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SGSN Release 7 OM

Mobility Management in NSN SGSN

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Nokia Siemens Networks

Mobility Management / TAd / 15.10.2008

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Nokia Siemens Networks

Mobility Management / TAd / 15.10.2008

Document change history


Date

Version

15.10.08

0.1

Nokia Siemens Networks

Name

Change comment

Tanti Adriyani

Initial Draft

Mobility Management / TAd / 15.10.2008

Objectives
After completing this module, the participant can:
Describe the Mobility Management states
Describe signalling procedures related to Mobility
Management
Explain the 2G-3G interworking inside SGSN

Nokia Siemens Networks

Mobility Management / TAd / 15.10.2008

Mobility Management messages


The procedures of Mobility Management are:

GPRS Attach/ GPRS Detach

Purge

Security
Authentication
subscriber identity confidentiality
Ciphering (2G only)
Identity check.

Location management

3G-specific procedures:
Radio Access Bearer (RAB) management
SRNS Relocation (3G only)
Service Request (3G only)
Security mode control (3G only)

PS Paging
Normal/periodic routing area update.

Subscriber Management

Interaction with MSC/VLR (2G only)

IMSI attach/detach, combined IMSI/GPRS attach/detach


Combined routing area and location area update
CS paging
Non-GPRS alert
Identification procedure
MM information.

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Mobility Management / TAd / 15.10.2008

GERAN MM states in NSN SGSN


IDLE

Implicit detach or
cancel location
GPRS Attach

GPRS Detach
OR
Cancel Location

READY
READY timer expiry
OR
Force to standby
OR
Abnormal RLC
condition

STANDBY
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PDU reception

UTRAN MM states in NSN SGSN


MM states in a UE

MM states in SGSN

PMMDETACHED

PMMDETACHED

Detach

Detach,
RAU reject

GPRS attach

Detach

PMMCONNECTED

Iu connection established

Detach,
RAU reject

Iu connection
release

Iu connection released
PMM- IDLE

GPRS attach
(RAU request)

PMM- IDLE

PMMCONNECTED
Packet rcvddownlink

Serving RNC
relocation

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Mobility Management / TAd / 15.10.2008

Attach
3G
MSC
Node
B

3G
HLR

RNC
IP
SS
7

SGSN
SGSN

DNS
Gn
BSC
RNC
SGSN
SGSN
BTS

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Mobility Management / TAd / 15.10.2008

Routing Area Update


3G
HLR
3G
SGSN
1

RA1

Gb/Iu
RA2

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Mobility Management / TAd / 15.10.2008

SS7

3G
IP
SGSN
2

DNS

GGSN

2G 3G Interworking

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Mobility Management / TAd / 15.10.2008

GPRS DETACH
The MS is detached from GPRS either explicitly or implicitly:
Explicit detach:
detach The network or the MS explicitly requests
detach specifying the cause for it
Implicit detach:
detach The network detaches the MS after the mobile
reachable timer expired or after an irrecoverable radio error
causes disconnection of the logical link
After a successful detach:
MM context and PDP context in PAPU are removed;
P-TMSI - IMSI association is not removed from PAPU;
The Visiting GPRS subscriber data may be deleted from SMMU;
otherwise the data from SMMU is removed when "Detached
subscriber storage time" timer expires. Also the IMSI-P-TMSI
association from PAPU is removed and a "Purge" message is sent to
HLR.
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MS/UE-initiated detach

3G
SGSN
1
Gb/Iu

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GGSN
IP

Network-Initiated Detach
SGSN-Initiated Detach procedure: The PAPU starts the detach
procedure every time an error occurred in the network.
Network-Initiated Detach procedures: HLR uses this procedure for
operator-determined purposes to request the removal of a
subscribers MM and PDP contexts at the SGSN.
When the network initiates a GPRS detach procedure for a
subscriber, the following happens:
MM aborts any data transfer for the subscriber
MM asks Session Management to deactivate the subscriber's PDP
contexts
MM informs the MS of a network-requested GPRS detach
MM informs the HLR that the subscriber is detached from the
GPRS network
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Serving RNS relocation (before)-1


HLR
D
TE
C
E
NN
O
-C
MM

GGSN

SGSN1

MSC2

MSC1

RNC2

RNC1

LA2, RA2

LA1, RA1

UE

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Mobility Management / TAd / 15.10.2008

