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Shri Moola Ramana Nitya Nele


A critical study of "Moolaramastu Manmathe"

Edited by:
Dr. Krishna Kolharkulkarni, Vijayapura.
Shri R. Jagannatha Rao, Bengaluru.

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Raghavendra swami matha after the great
Sri Raghavendra swami ..... GX X.

philosopher

saint

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| viii

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| ix

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| xi
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| xii
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| xiii
2.

1993 J D P hP W JX.
(My further ten research papers by Dr. B.N.K.Sharma 2002)

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| xiv

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| xv
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| xvi

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| xvii

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| xviii

a|
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| xix
1.

2.

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The''Vyasayogicharite'' of poet Somanatha gives it's name as''Vishwapavana


Matha'' . probably signifying it's origin from Visva the first name of the lord amoung
his thousand and Pavana Yayu viz., Madhwacarya. ( AO @)
- Page 5, Vijayeendravijaya Kavya of Madhvakavi,
Edited and Publlished by Dr. B.N.K.Sharma, 1994

| xx
1.
2.
3.

4.
5.
6.

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PX.
P, Por P BX. D P Zo v.
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W O C.
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A C BP A AW AP C.
Mahamahopadhyaya

Prof.K.T.Pandurangi
Former Prof. of Sanskrit., Bangalore University.

| xxi

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(1949 2014 W ) s AP SP CW
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| xxii
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| xxiii
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| xxiv
Q.. 1493
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| xxv

PP w ............................................................................................. iii
w .................................................................................................... v
................................................................................................ xxiv
1. JPR~P ..................................................................................... 1
2. P .................................................................................... 5
3. ""-b-'' -S- -- ................................................................ 24
4. ""gg'' P ............................................................. 32
5. ""AaWP'' P .................................................................. 48
6. Zg ................................................................................ 51
7. P|W ............................................................................... 61
8. Xg ? ........................................................................ 65
9. u| ...................................................... 69
10. A| W| ................................................................................. 80
11. ? ............................................................................ 88
12. | bW o ............................................................................. 91
12. ................................................................................... 121
14. P| aP .......................................................................... 133
15. W A ................................................................. 138
16. P Whp .......................................................................... 156
17. GWP CwP CwP........................................................... 159
18. "" a...'' .............................................................. 161

| xxvi
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Record of the Archeological Survey of India Vol XII - (Edited by Prof. Sten
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II - Samvat 1499 (1578 AD) & O PoX. . 345 PoX
: Z W s PwPv S
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A P g P Q. . 1480&1600 G
FP. 1949 A ES W P G W,
A P gg ES Q. . 1600 1949 W G .
A T P v>> .G.P A
D P PX W W. I have not had access to the
Vijayindra Vijaya of Madhvakavi mentioned in Gurucharite in any manuscript library.
(Dr. B.N.K Sharma - A History of Dvaita School of Vedanta and its literature, Vol
II pp 169, - 1961)

""Wa EU P gg U
P v W '' Pv A v>> G.P. Oa,
$ _ W C o 2 o 281 (1987)

""gg'' P |

33

D orPv D P P W |
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35

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36

C. i (1992) G P (PP: W
s, ZW s, . SP:
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G .
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Pv, 2005).
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g o, Q 52, ...


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oW w. s Gv P gg
@ C PPW C AW P PX w.

""gg'' P |

41

b 1

b 2

b 3

b 4
b 5

.s P o 134 gg P.
b 1 b 2W P. b 2 b 3
C 30 PW X.
b 4 b 5 C
6 PW X.

D b PW .s P o 134 gg C.

|
42

D b PW .s P o 134 gg C.

""gg'' P |
43

D b PW .s P o 134 gg C.

|
44

D b P .s P o 134 gg C.

""gg'' P |
45

46

aP, W! A d U J J C
38 PW W W P PW
vXPR C.
C Pv W X:
1. C PW GW?
2. PW PT W WW g P|
P PW WWX o v?
3. W Wv P GW?
4.
5.

D P Cr bcor Wpr?
D P AP AQ&AW, &PW s
PPR P|?

6.

ggP A (PoO& Q..2003. Z


, gWv. AP& W
s ) W P (Es)
A| r P~ (3/26). B .s SP B
Q.. 1493 Z P I Pv EU
Wy g ?
D P WgW GW (5/36)
s X B ?
G ggQR
b SW? SW A ggPR ?

7.
8.
9.

