuracy are compared with another evolutionary algorithm of Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO). Thirdly, 3D numerical modeling of four curved corner parts' closing process is realized, of which twisting and bending effects during seal assembly are taken into account, thus minimizing theoretical error and producing more realistic solution. Consequently, the desired geome- trical con fi gurations for both straight parts and corner parts satisfying designated CLD property can be obtained and the whole sealing can be achieved with variable cross-section, resulting in an ideal door closing effort. Finally, a Matlab-based platform has been developed to assist the design and optimization process. Experiment and case study indicates that it provides an effective method for new door sealing design with variable cross-section. & 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction Automotive door seals are installed in narrow gaps between door and body frame along the perimeters of the opening panels, as shown in Fig. 1 . They prevent water and dust from entering passenger compartment and accommodate metal manufacturing variations [1] . Door-closing effort is determined by six factors of seal rubber's compression load, cabin volume, door weight, latch, etc. It was revealed that door sealing consumes 35 – 50% energy during the door closing process [2] , thus making it become the dominant role for door closing effort design [3 – 5] . Corresponding author. E-mail address: Zhuwenfeng@tongji.edu.cn (W. Zhu). http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j. nel.2014.06.012 0168-874X/ & 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. As a component intimately associated with human sensibility, automotive door sealing design includes suitable cross-section's geometrical parameters, as well as appropriate rubber material property, which result in the desired Compression Load De fl ection (CLD) and the fi nal door-closing efforts. Better sealing perfor- mance requires both higher reaction force and a wider contact area. However, better door-closing performance requires the opposite conditions [6] . A good door sealing design needs to satisfy both the sealing quality and the door-closing performance. Consequently, door seal design is de fi ned as the compromise between these two reciprocal design targets, which have several features of nonlinearity, such as hyper-elastic rubber material, rubber's large deformation and rubber – metal contact behavior. Conventionally, door-closing effort design and measurement have mostly relied on experimental methods. Ordieres-Meré " id="pdf-obj-0-7" src="pdf-obj-0-7.jpg">

Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

Finite Elements in Analysis and Design

journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/nel

<a href=Finite Elements in Analysis and Design 91 (2014) 115 126 Contents lists available at S c i e n c e D i r e c t Finite Elements in Analysis and Design journal homepage: w w w . e l s e v i e r . c o m / l o c a t e / n e l Numerical analysis and optimal design for new automotive door sealing with variable cross-section Zhu Wenfeng , Wang Jie, Lin Peijian College of Mechanical Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 201804, China article info Article history: Received 18 July 2013 Received in revised form 27 May 2014 Accepted 30 June 2014 Available online 17 August 2014 Keywords: Variable cross-section Geometrical optimization Door seal closing effort Finite element analysis abstract Automotive door sealing system isolates passenger compartment from water, dust and wind noise. It has the most direct in fl uences on door-closing performance, which is determined by cross-section design in terms of its appropriate Compression Load De fl ection (CLD) property. Traditional sealing structure has uniform geometrical cross-section. It has the shortcomings of bad fi tting in corner parts with large curvatures, causing inaccurate door-closing effort design. Regarding the door panel's complex 3D pro fi le, numerical analysis and optimal design for new sealing with variable cross-section are developed in this paper. Firstly, the whole sealing is partitioned into several parts. For four nearly straight segments, conventional 2D numerical analysis can still be used to obtain desired geometrical con fi guration. For other four curved corner parts with large curvatures, 3D numerical analysis of door closing is applied. Secondly, 2D geometrical cross-section optimization is proposed. Instead of three variables in previous research, fi ve variables are selected for featuring cross-section geometry and used for next CAD reconstruction with more precision. After comparison between Back Propagation (BP) neural network and the Kriging surrogate model, BP neural network which performs better and ef fi cient in this automotive design optimization fi eld is applied for extracting nonlinear mapping between fi ve cross- section parameters and compression load, which were parallely optimized by Genetic Algorithm (GA) and its ef fi ciency and accuracy are compared with another evolutionary algorithm of Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO). Thirdly, 3D numerical modeling of four curved corner parts' closing process is realized, of which twisting and bending effects during seal assembly are taken into account, thus minimizing theoretical error and producing more realistic solution. Consequently, the desired geome- trical con fi gurations for both straight parts and corner parts satisfying designated CLD property can be obtained and the whole sealing can be achieved with variable cross-section, resulting in an ideal door closing effort. Finally, a Matlab-based platform has been developed to assist the design and optimization process. Experiment and case study indicates that it provides an effective method for new door sealing design with variable cross-section. & 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction Automotive door seals are installed in narrow gaps between door and body frame along the perimeters of the opening panels, as shown in Fig. 1 . They prevent water and dust from entering passenger compartment and accommodate metal manufacturing variations [1] . Door-closing effort is determined by six factors of seal rubber's compression load, cabin volume, door weight, latch, etc. It was revealed that door sealing consumes 35 – 50% energy during the door closing process [2] , thus making it become the dominant role for door closing effort design [3 – 5] . Corresponding author. E-mail address: Zhuwenfeng@tongji.edu.cn (W. Zhu). http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j. nel.2014.06.012 0168-874X/ & 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. As a component intimately associated with human sensibility, automotive door sealing design includes suitable cross-section's geometrical parameters, as well as appropriate rubber material property, which result in the desired Compression Load De fl ection (CLD) and the fi nal door-closing efforts. Better sealing perfor- mance requires both higher reaction force and a wider contact area. However, better door-closing performance requires the opposite conditions [6] . A good door sealing design needs to satisfy both the sealing quality and the door-closing performance. Consequently, door seal design is de fi ned as the compromise between these two reciprocal design targets, which have several features of nonlinearity, such as hyper-elastic rubber material, rubber's large deformation and rubber – metal contact behavior. Conventionally, door-closing effort design and measurement have mostly relied on experimental methods. Ordieres-Meré " id="pdf-obj-0-57" src="pdf-obj-0-57.jpg">

