The design and fabrication of a motorized tricycle for physically challenged persons was carried out. The aim was to improve on already existing tricycles, which are simple assembles of bicycle parts with no design specification. Anthropometric data were used to determine the lengths and size of the body parts of human being as well as the body weight. The most important part of the design is the incorporation of the fuel powered system which was added to improve the efficiency of the tricycle and to make life more comfortable for the physically challenged persons. A spark ignition automatic single speed two- stroke engine was chosen for this design and consideration was also given to the weight of the user in which a maximum weight of 75kg was used. The tricycle also has manual drives to assist in emergency situations and to supplement the power drive.

© All Rights Reserved

10 tayangan

The design and fabrication of a motorized tricycle for physically challenged persons was carried out. The aim was to improve on already existing tricycles, which are simple assembles of bicycle parts with no design specification. Anthropometric data were used to determine the lengths and size of the body parts of human being as well as the body weight. The most important part of the design is the incorporation of the fuel powered system which was added to improve the efficiency of the tricycle and to make life more comfortable for the physically challenged persons. A spark ignition automatic single speed two- stroke engine was chosen for this design and consideration was also given to the weight of the user in which a maximum weight of 75kg was used. The tricycle also has manual drives to assist in emergency situations and to supplement the power drive.

© All Rights Reserved

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2009)

Physically Challenged Persons

Adedipe Oyewole, Bala Katsina Christopher and Sadiq Ibrahim Ogu

Mechanical Engineering Department, Federal University of Technology

Minna, Nigeria

E-mail: <adelordy2002@yahoo.com>

Abstract

The design and fabrication of a motorized tricycle for physically challenged

persons was carried out. The aim was to improve on already existing tricycles, which

are simple assembles of bicycle parts with no design specification. Anthropometric data

were used to determine the lengths and size of the body parts of human being as well as

the body weight. The most important part of the design is the incorporation of the fuel

powered system which was added to improve the efficiency of the tricycle and to make

life more comfortable for the physically challenged persons. A spark ignition automatic

single speed two- stroke engine was chosen for this design and consideration was also

given to the weight of the user in which a maximum weight of 75kg was used. The

tricycle also has manual drives to assist in emergency situations and to supplement the

power drive.

Keywords: Disabled persons, anthropometric data, fuel powered system, shaft,

chain, wheel, brake.

system was included in the design. Shaft of

specified design and bearings were also

included for proper transmission.

Introduction

Disability could be caused by injuries

sustained mainly from motor accidents or

during turnkey project work or in

manufacturing industries as well those caused

naturally. Due to the enormous number of

disabled people in the society, a motorized

tricycle has been fabricated and designed to

specification. The tricycle enables the user to

travel a long distances within a short period of

time, with ease and without any constraints.

The design of a motorized tricycle is an

improvement on the existing ones, Hollowenko

(1961). It is carried out to benefit the user

conveniently, physically, and comfortably such

that when a little effort is exerted, a greater

output (movement) is achieved as a result of

the fast transmission generated by the

motorized system.

The projects goal is to provide a good

living condition for people considered to be

physically challenged (disabled), to transport

themselves around their environment. A fuelpowered engine which incorporates the gear

Letter

Design Consideration

Keyserling et al. (1992) showed that

trunk flexion, lateral bending, twisting

increases muscular stress and in vertebral disc

pressure, while long hours of sitting leads to

increase risk of back pain and muscular fatigue,

an adjustable seat was provided. Proper care

was taken to ensure the comfortability not to

worsen the condition of the disabled person.

Disabled persons are faced with the task

of climbing high terrain or accelerating down

it. This is actually due to the step-up drive of

the tricycle since greater torque is required

during hill climbing (Dreyfuss 1967). To

alleviate this problem a chain sprocket drive

has been included in the design so as to achieve

a better torque. Some of the component parts of

the tricycle are: chains, footrest, wheel, rims,

spokes, sprockets and chain assembly, seat,

shaft, and brakes.

61

the tricycle is determined to be 2,627.38 W.

Shaft Design

most critical section of the shaft is given by

2v

(5)

= (rad / s ) ,

d

where d = diameter of the shaft.

From Eq. (5), the angular speed is

determined to be 31.5 rad/s.

M B = M bv2 + M bh2 ,

(1)

where:

Mbv = the bending moment due to vertical

loading;

Mbh = the bending moment due to horizontal

loading.

