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Project title:

Accelerated Penetration of Small-Scale Biomass and Solar Technologies

(ACCESS)

Deliverable No: D13

Maps and databases on the biomass potential


BULGARIA, CZECH REPUBLIC, HUNGARY, ROMANIA, SLOVAKIA
+ Greece

Supported by

The sole responsibility for the content of this document lies with the authors.
It does not represent the opinion of the European Communities.
The European Commission is not responsible for any use that may be made of the information contained therein.

List of tables
Table 1: Potential of forestry biomass in Bulgaria
Table 2: Biomass potential from wood processing in Bulgaria (2004)
Table 3: Energy crops biomass potential in Bulgaria
Table 4: Agricultural residues biomass potential in Bulgaria
Table 5: Present biomass utilization for electricity and heat production in Bulgaria
Table 6: Development of export in thousands m3 in Bulgaria
Table 7: Local market prices for fossil fuels in /GJ in Bulgaria
Table 8: Current use of biomass for heat and electricity in Bulgaria
Table 9: Future trends of biomass use for heat and electricity in Bulgaria
Table 10: Producers of briquettes and pellets in Bulgaria
Table 11: Biggest wood processing companies (with sawmills) as a sawdust and wood residues
producers in Bulgaria
Table 12: Area and structure of agricultural lands of NUTS 3 regions in the Czech Republic
Table 13: Biomass energy potential from forestry in the Czech Republic.
Table 14: Biomass potential from wood-processing industry in the Czech republic
Table 15: Biomass energy potential in the Czech republic in the short (5-10y) and long (20-30y) term
Table 16: Biomass potential from agricultural residues in Czech republic
Table 17: Biomass potential of energy crops in Czech republic
Table 18: Present utilization of wood biomass for electricity and heat production in the Czech Republic
Table 19: Local market prices for fossil fuels in /GJ in the Czech Republic
Table 20: Current use of biomass for heat and electricity in the Czech Republic
Table 21: Future trends of biomass use for heat and electricity in the Czech Republic
Table 22: Producers of briquettes and pellets in the Czech Republic
Table 23: Biggest wood processing companies (with sawmills) as a sawdust and wood residues
producers in the Czech Republic
Table 24: Forestry biomass potential in Hungary
Table 25: Wood-processing biomass potential in Hungary
Table 26: Main biomass and energy potential in Hungary
Table 27: Biomass utilization potential and volumes in Hungary
Table 28: Biomass potential in Hungary
Table 29: Heating costs in Hungary (1 = cca. 275 HUF)
Table 30: Current Use of biomass for heat and electricity in Hungary
Table 31: Producers of briquettes and pellets in Hungary
Table 32: Wood processing companies in Hungary
Table 33: Biomass potential (TJ) in Romania
Table 34: The forestry biomass potential by NUTS 3 regions in Romania
Table 35: Biomass potential from wood processing by NUTS 3 regions in Romania
Table 36: Agricultural residues - biomass potential in 2004 in Romania
Table 37: Current use of biomass for urban heating in Romania
Table 38: Market prices for fossil fuels (/tcc) in Romania
Table 39: Future trends of biomass use for heat and electricity in Romania
Table 40: Briquettes and pellets producers in Romania
Table 41: Biggest wood processing companies as sawdust and wood residues producers in Romania
Table 42: Basic characteristics of Slovakian NUTS III regions
Table 43: Potential of forestry biomass in Slovakia
Table 44: Biomass potential from mechanical wood processing in Slovakia
Table 45: Energy crops biomass potential in Slovakia
Table 46: Agricultural residues biomass potential in Slovakia
Table 47: Present wood biomass utilization for energy production in Slovakia
2

Table 48: Annual amount of dendromass for energy purposes produced by forestry in Slovakia
Table 49: Local market prices for fossil fuels in /GJ in Slovakia
Table 50: Current use of biomass for heat and electricity in Slovakia
Table 51: Future trends for 2015 of biomass use for heat and electricity in Slovakia
Table 52: Producers of briquettes and pellets in Slovakia
Table 53: Biggest wood processing companies (with sawmills) as a sawdust and wood residues
producers in Slovakia
Table 54: Potential of forestry biomass in Greece
Table 55: Biomass potential from wood processing in Greece
Table 56: Annual total and utilizable potential of dendromass for energy purposes in wood processing
industry in 2004 in Greece
Table 57: Agricultural residues biomass potential in 2004 in Greece
Table 58: Present biomass utilization of wood biomass for electricity and heat production in Greece
Table 59: Current Use of biomass for heat and electricity in Greece
Table 60: Future trends of biomass use for heat and electricity in Greece
Table 61: Biggest wood processing companies (with sawmills) as a sawdust and wood residues
producers in Greece
List of maps
Map 1: Technical potential for energy utilization of forest residues in Bulgaria
Map 2: Biomass energy potential from forestry in the Czech Republic. Regional distribution
Map 3: Biomass energy potential from wood processing in the Czech Republic. Regional distribution
Map 4: Biomass briquettes and pellets producers in the Czech republic
Map 5: NUTS III regions in Hungary
Map 6: Afforestation of Hungary
Map 7: NUTS III regions in Romania
Map 8: Forest cover map of Romania
Map 9: Wood waste biomass distribution map in Romania
Map 10: Afforestation of Slovakia
Map 11: Biomass energy potential from forestry in Slovakia
Map 12: Biomass energy potential from wood-processing industry in Slovakia (mechanical processing)
Map 13: Biomass pellets and briquettes producers in Slovakia
List of figures
Figure 1: Annual heating costs of a house with annual consumption of 100 GJ in Bulgaria
Figure 2: Evolution of export of wood residues, chips and particles in Romania
Figure 3: Evolution of market prices for fossil fuels in Romania
Figure 4: Annual heating costs (1 = cca 3.57 RON) in Romania
Figure 5: Annual total heating costs for the house with annual consumption

BULGARIA
BIOMASS POTENTIAL
Table 1: Potential of forestry biomass in Bulgaria
Region (NUTS3)

Forest area
thous. ha

COUNTRY TOTAL
4,076
RUG - Berkovica
235.0
RUG - Blagoevgrad
397.4
RUG - Burgas
331.7
RUG - Varna
184.5
RUG - V.Tarnovo
207.3
RUG - Kardzhali
357.1
RUG - Kustendil
240.2
RUG - Lovech
221.2
RUG - Pazardzhik
261.2
RUG - Plovdiv
210.7
RUG - Ruse
174.1
RUG - Sliven
235.4
RUG - Smolian
242.1
RUG - Sofia
421.1
RUG - Stara Zagora
175.5
RUG - Shumen
182.0
* production forest 2005 the area for logging in 2005

Production
forests
thous. ha
3,795
220.9
360.1
313.0
174.5
200.7
313.8
215.9
211.8
247.0
190.0
165.7
219.5
225.7
375.4
165.3
175.5

Forest
Use
%
97.0
92.8
93.1
100.0
100.0
96.0
99.0
96.3
92.4
96.8
98.4
100.0
97.7
97.8
96.8
97.6
100.0

Energy yield
rate
GJ/ha
27.0
15.1
35.8
19.3
19.0
45.8
15.0
28.2
37.0
34.3
32.2
41.4
22.8
30.6
30.9
24.4
19.4

Potential
PJ
44.36
1.50
5.86
3.13
2.51
2.44
2.07
2.13
2.92
3.27
1.73
3.66
2.32
4.42
2.72
1.48
2.20

Map 1: Technical potential for energy utilization of forest residues in Bulgaria

Table 2: Biomass potential from wood processing in Bulgaria (2004)


Type of industrial wood-waste
Country total
Broad-leaved wooden materials
Oak parquet
Shaped details
Plywood
Coniferous wooden materials
Plates of wooden fractions
Window frames
Doors and door frames
Pallets
Crates, cases, etc.

Processed wood
mil. m3
2.102
0.267
0.104
0.803
0.0065
0.227
0.138
0.046
0.307
0.195
0.0086

Waste share

Energy use rate

32
32
36
36
36
42
36
18
20
20
30

50
50
50
50
60
50
50
50
50
50
50

Potential
PJ
3.56
0.52
0.20
1.55
0.02
0.44
0.13
0.05
0.33
0.31
0.01

Table 3: Energy crops biomass potential in Bulgaria (2004)


Land used for energy crops

Yield rate

Potential

thous. ha
0

t/ha
0

PJ
0

Country total
Comment:
No energy crops are grown in Bulgaria in 2004

Table 4: Agricultural residues biomass potential in Bulgaria


Crop

Total agricultural
residues
t/year

Technical
potential for
energy utilization
t/year
1,385,754
1,545,669
1,079,733
195,328
85,382
42,673
4,334,539

Energy content
GJ/t

Energy equivalent
for heat generation
PJ

Straw
1,650,833
14.65
20.3
Maize (stem and corn-cob)
1,750,741
10.05
15.5
Sunflower (stem and cob)
1,349,666
8.37
9.0
Gardens (branches)
244,160
10.47
2.0
Vineyards
106,728
10.47
0.9
Tobaccos (stems)
53,341
9.21
0.4
Total
5,155,469
63,22
48.2
Comments:
The above table presents data on the total agricultural residues and the biomass that is available for energy purposes. The
amount of the total biomass residues is based on official data of the National Statistical Institute. From this amount, we
subtract the part that cannot be collected and remains on the field (10%). From the remaining, we subtract the volumes used
for different industries.
Still no economic evaluations of the use of agricultural biomass have been conducted. Moreover, some residues such as
maize stems and corn-cobs, sunflower stems and cobs, and tobacco stems are not offered on the market.