Numerical analysis and optimal design for new automotive door sealing with variable cross-section

Zhu Wenfeng n , Wang Jie, Lin Peijian

College of Mechanical Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 201804, China

<a href=Finite Elements in Analysis and Design 91 (2014) 115 126 Contents lists available at S c i e n c e D i r e c t Finite Elements in Analysis and Design journal homepage: w w w . e l s e v i e r . c o m / l o c a t e / n e l Numerical analysis and optimal design for new automotive door sealing with variable cross-section Zhu Wenfeng , Wang Jie, Lin Peijian College of Mechanical Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 201804, China article info Article history: Received 18 July 2013 Received in revised form 27 May 2014 Accepted 30 June 2014 Available online 17 August 2014 Keywords: Variable cross-section Geometrical optimization Door seal closing effort Finite element analysis abstract Automotive door sealing system isolates passenger compartment from water, dust and wind noise. It has the most direct in fl uences on door-closing performance, which is determined by cross-section design in terms of its appropriate Compression Load De fl ection (CLD) property. Traditional sealing structure has uniform geometrical cross-section. It has the shortcomings of bad fi tting in corner parts with large curvatures, causing inaccurate door-closing effort design. Regarding the door panel's complex 3D pro fi le, numerical analysis and optimal design for new sealing with variable cross-section are developed in this paper. Firstly, the whole sealing is partitioned into several parts. For four nearly straight segments, conventional 2D numerical analysis can still be used to obtain desired geometrical con fi guration. For other four curved corner parts with large curvatures, 3D numerical analysis of door closing is applied. Secondly, 2D geometrical cross-section optimization is proposed. Instead of three variables in previous research, fi ve variables are selected for featuring cross-section geometry and used for next CAD reconstruction with more precision. After comparison between Back Propagation (BP) neural network and the Kriging surrogate model, BP neural network which performs better and ef fi cient in this automotive design optimization fi eld is applied for extracting nonlinear mapping between fi ve cross- section parameters and compression load, which were parallely optimized by Genetic Algorithm (GA) and its ef fi ciency and accuracy are compared with another evolutionary algorithm of Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO). Thirdly, 3D numerical modeling of four curved corner parts' closing process is realized, of which twisting and bending effects during seal assembly are taken into account, thus minimizing theoretical error and producing more realistic solution. Consequently, the desired geome- trical con fi gurations for both straight parts and corner parts satisfying designated CLD property can be obtained and the whole sealing can be achieved with variable cross-section, resulting in an ideal door closing effort. Finally, a Matlab-based platform has been developed to assist the design and optimization process. Experiment and case study indicates that it provides an effective method for new door sealing design with variable cross-section. & 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction Automotive door seals are installed in narrow gaps between door and body frame along the perimeters of the opening panels, as shown in Fig. 1 . They prevent water and dust from entering passenger compartment and accommodate metal manufacturing variations [1] . Door-closing effort is determined by six factors of seal rubber's compression load, cabin volume, door weight, latch, etc. It was revealed that door sealing consumes 35 – 50% energy during the door closing process [2] , thus making it become the dominant role for door closing effort design [3 – 5] . Corresponding author. E-mail address: Zhuwenfeng@tongji.edu.cn (W. Zhu). http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j. nel.2014.06.012 0168-874X/ & 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. As a component intimately associated with human sensibility, automotive door sealing design includes suitable cross-section's geometrical parameters, as well as appropriate rubber material property, which result in the desired Compression Load De fl ection (CLD) and the fi nal door-closing efforts. Better sealing perfor- mance requires both higher reaction force and a wider contact area. However, better door-closing performance requires the opposite conditions [6] . A good door sealing design needs to satisfy both the sealing quality and the door-closing performance. Consequently, door seal design is de fi ned as the compromise between these two reciprocal design targets, which have several features of nonlinearity, such as hyper-elastic rubber material, rubber's large deformation and rubber – metal contact behavior. Conventionally, door-closing effort design and measurement have mostly relied on experimental methods. Ordieres-Meré " id="pdf-obj-0-68" src="pdf-obj-0-68.jpg">

article info

Article history:

Received 18 July 2013 Received in revised form 27 May 2014 Accepted 30 June 2014 Available online 17 August 2014

Keywords:

Variable cross-section Geometrical optimization Door seal closing effort Finite element analysis

abstract

Automotive door sealing system isolates passenger compartment from water, dust and wind noise. It has the most direct inuences on door-closing performance, which is determined by cross-section design in terms of its appropriate Compression Load Deection (CLD) property. Traditional sealing structure has uniform geometrical cross-section. It has the shortcomings of bad tting in corner parts with large curvatures, causing inaccurate door-closing effort design. Regarding the door panel's complex 3D prole,

numerical analysis and optimal design for new sealing with variable cross-section are developed in this paper. Firstly, the whole sealing is partitioned into several parts. For four nearly straight segments, conventional 2D numerical analysis can still be used to obtain desired geometrical con guration. For other four curved corner parts with large curvatures, 3D numerical analysis of door closing is applied. Secondly, 2D geometrical cross-section optimization is proposed. Instead of three variables in previous research, ve variables are selected for featuring cross-section geometry and used for next CAD reconstruction with more precision. After comparison between Back Propagation (BP) neural network and the Kriging surrogate model, BP neural network which performs better and efcient in this automotive design optimization eld is applied for extracting nonlinear mapping between ve cross- section parameters and compression load, which were parallely optimized by Genetic Algorithm (GA) and its efciency and accuracy are compared with another evolutionary algorithm of Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO). Thirdly, 3D numerical modeling of four curved corner parts' closing process is realized, of which twisting and bending effects during seal assembly are taken into account, thus minimizing theoretical error and producing more realistic solution. Consequently, the desired geome- trical congurations for both straight parts and corner parts satisfying designated CLD property can be obtained and the whole sealing can be achieved with variable cross-section, resulting in an ideal door closing effort. Finally, a Matlab-based platform has been developed to assist the design and optimization process. Experiment and case study indicates that it provides an effective method for new door sealing design with variable cross-section.