A| P, W |P W
.s P BW d PR, ggPR,
bPbcW W W?
10. W v aorW Por IP
WY ggP aP G P|?
D G WW EW. A .s P X C
b A A. A Gv rX Pv
vX G W.

""gg'' P |

47

D P or P w v>> .G.P A Pv
My further ten research book (2002) Page 45 W &
Raja Gururajachar and H.K.Vedavyasachar had access to VIJAYINDRA VIJAYA
Kavya of Madhva kavi. One wonders Why then neither of them had taken trouble
of getting it published? Why should they have supressed material evidence?

B D P H Wy AW C C G W.
W, W, q~P g
Q, Z |X X D P-. D G
D P A~P G P W.

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bX G X D P --&
--- A----| Zo v GPR J P G .s
P Pq (18), A B. B P .
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hv g G F .
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C or W HPP ES G W. D P|W WY D
PX b PW ES C W D PX
Ab PW ( QW ) ES
A W. C D P .
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C E s . B , - - - - -
|W |X. s W
C P BP s C P v WW C. |
.
4. D P rW |W G qr.

A |Ph >
Wa [@ >>
( h G.Wa A& W BW
s gaO Pq&1994.)

""AaWP'' P |

49

A. rW Go G |, |
W E |P, g d a
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WYPP a @ @ >
$ urP >> 157 >> 1
WYPtX W @ @ Q .
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gj @ gW >> 28 >> 2
c @ ArTP@ @ acP O &
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h r@ @ >> , 2&40
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M. Wsu .. G Go
qrW... (15 w) GX rW T Gp
1. OP |, P W AP: B..aU,
P: W Zu, v., 1999.
2. P |, P: v>> P ga,
P: u, 2009.

50

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a PZor v Zo W. B D P
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y $ a h i >
APW$ | | P >> 11 >>

52

P gPg >
ar |~ a@ >> 12 >>
A Pb WP q Wy@ >
APP o >> 13 >>
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P AP >> 14 >>
A @ P $ >
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A-P--- EU WW W PX
X EU.
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B, C W P 19, 20, 21 O P
X W
A @ >
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iZ@ @ @ >
U b W@ >> 20 >>

Zg |

53

gX @ >
P Q h WQ$PW >> 21 >>
PW PX a
g w .19 , i, i
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P . 20 , g
P 21 ~.
aP W! a X
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B AQ C W. Z ES w
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W.
A, s . A
aW EU

54

ES w PW I W W
WO G BW.
s AXP W W iW
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PW gW
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W, W w G Pv.

BbP P AW

g W ?
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PR G A g A. W
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EUQ. B A EU. A D
W. X g W
Por ? G Pv. B A.
C s s g BX ac.

Zg |

55

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s C s C J
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b 1

b 2

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AP
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56

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TW EX. A Cb T J. C
T. B T D P O vW PR G
A D W r v.
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PW (19,20,21 g X PW)
EU D P P| G WW
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EpW.
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Zg |

57

D. s AP P Wa (1949), ,
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B ""P|'' G PR PX
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P| X G G
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(P 57, 58& W 9)
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& P W PX Es
gX W WY bX. (g C.) D
gPW ES ""'' A ""Xg'' G
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WPX. (.. P AW P|.)

58

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P Aw ""ZW i
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PW A A A W i'' G
A v A? B ZW
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2. ""a g ..'' G Z g P
w. A ""Pb
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G W C G W. A D P ZW
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G "" EWW R'' G''
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|X. C X C C. WX
W G W BW... CX WW R G
A P.

Zg |

59

$ W W BW- >
a P >> (: w o 193)
4. ZAr G P E A ""K
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& ZW

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60

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P|W
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b. C
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A |P W RP

>> 34 >>

>> 37 >>

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O u hQ @ >
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bX.
b Qp h|W, GvW PP|,
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62

3. g -b ""-X '' P & .


P QWhj W

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B 2: G.q. b W
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4. W P ()&
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a|W Whj h gN Pq
P J QQ~ Zq
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PP W

B: ZZ&39 ; a: h Wha,
P: h.G.gWa; PP: ZW s, , 2004

5. su P ()
P~P Gv P | > W Whj [W
> Por > s PR
WW >> 4 >>
P ...o WW >
B|X P P A > P w
b Pqr > A aS
i > su >> 5 >>
B: ZZ&39 ; a: h. Wha,
P: h G. gWa; ZWs, ; 2004)

6. AaWP &
s PO P >> 12 >>
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.
C BW EUX P|W CW
s r P|X.

P|W |

-a-P W-----P A...

