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Flexi NS MME supports the 3GPP 29.272 Rel-8, v8.7.0 2010-06 baseline.

SGSN HSS (S6d) SGSN-EIR, S13 reference point


Equipment Identity Register (EIR)

S6a application protocol is based on 3GPP TS 29.272 specification


Diameter: This protocol supports transferring of subscription and
authentication data for authenticating/authorizing user access to the
evolved system between MME and HSS (S6a). Diameter is defined in
RFC 3588.
Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP): This protocol
transfers signalling messages. SCTP is defined in RFC 2960

IANA = Internet Assigned Numbers Authority


Diameter: This protocol supports transferring of subscription and
authentication data for authenticating/authorizing user access to the evolved
system between MME and HSS (S6a). Diameter is defined in RFC 3588.

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Version 1
R, P set

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The HSS, MME, SGSN and EIR shall advertise support of the Diameter
S6a/S6d and/or S13/S13' Application by
including the value of the application identifier in the Auth-Application-Id AVP
within the Vendor-SpecificApplication-Id grouped AVP of the Capabilities-Exchange-Request and
Capabilities-Exchange-Answer commands.

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The 'V' bit, known as the Vendor-Specific bit, indicates whether the optional
Vendor-ID field is present in the AVP header. When set the AVP Code belongs
to the specific vendor code address space.
The 'M' Bit, known as the Mandatory bit, indicates whether support of the AVP
is required. If an AVP with the 'M' bit set is received by a Diameter client, server,
proxy, or translation agent and either the AVP or its value is unrecognized, the
message MUST be rejected. Diameter Relay and redirect agents MUST NOT
reject messages with unrecognized AVPs.
The 'P' bit indicates the need for encryption for end-to-end security.

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IPDU unit provides:


-S6a primary connection and
-S6a secondary connection
with SCTP multihoming configuration.
For information on SCTP redundancy and multihoming in SCTP
based interfaces, refer
to IETF RFC 4960.
With SCTP multihoming, unit has more than one IP address, the
addresses must
be from separate subnetworks.

S6a interface in Nokia Siemens Networks Flexi Network Server MME


(Flexi NS MME) is based on the 3GPP TS 29.272 [2]
Diameter: This protocol supports transferring of subscription and
authentication data for authenticating/authorizing user access to
the
evolved system between MME and HSS (S6a).
Diameter is defined in IETF RFC 3588: Diameter Base Protocol
Data and information elements (AVPs)
The attributes defined comply with the same basic message
and attribute formats and message structure as given
in 3GPP TS 29.272 [2] and IETF RFC 3588 [5].
IPDU unit provides:
-S6a primary connection and
-S6a secondary connection
with SCTP multihoming configuration.
For information on SCTP redundancy and multihoming in SCTP
based interfaces, refer
to IETF RFC 4960.
With SCTP multihoming, unit has more than one IP address, the
addresses must
be from separate subnetworks.

Ref. to specs.: TS 23.401 section 5.3.2

The attach procedure in LTE/EPS is quite similar to the GPRS attach in 2G/3G. It brings
the UE from EMM_DEREGISTERED state to EMM_REGISTERED. In addition to that
the procedure also establishes the default SAE bearer for the UE and thus allocates
the required IP addresses for the subscriber in the external packet data network.
1. The UE connects to the serving cell and the associated eNB. The UE sends the
ATTACH REQUEST message (NAS) including IMSI/ old GUTI, old TAI, old GUMMEI
and old ECGI. The eNB selects an available MME and forwards the message to it.
2. The first task of the MME is to identify and authenticate the subscriber. Thus it
contacts the HSS (in case IMSI is used for identification) or the old MME (in case the
UE is identified via old GUTI) with IDENTIFICATION REQUEST (GTP-C). The
response should contain the IMSI (when contacting old MME) and some
authentication vectors for the subscriber. (Flowchart shows direct contact with
HSS).
3. Using the authentication vectors from the old MME/HSS the new MME can start an
authentication procedure (NAS). The authentication mechanism is the same as in 3G.
4. After a successful authentication the new MME can begin to update the HSS and
download the subscription data from there. This is achieved via Diameter procedures
UPDATE LOCATION and INSERT SUBSCRIBER DATA. During this process the
HSS will also force the old MME to clear the stored data about the subscriber using
the Diameter operation CANCEL LOCATION.