BIOMASS PRESENT UTILIZATION


Table 5: Present biomass utilization for electricity and heat production in Bulgaria (2005)

Wood-chips
Wood -pellets
Wood briquettes
Forest residues, fire wood
Industrial wood residues
Wood from agriculture (gardens)
Wood from SRP (no matter whether used
as chips, pellets or other purposes)

Total Biomass
production/
utilisation (t/y)

Total Biomass
production
Energy equivalent
(GJ/y)

50,000
4,100
9,800
1,400,000
110,000
0

490,000
76,620
176,400
10,920,000
1,078,000
-

40-50
140 - 170
90 - 110
40 - 50
40 - 50
-

Current
market price
of the end
product
(/GJ)
5,128 - 6,410
7.69 9.34
5.00 6.11
5.13 6.41
5.13 6.41
-

Current average
selling price
direct price from
supplier (/t

Table 6: Development of export in thousands m3 in Bulgaria


2002
2003
Export of chips, forest residues, fire wood, sawdust, etc.
N/A
89
Comments:
In 2003 the export of 89 thousands m3 represents 29,300 GJ. In 2004 the export of 210 m3 represents 69,150 GJ.

2004
210

Table 7: Local market prices for fossil fuels in /GJ in Bulgaria


Coal
Fuel entry
4.1
Heat generated
5.9
* not used for heating of dwellings

Light fuel oil


18.9
23.6

Heavy fuel oil


N/A*
N/A*

Natural gas
9.9
11.6

District heating
10.2
10.2

Electricity
14.5
14.8

Figure 1: Annual heating costs of a house with annual consumption of 100 GJ in Bulgaria
1480

Electricity
1020

District heating

1160

Natural gas

2360

Light fuel oil


Coal

590

Industrial w ood residues

577

Forest residues, fire w ood

577

Wood briquettes

556
850

Wood -pellets
576

Wood-chips
0

400

800

1200

1600

2000

2400

EUR

Comment:
The above chart shows only the fuel costs. Investment and other costs are not included.

TENDENCIES OF MARKET DEVELOPMENT TOWARDS THE USE OF BIOMASS


TECHNOLOGIES
Table 8: Current use of biomass for heat and electricity in Bulgaria
Number
of installations up
to 50 kW

Number
of installations 50
- 500 kW

Number of
installations
0,5 1 MW

Number of
installations
over 1 MW

Energy
generated (per
year, eg. 2004)

Installed
capacity
MWel

MWth

GWh
(El.)

PJ
(Heat)

Total Heat
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
0
N/A
0
N/A
Total Electricity
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Comments:
No data about the number of biomass installations is available. No electricity is produced from biomass in Bulgaria (there are
no CHP units yet).

Table 9: Future trends of biomass use for heat and electricity in Bulgaria
Planned Installed capacity
Number of new
installations
planned

MWel

Expected Energy generated (per year)

MWth

GWh (El.)

PJ (Heat)

Year 2004
N/A
0
4790
0
17.2
Year 2010
N/A
80
6227
418
22.3
Year 2015
N/A
160
7664
849
27.5
Comments:
The table above indicates the installed capacity and generated energy based on the utilized energy output, not on the energy
input. The technology efficiency used in the calculations is as follows: 46% in 2004, 50% in 2010 and 54% in 2015.
Combined heat and power (CHP)
0
0
0

Number of installations
Installed capacity
Planned capacity
Forecast for 2015

160 MW
Co-firing

Installed capacity (year)


Planned capacity
Forecast capacity for 2015

0 MWh
0 MWh
0 MWh

BIOMASS FUELS
Table 10: Producers of briquettes and pellets in Bulgaria
Producer
GTI Ltd
Ecoflam Ltd.
Erato Resource Ltd
Ecocalor Ltd
Sviloza JSC
Biofire Ltd
Sviloza JS
GTI Ltd
Toplivo Ltd
KADI Ltd
-G
Krassimir Nikolov (one
person company)
Other small companies

Misia
Velingrad
Haskovo
Velingrad
Svishtov
Velingrad
Svishtov
Mizia
Smoljan
Varna
Burgas

Fuel
(pellets/briquettes)
pellets
pellets
pellets
pellets
pellets
pellets
briquettes
briquettes
briquettes
briquettes
briquettes

Targovishte

briquettes

200

briquettes

1200

Locality

Production
capacity t/y
500
1000
500
1000
100
1000
5000
2000
500
600
300

In operation
since
2005
2002
2005
2004
2005
2004
2001
2003
2001
2003
2004

straw, wood
wood
wood
wood
wood
wood
wood
straw, wood
wood
wood
wood

2004

wood , straw

2001-2005

wood , straw

Comment

Table 11: Biggest wood processing companies (with sawmills) as a sawdust and wood residues producers in
Bulgaria
Company

Locality

Region

Ambaritza-GO
Gabrovnitza AD
Woodworking Kavarna
IKO Ltd
Lessoplast AD
NS Parquet
Fazerlaes AD

Gorna Orjahovitza
Gorno Sahrane
Kavarna
Razlog
Trojan
Plovdiv
Silistra

Gorna Orjahovitza
Kazanlak
Varna
Razlog
Trojan
Plovdiv
Silistra

CZECH REPUBLIC
BACKGROUND
Table 12: Area and structure of agricultural lands of NUTS 3 regions in the Czech Republic
NUTS III Regions

Total land area

Agricultural land

[ha]

[ha]

Of which:
Permanent
grassland

Arable

Forest land

Capital Prague

49 590

21 110

15 534

872

4 886

Central Bohemian Region

1 101 613

668 722

557 052

70 283

304 976

South Bohemian Region

1 005 666

495 834

320 169

161 136

375 077

Plze Region

756 106

384 109

265 139

105 689

298 064

Carlsbad Region

331 436

124 705

57 114

63 949

143 202

st nad Labem Region

533 503

278 174

187 088

69 079

158 953

Liberec Region

316 289

140 880

70 519

61 415

139 711

Hradec Krlov Region

475 817

280 258

194 208

70 131

146 930

Pardubice Region

451 850

274 231

201 364

59 656

132 692

Olomouc Region

692 539

420 254

325 466

83 648

210 338

Moravian-Silesian Region

706 545

426 612

359 019

28 118

196 182

South Moravian Region

515 875

277 043

209 816

51 173

178 999

Zln Region

396 391

195 946

126 608

55 666

157 010

Vysoina Region

553 535

284 923

179 143

87 457

196 038

BIOMASS POTENTIAL
Table 13: Biomass energy potential from forestry in the Czech Republic.

Region (NUTS3)
Czech Republic
Capital Prague
Stredocesky
Jihocesky
Plzensky
Karlovarsky
Ustecky
Liberecky
Kralovehradecky
Pardubicky
Vysocina
Jihomoravsky
Olomoucky
Zlinsky
Moravskoslezsky

Forest area
thous. ha
2 643
5
305
375
298
143
159
140
147
133
210
196
179
157
196

Forest use
%
0.87
1.00
0.99
0.77
0.88
0.50
0.94
0.84
0.89
0.88
0.75
0.98
0.73
0.84
0.96

Energy yield rate


GJ/ha
5.13
2.2
4.5
5.5
4.8
4.0
2.2
3.0
4.5
5.9
6.6
5.1
6.3
6.3
7.3

Potential
PJ
11.5
0.01
1.37
1.58
1.27
0.29
0.32
0.35
0.60
0.69
1.05
0.98
0.82
0.83
1.38
9

Map 2: Biomass energy potential from forestry in the Czech Republic. Regional distribution

Table 14: Biomass potential from wood-processing industry in the Czech republic
Region (NUTS3)
Czech Republic
Capital Prague
Stredocesky
Jihocesky
Plzensky
Karlovarsky
Ustecky
Liberecky
Kralovehradecky
Pardubicky
Vysocina
Jihomoravsky
Olomoucky
Zlinsky
Moravskoslezsky

Processed
wood
mil. m3
7.02
0.02
0.70
0.50
0.50
1.10
0.10
0.30
0.15
0.15
1.50
0.30
0.30
0.20
1.20

Waste share

Energy use rate

%
30%
30%
30%
30%
30%
30%
30%
30%
30%
30%
30%
30%
30%
30%
30%

Potential

%
50%
50%
50%
50%
50%
50%
50%
50%
50%
50%
50%
50%
50%
50%
50%

PJ
9.00
0.03
0.90
0.64
0.64
1.41
0.13
0.38
0.19
0.19
1.92
0.38
0.38
0.26
1.54

10

Map 3: Biomass energy potential from wood processing in the Czech Republic. Regional distribution