63

BW AaWP G HPP BP
""vs, EQ, Pv or'' G P|W s
. C P WW |@ s@
|@ . B s JPv Es
C. D W s W
C. A AaWP EU -P-|-W -WY
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B D AaWP d PW b G
Pw iW .
Bc s APX Pq ""'' G
P (ZZ &39 & a: h.
Wha, P: h.G.gWa, PP:
ZWs, & 2004) A Pqr AP BW
P|W Es
s C. A, . h. G. Wha
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BW .

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( s W, sW B b Pv.)

|
64

Xg ?
s APSP . .h.G. Wha
Agg G P(07) ""Xg h P'' G
P G .
A s W G P ( No. I, Vol 1) D
d.
D B Xg
iX A B hW G
A BX. D P| B WY A v|
D O :
J PW A P AXPP,
a W.
A) B EpW C. P or CT
P. GPR PW.
B) W PR whether or such other documentary
evidence is a genuine one or a spurious one G | v.
W.a. C PW Q..1949
bqr.
B Q.. 1917 a CT E
AP D ~P W PRW G |.
APR P|W .
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1917 X. 1944 P BX
P D Pq.
A o 71 &
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s J WP: J W''
G ESW D X. C P 1412, |
B PPR W G .

66

Q.. 1917 (M.A.R. 1917, Para III, reproduced in


P. 77 & 78 of the annual report for the year 1944) D P
JPR|P C cWW w D ~P WY
G |.
D W o 77 &
W . J X. JPR~P gW A
P EX Pp W wPv
W Xg hWX W s
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Pqr X.
w S TW :
1. gW A P w Pqr W
W PwX. B D W .
2. D G W W PwX. B C J X.
3. P Q.. 1509. A EX Pp
W Q.. 1513. B D X P 1412 A
Q.. 1490. (A P gWQR 19 )
4. G W SX P Por P, , CW
D .
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s b SW (.s. 133) rX
>> W -----X G. P 1412
BX. (| >>) B P 1412QR bX A
P 1348(Q..1426) X.
P 1412 (Q.. 1490&91) Por P
(Donor) PR W Pvqr ( Donee) A
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PX. C hW vPX AW
HP C.
B P 1412 b S G. D
WW W.a. (CX 2008) G AW W~.

Xg ? |

67

w C
A S "" JPRO

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ESX WY H PR BW.'' G .
D G P|W Rv W A JPROW |P
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CT | XPPR A G
(Certify) wP. P|W , S P
G | w A B W .
Q.. 1917 q o PvX.
Cr P|W s TW bcor,
P S WPR , Wg b.
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G |W.

Xg WY P

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a g a
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s C. A Ba g ES
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68

Q.. 1917 P Pq P O (M.A.R. 1917,


Para III, re-produced in P. 77 & 78 of the annual report for the year 1944)

u|
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70

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u| | 71

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= B G A w. s
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72

"u|' AX, A a .
P W "u | a
W. W C P EP Es
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u | AX. (.s P o 131)
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u| | 73

5.

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128

Hari. page No. 67

Wa, Pv
Wa, CX A
Q| a qPP WW Touring all over south, he reached the Brindavan of his
TvPR X A 1388 By guru on the fifth day of Ashadha Krishna in Vibhava
Samvatsara in AD 1388, attained the lotus feet of Sri
P a . &o 106

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129

Heaving a sign of relief about repossessing idol of Moola


Rama ''This is the day of great fulfilment and relief for
me. Page 82

Wa, CX A

was performing Mahasamsthanapooja.'' (page no. 71 and 72)

After being bestowed ashrama, Vibudendratheertha himself

Wa, CX A

Wa, Pv
Wa, CX A
W (W) h v Pv P D CX
W A @Sor. &o 116
C.

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Wa, Pv

Pv P D C.

Wa, Pv

Sripadaraja'' as desired by all saints and scholars.