From Eq. (1), MB is determined to be

1,632 N.m.

The shaft diameter can be determined by

16

(2)

d3 =

(K b M b ) 2 + (K t M t ) 2 ,

S s

where:

Mt = torsional moment (N.m);

Mb = bending moment (N.m);

Kb = combined shock and fatigue factor applied

to bending moment;

Kt = combined shock and fatigue factor applied

to torsional moment;

Ss = Allowable stress for shaft without keyway,

MN/m2.

From Eq. (2), the shaft diameter is

determined to be 24 mm.

Torsional moment can be determined by

9,550 K w

Mt =

,

(3)

rev/min

where:

Kw = power output of the engine;

rev/min is speed of the shaft.

The engine power is 2.98 kW and the

speed of the engine is 300 rev/min. From the

Eq. (3), the torsional moment is determined to

be 94.99 N.m.

The rotational speed is given by

60

(6)

=

( r. p.m.) .

2

The rotational speed is determined using

Eq. (6) to be 300 r.p.m.

Determination of Driving Torque (Manual)

The driving torque is given by

P

(7)

T= .

Eq. (7) to be 83.4 N.m.

Determination of Driving Torque (Power

Drive)

The driving torque for the power drives

can also be determined using Eq. (7), where P

is the engine power which is 2,984 W.

Using Eq. (7), the driving torque is

determined as 94.97 N.m.

Determination of the Maximum Shear

Stress on the Shaft (Manual Drive)

The shear stress on the shaft can be

determined from

16T

(8)

max = 3 ,

d

where:

T is the torque (N.m); and

d is the diameter of the shaft (mm).

From Eq. (8), the maximum shear stress

is determined to be 72.82 MN/m2.

The required power for the tricycle to

move over rough terrain is given as:

Wv

,

(4)

P=

3.733

where:

P = power (W);

W = weight of the tricycle (N);

v = optimum linear speed (m/s).

Letter

62

oil tank.

The radius of oil is determined using Eq.

(12) to be 46 mm.

(Power drive)

The shear stress on the shaft for the

power drive can also be determined from Eq.

(8) to be 34.99 MN/m2.

shaft was rotating within the wheel hub,

causing the tricycle not to move at the desired

speed. This was corrected by incorporating a

locking mechanism to lock the hub to the shaft

thus preventing slippage.

It was also discovered that the speed the

tricycle travels when on power drive is

considerably higher than that of the manual

drive.

skidding is given by

Fmax = tr ,

(9)

where tr is the co-efficient of friction between

tyre and road.

The maximum braking force is

determined in Eq. (9) to be 858.2N

Determination of Energy during Braking

The energy dissipated during braking is

expressed as

W 2

Bb =

(u v 2 ) ,

(10)

2g

where: W = portion of weight for which the

brake is exerted; u = initial velocity (m/s); v =

final velocity (m/s).

The energy dissipated during braking is

determined using Eq. (10) to be 2,296 J.

Conclusion

The objectives of the design and

fabrication of a motorized tricycle using

available local materials was successful to a

great extent and it was discovered that the

tricycle will lessen the burden of the disabled

people due to its affordability.

One innovation that distinguishes this

tricycle from the other existing ones presently

in Nigeria is that it is dual driven, both

manually and fuel powered. The existing ones

in Nigeria are manually driven.

A cylindrical fuel tank structure is chosen

because of its low surface area for a given

volume and the ease of emptying the tank. The

volume of fuel in tank is assumed to be equal

to the volume of the cylinder making the tank.

This can be expressed as

r 2 l = r f 2 L ,

(11)

References

Dreyfuss, H. 1967. The measure of man:

human factors in design. Whitney Library of

Design, New York, NY, USA.

Hollowenko, A.R. 1961. Theory and problems

of machine design. Pitman Press, London,

England, UK.

Keyserling, W.M.; Brouwer, M.; Silverstein,

B.A. 1992. A checklist for evaluating

ergonomic risk factors resulting from

awkward postures of the legs, trunk and

neck. Int. J. Ind. Ergonom. 9(4): 283-301.

tank; rf = radius of the cylinder making the

tank; L = length of the cylinder making the

tank. The volume is taken as 5,000 cm3.

Using Eq. (12), the radius of the tank is

determined to be 73 mm.

Determination of Oil Tank Capacity

The volume of oil tank

2

V0 = r0 l 0 ,

Letter

(12)

63

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