Table 15: Biomass energy potential in the Czech republic in the short (5-10y) and long (20-30y) term
Potential [PJ of fuel energy]
Source

Short-term
(less intensive)

Long-term
(more intensive)

Increase opposed
present use [PJ]

(Solid) biomass from forestry, wood-processing, and


pulp&paper industry

44

78

+ 18 / + 56

- woodwastes after tree felling


- firewood
- woodwastes from wood-processing
- pulp and paper industry
(Solid) biomass from agriculture
- straw and tailings (from cereals and rape)
- grain (surpluses)
- energy crops
Total solid biomass
Biofuels (for transport)

10
15
9
15
94
15
16
63
138
10

35
25
13
15
222
30
32
160
300
25

+ 8 / + 33
+ 5 / + 15
+4/+8
+0
+ 92 / + 220
+ 14 / + 29
+ 16 / + 32
+ 62 / + 159
+ 96 / + 258
+ 8 / + 23

- biodiesel (from rape-seed oil in the form of RME)

10

+5/+8

- Bioethanol (from grain or sugarbeet)


Fytomass for biogas production (maize)

3
2

15
10

+ 3 / + 15
+ 2 / + 10

TOTAL

150

335

+ 105 / + 290

Source: SEVEn

11

Table 16: Biomass potential from agricultural residues in Czech republic


Region (NUTS3)
Czech Republic
Capital Prague
Stredocesky
Jihocesky
Plzensky
Karlovarsky
Ustecky
Liberecky
Kralovehradecky
Pardubicky
Vysocina
Jihomoravsky
Olomoucky
Zlinsky
Moravskoslezsky

Cereals area

Rape-seed oil

thous. ha
1 500
8 000
287 000
164 000
127 000
24 000
95 000
26 000
92 000
95 000
164 000
188 000
104 000
57 000
78 000

thous. ha
300
2 000
61 000
39 000
31 000
7 000
13 000
6 000
19 000
20 000
36 000
28 000
18 000
9 000
17 000

Cereals Straw Rape-seed Straw


Energy Potential Energy Potential
PJ
PJ
7.5
6.0
0.04
0.04
1.48
1.22
0.75
0.76
0.58
0.60
0.10
0.11
0.46
0.24
0.11
0.11
0.48
0.39
0.48
0.39
0.77
0.71
0.99
0.56
0.57
0.38
0.29
0.17
0.37
0.32

Table 17: Biomass potential of energy crops in Czech republic


Region (NUTS3)
Czech Republic
Capital Prague
Stredocesky
Jihocesky
Plzensky
Karlovarsky
Ustecky
Liberecky
Kralovehradecky
Pardubicky
Vysocina
Jihomoravsky
Olomoucky
Zlinsky
Moravskoslezsky

Land used for


energy crops
thous. ha
1283
6.3
200.9
148.9
115.3
37.6
83.5
42.3
84.2
82.3
126.2
128.1
83.1
58.8
85.6

Yield rate

Potential

GJ/ha
125.6
180.0
138.7
97.5
87.2
90.6
114.4
108.8
142.4
140.9
87.5
166.7
129.5
142.5
141.5

PJ
161.17
1.14
27.86
14.51
10.06
3.41
9.55
4.60
11.98
11.60
11.05
21.36
10.77
8.38
12.11

12

PRESENT BIOMASS UTILIZATION


Table 18: Present utilization of wood biomass for electricity and heat production in the Czech Republic
Total current
biomass
production/
utilisation
(thous. tons/y)
300 400
12 / 4**
125 / 45**
1000

Current
biomass
utilisation
energy
equivalent (PJ)
3-4
0.2 / 0.07
2.1 / 0.08
~ 10

Current average
selling price
direct price
from supplier
(/unit)
3
56
56
<2

Current
market price
of the end
product
(/GJ)
3.5 4
67
67
2 2.5

Utilisable
technical
potential
(2010 ?)
thous. ton/y
+ 300
+5
+ 50
+ 200

Utilisable
technical
potential
(2010)
(PJ)
2.7
0.01
0.1
2

Wood-chips*
Wood pellets
Wood briquettes
Forest residues, fire wood
Industrial wood residues (after
mechanic processing - cutoffs, bark,
1000 1200
~ 10
23
23
+ 200
2
sawdust )
Wood from agriculture (gardens,
<1
< 0.01
3-4
+3
< 0.05
vineyards, etc.)
Wood from municipal sphere together < 1
< 0.01
3-4
+3
< 0.05
Total
2 500
~ 30
+ 700 - 800 + 7 - 8
* Wood-chips are presently being made mostly (70-80%) from wooden residues from wood-processing, less (20-30 %) from
forestry management.
**The total production /of which supplied to domestic market; This does not include wooden wastes from pulp & paper industry

Table 19: Local market prices for fossil fuels in /GJ in the Czech Republic
Coal
Light fuel oil
Heavy fuel oil
Natural gas
Other
Fuel entry
4 8*
11 12
11
Heat generated**
5 16
13 14
11 13
All the prices are for supplies of fuels to households and includes only fuel costs.
* Lower figure applicable for brown coal, the upper for hard coal (prices of black coal are around 6 EUR/GJ).
** Based on energy efficiency of a given boiler/stove (e.g. in case of coal, it may range from 55% for an old
stove up to 80 % if modern automatic boiler is assumed, in case of gas-fired boiler, the difference may be as
much as 10-15% if condensing boiler would be installed).

TENDENCIES OF MARKET DEVELOPMENT TOWARDS THE USE OF BIOMASS


TECHNOLOGIES
Table 20: Current use of biomass for heat and electricity in the Czech Republic
Number of installations up to 50 kW

Number
of installations 50
- 500 kW

Number of
installations 0,5
1 MW

Number of
installations
over 1 MW

Installed
capacity
MWel

MWth

Energy generated
(per year, eg. 2004)
GWh
PJ (Heat)
(El.)

tens (max. 100


< 5*
1000
600
36
- 150)
* In the figure are included only installations with a turbogenerator and a boiler dedicated to biomass firing; large majority of
produced electricity, however, is coming from co-firing installations, i.e. those which either use a common boiler and/or a TG
set for electricity production from biomass and fossil fuels firing; produced electricity and heat also includes use of wooden
wastes from pulp and paper industry.
tens of thousands

thousands

tens of hundreds

Table 21: Future trends of biomass use for heat and electricity in the Czech Republic
Number of new installations
planned

Planned Installed capacity

Expected Energy generated (per year)

MWel

MWth

GWh (El.)

PJ (Heat)

+100

+500

600

+30

The estimates on new installed capacity include only installations dedicated to biomass-firing, energy production then also
includes those installations which will co-fire biomass with fossil fuels.
13

BIOMASS FUELS
Table 22: Producers of briquettes and pellets in the Czech Republic
Name of Producer
BIOMAC Ing. ern s.r.o.*
IROMEZ s.r.o.
EKOTHERM v.o.s.
HOLZTHERM
B.R.D.
PELLETIA-TEC s.r.o.
Jesenick Biopaliva s.r.o.
PELLETEX s.r.o.
ENVITERM a.s.
ECO - VEST s.r.o.
SDO GROUP spol. s r. o.
OSTAX s. R. o.
Verner ECO Star, s. r. o.
BENAZ a. s.
Drustvo EKOVER**
Obec Knice
ZZN Polab Koln
Vopol a. s.
Ing. Jan Touimsk
Zemos, s r. o.
Agrochem, a. s.
Sdruen fyzickch osob
Agro Chovex, s r. o.
Starojicko, a. s.
Agrodrustvo
Janek
Arema, s r. o.
Agronova M & P, spol. s r.o.
Surna
MJM Litovel
Hjek

Product(s)
wooden briquettes,
pellets
wooden briquettes
wooden briquettes
wooden briquettes
wooden briquettes

Locality
Uniov
Pelhimov
Jablonec nad Nisou a Semily
Plze
Sobslavice

NUTS III Region


Olomouc Region

Vysoina Region
Liberec Region
Plze Region
Liberec Region
Hradec Krlov and
wooden pellets
Hradec Krlov, Vysok Mto
Pardubice Region
wooden pellets
Zlat Hory
Olomouc Region
wooden pellets
Daice
South Bohemian Region
wooden pellets
drec nad Doubravou
Vysoina Region
wooden pellets
Uhlsk Janovice
Central Bohemian Region
wooden pellets
Hodonn
South Moravian Region
wooden pellets
Valask Mezi
Zln Region
wooden pellets
Zbytiny
South Bohemian Region
wooden pellets
Plan u Marinskch lzn
Carlsbad Region
non-wooden pellets Bezovice
Central Bohemian Region
non-wooden pellets Knice
Pardubice Region
non-wooden pellets Koln
Central Bohemian Region
non-wooden pellets Pomez
Pardubice Region
non-wooden pellets Rakovnk
Central Bohemian Region
non-wooden pellets Lanov
South Moravian Region
non-wooden pellets Lankroun
Pardubice Region
non-wooden pellets Kralupy
Central Bohemian Region
non-wooden pellets Hnojnk
Moravian-Silesian Region
non-wooden pellets Nov Jin
Moravian-Silesian Region
non-wooden pellets Morkovice
Zln Region
non-wooden pellets Iva
Olomouc Region
non-wooden pellets Slavkov u Brna
South Moravian Region
non-wooden pellets Kamenice nad Lipou
Vysoina Region
non-wooden pellets Kratonohy
Hradec Krlov Region
non-wooden pellets Litovel
Olomouc Region
non-wooden pellets Doln Bl
Plze Region

Indicative
production
(thous. t/y)
50 80
15
4
15
N/A
2
N/A
N/A
10

* The BIOMAC company presently manufactures briquettes and pellets in total of 22 plants located around the country in
various wood-processing facilites (mostly sawmills); in six of which owns the production technology, for the other provides
service, maintenance, and helps with marketing.
** The EKOVER company (actually a co-operative farm located in the Central Bohemian Region) is the holder of the patent
for the production of bio-fuel in the form of pellets made from non-wooden agricultural by-products; due to low production
costs this bio-fuel became very attractive and the company now awarded the production license to as much as ten other legal
entities around the country (listed in the table). Alltogether, several thousand of this bio-fuel is presently estimated to be
produced by these manufacturers.