& 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction

Automotive door seals are installed in narrow gaps between door and body frame along the perimeters of the opening panels, as shown in Fig. 1. They prevent water and dust from entering passenger compartment and accommodate metal manufacturing variations [1]. Door-closing effort is determined by six factors of seal rubber's compression load, cabin volume, door weight, latch, etc. It was revealed that door sealing consumes 3550% energy during the door closing process [2], thus making it become the dominant role for door closing effort design [35].

n Corresponding author. E-mail address: Zhuwenfeng@tongji.edu.cn (W. Zhu).

0168-874X/& 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

As a component intimately associated with human sensibility, automotive door sealing design includes suitable cross-section's geometrical parameters, as well as appropriate rubber material property, which result in the desired Compression Load Deection (CLD) and the nal door-closing efforts. Better sealing perfor- mance requires both higher reaction force and a wider contact area. However, better door-closing performance requires the opposite conditions [6]. A good door sealing design needs to satisfy both the sealing quality and the door-closing performance. Consequently, door seal design is dened as the compromise between these two reciprocal design targets, which have several features of nonlinearity, such as hyper-elastic rubber material, rubber's large deformation and rubber metal contact behavior. Conventionally, door-closing effort design and measurement have mostly relied on experimental methods. Ordieres-Meré

  • 116 W. Zhu et al. / Finite Elements in Analysis and Design 91 (2014) 115 126

116 W. Zhu et al. / Finite Elements in Analysis and Design 91 (2014) 115 –

Fig. 1. Illustration of door sealing.

tested quasi-static driven door forces [7]. Egashira et al. measured door-seal reaction force and calculated the changes in the inner cabin's atmospheric pressure by air ow [8]. However, the narrow and limited closed space between door seal and door panel makes it difcult to monitor the deformation process and hard to obtain the necessary data of compression load by the traditional mea- surement methods. Experimental methods have disadvantages in determining the many factors related to door closing effort design and are not particularly feasible for new development of opti- mized seal design regarding to cost and time. Nowadays, computational efforts have been implemented for door seal design. For instance, 2D cross-section of the door seal is modeled and analyzed, making extraction of the reaction force and contact area conveniently [9]. Kim et al. developed a numerical process to predict minimum door-closing velocity and virtual reaction force versus closing time data [10]. 3D door-closing analysis, using explicit code, was introduced to produce a more realistic solution. Nonlinear nite element analysis is applied to investigate seal performance, permitting numerous design itera- tions to be evaluated quickly prior to manufacturing and testing the rst prototype parts. Although numerical analysis makes great contributions to the door seal design, there still exists some problems for this high non-linear behavior. Door seal is generally in the form of dual extrusion bulbs of metalloid sponge and dense rubber. Its mechan- ical properties vary with the amount of deformation, previous load history, temperature, frequency and amplitude of the motion [1113]. In order to predict the accurate door closing performance, seal material properties must be investigated carefully, which is a challen- ging task in computational mechanics due to large deformations and the nearly incompressible nature of rubber [1417]. Moreover, traditional sealing system has uniform geometrical cross-section. Very few parameters of height and wall thickness are selected for geometrical description. It is simple for design, but would cause inaccurate reconstruction of geometrical con gura- tion. Because the cross-section remains unchangeable, it is easy for manufacturing, but has the shortcoming of bad tting in large curvature corners and cannot satisfy the varied CLD requirements from different locations of door like the roof part, A-pillar part, B-pillar part and sill part. Recently, variable cross-section extrusion technologies have been invented. With the computer control of extrusion die, rubber can be manufactured with changed cross-section. With regard to automotive door's complex 3D prole, new sealing with variable cross-section is desired and can be achieved with the help of new extrusion technology. Consequently, more cross-section geome- trical parameters are required. Optimal design of new sealing system could benet greatly from numerical analysis in term of efciency and research cost. Regarding to material nonlinear, contact nonlinear and geometrical nonlinear of door sealing, this

paper provides a practical numerical approach for new automotive door sealing with variable cross-section. It rstly presented the door sealing partition process based on closing efforts design. A typical door sealing is geometrically divided into eight segments, considering the curvature change of true prole. Secondly, combination of experiment and numerical analysis is used to identify the hyper-elastic material model of door seal rubber. Thirdly, it solved the problem of cross-section's geometrical conguration and optimal variable selection. By using BP neural network, the nonlinear mapping mechanism between ve cross-section parameters and the desired CLD is established. Based on Genetic Algorithm, cross-section parameters are paral- lely optimized. Fourthly, numerical modeling of 3D door closing is constructed for corner parts, taking into account the inuence of twisting and bending during door seal assembly. By using 2D cross-section optimization for nearly straight segments of door seal and 3D numerical analysis for the rest of the corner parts, the whole sealing can be designed with variable cross section. Finally, a Matlab-based re-exploration platform has been developed, assisting this new sealing system design and demonstration.

