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Produk Data Intermap

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Produk Inti Intermap

ORI
Orthorectified Radar Image

DTM
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Digital Terrain Model

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DSM

Digital Surface Model

OCI
Orthorectified Colour Image

Produk Inti
Orthorectified Radar Images (ORI)
ORI terlihat mirip foto udara monokromatik. Ini adalah citra
radar yang diperoleh dari sensor IFSAR.
Digital Surface Models (DSM)
Model elevasi yang menampilkan tinggi permukaan di bumi
yang pertama kali terkenar sinar radar
Digital Terrain Models (DTM)
DSM digunakan untuk menghasilkan DTM dengan
menghilangkan seluruh bangunan dan pohon. DTM berguna
untuk aplikasi yang memerlukan tampilan terain secara
akurat
Orthorectified Colour Image (OCI)
adalah citra permukaan bumi yang distorsi geometrinya
sudah dihilangkan. Citra berwarna diperoleh dengan
menggabungkan (fusi) citra multispektral dan citra ORI

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ORI
Orthorectified Radar Image
(ORI) adalah citra radar
permukaan bumi berwarna
keabuan
Pulsa radar dipancarkan ke
bumi dengan gelombang
radio dan dipantulkan balik
oleh permukaan bumi,
termasuk bangunan dan
pohon, ke antena dan
memberikan data jarak dan
intensitas

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Spesifikasi Ketelitian ORI


Tabel ini memperlihatkan spesifikasi ketelian horizontal ORI
Intermap, yang valid (sah) untuk kondisi tertentu:
ORI diproduksi sebagai bagian dari proses interferometri sehingga
kondisi yang menimbulkan kesalahan pada DSM terkait akan juga
mempengaruhi ORI.
Misalnya, ujung bangunan tidak akan tampil dengan ketelitian
horizontal dalam tingkat sama dengan yang diukur menggunakan
target seperti corner reflector (trihedral)
Pixel Size (m)

RMSE (m)

CE(95) (m)

1.25

2.0

4.0

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Apa artinya?

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12
0

20
0

70

12
0

18
0

22

22

70

18
0

80

30

12
0

18
0

ORI, NCIL, DSM, and DTM


adalah data raster (grid)
ORI terdiri dari grid, tiap kotak
adalah piksel. Tiap piksel
punya nilai. Setiap kotak pilsel
ORI menggambarkan dunia
nyata 1.25m x 1.25m (ruang
piksel)
Lokasi obyek digambarkan
dalam ORI, misalnya danau
dan garis pantai, dalam batas
2 m dari lokasi sebenarnya
Tingkat kepercayaan 95%
bahwa semua obyek yang
digambarkan dalam ORI dalam
batas 4 m dari lokasi
sebenarnya.

Konsep DEM IFSAR


DSM Elevasi permulaan yang pertama terkena
radar
DTM Diturunkan dari DSM : Nilai elevasi mendekati
tanah terbuka

DTM

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DSM
Digital Surface Model adalah
model topografi permukaan
bumi
Berkas sinar radar yang
menyentuh permukaan
pertama kali menyebabkan
DSM menggambarkan setiap
obyek yang cukup besar
sesuai resolusi.
The DSM dihasilkan dari
ukuran elevasi yang
diletakkan dalam suatu grid.
Ukuran ini didapat dari sinyal
balik yang diterima dua
antena pesawat

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Spesifikasi Ketelitian DSM


Ketelitian horizontal DSM dan DTM produk inti dipengaruhi
oleh ketelitian horizontal ORI yang terkait
2m RMSE or 4m CE (95)
Ukuran ruang piksel DSM 5 m

Measures of Accuracy

DSM

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Product
Type

RMSE

95%

Mean

Standard
Deviation

0.5

1.0

0.3

0.3

II

1.0

2.0

0.7

0.7

III

3.0

6.0

2.0

2.0

Apa maksudnya?
DSM mempunyai ketelitian horizontal tepat dan confidence
interval (tingkat kepercayaan) sama dengan ORI karena
keduanya saling terikat (co-registered).
Besar piksel DSM 5 m (piksel menggambarkan 5m x 5m di
lapangan
Berbeda dengan ORI, nilai piksel DSM elevasi.
Ketelitian vertikal pada tipe I DSM, misalnya, menyatakan
bahwa nilai elevasi terletak dalam batas 0.5 m pada titik
sebenarnya.
Sesungguhnya nilai rata-ratanya dalam batas 0.3 m dari
tinggi sebenarnya titik tersebut.
Kepercayaan 95% bahwa elevasi sebenarnya berada dalam
batas 1 m daro data elevasi.
Perlu diingat bahwa Intermap merekam 100 km2 per menit
dan telah melengkapi data nasional (Kanada). Sangat teliti
karena mempertimbangkan faktor tersebut
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DTM
Digital Terrain Model adalah
model topografi tanah terbuka
(kosong)
DTM membuang secara digital
tampakan tumbuhan, bangunan
dan lainnya hanya
menampilkan terain.
Hal ini dilakukan dengan
software tertentu yang
menurunkan tinggi terain
berdasarkan ukuran tanah
kosong pada data radar asli.