SGSN2

Serving RNS relocation (after)-2

HLR
MM-I
DLE

GGSN

SGSN1

MSC2

MSC1

RNC2

RNC1

LA2, RA2

LA1, RA1

UE

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SGSN2

Service request
Service request is a term
for different MM and SM
operations, like:
establishment of data
connection

3G
MSC
Node
B

establishment of
signalling connection
paging towards the UE

3G
HLR

RNC
IP
SS
7

SGSN
SGSN

DNS
Gn

Service request can be:


UE-initiated
NW-initiated

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GGSN

Security mode command


For using Security Mode Command, authentication vectors need to
be obtained from the Authentication Centre (AUC) if there is no
unused vectors in the SGSN.

The security mode command is used to deliver information about


used authentication and ciphering related parameters from the
SGSN to the RNC
3G
SGSN
1
Iu

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3G
HLR

SS7

Purge function
The Purge function allows an SGSN (SMMU) to inform the HLR that it
has deleted the subscriber information of a detached MS stored in
Visiting GPRS subscriber database.

3G
HLR

SS7
SGSN
SGSN

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Authentication
MS/UE

RAN

PAPU

SMMU

HLR/AuC

IMSI

1. DX200.Send Authentication Info

IMSI

1 a. MAP.Send Authentication Info


1 b. MAP.Send Authent. Info Ack
RAND, CKSN,
Ciphering Algorithm

1. DX200.Send Authentication Info

2. GMM.Authentication Request
SRES/XRES

2. GMM.Authentication Response

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Authentication
vectors

Authentication
vectors

Authentication Vector Generation in AUC


Generate SQN

Generate RAND

SQN

RAND

AMF
Aut Mgmt Field

f1

f2

f3

f4

f5

Message
Authentication
Code (MAC)

Expected
Response
(XRES)

Cipher Key
(CK)

Integrity Key
(IK)

Anonimity Key
(AK)

The actual quintet is a concatenation of:


RAND, XRES, CK, IK, and AUTN
Where AUTN=SQN AK || AMF || MAC
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Authentication Vector Generation and Check in USIM

from VLR/SGSN

AUTN from VLR/SGSN

MAC || AMF || SQN AK


Anonymity Key
(AK)

RAND

F5

K in USIM

SQ
N

=?

F1

f2

f3

f4

Message
Authentication
Code (XMAC)

Expected
Response
(XRES)

Cipher Key
(CK)

Integrity Key
(IK)

comparison

authentication token AUTN=SQN AK || AMF || MAC


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UMTS Authentication
Enhanced support for GSM-UMTS
roaming
Better security for UMTS
subscribers
Optimized signaling load

Better roaming agreements

Mutual authentication method is used


to authenticate UMTS subscribers
The SGSN can receive quintuplets
from the HLR or from a 3G SGSN
and convert them into triplets when
needed
Authentication failures are reported
to the HPLMN
As specified in 3GPP TS 33.102

Release 99+
HLR/AuC
Quintets
CK, IKKc
CK, IKKc RES SRES
[Kc]

UTRAN
RAND
AUTN
RES

RAND
AUTN
RES

R99+ ME

CK, IK
Kc

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Mobility Management / TAd / 15.10.2008

[Kc]

Release 98VLR/SGSN
[Kc]

GSM BSS

CK, IK
Kc

RAND
SRES

RAND
SRES

R98- ME

R99+ ME
or
R98- ME

Kc

Kc

CK, IKKc CK, IKKc CK, IKKc CK, IKKc


RES SRES RES SRES
USIM
UMTS security context

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Triplets

Release 99+ VLR/SGSN

CK
IK

CK, IK Kc
RES SRES

GSM security context

Identity Check
MS/UE

RAN

1. GMM.Identity Request

PAPU

SMMU

EIR

Identity
Type=IMEI

IMEI
IMEI

1. GMM.Identity Response

2. DX200.Check IMEI

IMEI

2. MAP. IMEI Check


Equipment
status
Equipment
status

2. MAP.IMEI Check Ack

2. DX200.IMEI Check

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Mobility Management / TAd / 15.10.2008

Update Location Procedure to HLR


new SMMU

old SMMU

HLR

1. MAP. Update GPRS Location


2. MAP. Cancel Location
2. MAP. Cancel Location Ack
3. MAP. Insert subscriber
3. MAP. Insert subscriber
4. MAP. Update GPRS Location Ack