14

Map 4: Biomass briquettes and pellets producers in the Czech republic

Table 23: Biggest wood processing companies (with sawmills) as a sawdust and wood residues
producers in the Czech Republic
drec nad Doubravou
Plan u Marinskch Lzn

Vysoina Region
Plze Region

Volume of processed
roundwood
~ 1 mil. m3/year
~ 1 mil. m3/year

Paskov
Pten

Moravian-Silesian Region
Olomouc Region

~ 1 mil. m3/year
0.5-1 mil. m3/year

slav, Praha 9 Satalice,


evniov
Jindichv Hradec
Krnov
Plan nad Lunic

Central Bohemian Region

0,1 mil. m3/year

South Bohemian Region


Olomouc Region
South Bohemian Region

0,05 mil. m3/year


0,03 mil. m3/year
0,015 mil. m3/year

Company
Stora Enso Timber a.s.
Holzindustrie Schweighofer
a.s.
Mayr-Melnhof Group
Javoice, a.s. (member of CE
WOOD Group)
esk devask zvody a.s.
Kasalova Pila
Pila Krnov, s.r.o.
Pila Pask

Locality

Region

15

Hungary
BACKGROUND
Map 5: NUTS III regions in Hungary

Source: http://lazarus.elte.hu/hun/maps/regio.gif

Map 6: Afforestation of Hungary

* the forest areas are marked with green


Source: http://lazarus.elte.hu/hun/maps/moteljes.htm
16

BIOMASS POTENTIAL
Table 24: Forestry biomass potential in Hungary
Forest area

Region (NUTS3)

thous. ha
1,9 million

Country total

Forest use

Energy yield rate

%
60

Potential

GJ/ha
84

PJ
62

Table 25: Wood-processing biomass potential in Hungary


Region (NUTS3)
Country total

Processed wood

Waste share

mil. m3

11

Energy use rate

Potential

%
40

PJ
62

Table 26: Main biomass and energy potential in Hungary


Total biomass
PJ

Energy use potential


% or GJ/ha, per year
Forestry
160
62
Main product
140
40 %
56
By-product
20
30 %
6
Energy crops
250 GJ/ha, per year
75
Agriculture
780
132-265
Main product
410
10-20 %
40-80
By-product
370
25-50 %
92-185
Total
940
269-402
Source: Mrnk jsg (Engineers magazin) XIII./7., July / 2006

PJ

Table 27: Biomass utilization potential and volumes in Hungary


Quantity
Energy potential
thousand tonns/year
PJ/year
1
Straw
2400-2800
28-34
2
Corn-stalk
4000-5000
48-60
3
Grape-cane, fruiter scobs
350-400
5-6
4
Energy grass
500-600
6-7
5
Energy crops
1200-1800
25-30
6
Biogas substrat
8000-10000
7-9
7
Rape for biodiesel
220-250
3,5-3,8
8
Corn for bioethanol
2000-3000
24-27
Source: Biomass Energy from the agriculture conference, 2005, Nyitra; Zoltn Ggs (bioenergetical
commissioner): Biomass potential and utilization in Hungary
Nr.

Biomass type

17

Table 28: Biomass potential in Hungary

Cereals total
Wheat

Million
tonns
13,7
5,2

Secondary
product
Cattle
Swine

Thousand
peaces
800
4900

Thousand
tonns
640
560

Maize

6,5

Sheep

1100

80

Oily seeds

Poultry

19400

80

Other industrial
Fibrous forage
Vegatables
Fruits
By-product
Root
Grass, reed

3,3
7
2
1
28-30
8-10
3

Horse

70
26300

60
1420

Forest
Total

9
75-77

Main product

Manure
Litter manure
Liquid manure
Other animal
products

Tertiary
product
Solid organic
Communal
sewage
Hazardous
waste
Food industrial
waste

Million
tonns
5
17
0,5
1

7 000-8 000
3 900
4 000-5 000
3 000-3 500
10 00011 000

23,5

Sum-total
105-110
Total live wood
250
amount
Total primer
350-360
product
Source: Biomass Energy from the agriculture conference, 2005, Nyitra; Zoltn Ggs (bioenergetical
commissioner): Biomass potential and utilization in Hungary

Table 29: Heating costs in Hungary (1 = cca. 275 HUF)

Heating type

Boiler
efficiency
(%)

Coal firing
Wood firing
Bale firing

60
65
55

Gas firing
Pellet firing

85
85

Pellet firing
85
Source: www.energiafu.hu

Fuel
Type
Lignite
Firewood
Energy grass
bale
Natural gas
Energy grass
pellet
Wood pellet

Efficient
calorific
value
8,3 MJ/kg
9,1 MJ/kg
8,2 MJ/kg

24 HUF/kg
23 HUF/kg
12 HUF/kg

2,89
2,51
1,46

Heating
seasons fuel
price
(HUF)
218 195
189 505
110 230

28,9 MJ/m3
14,6 MJ/kg

81,4 HUF/m3
33,6 HUF/kg

2,82
2,27

212 910
171 385

14,6 MJ/kg

36HUF/kg

2,46

185 730

Fuel cost

Thermal
energy price
(HUF/MJ)

Note: gas price is valid for domestic costumers with < 20 m3/h consumption from 01/08/2006, for other fuels 20%
increased (from original table) cost considered. Source: www.fogaz.hu

18

TENDENCIES OF MARKET DEVELOPMENT TOWARDS THE USE OF BIOMASS


TECHNOLOGIES
Table 30: Current Use of biomass for heat and electricity in Hungary

Number
of installations up
to 50 kW

Number
of installations 50
- 500 kW

Number of
installations
0,5 1 MW

Number of
installations
over 1 MW

Energy
generated (per
year, eg. 2004)

Installed
capacity
MWel

MWth

GWh
(El.)

PJ
(Heat)

Total Heat in year


36,7
2004
Total Electricity in
956,6
year 2004
Source: Biomass conference, 2005, Vrtes; Ferenc Bohoczky: Renewables utilization in Hungary;
http://www.vert.hu/hirek/050601_biomassza.htm

BIOMASS FUELS
Table 31: Producers of briquettes and pellets in Hungary
Producer

Locality

Fuel
(pellets/briquettes)

Europellet Hungary Kft.

Ft, Hungary

Wood pellet

Bio-Brikett Kft.
Mohcsi
Farostlemezgyr Rt.

Sopron, Hungary
Mohcs, Hungary

Wood briquett
Fibre board briquette

Production
capacity?