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Spesifikasi Ketelitian DTM


Ketelitian horizontal DSM dan DTM produk inti dipengaruhi
oleh ketelitian horizontal ORI yang terkait
2m RMSE or 4m CE (95)
Perhatikan bahwa produk Tipe III tidak tersedia untuk DTM
jadi hanya Tipe I dan II yang terlihat
Ukuran ruang piksel DTM 5 m

Measures of Accuracy

DTM

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Product
Type

RMSE

95%

Mean and Standard


Deviation

0.7

1.5

0.5

0.5

II

1.0

2.0

0.7

0.7

Digital Surface Model - DSM

Tip: To see the difference between the DSM and the DTM, toggle back and forth between images
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Digital Terrain Model - DTM

Tip: To see the difference between the DSM and the DTM, toggle back and forth between images
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DSM dan DTM: Contoh Relief Bayangan

DSM

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DTM

Contoh DSM
Citra ini
memperlihatkan
daerah perumahan
di pojok kota dekat
bukit
Pola jalan dan
rumah terlihat
jelas

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Contoh DTM
Sesudah
pengeditan DTM,
rumah dan jalan
menjadi rata.
Daerah
pegunungan di
sebelah kiri tidak
terpengaruh oleh
pengeditan DTM
Sungai sekarang
terligat jelas,
mengalir fari bukit

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Isi Detail
Because of the nature
of radar, Intermap
needs to edit features
to some extent in the
DSM and the
corresponding DTM. To
ensure products are
consistent, welldefined rules have
been established, as
described in Table 11
shown on pages 58 to
63 in the product
handbook.

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OCI
Orthorectified Colour Imagery
fused imagery together to
maintain the spectral integrity of
the Landsat data while improving
the spatial resolution.
Pan-sharpening describes the
process of transforming a set of
coarse (low) spatial resolution
multispectral (colour) images to
fine (high) spatial resolution colour
images, by fusing a cogeoregistered fine spatial
resolution panchromatic
(black/white) image.
Low Resolution Multispectral
Image:
Landsat 7 30m pixel

High Resolution
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Orthorectified Radar Image


1.25m pixel

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OCI Example
1.25mmCal2
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Fusion
Aerial
Zoom
Area
Photograph
ORI
of Cal2
Landsat
Landsat
7 7 with ORI

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OCI Example
1.25mmCal2
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Fusion
Aerial
Photograph
ORI
of Cal2
Landsat
Landsat
7 7 with ORI

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OCI Accuracy and Specifications


Remember OCI is a fusion of low resolution Landsat imagery
with high resolution ORI.
The product produced for this fusion has the same accuracies
as the ORI.
Pixel Size (m)

RMSE (m)

CE(95) (m)

1.25

2.0

4.0

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Applications

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Intermaps Data Applications


This module introduces several applications
supported by Intermaps Core Products:

Flood Modelling and Watershed Analysis


Topographic Mapping
Image Rectification
Base Mapping
Three Dimensional Visualization
Flight Simulation
Location Based Simulation
Precision Farming and Forestry

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Flood Modeling
United Kingdom Example

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Flood Modeling/Watershed
Analysis
A primary application of
Intermap's DTM core
product.
This image indicates an
ORI of Eastern
Shrewsbury, England that
was produced specifically
in support of producing
flood insurance maps for
Norwich Union.

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Inputs
Information available:

Hydrological data
Meteorological data
Terrain data
Land Cover data
Actuarial data (insurance)

The quality of these inputs must be understood if


they are to add value to the risk assessment
process.
The key data for flood modeling is the DEM.

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Terrain Data
Terrain information includes land cover maps and
digital elevation models (DEMs).
Terrain information has generally been the
weakest link in flood modeling.
Insurers require regional, national and
international terrain information.