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Appendix
Mobility Management Features

For public use IPR applies


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Appendix
Interaction to MSC/VLR

For public use IPR applies


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Interaction to MSC/VLR
The interaction between SGSN and MSC/VLR is
realised by supporting a standard "Gs interface" in
MSC/VLR.
3G
MSC

A
BSC
RNC

VLR
SS
7

Gs

BTS

Gb
SGSN
SGSN

GPRS MS
Class A,B

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SGSN - VLR Association


The basis for the interworking between a VLR and an SGSN is the
existence of an association between those entities per MS.
An association consists of SGSN storing the number of the VLR
serving the MS for circuit switched services and the VLR storing
the number of the SGSN serving the MS for packet switched
services.
MSC/VLR 1
Ms 1: SGSN 1

RA1
MS 1

SGSN 1

Ms 1: VLR 1
Ms 2: VLR 2
MS 2

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MSC/VLR 2

RA2

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Ms 2: SGSN 1

Mobility Management / TAd / 15.10.2008

BSSAP+ procedures

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Paging for non-GPRS services


Location update
Non-GPRS alert procedure
MS information procedure
IMSI detach from GPRS services
IMSI detach from non-GPRS services

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Paging for non-GPRS service


MS

BSS

PAPU

IMSI, DRX parameter,


TLLI, VLR TMSI, Area,
Channel Needed, QoS

SMMU

1. BSSAP+.Paging Request

2. DX200.Paging Request

VLR TMSI or IMSI


Channel needed

MSC/VLR

IMSI, VLR number, TMSI,


Location area identifier,
Channel Needed, Priority

2. BSSGP.Paging CS

3. Paging CS
4. SABM (Paging Response)
5. SCCP Connection Request (Paging Response)

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NSN SGSN Multipoint A (1/2)


SGSN can support the usage of multiple MSCs / MSSs within a
pool area, which enlarges the served area compared to the
service area of one MSC/MSS.
Reduces inter-MSC/MSS location updates and handovers,
handovers and
also reduces the HLR update traffic.
If a CS paging is received through the Gs interface from the
MSC with mobile identity type IMSI, the SGSN includes the
MSC/VLR identifier in the paging request message sent to the
BSC (CN ID).

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NSN SGSN Multipoint A (2/2)


MSC selection in combined GPRS/IMSI attach
In the case of a combined GPRS/IMSI attach,
attach the SGSN sends a
location update request message to the MSC/VLR stored in
subscriber information.
This selection mechanism enables the MSs to avoid the random
change of the MSC/VLR by using combined procedures when a
SGSN changes
This way, the new SGSN selects the same MSC/VLR which was
selected by the old SGSN
In case it is not possible to determine a MSC/VLR based on
subscriber information, then SGSN selects a MSC/VLR based on a
IMSI hash function from the available MSC/VLRs which serve the
current location area of the Mobile Station (MS).
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Appendix
Equivalent PLMN

For public use IPR applies


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Equivalent PLMN (1/2)


The HPLMN is treated in a special way by the MS during
PLMN selection. The HPLMN has highest priority and if the MS
is in a VPLMN of its home country, the MS will search
periodically for the HPLMN code
Equivalent PLMN enables MS to treat selected PLMNs with
different PLMN codes as equivalent to each other at PLMN
selection, cell (re)selection and handover
List of equivalent PLMNs sent to the MS during every attach
and RAU procedure

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Equivalent PLMN (2/2)


There are several scenarios where equivalent PLMN is needed:

The same operator may have both GSM and UMTS radio
networks but for regulatory reasons, the two radio systems may
have to broadcast different PLMN codes

The same operator may have UMTS and/or GSM networks in


several countries -> MSs should treat all of them as belonging
to home network

With the high spectrum and/or infrastructure costs for UMTS,


operators may want to share the costly radio access
infrastructure for UMTS

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Mobility Management / TAd / 15.10.2008

Appendix
HLR-based 2G/3G access control

For public use IPR applies


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HLR-based 2G/3G access control (1/2)


Allows operator to specify 2G and 3G access independently for

each subscriber
Allow 3G access for subscribers that do not have a USIM
Information is passed in new parameter within the
InsertSubscriberData Response MAP message from the HLR
during location update
Similar functionality has been possible with controlled roaming,
but the granularity was based on IMSI prefixes instead of
individual subscribers
3GPP Release 6 functionality
Requires a licence
2G Allowed
BTS