In
operation
since

Comment
The pellet
production is in
Romania

1991

Table 32: Wood processing companies in Hungary


19

COMPANY
HOLZWERK Kft.
KANIZSA FRSZ Fafeldolgoz Kft.
Nyergesi Fafeldolgoz Bt.
VILMNYI-FA Fafeldolgoz Kft.
Balatonfelvidki Erd - s Fafeldolgoz Rt. Devecseri Erdszet
Balatonfelvidki Erd - s Fafeldolgoz Rt.
Balatonfelvidki Erd - s Fafeldolgoz Rt.
Balatonfelvidki Erd - s Fafeldolgoz Rt.
Balatoni - Fa Fafeldolgoz, Kereskedelmi s Szolg. Kft.
BALATONI FA Fafeldolgoz, Kereskedelmi s Szolgltat Kft.
C + T Fafeldolgoz Kft.
Csszri Fafeldolgoz Kft.
Cserta Frsz Fafeldolgoz Kft.
DD - FA Kft. Frszzeme
Egererd Erdszeti Rt. Mtrai Erd s Fafeldolgoz Gazdasg
Erd - s Fafeldolgoz Gazdasg Rt. Balatonfelvidki
Erd - s Fafeldolgoz Gazdasg, Balaton - felvidki
Erd - s Fafeldolgoz Gazdasg, Balaton - felvidki
Erd - s Fafeldolgoz Gazdasg, Mtrai
Erd - s Fafeldolgoz Gazdasg
Erd - s Fafeldolgoz Gazdasg
Erd s Fafeldolgoz Gazdasg
Erd s Fafeldolgoz zem
F & F Fafeldolgoz s Faforgalmaz Kft.
FA-CO Erdszeti Szolgltat s Fafeldolgoz Kft.
Fagus Fafeldolgoz s Szolgltat Kft.
Fakitermel, Fafeldolgoz s rtkest Kft.
Hafner Fafeldolgoz Kft.
Holz Fafeldolgoz Bt.
HORVTH Fafeldolgoz Kft.
Ipoly s Vidke Erd - s Fafeldolgoz Gazdasg
Ipoly s Vidke Erd - s Fafeldolgoz Gazdasg
Kesjr Fafeldolgoz s Forgalmaz Kft.
Kiskunsgi Erd - s Fafeldolgoz Gazdasg
Kiskunsgi Erd - s Fafeldolgoz Gazdasg
Kiskunsgi Erd - s Fafeldolgoz Gazdasg
Kiss Fafeldolgoz s rtkest
Ladnybenei Fafeldolgoz Kft.
Ladnybenei Fafeldolgoz Kft.
Ladr s Domn Fafeldolgoz Kft.
Mtrai Erd - s Fafeldolgoz Gazdasg Erdszet
MVFAVD Faanyagvdelmi, Fafeldolgoz, Szolgltat s
Kereskedelmi Kft.
MONTANARI Hungary Ipari Fafeldolgoz Kft.
NA - BO Fafeldolgoz Kft.
Par Sndor Fafeldolgoz zem
Rozmaring Fafeldolgoz Kft
RV Fafeldolgoz Kft.
Szalai Fafeldolgoz s Kereskedelmi Kft.
VERFA Fafeldolgoz s Kereskedelmi Rt.

ADDRESS
9825 Oszk, Fafeldolgoz.
8800 Nagykanizsa, Csengery u. 88.
2536 Nyergesjfalu, Pala u. 2.
4220 Hajdbszrmny, Kls Hadzi utca 14.
8460 Devecser, Ppai t 23/1.
8230 Balatonfred, Tncsics Mihly utca 19.
8296 Monostorapti, Petfi Sndor utca 34.
8308 Zalahalp, Klterlet
8342 hid, Petfi Sndor utca 19.
8342 hid, Petfi t 19.
4334 Hodsz, Szchenyi utca
2858 Csszr, Kossuth t 1.
8957 Csmdr, Vast utca 6.
7838 Vajszl, Fafeldolgoz 3.
3300 Eger, Kossuth Lajos utca 18.
8330 Smeg, Sarvaly
8500 Ppa, Szent I. t 28
8316 Vllus, Klterlet
3245 Recsk, Vrbkki utca 3.
6096 Kunpeszr, Erdsz utca 2.
6412 Balotaszlls, Fzespuszta utca 90.
8083 Cskvr, Tompa utca 3
4242 Hajdhadhz, Liget utca 3
9143 Enese, Rzsa utca 4
2730 Albertirsa, Homokrsz I.ker. 43/a.
4096 jtikos, Vasvri t
3994 Bzsva, Vrs Hhadsereg u. 13.
6723 Szeged, Etelka sor 1.
4224 Hajdbszrmny, - Bodaszl, Klterlet Hrsz. 1009/1
7841 Smod, Iparterlet t 1.
2632 Letks, Rkczi utca 1/b
2634 Nagybrzsny, Vlgy utca 51
5600 Bkscsaba, Bksi t 46-48.
6032 Nyrlrinc, II. kerlet 159
6041 Kerekegyhza, Dzsa Gyrgy utca 117.
6239 Csszrtlts, Sport tr 7.
4200 Hajdszoboszl, Tokay utca 45
6045 Ladnybene, Orszgti dl 11.
6723 Szeged, Rzsa utca 20/b
2750 Nagykrs, Fekete dl 536.
3124 Zabar, Utaspuszta
1132 Budapest, Visegrdi u. 9.
9911 Magyarszecsd, F u. 100.
1161 Budapest, Plya utca 93
9533 Nemesszalk, Dabronyi utca 3
8247 Hidegkt, F utca 16
2300 Rckeve, Bke utca 8.
8999 Zalalv, Krmendi utca 1.
8200 Veszprm, Jutasi t 10.

20

ROMANIA
BACKGROUND
Map 7: NUTS III regions in Romania

Map 8: Forest cover map of Romania

Source: Forest Research and Management Institute


21

BIOMASS ENERGY POTENTIAL


Table 33: Biomass potential (TJ) in Romania
Region
Dobroudja
Moldavia
Carpathians
Transylvanian Plateau
West Plain
Subcarpathians
South Plain
TOTAL

Biomass
wood forestry
451
1,728
19,552
8,721
3,622
13,034
2,133
49,241

Wood
wastes

Biomass
agriculture

Biogas

Urban
wastes

269
802
8,049
3,482
1,603
5,366
861
20,432

13,422
37,071
17,506
12,956
24,761
40,849
54,370
200,935

1,477
2,462
1,231
2,954
4,432
3,693
8,371
24,620

910
2,370
1,640
2,740
1,825
6,570
6,750
22,805

Total
16,529
44,433
47,978
30,853
36,243
69,512
72,485
318,033

Source: ICEMENERG

Map 9: Wood waste biomass distribution map in Romania

Region
Available biomass potential
Total biomass consumption
Inhabitants number

Source: Romanian Agency for Energy Conservation

22

Table 34: The forestry biomass potential by NUTS 3 regions in Romania


Region (NUTS3)
Country total
Bacau
Botosani
Iasi
Neamt
Suceava
Vaslui
Braila
Buzau
Constanta
Galati
Tulcea
Vrancea
Arges
Calarasi
Dambovita
Giurgiu
Ialomita
Prahova
Teleorman
Dolj
Gorj
Mehedinti
Olt
Valcea
Arad
Caras-Severin
Hunedoara
Timis
Bihor
Bistrita-Nasaud
Cluj
Maramures
Satu Mare
Salaj
Alba
Brasov
Covasna
Harghita
Mures
Sibiu
Ilfov
Municipiul Bucuresti

Forest area
103 ha
6222
260.281
52.503
90.054
239.464
416.283
72.998
25.5
150.416
36.547
40.221
95.473
177.403
266.113
20.192
110.97
34.939
24.017
138.078
26.803
77.996
251.705
137.523
53.7
266.97
194.595
377.464
334.804
100.093
178.849
175.548
156.566
265.408
74.244
97.879
209.308
182.93
151.605
253.583
191.501
187.345
23.568
0.561

Forest use
0.74
0.69
0.77
0.73
0.70
0.65
0.81
0.93
0.65
1.00
0.92
0.95
0.78
0.75
0.94
0.70
0.85
0.89
0.76
0.83
0.89
0.84
0.78
0.91
0.72
0.68
0.85
0.82
0.69
0.75
0.67
0.80
0.72
0.74
0.68
0.72
0.81
0.80
0.72
0.72
0.71
1.00
1.00

Energy yield rate


GJ/ha
10.65
11.05
10.52
12.79
16.62
20.29
9.43
19.93
9.91
5.82
9.08
7.07
11.69
8.81
27.51
11.95
14.19
22.26
9.86
10.48
11.18
5.86
6.20
7.69
6.90
10.64
8.34
5.98
11.46
8.44
12.94
5.34
9.97
8.38
5.59
5.97
10.56
14.22
14.78
15.48
8.85
16.11
0.00

Potential
PJ
49.2
1.98
0.43
0.84
2.79
5.49
0.56
0.47
0.97
0.21
0.34
0.64
1.62
1.76
0.52
0.93
0.42
0.48
1.04
0.23
0.78
1.24
0.67
0.38
1.33
1.41
2.68
1.64
0.79
1.13
1.52
0.67
1.90
0.46
0.37
0.90
1.56
1.72
2.70
2.13
1.18
0.38
0.00

23

Table 35: Biomass potential from wood processing by NUTS 3 regions in Romania
Region (NUTS3)
Country total
Bacau
Botosani
Iasi
Neamt
Suceava
Vaslui
Braila
Buzau
Constanta
Galati
Tulcea
Vrancea
Arges
Calarasi
Dambovita
Giurgiu
Ialomita
Prahova
Teleorman
Dolj
Gorj
Mehedinti
Olt
Valcea
Arad
Caras-Severin
Hunedoara
Timis
Bihor
Bistrita-Nasaud
Cluj
Maramures
Satu Mare
Salaj
Alba
Brasov
Covasna
Harghita
Mures
Sibiu
Ilfov
Municipiul Bucuresti

Processed wood
103 m3
13,324
758.99
35.21
198.88
827.46
1,044.59
79.55
133.02
226.92
99.11
79.55
76.29
234.74
535.99
76.29
138.89
18.26
50.21
355.37
40.43
106.94
370.37
267.34
49.56
458.40
513.17
758.34
446.01
224.31
293.43
472.74
251.04
720.52
322.12
79.55
461.00
514.47
500.78
631.19
487.09
342.98
41.73
0.00