Sri Lakshminarayanayogi was conferred the title of

held under the presidentship of Sri Vibhudendra theertha,

""There are clear proofs that in the seminar of Scholars

D X EU Pv P C
C Awq~ X -.

a Sreepada, he is a Sreepadaraja''. page No. 75

Wa, Pv
Wa, CX A
X Q$| XW E In view of great scholarship of Lakshminarayana Yogi
w w Z, W which Raghunathatheertha looked upon as superior to
his own, Raghunathatheertha declared in praise If I am
A g . & o 118

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Sri Yadavarya had advised Srinivasacharya to place his

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In addition, he so kindly honoured me. page no. 185

Srin : No. The Swamiji blessed me beyond my imagination.

no. 184 & 185

Anandatheertha especially amidst your family life''. page

really are noble to be so dedicated yourself to the works of

in conformity with the doctrine and greatly helpful. You

the books and appreciated Srinivasacharya saying "this is

his books pleading him to vet them. The Swamiji examined

Srinivasacharya prostrated before the Swamiji and placed

blessings. In compliance with his elder brother's order,

literary works before the Swamiji for his perusal and

Wa, CX A

130

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131

page no. 194

reasons.

Dictionary : False reason, motive put forth to hide the

Note : Pretext- meaning of this word according to Webster's

them for sometime.

of MoolaSeethaRama under the pretext of worshipping

persuaded with their help and took possession of the idols

eagerness to some villagers got those prominent villagers

Vidyanidhi who came later on his tour, revealing his

nodded my head to say yes. That is all.

after a period of two years, two months and two days. I

was certain that I would reach the abode of Lord Sri Hari

offering me reverence once again, he asked me whether it

he paid his respect from the space. I too reciprocated. While

was departing from his world in a Vimana. On seeing me,

was all about. In reply, said the Swamiji ""Krishnadwipayana

incomprehensible, the disciples curiosly enquired what it

offered his reverence with his hands elapsed. As it became

Samvatsara. Suddenly getting up, he looked at the sky and

on the day of pournima of Jyestha Suddha in Soumya

The Swamiji had sat discussing Vedanta with his disciples

'conspiracy'

or treason.'

PR A Pv Pv P

means 'acting secretly for unlawful purpose such as murder

Note : The word 'conspiracy' according to the same dictionary

who were part of the entourage of Ramachandratheertha.

Therefore. vidyanidhi conspired with sixty three employees

132

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THE TRADITION OF MAHASAMSTHANA G EU.

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Sri Vibudhendra's branch was subsequently called as Raghavendra swami matha


after the great philosopher saint sri Raghavendra swami..... GX X.

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"Akshobhyatirtha who according to the local chronicles and pillar inscription (Now
lost) at Mulubagal (kolar dt) is said to have encountered the great Vidyaranya,
the teacher of the founders of the Vijayanagar empire and defeated him in the
interpretation of the upanishadic passage Tattwamasi. Visistadvaita scholar Vedanta
Desika being the madyasta (umpire) in the disputation'' G rX. WX,

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o 53&54 rX "Extract from Bombay Gazetter Chapter

was subsequently called as Sri Raghavendra Swamy matha...''


3.

III, P.No. 58-59, Edited and published by james M. Cambell Compiled During
1863 AD.

G X. (Editing X 1873 Pq 1884).

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E& In Modification of the earlier Notification dated... CX. A D
Who P 1959 & | w. D P
Whp (o 8) Who(Q.. 1884) w & It
contained authentic and useful information on several aspects of life in a distirict
and was considered to be of great value.....

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In the revised gazetter only a general outline of the practices and customs of main
sections of population has been given. After Independence the Ideological concept
of secular democracy has been altered.

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1. Surendra Tirtha of the Purvadi OR Sumatimdra matha who was the twelfth in
descent from Madhvacharya, the founder of the Dvaita School of Philosophy, was the
Spiritual Guru of Vijayindra. It is from him that he received the robes of Sanyasa....

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160

2.

The following is the traditional list of Svamins of this Matha as far as

a. Madhvacharya b. Padmanabha T c. Madhava T

d. Jayathirtha

e. Vidyadhiraja T f. Kavindra T

g. Vagish T

h. Ramachandra T

i. Narayana T

j. Vibudhendra T

k. jitamitra T

l. Raghunandana T

m. Surendra T

n. Vijayindra T

o. Sudhindra T p. Raghavendra T.

Raghavendra Tirtha :-

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The vyasa yogicharite of poet Somanatha gives it's name as'' Visvapavana Matha'',
probably signifying it's origin from "Visva the first name of the lord among his

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186

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192

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196

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197

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198

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D Whp Sri Jayateertha ruled for twenty-one years. His vrindavana
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199

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200

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201

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(o 51 55) (hW gs A d.)
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----g. A gs B ----
C EU. C P-v-W~- P PWW X
Z ""w W a'' GX EU
W ?