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5. Based on the subscription data the new MME must decide whether a
default bearer has to be created or not. The default access point name
(default APN) assists the MME in selection of an appropriate SAE GW.
To this serving gateway the CREATE DEFAULT BEARER REQUEST
message (GTP-C) is sent to. The SAE GW will now create the S5/S8
tunnel. This is done with the same message, but sent to the PDN GW.
6. When the EPC resources for the default bearer are prepared, the new
MME can give the ATTACH ACCEPT message to eNB. The S1-AP
message which will contain it is the Initial Context Setup request and it
will also hold the tunnel endpoint identifier allocated by the Serving GW
for S1-U interface. The eNB creates the radio bearer for the default
SAE bearer and returns ATTACH COMPLETE to the MME. The S1-AP
message this one is in will hold the TEID allocated by the eNB for S1-U
interface. Via an UPDATE BEARER procedure the MME will give this
parameter to the Serving GW.
7. Now the default SAE bearer is complete and the UE is in state
EMM_REGISTERED and ECM_CONNECTED.

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When receiving the Authentication-Information-Request (AIR) message, the HSS


checks whether the IMSI for the subscriber is known.
If it is not known, a result code of DIAMETER_ERROR_USER_UNKNOWN
(value 5001) is returned.
If it is known, but the subscriber has no EPS subscription, the HSS may (as a
configuration option) return a result code of DIAMETER_ERROR_UNKNOWN_
EPS_SUBSCRIPTION (value 5420).
If the IMSI is known, the HSS shall then request the AuC to generate the
corresponding requested Authentication Vector (AV).When receiving the AV from
the AuC, the HSS shall generate the
KASME before sending the response to the MME. For details, see 3GPP TS
33.401 [6]. The HSS may use the value received in the Requesting-Node-Type
AVP to indicate to the AuC the type of node requesting authentication vectors, so
the AuC can keep separate sequence number (SQN) in the generated vectors. If
the Requested-EUTRAN-Authentication-Info AVP is present in the request, the
HSS shall download E-UTRAN authentication vector to the MME. The HSS shall
then return the result code DIAMETER_SUCCESS and the generated AV to the
MME.

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The authentication data request includes the IMSI, serving network identity
(mobile country code, mobile network code) and network type (E-UTRAN).

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ApplicationId: 16777251
Origin-Host: case-sensitive (notice: configure in MME)

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The MME sends the Authentication-Information-Request (AIR) message to


request from the HSS the authentication vector (AV) for the subscriber. Only one
authentication vector is requested and immediate response preferred.
A stand alone MME shall include the Requested-EUTRAN-Authentication-Info
AVP and shall not include the
Requested-UTRAN-GERAN-Authentication-Info AVP in the request. The
Immediate-Response-Preferred AVP should
be present if a EUTRAN-Vector is needed for immediate use. It may be used by
the HSS to determine the number of vectors to be obtained from the AuC and the
number of vectors downloaded to the MME or SGSN.

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The client (server) shall include in its requests (responses) the Auth-SessionState AVP set to the value
NO_STATE_MAINTAINED (1), as described in IETF RFC 3588 [4]. As a
consequence, the server shall not maintain
any state information about this session and the client shall not send any session
termination request. Neither the
Authorization-Lifetime AVP nor the Session-Timeout AVP shall be present in
requests or responses.

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If the Immediate Response Preferred parameter has been received, the HSS
may use it together with the number of
requested vectors and the number of vectors stored in the HSS that are precomputed to determine the number of
vectors to be obtained from the AuC. The HSS may return less number of vectors
than requested to the MME
quartet

Mobility Services

SGSN number
It may be present when the message is sent on the S6a interface and the
requesting node is a combined MME/SGSN.

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User-name IMSI

If the Update Location request is to be sent due to an initial attach, the MME or
SGSN shall set the "Initial-AttachIndicator" flag in the ULR-Flags
If the Update Location request is to be sent due to an inter node (SGSN to MME)
update and the previous SGSN is a
Gn/Gp SGSN, the MME shall set the "Single-Registration-Indication" flag in the
ULR-Flags information element in the
request.
A combined MME/SGSN shall set the "Skip Subscriber Data" flag in the ULRFlags if subscriber data are already
available due to a previous location update.
S6a/S6d-Indicator This bit, when set, indicates that the ULR message is sent on
the S6a interface, i.e. the source node is an MME
Node-Type-Indicator: This bit, when set, indicates that the requesting node is a
combined MME/SGSN.