Waste share
%
30 %
30 %
30 %
30 %
30 %
30 %
30 %
30 %
30 %
30 %
30 %
30 %
30 %
30 %
30 %
30 %
30 %
30 %
30 %
30 %
30 %
30 %
30 %
30 %
30 %
30 %
30 %
30 %
30 %
30 %
30 %
30 %
30 %
30 %
30 %
30 %
30 %
30 %
30 %
30 %
30 %
30 %
30 %

Energy use rate

Potential

PJ

60 %
60 %
60 %
60 %
60 %
60 %
60 %
60 %
60 %
60 %
60 %
60 %
60 %
60 %
60 %
60 %
60 %
60 %
60 %
60 %
60 %
60 %
60 %
60 %
60 %
60 %
60 %
60 %
60 %
60 %
60 %
60 %
60 %
60 %
60 %
60 %
60 %
60 %
60 %
60 %
60 %
60 %
60 %

20.4
1.164
0.054
0.305
1.269
1.602
0.122
0.204
0.348
0.152
0.122
0.117
0.36
0.822
0.117
0.213
0.028
0.077
0.545
0.062
0.164
0.568
0.41
0.076
0.703
0.787
1.163
0.684
0.344
0.45
0.725
0.385
1.105
0.494
0.122
0.707
0.789
0.768
0.968
0.747
0.526
0.064
0

24

Table 36: Agricultural residues - biomass potential in 2004 in Romania


Land used for
production

Crop

Technical potential Energy content Energy equivalent for


for energy utilization
heat generation

103 ha

t/year

MJ/kg

PJ

Wheat and rye

2,317.8

2,467,344

14.5

35.78

Maize

3,274.1

11,341,417

17.39

197.22

Sunflower

977

1,246,652

8.02

10.00

Tobacco

5.9

5,985

0.05

Rape

49.7

49,302

10

0.49

Fruit trees

223.3

65,916

10.5

0.69

Vineyards

251.1

284,130

10.5

2.98

TOTAL

247.21

PRESENT BIOMASS UTILIZATION


Table 37: Current use of biomass for urban heating in Romania
Number of
installations
0,5 1 MW

Number of
installations over 1 MW

Installed capacity

Energy generated
(per year)

MWth

TJ (Heat)

45

80

Total Heat in year 2004

Source: Strategy for Renewable Energy Sources Utilisation

10 m

Figure 2: Evolution of export of wood residues, chips and particles in Romania

Source: National Institute of Wood

Table 38: Market prices for fossil fuels (/tcc) in Romania


Fuel price
(2005)

Lignite

Hard coal

Fuel oil

Natural gas

50

85

172

175

25

Figure 3: Evolution of market prices for fossil fuels in Romania


200

Euro/tcc

150

100

50

0
1997

Source: Termoelectrica

1998

1999

Lignite

2000

2001

Hard c oal

2002

2003

2004

Natural gas

2005

Fuel oil

Figure 4: Annual heating costs (1 = cca 3.57 RON) in Romania

electricity
LPG
fuel oil
national reference
heating price
geothermal
natural gas
0

50

100

150

200

250

300

350

400

RON/Gcal

26

TENDENCIES OF MARKET DEVELOPMENT TOWARDS THE USE OF BIOMASS


TECHNOLOGIES
Table 39: Future trends of biomass use for heat and electricity in Romania
Planned installed capacity
MWel
Total Heat
Total Electricity

2003 - 2010
2011 - 2015
2003 - 2010
2011 - 2015

Expected energy generated


(per year)

103 toe

GWh (El.)

3,249.8
3,487.8
190
379.5

1,134
3,654

Source: Strategy for Renewable Energy Sources Utilisation


Comment:
It is evident that great amounts of small-sized wood are obtained in wood industry. But utilisation of this wood for energy
purposes is insufficient due to difficulties related to gathering, processing and transportation. Actual studies show that these
wood wastes are economically viable resources and must encourage the activities, which assure production of pellets and
briquettes taking into consideration an environmental benefit.

BIOMASS FUELS
Table 40: Briquettes and pellets producers in Romania
Producer
Raland SRL
PHOENIX COMPANY
SA
Massiv Forest
Products SRL
Ecolemn SRL

Locality
Miercurea Ciuc,
Harghita County
Miercurea Ciuc,
Harghita County
Buchin, Caras Severin
County
Caransebes,
Caras Severin County

In operation
since

Fuel (pellets/ briquettes)

Production capacity

Pellets

6t/h

2004

Briquettes

0.4 t / h

1997

Briquettes

5000 t / year

1995

Pellets

50 - 100 t / day

2004

27

Table 41: Biggest wood processing companies as sawdust and wood residues producers in Romania
Company
ALPITEX SRL
ARBORIA MANUFACTURING SRL
BIOPLANT SRL
BRAFOR SA
CREDIT PROMO SRL
DAVMET PROD SRL
DIVIP PROD
ECOMED INTERNATIONAL SRL
ELMOB INTERNATIONAL SRL
EUROFOREST EXIM SRL
EUROSILVA COMP SRL
EXPO DAN SRL
FILDAS 95 SRL
FORESTA MUSCEL SA
GBC AGRO FOREST SRL
GLOBALWOOD SRL
GRECEANU FOREST SRL
IRIS SERVICE CIUC SA
LPC METAL WOOD DORNA SRL
LZ FOREST SRL
MASSIV FOREST PRODUCTS SRL
MCH INTERNATIONAL SRL
MOLDSILVA SA
NORDCOM SRL
PERFECT WOOD SRL
PROLEMN SA
ROM FORESTINVEST S.R.L.
SMART SILVA SRL

Locality
Pitesti
Bucharest
Brasov
Brasov
Ramnicu Valcea
Seini
Braesti - Cornu Luncii
Bucuresti
Pitesti
Targu Neamt
Busteni
Ceahlau
Campina
Campulung Muscel
Resita
Gheorghieni
Macin
Miercurea Ciuc
Vatra Dornei
Miercurea Ciuc
Buchin
Baia Mare
Suceava
Cluj Napoca
Spantov
Reghin
Stalpeni
Bragadiru

Region
Arges
Bucharest
Brasov
Brasov
Valcea
Maramures
Suceava
Bucuresti
Arges
Neamt
Brasov
Neamt
Prahova
Arges
Hunedoara
Harghita
Tulcea
Harghita
Suceava
Harghita
Caras Severin
Baia Mare
Suceava
Cluj
Calarasi
Mures
Arges
Ilfov

28

SLOVAKIA
BACKGROUND
Table 42: Basic characteristics of Slovakian NUTS III regions
Name of the region
Bratislava region
Trnava region
Trencin region
Nitra region
ilina region
Banska Bystrica region
Presov region
Kosice region
TOTAL

Surface area
(km2)
2 052
4 147
4 502
6 344
6 801
9 455
8 981
6 752
49 036

Population
(2004)
601 132
553 198
601 392
709 350
694 129
658 368
796 745
770 508
5 400 000

Agricultural land (ha)


95 640
293 850
186 440
469 641
246 827
418 921
385 458
337 973
2 434 749

Of which
arable land
75392
263833
99055
407127
63446
166917
150307
204519
1 430 594

Forest land
75 428
65 202
220 661
96 131
377 941
462 536
440 455
266 572
2 004 927

Source: Statistical Office of the Slovak republic

Map 10: Afforestation of Slovakia

29

BIOMASS POTENTIAL
Table 43: Potential of forestry biomass in Slovakia
Region (NUTS3)
Slovakia
Kosice region
Presov region
Banska Bystrica region
Zilina region
Trencin region
Trnava region
Nitra region
Bratislava region

Forest area
ha
1 930 691
254 987
418 370
453 106
360 758
214 804
62 853
92 505
73 309

Forest use
0,74
0,79
0,8
0,69
0,59
0,75
0,97
0,95
0,92

Energy yield rate

Potential

GJ/ha

PJ

9,6
10
9,27
9,43
10,17
8,43
9,29
11,23
9,9

13,8
2,02
3,1
2,95
2,17
1,36
0,57
0,99
0,67

Comments:
Forest area land and average filings based on data from national forestry institute (2004 - 2005). For the forest use rate the
regional mountainousness, as indicator of lower accessibility, as well as other kinds of forests (protective, special purpose
forests) were considered.