Es A Wa G P
BW APR W w Pqr. A "The translator
of this book should not rest satisfied with this book only, but should strive
to publish more such books frequently and continuously till all the false
propaganda is stopped and thereby enable the deserving souls to reach goal
of eternal happiness

202

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203

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CW W B WP BW
. P W PPW AW gPR Bc.
W P|@ |@ s@ |@
W AaWP. APRX CW
Es C G s J . B
Es |X G P
WPR Q Es DW AW
v. D WY gj GacP .

-&----W-- -E- --- u| EU.
XW Qo Q? sQ? Pv or Q? E Q
Q? G W W
- - E Pv P Es

.

bc WW w& P ""|bW o''

"" s'' BP WW |

205

8: Ba G WW W QoW
W QoQ?
E:

- A-- H? a G ---W
J - C--P G A---?

-X- B-a---- G ---W J , J A-, J


-| G? W - - C. --PPR -. G ---W-
--- W C D W C.

Qo J CP G A?

Qo W QoPR .
A PX AP PvW hw W D Qo
P|. Ba vP s W
s Qo C rX v.

W Qo CPR W Qo CP A ? D PR
AW. P D AW v.

A D W P Ba
. CW aS Pb aWW. P|
C W P|W C CP BW .

bc WW w& P ""|bW o''

9: u| P| PW
P|? WPPX b|W? WPP
|W AaWP HP |?
E: DW E----- u| P| ~
PW E-----X. B E-U-.

------ P-- -b-- WPP ""Pv|''-u|'' W ""R'' G b WW BX


E. WX PW Es B ~P
r. B BP WW P
BP.

A P-PR -b-- AaWP -


B---W- -v--X. D WPR ? X A

206

| G J s AP B
WPP W J P A Eo.

AaWP |W WPP HP |? G
P?
10. Es G PW t P borW
Pb Xa, t Pb
gg & s W.
E: C b B? W a WY S
g G PvW~W?
ZW WY Pv Zg s
G WW?

J P A S W |PPR
P PWo. C & |W AQ AW
? ? P? P ?
? ? CW w B
wPP. , B P A , A s
A A|. C. , s A
|. ac E G A.

A, g WY, gW
Z Por WY, q~P aW
""''G Por WY, P$ W B WY,
C SW s SWX G WY
P| P? D W WY s APSP .a.
P. a ""Wa'' A s SW, W
B G W PW G
W X aW Tv
G wv ? S C, wx GP|
W . A Por |W
W? A (AP SP) P?

(Ps S CSW WY bc WW w ""bc
BW'')

"" s'' BP WW |

207

aP ! W... C Wa @ | vW BW
g w PqW W oW QQ. A A
W w. Ar A s g
Ps (Wvs) SW Es s PP|s
B G D s S
() A JPW.
... P gW a w g P
P PW h w |
GX E. C .s SP D PX BP
11. W PR PWW P W.
P ga $PR Zs PvW G
P "" g g ES.
A T B s X.
B W W J r A A qW
BX T B W A~PX'' G Pq.
D WW EW W CX. (o. 70)
E: A) Q.. 1620 1670 A b G ... ,
PW gW P G A wPv
BP. B Pqr P A PaWv PX.
WX .s SP W BPP G
Pw. C v ?

B) v>> ga Pq WX.
""T B W A~P G |
P. J r A (W W)
qW B PW g W
C. P PW A P hW X
A qX P W EU.
W gW@
$ ZTb@ >
XP PPOP
W| ~ >> .8 .70

208

"" CPR WW Wi orv ""@''


G P Pw . C
Wior W WgW
P. C W ""PR'' G U P
vqr'' G T P .P.q.vX
Pq A|g o x, xi rX. P
vW s G P. WX D
P Q JPW. Cr IP P P
AW . D P AaWP W gg PWX
b W w AWP .s SP
X G W.

C) A D P WY C T WY q~P
W q~ ""aP |
W C gT..'' 8.9.13 GX EU
G D P A T ~P WY Gv .

12. Z ~ PW A WW
W W q r W S v
P|? B s W i
~P? (o. 71)
E: D BPW s PW RX G .
Zg G Gr ? J
G Bc. A Zg W
~ PW Z WY W A X PR
S WY aP P|? g
X ~ PW Z WY J P |
~ J P$X ? A X
E? Wgg B W
Zo W ZgP WY aP
G P G P? A Zg
a W , Z W ,
gW P W
w WY HP EU?