  • 2. Door sealing partition based on closing efforts design

Door sealing accounts for a substantial portion of door closing effort. Geometrical and topological parameters of seal cross-sec- tion, as well as the appropriate rubber material property, would result in a desired Compression Load Deection (CLD) and door- closing performance in the end. Traditional sealing structure has uniform geometrical cross-section. However, because of door metal panel manufacturing deviation on which seal rubber was mounted and the 3D true corners parts with large curvature, this type of structure has the shortcoming of bad tting, causing inaccurate door-closing effort design. New door sealing needs variable cross-section so that it can bring about change in the CLD curve at different locations, thus satisfying the desired different compression loads and seal qualities. Considering the non-planar prole of practical sealing in engineering, a typical door sealing is partitioned into eight seg- ments, of which four are nearly straight segments and four are corner parts with large curvatures, as shown in Fig. 2. The whole sealing compression load required by good door seal performance is then distributed into each part. Since different compression loads could be raised from different cross-sectional designs of sealing structure, each of the eight segments' cross-section para- meters needs to be optimally designed based on the distributed compression load, so that sum of them could fulll the desired total door closing effort. For four nearly straightly segments, conventional 2D numerical analysis of compression process can still be used because of the unchanged compression direction of the door sheet metal.

116 W. Zhu et al. / Finite Elements in Analysis and Design 91 (2014) 115 –

Fig. 2. Partition of door sealing system.

W. Zhu et al. / Finite Elements in Analysis and Design 91 (2014) 115 126

117

W. Zhu et al. / Finite Elements in Analysis and Design 91 (2014) 115 – 126

Fig. 3. Distribution of door-closing efforts.

However, the 2D cross-section's geometrical conguration of different segments need to be re-designed in order to obtain the assigned different compression loads. For four corner parts with large curvatures, 3D numerical analysis of door closing is applied, considering the bending and twisting effect caused by large curvatures and the pre-load effect of door sealing assembly process. The whole partition is shown in Fig. 3.

  • 3. Verication of sealing rubber material

Door seals use Ethylene Propylene Diene Monomer (EPDM) sponge rubber. It exhibits nonlinear force versus displacement response characterized by hyper-elastic models. Different strain energy functions are used to describe the behavior of rubber material, such as the MooneyRivlin, Ogden, etc. Experimental and numerical analysis are applied for selection of the appropriate hyper-elastic material model. Firstly, uniaxial tension experiments take place, and the data achieved is tted to the mechanical coefcients of the various material models which are applied to the nite element analysis. Then the nite element results are compared with the experi- mental ones to obtain the most suitable material model.

  • 3.1. Test of rubber uniaxial extension

Test process is performed based on the standard GB/T 528-2009. The dimensions of test specimen are shown in Fig. 4, which also illustrates the plane strain nite element analysis of test specimen. It is obvious that the middle part of the test specimen with uniform distributed stress is the effective coverage for testing data collection. Three test specimens are stretched at the speed of 500 7 50 mm/min until fracture. The cracked position must be within the effective coverage. The testing process is shown in Fig. 5 and results are shown in Fig. 6.

W. Zhu et al. / Finite Elements in Analysis and Design 91 (2014) 115 – 126

Fig. 4. Dumbbell-like test specimen.

W. Zhu et al. / Finite Elements in Analysis and Design 91 (2014) 115 – 126

Fig. 5. Stretching equipment.

W. Zhu et al. / Finite Elements in Analysis and Design 91 (2014) 115 – 126

Fig. 6. Results of tension test.

Table 1 Coefcient of hyper-elastic constitutive equations.

Mooney (2)

Ogden

Foam

ArrudaBoyce Gent

c

10

¼ 0.02173

μ ¼

0.08792

c 01 ¼ 0.21513

α ¼ 3.75166

μ ¼ 0.08837 α ¼ 1.87486 β ¼ 3.81536

μ ¼ 0.04746

μ ¼ 0.1531

λ ¼ 5.937e þ 10

J m ¼ 497636

  • 3.2. Coefcients of the various material models

Table 1 displays the coefcient tting results of hyper-elastic constitutive equations in MSC.Marc, which can be applied in the numerical analysis for the material model verication.

  • 118 W. Zhu et al. / Finite Elements in Analysis and Design 91 (2014) 115 126

    • 3.3. Hyper-elastic material model verication

In order to predict sealing performance and door-closing force, the chemical, mechanical properties and the constitutive model of rubber material must be considered; moreover, the different orders of the same material constitutive model also inuence the reliability of the simulation results. In this study, we utilize the method in Ref. [1] to select suitable material model for the experimental results. Finally, the Foam model is selected in the simulation, as shown in Fig. 7, and its strain energy function is shown in the following equation:

W ¼

N

n ¼ 1

μ

n

α

n

ðλ α n þ λ α n þ λ

1

2

α n

3

3Þþ

N

n ¼ 1

μ n

β n

ð1 J β n Þ

ð1Þ

Among them, μ n , α n and β n are the material constants. λ i are the principal stretch ratios.

  • 4. 2D cross-section optimization for straight segments

In terms of appropriate CLD property according to the distrib- uted sealing compression load, geometrical parameters of four straight segments' cross section need to be designed and opti- mized. In order to establish the implicit relationship between the section parameters and the CLD property, BP neural network is adopted to extract the highly nonlinear mapping mechanism with the help of Design Of Experiments (DOE) to provide sufcient training samples. Then, genetic algorithm is applied to parallely search cross section parameters.

  • 4.1. Variables for featuring 2D cross-section

Conventional method uses three simple variables of cross section height, rubber thickness and annulus diameter to describe

118 W. Zhu et al. / Finite Elements in Analysis and Design 91 (2014) 115 –

Fig. 7. Simulation results with various material models.

118 W. Zhu et al. / Finite Elements in Analysis and Design 91 (2014) 115 –

Fig. 8. Conventional selection of cross section variables.