Map 11: Biomass energy potential from forestry in Slovakia

30

Table 44: Biomass potential from mechanical wood processing in Slovakia


Region (NUTS III)
Slovakia
Bratislava region
Trnava region
Trencin region
Nitra region
Zilina region
Banska Bystrica region
Presov region
Kosice region

Waste share in
the region
%

Waste amount
mil. m3
1600,00
48,00
64,00
192,00
80,00
368,00
400,00
336,00
112,00

0,03
0,04
0,12
0,05
0,23
0,25
0,21
0,07

Energy use rate

Potential

PJ

50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50

11,2
0,34
0,45
1,34
0,56
2,58
2,80
2,35
0,78

Map 12: Biomass energy potential from wood-processing industry in Slovakia (mechanical processing)

Table 45: Energy crops biomass potential in Slovakia

Country total

Land suitable for energy crops

Yield rate

Potential

thous. ha

t/ha

PJ

45 000*

12

6,3

* medium term; in some analyses about 170 000 ha is expected for cultivation of energy crops

31

Table 46: Agricultural residues biomass potential in Slovakia


Crop
Cereals total
Maize
Sunflower
Rape seed
Gardens
Vineyards
Seeding from grassgrown
Total

648 568
113 200
61 010
103 285
9 425
10 898

Straw (biomass)
yield available for
energy in t/ha
2,66
5,9
3,6
2,0
3,9
2,0

Biomass
production in
t/year
729 000
668 000
220 000
206 000
37 000
22 000

74 820

2,0

149 000

Land used for


production in ha

1 021 206

2 031 000

Energy equivalent for heat


generation
TWh
PJ
2,8
10,4
2,61
9,4
0,81
2,8
0,82
2,9
0,9

3,1

7,94

28,6

PRESENT BIOMASS UTILIZATION


Table 47: Present wood biomass utilization for energy production in Slovakia
Total current
biomass utilisation
in energy sector
(thous. tons/y)

Current Biomass
utilisation
in Energy sector
Energy
equivalent (TJ/y)

Current average
selling price
direct price from
supplier (EURO/t)

Forest wood-chips production (wet:


40-55 %)

2004 - 25
2005 110*
2006 190**

238
1 045
1 805

25 30 (including
transport costs)

Wood pellets (2006)

25 - 30*

430 - 525

Wood briquettes

2003: 40
2006: 50*

850

Fire wood, forest residues (2004)

700

6 200

Industrial wood residues used for


energy

460
sawdust 130 and
cut-offs 330

6 000

Wood from agriculture (gardens,


vineyards, etc.)
Wood from municipal sphere
together
Wood from SRP (no matter
whether used as chips, pellets or
other purposes)

160 - 190 (price


with VAT, mid 2006)
93 - 130
28 - 50

Current market
price of the end
product- fuel
costs
(EURO/GJ)
6
11- 12,5
6-8
2,5 - 4,4

Wet sawdust:
2,6-7,2 /m3
Cuttings: 5-7 /m3

Source: Forest research institut Zvolen, The Green Report 2005; Conception of agricultural and wood biomass utilization for
energy purposes, 2004
Comments:
* assumption
** forecast

32

Table 48: Annual amount of dendromass for energy purposes produced by forestry in Slovakia
Year
1990
2000
2003
2004
2005*
2006**

tis. t.
2
5
14
25
110
190

Forest chips
TJ
19
48
133
238
1 045
1 805

Firewood and others


tis. t.
TJ
%

%
0
0
0
0
0,1
0,3

368
471
546
597
620
645

3 496
4 475
5 178
5 672
5 890
6 128

0,4
0,6
0,7
0,7
0,7
0,7

tis. t.
370
476
560
622
730
835

Together
TJ
3 515
4 523
5 311
5 910
6 935
7 933

%
0,4
0,6
0,7
0,7
0,8
1,0

Source: Forest reseach institute Zvolen


Comments:
% - Percentage from whole consumption of energy in SR

* - assumption, ** - outlook

Table 49: Local market prices for fossil fuels in /GJ in Slovakia
Brown coal

Light fuel oil

Fuel entry

7,7

11

Heat generated

8,7

13

Natural gas
0,36 /m3
11,8 /GJ
12,3

Bottled gas

Electricity

18

12

19,5

13,8

Comments:
All prices are for households (average consumption 100 GJ) The heat generated depends on efficiency of boiler, here: brown
coal boiler- 60 %, coke boiler 65 %, wood, chips 80%, pellets 87,5 %, other 90 % and more.

Figure 5: Annual total heating costs for the house with annual consumption
of 100 GJ in 2005* in Slovakia
bottled gas
electricity - direct heating
electricity - off peak heating
coke
natural gas
wood chips dry (25 %)
pellets
brown coal
firewood (dry)
0

10 000

20 000

30 000

40 000

50 000

60 000

70 000

80 000

Annual heating cosst in SKK

* without considering the investment costs, 1 = appr. 37,5 SK

33

TENDENCIES OF MARKET DEVELOPMENT TOWARDS THE USE OF BIOMASS


TECHNOLOGIES
Table 50: Current use of biomass for heat and electricity in Slovakia
Number of installations
(only modern biomass boilers and stoves)

thousands

50 - 500
kW
250

up to 50 kW
Heat (2005)
Electricity

Installed capacity

100

over 1
MW
30

2?

0,5 1 MW

Energy generated (per


year)

MWel

MWth

GWh (El.)

PJ (Heat)

21,4
(2002)

400

33 (2004)
153 (2002)

15 PJ

Table 51: Future trends for 2015 of biomass use for heat and electricity in Slovakia
Number of new
installations
planned
Total Heat
Total Electricity

thousands
?

Planned Installed capacity

Expected Energy generated


(per year)

MWel

MWth

GWh (El.)

PJ (Heat)

60

NA
-

650

37 PJ
-

*new sources and co-combustion

34

BIOMASS FUELS
Table 52: Producers of briquettes and pellets in Slovakia

Agrorama
A-Holz
AMICO drevo
AVS Plus
BEKY, a.s.
Bimpex
BIOMASA Ass.
Bioterm
Branch of AVS Plus company

Sala
Kotesova (Zilina )
Oravsk Podzmok
Bratislava
Snina
Presov
Kysucky Lieskovec
Kralova Lehota
Krasno nad Kysucou

Fuel
(pellets/briquettes)
agri pellets (corn)
briquettes
pellets
briquettes, pellets
briquettes
agri pellets
pellets
briquettes
pellets

Debnr
Doka Drevo
Drepal
Drevodom Rajec
Drevo Prim Slovakia
Drevomart stolarstvo
Drevomax
Drevovyroba Rajec
EFERT
Excellent
Faba
Geotech
Globus Therm (AVS Plus)
Madleniak drevovroba
Nova BioTerm
Norba Plus
Palienergy
PD Jablonec
Pellet s.r.o.

Zarnovica
Banska Bystrica
Kezmarok
Rajec - Suja
Topolcianky
Malzenice
Rajecke Teplice - Konska
Rajec
Banska Stiavnica
Malacky
Banska Stiavnica
Ruzomberok
Malacky
Dulovce
Kralova Lehota
Nitrianske Rudno
Sladkovicovo
Jablonec
Hlinik nad Hronom

briquettes
briquettes
briquettes
briquettes
briquettes
briquettes
pellets
briquettes
pellets
briquettes
briquettes
briquettes
pellets
briquettes
briquettes
briquettes
pellets
pellets
pellets

Pellet Zipser (AVS Plus)


PFA

Spisska Nova Ves


Lozorno

pellets
pellets

Stolarstvo Kobelar
Sweedwood
Tatra Pellets (AVS Plus)

Leopoldov
Zavazna Poruba
Liptovsky Peter
Spisske Vlachy
Udavske
Zakamenne

briquettes
briquettes
pellets
agri pellets
briquettes
briquettes

Producer

Production locality

Production
capacity (tons)
500 t/month

Comment

2500

12 000
3 600
Close
production
2 200

4 500
2 500
1 200
2 200
3 000
2 200

??

4 500

2 500

Close
production
Planned
production

Comment:
This list of pellets and briquettes producers is not comprehensive, as the situation on the market is changing quickly. Data on
production capacity are only informative.
35

Map 13: Biomass pellets and briquettes producers in Slovakia

Table 53: Biggest wood processing companies (with sawmills) as a sawdust and wood residues
producers in Slovakia
Company
ANB
Bucina
PRP
Smrecina Fofatex
AMICO Drevo
Rettenmeier Tatra Timber
Slovlepex
Peky
Bukoza Holding
PFA
Medzevsk drevrska fabrika
Rapil
Drevostav
DCP
ACER Group
REVY

Locality
Zarnovica
Zvolen
Velky Krtis
Banska Bystrica
Oravsky Podzamok
Liptovsky Hradok
Dolny Kubin
Snina
Hencovce
Lozorno
Medzev
Dobsina
Ilava
Drazkovce
Machatince
Nitra

Region
Banska Bystrica
Banska Bystrica
Banska Bystrica
Banska Bystrica
Zilina
Zilina
Zilina
Presov
Presov
Bratislava
Kosice
Kosice
Trencin
Trencin
Nitra
Nitra

36

GREECE
BIOMASS POTENTIAL
Table 54: Potential of forestry biomass in Greece
Region (NUTS3)
Coutnry total
ANATOLIKH MAKEDONIA & 8RAKH
NOMOS DRAMAS
NOMOS KABALAS
NOMOS EBROY
NOMOS 3AN8HS
NOMOS RODOPHS
KENTRIKH MAKEDONIA
NOMOS HMA8IAS
NOMOS 8ESSALONIKHS
NOMOS KILKIS
NOMOS PELLHS
NOMOS PIERIAS
NOMOS SERRWN
NOMOS XALKIDIKHS
DYTIKH MAKEDONIA
NOMOS GREBENWN
NOMOS KASTORIAS
NOMOS KOZANHS
NOMOS FLWRINHS
8ESSALIA
NOMOS KARDITSHS
NOMOS LARISHS
NOMOS MAGNHSIAS
NOMOS TRIKALWN
HPEIROS
NOMOS ARTHS
NOMOS 8ESPRWTIAS
NOMOS IWANNINWN
NOMOS PREBEZHS
IONIA NHSIA
NOMOS ZAKYN8OY
NOMOS KERKYRAS
NOMOS KEFALLHNIAS
NOMOS LEYKADOS
DYTIKH ELLADA
NOMOS AITWLIAS KAI
AKARNANIAS
NOMOS AXAIAS
NOMOS HLEIAS
STEREA ELLADA
NOMOS BOIWTIAS