"" s'' BP WW |

209

G b T
ES W. ( D T
Q$ a a w. B D T
Pa A P aX G W.) C
Es CP IP PW ES rX C.
13: W TW W, W, &
PW o. (o.72)
E: --------P- ------- ------W
---a-- 8 --W --- G --.
28 W ES w.

Pb ---, ---, --X-g-- W |& 5 --rW.
D P|PRX D 8 WuW r G Pw
. A E.

C WX hW G
r WuW E 28 GX --. B
D -W W .

W P O v W W
Pw. J , J Q J J W| C G
W C W E W|W C G Av .
W v&
1) GX J , A
GX C . J B .
B, . C B .
B WW GP?
2) Zg Wg PW
EU. WP|
G?
3) P, a Z G P EQW
Pp C C
GW, ZW C |,
a C GW AW?

210

W . W J r P CW
G A v. A X J r P
CorPv P, W ,
G P.

14. A P Wor AP w s
S P. D WW v?

""c @ > a >> Q|


S @ > pra...''G Wa X.
B WW W hX P AP
JX G Gr qrW ? bf G A
W SX? (o 73)
E: A. D APR AW C C |? W
s sWW (--------W-) W
G APX A A qr? AP W ?

D b GW
AP wP. (04-&07&2006). W A
WW W S AP g P r P|X.

"" s'' BP WW |

211

B. PP| g
B WPv P W i
G s ? Wa C rX
S.
C. "Wa' G W gWw G >> .G.P.
. A B .G.P A Es AP BPW
w. A A s B W | G
J Wa sW PW AP W
(.G.P. ) bcqrP? Wa WY
H G g v gP P? W P
P i~PW or v wPv
1949 ""a '' G P
Pqr a r . A hw W
?

C Wa W AW P bcqr P AW,
W X
1. a, A , , sPR A,
W a X.
Pp WW W@ >
a >
@ >>
2. ------- B- -P-- | G w W
v-s C- G-v P--- -w J -|
or G---W Por J -i---.
W-- -w P-| ------- A- v-o
w --- ---. BW -- ---|---W-
----- -W -v ---. A- ""---
--- G --. W -'' G ---.
D |W P wW B W Es
Wv Pog S . BW
B W w JPv B P
W Por W X .

212

------- ----P-P@ >


P- --P-~ -Ww---W- >->
---- --- ---O--@ >
-$ --s -- >
P- P-- .......
@ -| -or -X----@ >
HP -- W- -W@ >>
-g- HP-| - --a-P >
--a --R--- --Ww@ >
------ B-- --P >
....................
--P--W v - >
------ - P$ -Y- >
-a --@... ....................
A-P ------ >
--- C- A---- >
-- --P$ - ---- >
.................
---O-S--P -W---- >
------ --a --- >>
--W@ -$ --W --- >
.............
3. D |W | J wW B
PW b P~P E W QR
G v.
aW |@ >
>
~ Wa|P@ >
Z @ P P~ >
P .....

"" s'' BP WW |

213

v>> .G.P. Wa P P P.

4. gW D A W W v
G W A Ep. BW g QW
A s C v AO w.
5. g Q$|WW Por Es
Z
6. Es W ZW q (O Pqr)
B ZW WW Es
Por A s.
C ESW D P.
aP ! W... D ""Wa'' W WY bc AW.
v>> .G.P. gWv s W D P P
AW wPw. A P P|X.
A AW Wv A P AW
C W w.
B Wa G P | Q Es
BP v A P s QW P
AW s GPW.

214

15. A BP
A Wgv AX PW P
W v. P
. W W Pv
G W E, X
A AQP ....... WW aW
A v W? (o.73)
E: W ZoW AW G C P.
a A W A
AP s sW P|. WX A
aW A w? B D PWW HP?
W a ? G
W ?

W A W w g PR J .
C WW A?

g or W |WX w
W a ?

a P A PW G A| wW
a AW X A v B PW
g g v G P g
P|. B g P C W| W vW
g C C A BP|
B W qrW v. D Zo Agg
G P EU. W g a
BP| aX vx?
aW A w? W .
W.
B P-| ------ --W - ------ qrW
Z-o aW -- A-- -w-
B-W---. D G a AW D G r
W G W.