118 W. Zhu et al. / Finite Elements in Analysis and Design 91 (2014) 115 –

Fig. 9. Effect of rib structure on the seal CLD performance.

W. Zhu et al. / Finite Elements in Analysis and Design 91 (2014) 115 126

119

seal cross-section. It ignores rubber's non-uniform and irregular shape. Furthermore, it has not taken into account the in uence of special convex structure called rib, as shown in Fig. 8 . In fact, rib segment is very sensitive to compression load according to study in this paper, and a penalty function technique is used to handle the contact constraints in the nite element contact simulation. Fig. 9 shows the poor sealing performance caused by rib and the comparison of compression response with and without rib structure. It can clearly be seen that rib segment would cause an excessive door-closing force, meaning that the traditional simple three variables cannot describe cross-section geometry without considering the rib structure. Considering the non-uniform shape and protruding structure, 2D seal section geometry must be reasonably divided into ve parts, as shown in Fig. 10. After cross-section partition, appropriate variables need to be selected for featuring cross-section geometry. Five variables of angle α, angle β , distance d, associated with other two thickness variables, are proposed in this paper, as shown in Fig. 10. It covers the possible changes in term of the thickness, shape and height of the sponge tube. The ve variables can not only ensure the

W. Zhu et al. / Finite Elements in Analysis and Design 91 (2014) 115 – 126

Fig. 10. Seal cross section partition and variable selection.

portions I, II and III of the sponge tube to be reconstructed with minimum deviation, but also make the cross-section's geometrical design more convenient and accurate.

Table 2 Variable ranges and level denition.

Part Variable number Variable type Range

Level

I

3

Angle α

0101

0

2.5

5

7.5 10

 

Angle β

261 7 91

17

21.5 26

30.5 35

Distance d

15 7 4 mm 11

13

15

17

19

II

1

Thickness t 1 0.8mm

0.8

1.1

1.4

1.7

2

III

IV

1

0

Thickness t 2 0.82 mm

0.8

1.1

1.4

1.7

2

W. Zhu et al. / Finite Elements in Analysis and Design 91 (2014) 115 – 126

Fig. 12. Comparison of seal cross-section compression experiment and numerical analysis.

W. Zhu et al. / Finite Elements in Analysis and Design 91 (2014) 115 – 126

Fig. 13. Fixture of seal compression experiment.

W. Zhu et al. / Finite Elements in Analysis and Design 91 (2014) 115 – 126

Fig. 11. Industrial quality evaluation of the seal CLD.

  • 120 W. Zhu et al. / Finite Elements in Analysis and Design 91 (2014) 115 126

    • 4.2. Objective function for cross-section optimization

The result of seal cross section design is its CLD property which can meet the engineering practical requirement, as shown in Fig. 11. The measured CLD for certain 2D cross-section must be located in the upper and low limit zones as shown in the shadow. To evaluate the performance of a seal product under actual conditions, the seal deformation is checked in three critical congurations depending on the relative position of the door and frames, denoted by D 2, D, D þ 2 in Fig. 11. D represents the complete closing condition, while D 2 and D þ 2 are slightly less and more deformed conditions, respectively. According to the industrial application, the objective function for cross-section optimization can be obtained and, shown in the following equation:

 

3

λ i ðF i f i Þ 2

 

f ðα ; β ; d; t 1 ; t 2 Þ ¼

ð2Þ

i ¼ 1

Among them, F i is the compression load of the three key compression displacements; f i is the center values of the deviation range of the seal design requirement; λ i is the weight, in this paper whose f 1 ¼ 2.5 N, f 2 ¼ 3.5 N, and f 3 ¼ 4.5 N. According to the seal energy consumption calculation formula, the relationship of weight between F 1 , F 2 , and F 3 is F 1 o F 2 o F 3 , therefore, λ 1 ¼ 0.28, λ 2 ¼ 0.33, and λ 3 ¼ 0.39.

  • 4.3. BP-based mapping mechanism extraction

Because of the irregular shape and hyper-elastic rubber mate- rial of door sealing, there exists strong nonlinear mapping mechanism between its input geometrical variables and output compression load, which are difcult to be expressed by the traditional explicit way. BP neural network can realize complicated implicit mapping as long as it has enough hidden layers and points. It was adopted in this paper for extracting mapping between ve variables of cross-section and the desired CLD response with the closest approximation algorithm.

  • 4.3.1. DOE-based training samples establishment

BP neural network needs sufcient training and learning samples. With the Design Of Experiments methods, the input of cross-section parameters is grouped as ve variables and ve levels, as shown in Table 2; orthogonal table is used to arrange the experiment samples and 25 groups of samples are numerically analyzed to obtain the output values of F 1 , F 2 , and F 3 .

Table 3

Comparison of test and simulation results.

Original seal

D 2(2.5 mm)

D(4.5 mm)

D þ 2(6.5 mm)

FEA (N) Experiment (N) Design index (N) e (%)

5.035

5.926

2.5 7 1 15.03

7.083

8.033

4.5 7 1 11.83

8.426

8.626

6.5 7 1 2.32

Table 4

The effect of the hidden layer neurons on neural network.

  • 4.3.2. Numerical analysis of compression load

Seal compression in a narrow gap between door metal panel during door-closing is characterized as large deformation of hyper- elastic material, showing strong geometrical and material non- linearity. Finite element analysis aiming at obtaining the training data collection for neural network must do more work in the aspects of element types, material model and boundary condi- tions. The results are shown in Fig. 12.