BS

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GSM
Access

HLR

SGSN
SS7
Network

WCDMA
Access

Mobility Management / TAd / 15.10.2008

3G Allowed

HLR-based 2G/3G access control (2/2)


Functionalities:
HLR Access Restriction Data parameter
SGSN local PLMN specific access restriction
GSM/EDGE Radio Access Network (GERAN) / UMTS Terrestrial
Radio Access Network (UTRAN) subscriber count
SGSN can be configured to send different cause codes in case of
service denial
Code

MML
parameter

11

PLMN

12

LA

13

ROAM

Roaming not allowed in this LA

14

GPRS

GPRS services not allowed in this PLMN

15

CELL

No suitable cells in LA

NO
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Cause
PLMN not allowed
Location Area not allowed

Not used

Mobility Management / TAd / 15.10.2008

Appendix
Controlled Roaming

For public use IPR applies


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Controlled Roaming - Example of Application


Operator A has network coverage in city and in countryside
Operator B has network coverage in city
Operator A can restrict B's subscribers roaming in city A's coverage
but allow them roaming in countryside
Subscriber from
operator B

Allowed
Not
Allowed
Operator A (City)

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Operator A
(Countryside)

Appendix
MultiSIM

For public use IPR applies


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MultiSIM
This feature allows one subscriber to have several mobile
stations simultaneously, each with its own SIM card, under the
same Mobile Subscriber International ISDN Number (MSISDN)

The MultiSIM service may involve a maximum of 5 mobile


stations (5 SIMs).

Several applications are possible with this feature


This feature has no effect on charging. As common charging is
not implemented, the subscriber receives a bill for every mobile
station in the ringing group (15).

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Appendix
SMS over GPRS

For public use IPR applies


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SGSN SMS feature


SMS Feature in SGSN provides a mechanism for sending and
receiving a short message from and to the MS.
SMS feature in SGSN handles the following procedures:
Mobile Originated SMS (MO SMS): MS submits a short message;
Mobile Terminated SMS (MT SMS): SMSC delivers a short message
to an MS;
Alert SC: SMSCs involved are informed via HLR that an MS is ready
to receive short messages in the following two cases:
The MS has indicated activity after being unreachable,or
The MS indicates that it again has memory available for receiving short
messages after it has rejected a short message because of lack of
memory.

The operator can also disable all SMSs over GPRS with MML
command
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Successful MO-SMS Transfer


MS

RAN

PAPU

SMMU

HLR

IW-MSC

SMSC

1. Message transfer
2 Authentication
3. IMEI checking
4 .DX200. Forward short message
4 .MT Forward short message
5. Message Transfer
5. Delivery Report
6 .Forward short message result
6 . DX200.Forward short message result
7. Delivery Report

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Successful MT-SMS Transfer


MS

RAN

PAPU

SMMU

HLR

G-MSC

SMSC

1. Message Transfer
2. Send routing info for SM
2. Send routing info for SM Result
3 .MT Forward short message
3 .Forward short message

4 Authentication
5. IMEI checking
6. Message transfer
7 .Forward short message result
7 .Forward short message result
8. Delivery Report

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SMS Routing Analysis


Operator can control SMS traffic more effectively
SMSIWMSC 1 SMSC for normal short messages

Analysis for:

Result = normal MO-SMS

PID
(Protocol
Identifier)
Short Message

SMSIWMSC 2

Prefix

SMSC for ringing tones

Result = Ringing Tone

SGSN
SMSIWMSC 3
Result = Fax

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SMSC for fax

SMS barring
A-number prevention
barring is based on the
MSISDN of the subscriber.
When using number
portability,
portability it may not be
possible to bar all
subscribers from a certain
country or PLMN. This can
also lead to a situation
where also unwanted
subscribers are barred
when barring is based on
the CC or NDC prefix.

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Barring

MO SMS
A-number
prevention
SMSC denial
analysis

MT SMS
SMSC denial
analysis

Appendix
Multi Operator Core Network (MOCN)

For public use IPR applies


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Network selection by a supporting UE in a MOCN

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Successful Attach

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Attach Redirecting/ Reject

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CS/PS Coordination

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