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Flooding Probabilities
Flood probability is expressed in the chance of a
flood occurring in any given year.
For example a 10-year flood has a 10% chance of
occurring in any given year;

50-year flood, 2%;


100-year flood, 1%;
500-year flood, 0.2%;
1000-year flood, 0.1%

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Airborne Interferometric Radar Mapping


in Support of British Flood Modelling

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The Need for Accurate Terrain Data in


Britain
Approximately 10% of Britains
population lives in identified flood risk
areas
This is approximately 6 million people,
in 2 million properties
Nationally, property worth over $500
Billion CDN is at risk
Terrain information available from
traditional data sources was found to
be lacking in accuracy, resolution, age
and consistency
A new national data set, particularly
elevation data, was required in order
to provide terrain intelligence for
sophisticated flood modeling

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Updated Flood Map by the Environment


Agency
Environment Agency flood map
is available online:
www.environment-agency.gov.uk
Historically the Indicative
Floodplain Map (IFM) could
tell you where there was a risk
of flooding but not how often
and not very reliably.
The new Flood Map combines
detailed local data with
information from a new national
model of England and Wales,
which gives a more consistent
picture of flood risk and also
enables us to identify flooding
associated with smaller rivers
than the IFM.

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Shrewsbury:
Catchment

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Upper Severn

Postcode Sector

SY3

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SY3 7
28% of properties within
this postcode area flood.

Properties that
dont flood
Properties that DO
flood
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Cross-section for some


properties within SY2,
Eastern Shrewsbury

3m
53m
100yr Flood water

Clearly, there can be relatively large differences in the


altitudes of properties, which can have varying
consequences in the analysis of flood risk.
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(Subject to some vertical exaggeration)

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Storm Surge Modeling


Pre-flood

Post-flood

Old Tampa Bay, St. Petersburg, Florida


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Topographic Line Mapping

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IFSAR for Mapping


Topographic maps,
historically, made almost
exclusively from aerial
photography using digital or
analytical photogrammetric
technologies
Aerial photography, in many
places around the globe can
be prohibitively expensive and
difficult to acquire due
persistent cloud
IFSAR is now proven as a
viable alternative to optical
imagery, be it aerial or
satellite.

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Feature Interpretation Model


Well-established guidelines to assist in feature
interpretation for land use/land cover mapping comprise
Intermaps feature interpretation model.
Here is a conceptual view of this model:

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Method: Feature Extraction


Hierarchy
Features to be interpreted and collected will
depend on what the application is; for example,
hydrologic features would be of interest in the
application of floodplain modeling.
The feature Extraction Hierarchy for a Base Map
could be:

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Topographic Line Map Example


A map showing major
features such as
hydrology, major
transportation, and
political boundaries is
commonly referred to
as a topographic line
map.
This type of
planimetric mapping
was compiled using
Intermaps data.
1:24,000 scale
Topographic Line Map
of Jobos, Puerto Rico.
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Topographic Mapping In Panama


National
Topographic
Mapping Project
by Intermap
Client: NGA
(formerly NIMA)

1998-1999
1:50,000 Scale
Mapping

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Orthorectified
IFSAR
Image Map
Completed
Primary
Secondary
Road
Urban
Buildings
Contour
Forest
Agricultural
Remove
Spot
Shaded
Names
Heights
Network
Areas
Layer
Layer
Relief
Drainage
Layer
Image
toDrainage
Topographic
Areas
Scale
Underlay

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Feature Interpretation Model


Expectations
Tighe (2003) reported that visual feature interpretation
and extraction within a 3D radargrammetric workstation
of topographic features met 1:20,000 scale mapping
standards. The results are as follows:
Approximately 85%95% of hydrology features (lakes, shoreline,
and rivers) are easily detected on the ORI data due to the ability of
SAR to capture the terrain. Hydrologic features become obscured in
areas of shadow created by tree lines.
Residential and urban environments are easily spotted on SAR
imagery as bright regular patterns resulting from the buildings acting
as corner reflectors, and therefore 95% of this class can be identified
on the ORI alone.
Auxiliary data or field checking must be consulted 100% of the time
for features commonly not represented on SAR data, such as
administration boundaries, place names, and river and lake names.
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Digital Data Used in Base Mapping


Working with high resolution digital data can be a
challenge!
The Intermap data (ORI & DEM) is collected with a
specific resolution that allows for the mapping at 1:20,000
or smaller scales.
In other words, the same Intermap data set is the used to
map at the following mapping scales:

1:20,000
1:24,000,
1:50,000,
1:100,000, and
1:250,000.