  • 4.3.3. Experiment of cross-section compression

To verify the numerical analysis of cross-section compression, experiment of real door seal compression is performed, as shown in Fig. 13. Since the CLD property is dened by normal compres- sion to cross-section, special xture with upper part and lower part is designed and made. The upper xture simulated the door

sheet metal, while lower xture as body frame metal. By adjusting the position of upper xture and lower xture, it can ensure that not only the compression load's direction is vertical to cross- section, but also the real spatial assembly position in relation to door seal, door panel and frame panel. The results are listed in Table 3. The least error for compression load at D þ 2 between experimental and numerical analysis is 2.32%, which shows a quite good agreement, indicating that numerical results can be used for BP mapping modeling.

  • 4.3.4. Results of mapping mechanism

A three layers BP neural network is established to model the implicit mapping mechanism using large quantity of training samples learning. The neuron numbers of the input and output layer are 5 and 3 respectively. After taking the training function as trainlm, the transfer functions as tansigand purelin, the highest training number is 7000 and the training goal is 1e 7; then each neural network with different hidden layer neurons is made to learn the training samples, whose results are shown in Table 4 (due to the random training process of the neural network, the data in the table is derived from the comparison of 10 training results). The number of the neurons of the hidden layer is chosen as 18, and other parameters are listed as the above content. Fig. 14 shows the convergence curve of the training mean square error of the neural network, and the comparison of the network output and the sample target is also shown in Fig. 15.

120 W. Zhu et al. / Finite Elements in Analysis and Design 91 (2014) 115 –

Fig. 14. Convergence curve of BP network training error.

Hidden nodes

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

Mean square error Training number Convergence to local optimal solution

0.1034

7000

60%

0.0179

7000

60%

9.93e 8

6132

50%

0.0128

7000

60%

9.35e 8

4139

20%

6.87e 8

1134

10%

9.46e 8

1307

10%

9.71e 8

5960

10%

W. Zhu et al. / Finite Elements in Analysis and Design 91 (2014) 115 126

121

W. Zhu et al. / Finite Elements in Analysis and Design 91 (2014) 115 – 126

Fig. 15. Sample targets and network outputs.

Table 5

Values of theta0, lob and upb.

theta0

lob

upb

[0.08, 0.1, 0.1, 0.02, 0.02]

[0.01, 0.01, 0.01, 0.01, 0.01]

[1, 1, 1, 1, 1]

Table 6

Comparison of the neural network results and kriging ones.

Load Simulated value (N)

Neural network result (N) Kriging result (N)

F 1

5.0353

4.2255

4.2256

F 2

7.0833

5.9272

6.3204

F 3

8.4259

7.2972

8.5258

Table 7 Average tness of GA and PSO.

 

Optimal method

GA

PSO

Average tness

0.053394349

0.053709607

Table 8

Operating parameters of genetic algorithm.

 

Population Binary places of Crossover

Variation

Generation

size

variables

probability P c

probability P m

gap G

40

20

0.62

0.017

1

  • 4.3.5. Comparison between Kriging and BP neural network based

on original section The software package Design and Analysis of Computer Experi- ments [18] (DACE) is applied to establish a Kriging model, which is a Matlab toolbox for working with Kriging approximations to computer models. There are two important functions in the toolbox, namely dacet and predictor, as shown in the following equations:

½dmodel; perf ¼ dacefitðS; Y ; regr; corr ; theta0; lob; upbÞ ð3Þ

y ¼ predictorðx; dmodelÞ

ð4Þ

The parameter theta0 in dacet is the key to build a ne surrogate model, and there is a principle that when theta is small, the model is relatively smooth while too simple, on the other hand, if theta is too large; the model will change ercely in local

W. Zhu et al. / Finite Elements in Analysis and Design 91 (2014) 115 – 126

Fig. 16. Curve of the tness.

Table 9 Best tness and optimal result.

Variable

α (deg) β (deg) d (mm) t 1 (mm)

t 2 (mm)

Best tness value

Optimal result 4.39

17.47

16.94

1.11

1.36

0.0054

Original

4.00

26.00

13.86

1.26

1.52

12.0471

section

Table 10

Comparison of the optimal results and the simulated ones.

Load Requirement Optimal

(N)

value (N)

Simulated

value (N)

(Optimal-simulated)/

simulated (%)

F 1

F 2

F 3

2.5 7 1 3.5 7 1 4.5 7 1

2.120

2.916

4.144

2.187

3.167

4.042

3.1

7.9

2.5

scope and over t. After lots of trials, we choose the poly0 regression function and the gauss correlation function; with the assumption of anisotropy we choose the following starting point and bounds for theta0, as shown in Table 5. Because of limited samples, in this paper BP neural network is compared with Kriging method by predicting the original section. Table 9 shows the ve variables of the original section and the comparison of BP neural network results and Kriging ones is shown in Table 6. It can be seen that the Kriging results match the simulated values a little better; however it is time consuming to choose a proper value for theta0, lob and upb, which means less efcient than BP neural network.

  • 4.3.6. Comparison between GA and PSO optimization

on cross-section parameters

Genetic algorithm (GA for short), simulating the natural bio- logical evolution process and nature genetic mechanism, is a

  • 122 W. Zhu et al. / Finite Elements in Analysis and Design 91 (2014) 115 126

122 W. Zhu et al. / Finite Elements in Analysis and Design 91 (2014) 115 –

Fig. 17. Comparison of original section geometry and optimized one. (a) The section geometry of the optimization result and (b) optimal results of FEA.

122 W. Zhu et al. / Finite Elements in Analysis and Design 91 (2014) 115 –

Fig. 18. Curvature analysis of the door corner parts.

classical optimization method. Particle swarm optimization (PSO for short), rooting from simulation of swarm of bird, also solves optimization problems [19]. In this paper, GA is compared with PSO through the same surrogate model established by BP neural network. The optimiza- tion efciency is evaluated by the average tness concluded from 50 calculations, and the comparative results indicate that GA can obtain a better average tness as shown in Table 7, which means that GA performs a little better than PSO.