"" s'' BP WW |

215

16. ""Ar @'' G P S,


AP, |W C W? aPb Xg
Pb GvX HP
w? D GvPR ""|b-'' G HP P.
&W J P W?
(o.74)
E: Ar WY C --W AW. D P
""A-r--@'' G. b ----- P
""rrr@'' GX . Ar
G-X -. B-- -W----W h-W -W- B---W,
-W--h----W, -W- - ------ --W- C-W-
---. C Ar G C-or-Pv C-.
W P BW. S C
? EO AZ P- W?

hW GX P. W D
W
hP| h >
r$ h a >> 13.5 >>
PW G WP
Pqr.
-qrPP, Z, Z P
P C FW hWW (PW
) a P W ?
PW aW
QR Xg S X.
A a i. B A .
W AW
a i. B AW A .
X g W D G v "" |&
b'' G P A Lb|X. ""|'' E
G A ""|'' G XP X.

216

""|b'' G | Ab
G AW. a, C | C.
A SX | E . A Q$ |
E. WX ""|b'' G Pb,
Pb, Pb W Pb G G AW W
""|'' G .
Xg W aPb G A
""|'' G EX. B Gv PvW
| G A g BX.
A, ""|'' GPR a G J A w
P. ""Pb''G N s
""Pb'' G AW. W |b G
Pb G AW.
a EW C
WPP AP Pv Pqr.
W o SPW OXP.
17. Es Gv W . W
28 T W? (o. 77)
E: ""'' W P| A 28 W
G |PR P? b W W AW|X
Ab WWW AP WW A~P
G AW.

""WP--P@'' G |wa
a W b W
T 37 G AP w C. W
Gv W acX 28 G
C GX X. B W B
AP Pu .

A-, ----- G-v -|-W E--S- -w-. -|-W-
- G-v --W-- EP| -P -v --. B--
-- - 30 TW -- --.

"" s'' BP WW |

217

a P "" ..''
G P "" a '' GX |
. a | ~ GvW
GX EP| PP G TP
.

D -PPR -T--v --Z---- -$-P-~-P- ""--
---- -$-'' G, d- --a- ""---P --
C- -'' G ---.

C-- --- -W A---w-- -- C-.
18. P? G wPv H
A PW w. (o. 78)
E: P? G AP PPv PW
v gW v .

P? G wPv ""u|''
""P'' G EQW X C BPW P
G'' G .s SP . C B
E BP u|PR AaWP X
G JPv. P ""a''
Pqr u| b AX G
u| Pqr. D Gv
W H . A Por u|
(o 131) ""P'' G C.

A, P P G
s C G W. C
.s. SP a W G W P|
AW HPP E CorPw G r.

P W P G A W

B P .
B A P.

iPRX B P| A
B P. A B W

218

Caf P. C w BW
B W . D AW A ""P''
G X.
- - - - P G - G - P - - . A-
E --u------|- - P G -r--X----
B --|PR A--W-|-X A-- -v--P.
W B P bor G
AaWP .
Aa a PO (P 12). B u W
u| P C. WX b
u W u|WW Ab D AaWP
X G A J. (@ u| W
u|W J BX. J W Gv W
w.)
s | G J WW P W
P G G v P W D W
s P A C.
D C sW iW aPb W
EPX EU AW Es
Es C s W
or w gPR A. a gQ. (A
.s SP C ? G P.)
Es P G
Pw. A ? A A C PWX
PPWW $ W P ?
Ar A, P G
PR s C C sW
hW aPb W W
C G W. W A P G .
J J Q X ~ PR C W QW
.

"" s'' BP WW |

219

Ps G P PR C P PW W,
W w G .

AOa ZW ""WP
Z '' GX ZW
(A ) CW B C GX . B CPR
ZW or E , ,
, $, g, W,
gW, WW W W|W
C G P? C.

Cr C w C BPWW E Pv .
19. ""Pb W Pb WW E
W'' G Pv P|. (a
P Es h vW o
Xg E Pw EU
P X. C AX 11 PvX.)
(o. 81)
E: Es W s B B W
Cor i r P bP v . D P AP
b gPW J X EU W.
D C E.

C sW A-- a W B sW BP
w, G PqrPv Es
BP| vP r w. C Po .

D W SP AP PW w aP v
w. C A?

Pb&Pb W C W Pb W
W C G A?

Pb&Pb W o PW Cor C Pb
W o W CvP G ?

Pb&Pb W o PW Cor C Pb
W o W CvP GPR |W C?