When receiving an Update Location request the HSS checks whether the IMSI is known.
If it is not known, a result code of DIAMETER_ERROR_USER_UNKNOWN (value 5001) is
returned.
If it is known, but the subscriber has no EPS subscription, the HSS returns a result code of
DIAMETER_ERROR_UNKNOWN_EPS_SUBSCRIPTION (value 5420).
If the Update Location Request is received over the S6a interface, and the subscriber has not
any APN configuration,
the HSS shall return a Result Code of DIAMETER_ERROR_UNKNOWN_EPS_SUBSCRIPTION.
The HSS checks whether the RAT type the UE is using is allowed. If it is not, a result code of
DIAMETER_ERROR_RAT_NOT_ALLOWED (value 5421) is returned.
Result code of DIAMETER_ERROR_ROAMING_NOT_ALLOWED (value 5004) is returned if the
subscriber is not allowed to roam within the MME area.
The HSS shall include the subscription data in the ULA command, unless an explicit "skip
subscriber data" indication has been received in the request, taking into account the
supported/unsupported features of the MME and return a result code of DIAMETER_SUCCESS.
When receiving an Update Location response from the HSS, the MME checks the result code. If it
indicates success, the MME stores the received subscription profile (if any).
Note! Currently the MME stores only the default APN configuration.

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If a Result Code of DIAMETER_SUCCESS is returned, the HSS shall set the


Separation Indication in the response. (ULA Flag)
Separation Indication: This bit, when set, indicates that the HSS stores SGSN
number
and MME number in separate memory. A Rel-8 HSS shall set the bit.

MSISDN includes CC
Subscriber-Status AVP "OPERATOR_DETERMINED_BARRING"
The AMBR AVP shall be present in the Subscription-Data AVP

The subscriber profile in HSS consists of the APN AMBR and the UE AMBR
UE AMBR AVP (1435) is sent from HSS to MME in the diameter message 3GPPUpdate-LocationAnswer (316) on the S6a-Interface
he APN-AMBR is a subscription parameter stored per APN in the HSS. It limits
the aggregate bit rate that can be expected to be provided across all Non-GBR
bearers and across all PDN connections of the same APN (e.g. excess traffic
may get discarded by a rate shaping function). Each of those Non-GBR bearers
could potentially utilize the entire APN-AMBR, e.g. when the other Non-GBR
bearers do not carry any traffic. GBR bearers are outside the scope of the
APN-AMBR.
APN AMBR AVP (1435) is sent from HSS to MME in the diameter message
3GPP-Update-LocationAnswer (316) on the S6a-Interface. Take care: this
message contains 2 AMBR AVPs. The APN AMBR is included within the APNConfiguration-Profile (1429)

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When the APN-Configuration-Profile AVP is present in the Subscription-Data AVP


sent within a ULA, the AVP shall
contain at least the default APN Configuration and a Context-Identifier AVP that
identifies the per subscriber"s default
APN configuration.
The EPS-Subscribed-QoS-Profile AVP and the AMBR AVP shall be present in the
APN-Configuration AVP when the
APN-Configuration AVP is sent in the APN-Configuration-Profile AVP and when
the APN-Configuration-Profile AVP
is sent within a ULA (as part of the Subscription-Data AVP).

The 3GPP-Charging-Characteristics AVP is of type UTF8String. It


contains the Charging Characteristics coded according to 3GPP TS
32.299 [7].

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Dedicated bearer, on the other hand, is always created by the P-GW. The UE can
also
request specific QoS, but the UE request is only forwarded to the P-GW for the
final
decision.

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HSS-initiated detach

The Cancel-Location-Request (CLR) command, indicated by the Command-Code


field set to 317 and the 'R' bit set in the Command Flags field, is sent from HSS
to MME.
If the Update Location Request is received over the S6a interface, the HSS shall
send a Cancel Location Request with a
Cancellation-Type of MME_UPDATE_PROCEDURE to the previous MME (if any)
and
replace the stored MME-Identity with the received value (the MME-Identity is
received within the Origin-Host AVP).
The HSS shall reset the "UE purged in MME" flag.
If the "Initial-Attach-Indicator" flag was set in the received request,
the HSS shall send a Cancel Location Request with a Cancellation-Type of
INITIAL_ATTACH_PROCEDURE
(or MAP Cancel Location) to the SGSN if there is an SGSN registration.