  • 4.3.7. GA-based cross-section parameters optimization

Genetic algorithm is applied for optimization of ve selected cross-section parameters. The variables classication and range

122 W. Zhu et al. / Finite Elements in Analysis and Design 91 (2014) 115 –

Fig. 19. Finite element model of B-pillar seal assembly.

are shown in Table 2; the tness function is shown in Eq. (2). After many trials, its best operating parameters can be obtained and are listed in Table 8. Fig. 16 shows the curve of tness changing during evolution. The comparison of an optimal result and the original section size is shown in Table 9 and its corresponding compression load values are seen in Table 10. Using the GA-based optimal parameters, a new cross-section's geometrical shape is reconstructed precisely and it was again analyzed numerically to obtain corresponding new CLD curve. New cross-section geometry and new CLD were compared to the corresponding old ones and the results are shown in Fig. 17(a). Fig. 17(b) shows the nite element analytical process and its result is listed in Table 10. It can be seen that the rib structure matches the prole of upper panel perfectly. The contact and seal area are uniformly

W. Zhu et al. / Finite Elements in Analysis and Design 91 (2014) 115 126

123

W. Zhu et al. / Finite Elements in Analysis and Design 91 (2014) 115 – 126

Fig. 20. Simulated results of the B-pillar seal.

W. Zhu et al. / Finite Elements in Analysis and Design 91 (2014) 115 – 126

Fig. 21. Dynamic compression load of B-pillar seal.

distributed along the perimeter of upper panel, which greatly increases the seal performance. Three specic key measurement points of CLD curve, such as D 2, D and D þ 2, before and after are both listed. The errors of the ttest solution optimized by the genetic algorithm are all within 8%, which reaches the require- ment of the engineering application. It indicates that the precision of the non-linear global mapping relationship between the section parameters and the CLD curve, established by BP neural network, is comparatively high.

  • 5. 3D numerical analysis for corner parts

Door panel's prole is 3D non-planar curve, causing the related door seal to have complex shape and layout. Previous research regarded the whole seal as a single segment. When calculating the total compression load, it just multiplies the CLD results of compression load per unit length with the total length. This simplication ignored the complicated interaction of twisting and bending for corner parts with large curvatures. 3D numerical analysis was modeled for calculating four corners' door sealing compression load.

  • 5.1. Large curvature's inuence

Fig. 18 shows door corner parts, of which the curvature was analyzed. It indicates that corner of B pillar has the biggest curvature change. When corner parts were compressed during door closing, the compression load would be generated from both the normal force as well as the tangent force and twisting force, causing inaccurate calculation of compression force if only using the CLD property obtained from 2D cross-section analysis.

  • 5.2. 3D compression model construction

The B-pillar with the biggest curvature is adopted to examine the compression efforts by 3D simulation of door-closing process. In order to exhibit the distinct nonlinearity of rubber materials and the complex deform behavior caused by contact, Hypermesh is used for meshing and MSC.Marc is applied for nonlinear analysis. Fig. 19 is the nite element model of B-pillar assembly on door metal panel. It is established with the tetrahedron mesh controlled by the size of 0.6 mm. The door sheet metal and body frame metal are dened as rigid body and the seal is regarded as the deform- able body characterized by the constitutive model of Foam after verication of sealing rubber material as mentioned. Simulation steps can be described as xing the pedestal part of the seal, then rotating the body frame metal for 91 around the axis until the door closing position is reached, as shown in Fig. 19. The large curvature of corner prole and changing compression direc- tion caused by rotation of door sheet metal are both taken into account, so that large deformation and compression efforts can be simulated accurately.

  • 5.3. Compression load for corner parts

Fig. 20 illustrates the simulated results of the B-pillar seal with length of 82.24 mm. From the results, it can be learned that the direction of seal deformation is gradually changing from one end plane to the other along the installed prole. Meanwhile, the dynamic compression load versus the door closing angle is

  • 124 W. Zhu et al. / Finite Elements in Analysis and Design 91 (2014) 115 126

124 W. Zhu et al. / Finite Elements in Analysis and Design 91 (2014) 115 –

Fig. 22. Design results of variable cross-section seal system.

Table 11

Parameters of variable cross-section seal system.

 

α (deg)

β (deg)

d (mm)

t 1 (mm)

t 2 (mm)

Corner-1-a

6

29

14.96

1.44

1.64

Corner-1-b

6

30

14.86

1.55

1.48

Straight-1

0

25

16.82

1.87

1.7

Corner-2-a

5

16

13.9

1.32

1.3

Corner-2-b

6

29

15.3

1.49

15.3

Straight-2

0

24

15.12

1.85

1.3

Corner-3-a

6

29

14.96

1.44

1.64

Corner-3-b

6

29

14.96

1.44

1.64

Straight-3

0

24

15.78

1.59

1.27

Corner-4-a

6

29

14.96

1.44

1.64

Corner-4-b

6

29

14.96

1.44

1.64

Straight-4

6

29

14.96

1.44

1.64

extracted, as shown in Fig. 21, from which we can learn that the starting angle of contact between the seal and body frame metal is 8.451.

124 W. Zhu et al. / Finite Elements in Analysis and Design 91 (2014) 115 –

Fig. 23. Door closing effort with angle of 91.

