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Knitted Fabric Defects

Dye Mark
Dye Spot

Holes
by defective machine elements

Ladder

Wales Collapse in straight line

Missing Plush Loop


Malfunctioning of loop

Pin Marks
Poorly adjusted stenter pin

Slub
Thickness of yarn

Spirality
Over twisted yarn

Stain
Excessive oil, dirt

Woven Fabric Defects


Bar
Variation in weft yarn

Colour Bleeding
Poor Wet fastness

Burst Selvedge
Poor Construction selvedge

Pin Marks
Poor stenter pin

Float
slack warp, faulty pattern card

Mispick
Incorrect weft insertion

Reed Mark
Damaged reed

Starting Place
restarting of loom

Slack End
Insufficient Warp Tension

Slough-off Weft
Weft yarn slips from pirn

Wrong End
lack of control of warp tension

Woven Fabric Faults


Fabric faults are responsible for major defects found by the garment industry. Due to the
increasing demand for quality fabrics, high quality requirements are today greater since
customer has become more aware of Non-quality problems. In order to avoid fabric
rejection, mills have to produce fabrics of high quality, constantly. Often inspectors are given
the responsibility of inspecting finished garments without adequate training in fabric defects
and their causes. The ultimate solution, of course, is to provide actual examples or
photographs of both major and minor defects.

Woven fabric
Names of Woven Fabrics Defects or Faults:
1. Bad Selvedge
2. Burl Mark

3. Drawbacks
4. Dropped Pick
5. End Out
6. Jerk-in
7. Knots
8. Mixed End (Yarn)
9. Mixed Filling
10. Open Reed
11. Slub
12. Smash
13. Soiled Filling or End
14. Stop Mark
15. Thin Place
16. Holes
17. Drop Stitches
18. Loop Distortion
1. Bad Selvedge
Causes: A defect in a fabric because of faulty weaving, warp ends being set too far apart for
the thickness of the yarn or in finished fabric, an appearance in which the
underlying structures is not connected to the degree required.
2. Burl Mark
Causes: When a slub or extra piece of yarn is woven into the fabric, it is often removed by a
"burling tool." This will usually leave an open place in the fabric.
3. Drawbacks
Causes: Caused by excessive loom tension gradually applied by some abnormal restriction.
When the restriction is removed the excess slack is woven into the fabric. Usually the ends
are broken.
4. Dropped Pick
Causes: Caused by the filling insertion mechanism on a shuttleless loom not holding the
filling yarn, causing the filling yarn to be woven without tension. The filling yarn appears as
"kinky." There will also be areas of "end out."

5. End Out
Causes: Caused by yarn breaking and loom continuing to run with missing end.
6. Jerk-in
Causes: Caused by an extra piece of filling yarn being jerked part way into the fabric by the
shuttle. The defect will appear at the selvage.
7. Knots
Causes: Caused by tying spools of yarn together.
8. Mixed End (Yarn)
Causes: Yarn of a different fiber blend used on the wrap frame, resulting in a streak in the
fabric.
9. Mixed Filling
Causes: Caused by bobbin of lightweight yarn or different fiber blend used in filling. It will
appear as a distinct shade change.
10. Open Reed
Causes: Results from a bent reed wire causing wrap ends to be held apart, exposing the
filling yarn. It will be conspicuous on fabrics that use different colored yarns on wrap and
shuttle.
11. Slub
Causes: Usually caused by an extra piece of yarn that is woven into fabric. It can also be
caused by thick places in the yarn. Often is caused by fly waste being spun in yarn in the
spinning process.
12. Smash
Causes: Caused by a number of ruptured wrap ends that have been repaired.
13. Soiled Filling or End
Causes: Dirty, oil looking spots on the wrap or filling yarns, or on package-dyed yarn.
14. Stop Mark
Causes: When the loom is stopped, the yarn elongates under tension; when loom starts again'
the slackness is woven into the fabric.
15. Thin Place
Causes: Often caused by the filling yarn breaking and the loom continuing to run until the
operator notices the problem.
16. Holes
Causes: Bad needle, take down mechanism too tight, high tension on yarn, bad yarn needle
too tight in their slots, dial height too low or too high, badly tied knots, improper stitch
setting.
17. Drop Stitches
Causes: Takedown mechanism too loose, defective needles, too loose yarn tension not

sufficient, wrong needle timing set, needle tricks closed.


18. Loop Distortion
Causes: Bad and bent needles, bent trick walls, uneven yarn tension, needle timing set
wrong, yarn carriers set wrong.