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If a cancellation type of "Initial Attach Procedure" is received, the MME or SGSN


shall not delete the subscription data. a result code of DIAMETER_SUCCESS is
returned.
The HSS shall include a cancellation type of "Subscription Withdrawal" if the
subscriber"s subscription is withdrawn
by the operator and shall include a cancellation type of "MME Update Procedure"
if the UE moved to a new MME area

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The MME uses this procedure to set the "UE Purged in the MME" flag in the
HSS when the subscription profile is deleted from the MME database due to MMI
interaction or after long UE inactivity.
The Purge-UE-Request (PUR) command, indicated by the Command-Code field
set to 321 and the 'R' bit set in the Command Flags field, is sent from MME to
HSS.

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Has PUA-Flags
When receiving a Purge UE request the HSS checks whether the IMSI is known.
If it is not known, a result code of DIAMETER_ERROR_USER_UNKNOWN is
returned.
If it is known, the HSS sets the result code to DIAMETER_SUCCESS and
compares the received identity in the Origin-Host with the stored MME-Identity. If
they are identical, the HSS sets the PUA flag "freeze M-TMSI in the answer
message and sets the flag "UE purged in MME"; otherwise it shall clear the PUA
flag "freeze M-TMSI in the answer message.
When receiving a Purge UE response from the HSS the MME shall check the
Result Code. If it indicates success, the MME shall check the PUA flag "freeze MTMSI", and if set freeze the M-TMSI i.e. block it for immediate re-use.

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Insert Subscriber Data procedure is used in the following situations:


Due to administrative changes of the user data in the HSS and the user is
now located in an MME, that is, if the user was given a subscription and
the subscription has changed
The operator has applied, changed or removed Operator Determined
Barring for this user
To activate subscriber tracing in the MME
To indicate to the MME that the HSS has requested to be notified when
the UE has become reachable
Delete subscriber Data procedure is used to remove:
All or a subset of the EPS subscription data (APN Configuration Profile)
for the subscriber from the MME Note! This is currently not supported
as MME supports only the default APN configuration and it cannot
be removed
The regional subscription
The subscribed charging characteristics
Session Transfer Number for SRVCC
Trace data
APN-OI-Replacement

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The HSS uses this procedure to replace a specific part of the user data stored in
the MME with the data sent, or to add a specific part of user data to the data
stored in the MME. Only the default APN can be modified.
Not see IDR flags

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When receiving an Insert Subscriber Data Request (IDR) the MMEchecks whether the IMSI is
known.
If it is not known, a result code of DIAMETER_ERROR_USER_UNKNOWN (Experimental Result
Code AVP) is returned, and Result Code AVP is set to value DIAMETER_SUCCESS.
If it is known, the MME replaces the specific part of the stored subscription data with the received
data. This is accomplished by using the APN-Configuration-Profile AVP received in the IDR. The
MME checks the ALL-APN-Configurations-Included-Indicator value.
If it indicates "All_APN_CONFIGURATIONS_INCLUDED", the MME deletes the stored
APN-Configuration and then stores the received APN Configuration.
Otherwise, the MME checks the Context-Identifier value of the received APNConfiguration.
If the Context-Identifier of a received APN-Configuration matches a ContextIdentifier of a stored APN Configuration, the MME replaces the stored APNConfiguration with the received APN-Configuration.
MME does not support adding APN configurations. Therefore, if the ContextIdentifier of a received APN Configuration does not match a Context-Identifier of a
stored APN Configuration,the MME does not replace the existing APN
Configuration, and returns Result Code DIAMETER_UNABLE_TO_COMPLY to
the HSS.

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The HSS can also use the delete subscriber data procedure
to remove some or all of the user profile stored in the MME. The procedure is
used to
remove, for example, all or a subset of the EPS subscription data (APN
configuration
profile) for the subscriber, charging characteristics, or trace data.

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When receiving a Delete Subscriber Data request, the MME checks whether the
IMSI is known.
If the IMSI in the received message is not known, an experimental result code is
set to value DIAMETER_ERROR_USER_UNKNOWN (Experimental Result
Code AVP) and Result Code AVP is set to value DIAMETER_SUCCESS. The
result codes are returned in Delete Subscriber Data Answer message.
If the IMSI is known and the Context-Identifier is associated with a known
(default) APN configuration, MME deletes the corresponding data according to
the indication as sent in the request (indicated by DSRFlags).If the deletion of the
subscription data succeeds, the Result-Code is set to DIAMETER_SUCCESS.
Note! It is not allowed to delete the whole default APN configuration. If so
requested, the MME returns an error with a Result-Code set to
DIAMETER_UNABLE_TO_COMPLY.

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