Forest land (ha)


2 000 746
288 864
105 694
39 875
82 539
24 734
36 023
349 412
40 529
42 496
23 789
47 966
44 026
65 558
85 048
197 442
67 937
49 066
37 438
43 002
225 090
47 646
50 481
46 685
80 278
178 718
18 592
14 108
143 372
2 646
6 424
950
43
2 297
3 134
141 928
87 809
33 863
20 257
300 526
16 409

Forest use
%
97,45
1,00
1,00
1,00
1,00
1,00
1,00
1,00
1,00
1,00
1,00
1,00
0,96
1,00
1,00
0,99
1,00
1,00
0,97
1,00
1,00
1,00
1,00
1,00
1,00
0,98
1,00
0,95
0,98
1,00
0,96
1,00
1,00
1,00
0,93
0,96
0,95
0,95
1,00
0,99
1,00

Energy yield rate


GJ/ha
8,14
14,66
17,84
8,16
11,12
19,95
16,96
15,56
12,83
16,49
40,35
23,40
8,66
12,50
10,96
8,68
3,59
11,47
4,98
16,76
9,23
13,29
8,53
4,93
9,75
4,71
2,87
1,91
5,31
0,00
0,00
0,00
0,00
0,00
0,00
3,30
3,46
2,28
4,29
3,60
0,00

Potential
PJ
27 104
8 304
711
673
275
719
5 925
7 678
545
392
1 935
1 030
547
1 063
2 164
4 585
176
429
208
3 772
3 208
671
398
396
1 743
316
41
261
14
0
0
0
0
0
0
1 444
111
44
1 288
1 226
0

37

NOMOS EYBOIAS
NOMOS EYRYTANIAS
NOMOS F8IWTIDOS
NOMOS FWKIDOS
PELOPONNHSOS
NOMOS ARGOLIDOS
NOMOS ARKADIAS
NOMOS KORIN8IAS
NOMOS LAKWNIAS
NOMOS MESSHNIAS
ATTIKH
ATTIKH
NOMARXIA A8HNWN
NOMARXIA ANATOLIKHS ATTIKHS
NOMARXIA DYTIKHS ATTIKHS
NOMARXIA PEIRAIWS
NHSIA
BOREIO AIGAIO
NOMOS LESBOY
NOMOS SAMOY
NOMOS XIOY
NOTIO AIGAIO
NOMOS DWDEKANHSOY
NOMOS KYKLADWN
KRHTH
NOMOS HRAKLEIOY
NOMOS LASI8IOY
NOMOS RE8YMNHS
NOMOS XANIWN

86 600
79 308
71 127
47 081
171 997
17 240
57 740
36 666
30 191
30 161
46 778
3 764
15 266
13 199
14 549
46 785
0
0
0
0
24 993
24 993
0
21 792
1 303
6 894
239
13 356

0,99
1,00
0,99
0,93
1,00
1,00
1,00
1,00
0,99
1,00
1,00
1,00
1,00
1,00
1,00
1,00
0,63
1,00
1,00
1,00
1,00
1,00
1,00
1,00
0,20
1,00
1,00
1,00
-0,31

3,88
3,37
4,87
2,84
2,47
0,12
5,60
0,82
0,08
2,24
0,00
0,00
0,00
0,00
0,00
0,00
0,00
0,00
0,00
0,00
0,00
0,00
0,00
0,00
0,00
0,00
0,00
0,00
0,00

306
239
228
453
344
7
206
25
2
105
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

Table 55: Biomass potential from wood processing in Greece


Region (NUTS3)
Coutnry total

Processed wood

Waste share

mil. m3
3 000,00

%
0,10%

Energy use
rate
%
30%

Potential
PJ
3

Table 56: Annual total and utilizable potential of dendromass for energy purposes in wood processing
industry in 2004 in Greece
Kino of waste
Dry wastes
Wet wastes
Liquid wastes
Total

Total potential
t
PJ
300 000 *
3

Utilizable potential
T
PJ
150 000
1,5

Present energy use


t
PJ
70 000
0,9

300 000

150 000

70 000

1,5

0,9

* Most of wood industries in Greece burns only sawdust with a ratio : 1m3 = 100-120 kg

38

Table 57: Agricultural residues biomass potential in 2004 in Greece


Crop

Land used for


production in ha

Straw (biomass) *
yield available for
energy in t/ha

Biomass
production in
t/year

Straw
273,400
2.8
765,520
Maize
55,021
2.1
115,544
Sunflower
6,159
3
18,477
Barley
720,817
2.1
1,513,716
Gardens
5,518
20
110,360
Vineyards
131,792
4.9
645,781
Oil Trees
1,002,534
2.8
2,807,095
Oat
97,790
6.7
655,193
Rice
3,634
4.5
16,353
Cotton
375,599
5
1,877,995
Tobacco
56,007
1.4
78,410
Trees (Lemon, apple..) **
362,586
4.3
1,559,120
Total
3,090,857
10,163,563
* Wet quantity of Biomass
** The Avarage price or range: min. max. price of LCV of about 10 kind of trees

Energy equivalent for


heat generation
TWh
PJ
3,8
13,7
0.6
2.24
0.072
0.26
7,5
27,1
0.3
1.05
3.4
12.23
14
50,5
3,2
11,4
0,1
0,3
9,5
34,1
0,4
1,3
7,2
26
50
180

PRESENT BIOMASS UTILIZATION


Table 58: Present biomass utilization of wood biomass for electricity and heat production in Greece

Wood-chips
Wood -pellets
Wood briquettes
Forest residues, fire wood
Industrial wood residues
Wood
from
agriculture
(gardens)
Wood from SRP (no matter
whether used as chips, pellets
or other purposes)

Total Biomass
production/
utilisation (t/y)

Total Biomass
production
Energy equivalent
(GJt/y)

Current average
selling price
direct price from
supplier (/m3)

Current market
price of the end
product
(/GJ)

673,384 *
70,000
544,358 **

13,530,200
930,000
8,736,400

29.5 (/ton)
16.3 (/ton)

Current
technical
utilizable
potential
(PJ)
-

* = 1,010,076 m3/year
** = Including about 2,300 small oil factories, and 39 seed-oil Industries

39

TENDENCIES OF MARKET DEVELOPMENT TOWARDS THE USE OF BIOMASS


TECHNOLOGIE
Table 59: Current Use of biomass for heat and electricity in Greece
Current use up to 2004

Total Heat
Total Electricity

* Number
of installations up
to 50 kW

* Number
of installations 50 500 kW

* Number of
installations
0,5 1 MW

* Number of
installations
over 1 MW

0
0

8
0

13
0

65
0

Installed capacity

Energy generated
(per year, eg.
2004)

MWel

MWth

GWh
(El.)

0
0

422

PJ
(Heat)

0
0

38
0

* The number of installations consist only the wood industries, not the small olive factories and the oil seed Industries
Type
Wood
Paper
Lime factory
Cotton
food
Agricultural
Olive
Domestic

Instaled Capacity
(Kcal/h)
85.383.000
6.000.000
5.000.000
102.000.500
15.950.000
4.190.000
144.273.600
na

Instaled Capacity
(MWth)

Consumptio
n (tn)

Calorific Value
(Kcal/Kg)

Heat Generating
(TJ)

99,3
7,0
5,8
118,6
18,5
4,9
167,8
na

65.885
0
4.540
26.818
9.800
195
437.120
na

3.300
3.300
3.300
3.500
3.650
4.500
4.000
na

867,1
0,0
62,7
341,0
142,8
3,7
7.319,1
29.393,0

Table 60: Future trends of biomass use for heat and electricity in Greece
Number of new
installations
planned

Planned Installed capacity


MWel

Expected Energy generated (per year)

MWth

Total Heat
3
0.16
14
Total Electricity
Combined heat and power (CHP)
Number of installations
1
Installed capacity
5.6 MWth (already in operation)
Planned capacity
0.16 MWe (with construction licence)
Co-firing Installed capacity (year)
0 MWh
Planned capacity 0 MWh

GWh (El.)
-

PJ (Heat)
-

BIOMASS FUELS
Table 61: Biggest wood processing companies (with sawmills) as a sawdust and wood residues
producers in Greece
Company
SELMAN S.A., - WOOD INDUSTRY
MOURIKIS WOOD INDUSTRY
BALKANEXPORT S.A.
ALFA WOOD SA
AKRITAS S.A., - WOOD INDUSTRY

Locality
Chalkida
Korinthos
Thessaloniki
Larisa
Alexandroupoli

Region
Evia
Peloponnese
Thessaloniki
Larisa
Evros

40