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Orthorectification

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Image Rectification
A DTM is needed to remove
terrain relief induced image
displacement during the
ortho-rectification process.
Intermap's core DTM products
can support a final
orthoimage scale up to 1:
4,800 (1" = 400') and
smaller when using highresolution optical satellite
imagery.
Final orthophoto products at a
scale of 1:2,400 (1"=200')
and smaller, are supported
when aerial photography with
sufficient side and forward
overlap is available.
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ORI as a
source of
GCPs (ground
control points)

ORI is source of
GCPs for
orthorectification
process.
Precision
orthorectification of
satellite or other
digital imagery.

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Output Examples

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Output

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Visualizations

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3D Visualization
Traditional 3D
visualization applications,
involving the draping of
thematic or place-specific
data over 3D landscapes
Primarily associated
activities such as land use
planning (visual impact of
new development), in-office
viewing of real estate
properties, and virtual
tourism.
When fused with
appropriate imagery layers,
Intermap's DSM products
provide the base data layer
for such applications
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A Space Imaging 1-meter pan sharpened IKONOS satellite


view was draped over an Intermap DSM to create this 3D
perspective of Morrison, Colorado.

Flight Simulation / In Cockpit


Situational Awareness
The aviation industry
provides three primary
applications of
Intermap's core
products:
interactive 3D
approach charts and
flight planning tools;
in-cockpit synthetic
vision, situational
awareness, and
Terrain Avoidance
Warning Systems
(TAWS);
flight simulators
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Screenshot from Microsoft's Flight Simulator


Software using Intermap's Great Britain VFR
Terrain elevation data plug-in

Training and Gaming Simulations

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3D Visualizations

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3D Visualization from DSM


The rugged beauty of Snowdonia
National Park in the north of
Wales is captured in this
Getmapping aerial photograph,
which has been resampled to one
meter and draped over an
Intermap DSM.
The town of Llanberis is the lower
terminus for the Snowdon
Mountain Railway, which climbs
1,035 meters to the summit of
Snowdon, five miles away (off
image left). The vertical scale has
been increased by a factor of two
to illustrate various terrain
features

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Their Data

Note: inaccurate elevation


data makes homes appear
to sliding off the hill

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Our Data

Note: accurate elevation


data shows homes correctly

Lafayette

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Their Data

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Our Data

Quarry
south of
San
Francisco

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Their Data

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Our Data

Castro Point

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Yosemite Fly-Through

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Case History: Visualization


of Alaska Mountain Passes
using IFSAR and IKONOS

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Alaska Coverage

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Mountain Passes:
Visualization/Aviation Safety
IFSAR and IKONOS

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Project Data Requirements


Data Required
for this Project:

Imagery

+ Digital
Terrain Data
(DEM)

3D
Digital
Model

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Finding the Pass

Difficult at best
Crashes occur
outside of pass
NASA Partnering to
address situation

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Microsoft Flight Simulator

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Various Applications

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Precision Farming / Forestry


Slope and aspect derived from
Intermap's elevation and image
products are well suited to support
various agricultural and forestry
applications, such as the following:
farm boundary delineation within
major domestic crop producing
areas
conservation planning/wetland
delineation
monitoring subsidy programs
associated with slope or
challenged terrain
inventory assessment
watershed management
programs
erosion runoff and nutrient
management plans (such as
Concentrated Animal Feeding
Operations (CAFOs), variable rate
planting and fertilizer application
plans)
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Radar Image for Agriculture


This 1.25-m orthorectified radar image (ORI) shows the circular
patterns created by irrigation pivots in the panhandle of Western Texas.
Field boundaries and acreage determination can be made by using our
high-resolution imagery, which has a horizontal accuracy of +/- 2
meters RMSE.

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Surface Analysis
Applications
Intermaps core products are
well suited to the following
surface analysis and viewshed
applications:
Contouring
Creation of profiles and cross
sections
Determination of spot heights
Line-of-sight calculations
View shed analysis
Determination of flow lines
Creation of slope and aspect
maps
Area and volume calculations
Distance measurements

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This figure is a profile of an Intermap


DSM for Morrison, Colorado, the
white line drawn across the image is
calculated and graphed in the green
profile, with the origin to the left.

2006 Intermap Technologies, Inc. All rights

Handbook Page 66 Value Added Product

Line of Sight Analysis (LoS)

Using Intermap elevation data, LoS calculations can be conducted in order


to assess the viewable terrain from a given position in a DEM
Below is a LoS calculation for a transmitter and receiver located 10m above
the ground in the shaded relief image of the Morrison image (see previous).
Below, transmitter and receiver are located at the same elevation. From the
point of view of someone standing at the transmitter however, the receiver
appears lower because it is further away (indicated by the lower red dot)
This demonstrates how it is possible for a lower peak to block the view
between two higher peaks, if the lower one is close enough to the observer.

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Questions?

www.intermap.com
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