W. Zhu et al. / Finite Elements in Analysis and Design 91 (2014) 115 126

125

W. Zhu et al. / Finite Elements in Analysis and Design 91 (2014) 115 – 126E. Dikmen, I. Basdogan, Material characteristics of a vehicle door seal and its effect on vehicle vibrations, Veh. Syst. Dyn. 46 (2008) 975 990 . [2] A. Kloess, Z.P. Mourelatos, P.R. Meernik, Probabilistic analysis of an automotive body-door system, Int. J. Veh. Des. 34 (2004) 101 125 . [3] David A. Wagner, Kenneth N. Morman Jr., Yuksel Gur, Nonlinear analysis of automotive door weatherstrip seals, Finite Elem. Anal. Des. 28 (1997) 33 50 . [4] Gao Yunkai, Xu Ruiyao, Yang Lei, Ma Junjie, Development of calculation software for automotive side swing door closing energy, Chin. J. Mech. Eng. 23 (2010) 690 698 . [5] Zhao Jiancai, Zhou Chixing, Zhu Xunsheng, Analysis of the in fl uence of the seal structure on door closing force for SANTANA, in: Proceedings of the SAE 2004 World Congress & Exhibition, Reliability & Robust Design in Automotive Engineering, Detroit, Michigan, USA, 2004, http://dx.doi.org/10.4271/2004- 01-1348. [6] Hyung-il Moona, Ho Kim, Sang Bum Kim, Predicted minimum door-closing velocity based on a three-dimensional door-closing simulation, Finite Elem. Anal. Des. 47 (2011) 296 306 . [7] J. Ordieres-Mere, A. Bello-Garcia, V. Munoz-Munilla, Finite element analysis of the hyper-elastic contact problem in automotive door sealing, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354 (2008) 5331 5333 . [8] E. Yuji, S. Takayuki, U. Ryuichi, K. Tomohiro, N. Seishi, K. Masahito, Develop- ment of side door closing effort simulation, Mazda Kibo 17 (1999) 78 84 . [9] G.K. Nikas, G. Burridge, R.S. Sayles, Modelling and optimization of rotary vane seals, Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. Part J J. Eng. Tribol. 221 (2007) 699 715 . [10] H.Y. Kim, H.J. Kim, H. Kim, J.K. Lee, Development of evaluation system for automotive door-seal, in: Proceedings of the KSAE, vol. 2, 2004, pp. 1073 – 1079. [11] A. Stenti, D. Moens, W. Desmet, Dynamic modeling of car door weather seals: a fi rst outline, in: Proceedings of the ISMA 2004 International Conference on Noise & Vibration Engineering, Leuven, Belgium, 2004, pp. 1249 – 1260. [12] Z.H. Lu, L.R Wang, I. Hagiwara, Finite element simulation of the static characteristics of a vehicle rubber mount, Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. 216 (2002) 965 973 . [13] E. Dikmen, I. Basdogan, Modeling viscoelastic response of vehicle door seal, Exp. Tech. 35 (2011) 29 35 . [14] A. Stenti, D. Moens, P. Sas, W. Desmet, Development of a numerical modeling methodology for the NVH behaviour of elastomeric line connections, in: Proceedings of the International Conference on Noise and Vibration Engineer- ing, ISMA2006, Louvain, Belgium, 2006, pp. 157 – 168. [15] J. Bonet, R.D. Wood, Nonlinear Continuum Mechanics for Finite Element Analysis, rst ed., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1997 . " id="pdf-obj-10-8" src="pdf-obj-10-8.jpg">

Fig. 24. Door closing efforts under wide open.

  • 6. Case study and Matlab-based platform

By using the many steps of compression load distribution, door sealing portion, 2D cross-section optimization for straight parts and 3D numerical analysis for corner parts, the new automotive door sealing with variable cross-section could nally be achieved. Fig. 22 and Table 11 show the nal design results. Combined with other 5 factors, like door weights, cabin air pressure, as mentioned above, an advanced integrated Matlab- based platform is developed to perform the nal design and optimization of total door closing effort design. Figs. 23 and 24 show its application for an engineering case study.

  • 7. Conclusion

[1] Five variables are selected for featuring seal cross-section's irre- gular geometry, whose nonlinear implicit mapping with required CLD curve can be extracted by BP neural network and nally be optimized by the combination with Genetic Algorithm. [2] Door panel's large curvature causes sealing, bending and twisting effect on door closing effort. 3D numerical analysis of door corner part assembly and closing process must be modeled so that corner's compression load is calculated directly instead of using CLD from 2D analysis. [3] By door sealing compression load distribution, portion into straight and curved segments, 2D cross-section optimization for straight parts and 3D numerical analysis for corner parts, new sealing with variable cross-section based on complex true prole is developed.

Acknowledgment

This research is supported by the NSFC-China (National Natural Science Foundation of China) Project (No. 51275359), Project of Shanghai Key Laboratory of Digital Manufacture for Thin-walled Structures project (No. 2012005) and Project of Tongji-Qingpu

Co-Research Platform (201109, 201305). Director Dr. DAI Yuankan and Research Manager XIA Guoyong of HUAYU-COOPER Standard Sealing System CO., LTD. have made lots of contribution for this research project.

References

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[13] E. Dikmen, I. Basdogan, Modeling viscoelastic response of vehicle door seal, Exp. Tech. 35 (2011) 2935. [14] A. Stenti, D. Moens, P. Sas, W. Desmet, Development of a numerical modeling methodology for the NVH behaviour of elastomeric line connections, in:

Proceedings of the International Conference on Noise and Vibration Engineer- ing, ISMA2006, Louvain, Belgium, 2006, pp. 157168. [15] J. Bonet, R.D. Wood, Nonlinear Continuum Mechanics for Finite Element Analysis, rst ed., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1997.

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[18] Lophaven Søren Nymand, Hans Bruun Nielsen, Jacob Søndergaard. DACE-A Matlab Kriging toolbox, Version 2.0, 2002. [19] Ioan Cristian Trelea, The particle swarm optimization algorithm: convergence analysis and parameter selection, Inf. Process. Lett. 85 (6) (2003) 317325.