220

Pb&Pb W o Cor C Pb
W o PW Cv A G ?
AP sW (@ G sW) aPb W
or GX B Ar A o
W Cor i C C. (W: D
s.)
D W
SP s, |s, gsW
w.
B sW h o W Cv P ES
w. D sW h s h EU.
s Pb o E, Pb
hW.
|s aPb o &
, aPb su hW.
gs o W PbW a&
Pb B WP, aPb
pr o w i.
GX EU. D sW r Por SP H
? G rW.
D sW W Cv P EsPR PX G
A? sPR APX G A? Gv W.
SP E D sW W W
W A A Pb BX. B B WW
W X. B o &PW
Cor P. Es &Pb W o
, aPb B , su W
rW Cor i. B SP E
sW rW EsPR P A A.
D sW r sPR AP BX
D sW s h SP EU.
A gW. HP, s ho W
Cv Q$| aPb A. P P A

"" s'' BP WW |

221

W J "" Pg >
r| Q$| >>'' (AaWP, 33) gPb
G P AP. GX P A.
A A aPb G Sb.
C o W W Cor B v
v W J A P Ab
G ""Q$a r > rh
@ P >>'' (AaWP, 32) A A Cor
Pb&Pb G P W PX Cv
W EbW? SP C sW o W Cv
W aPb, Pb CX rX EU
s o Wv Q$| PW
Ab? G P ES w? C h| hP ?
B C sW h o BaPb W E
Cv C, s B C G r.
20. , , g WW
BW G J ? C C
i G A? a WW
BW |, , , WWW .
W AP r W
OWW R. (o. 84&85)
E: D BPWW E .

J J PZor C GPR B PZor B ES
P P, CW A B G W~W.
A B B PZor & C G. Q B PZor
cX C G B | . B ES
A GX A C P$W wP
P E v. C C P.

Es C GW .. P
EU , , Wa| PW
Es B sW i GPR
r BW.

222

Es C GX q~P,
W , ,
. A W B
G A B W Pv C r BW
Es C GPR BW BW.
D R W
i, WW W
i G C A.
qP q ~ W B R B s
A JP G G . B A
|W C BW A |W.
.s SP g, , Z, E,
, , C W PX
QW P EU? B B W i G
B GX AW EU. Es
SP w BPW SPW AW? HP
""QW W i G EUqr
B W i. C i G?'',
"" QW B
C G '' CX BP .

W EZ
W C W A|.
W EZ
G , W AP r ,
s ""W G AP'' G
AOa APW? a, W W
G !
s W aPW (&
W) Pv ""hy'' ""a '' G
|W g, aP W
E\W?!!

"" s'' BP WW |

223

W, qPPW, gW X &
WW T w. a PR T v P
. ZW, gWW WW
T w. X D C W
r G? W .
s , W, G G
G EU C?!! ? EU,
A a, W W E\W?
r W? C !!
A, D C C P| W Es
BW C BPW B Ep B E.
.s SP E H A PW r. Es C
P|W AsW Pr P|. A W G
G P G s Pq AP C PW
P|.
21. W P EP Pv Pr v... ...
... (B APW D P v) D WW
W W Pqr G P|. (o. 88)
E: W P s AP SP
""'' G P PW .h.G. Wha.
D P G P| W A P P. A
AW P (w 19) EsPR P W. A DW
A D BP.
22. h i? D A | J
W A|.
E hh ?

"" E h aW
JW a BW A i'' G P
Es CW E h s h
v P| a i G
.

224

E: E h h- Es X
vPv . C o?

W |X W
h.G.Wg Ba. A DW A| ?

C a h i G
Pv . bc A& w A WY C
BW vP AW C. . h.G Wha
P o.13 d ""C '' G
W P Gv w "" g g
Pv'' G h (g)
W rX EUX. Ar A w
B Pv B Ab SX
W. (D P J B
. B s | E D P h
P G
G G . A D P BX
, a A BW i
G D P a P X G .)

WX E h P
?! G W SP E PvP. EsW D
w "" . B A B
E'' G E Pv.
23. su P "" |'' G
s ""'' G s . APPRX X
P Pv P AW gW Eo
v ? (o. 92)
E: su P "" |'' G s
. ""'' G s G ""
-'' G P P v>>
. A ""'' s G
Pw. A a EU.

"" s'' BP WW |

225

""A W C "" ''


Gr. C W | G PX
PPv . Gv ""Z'' G WW
""'' G ''
"" '' . ,
P.gP s, . 2001

v>> .G.P B Pv H A P P.
C P g P| B W
G hPv W?
24. ""B...'' G P
G C. (o. 94)
E: ""B...'' G P ----- ---
-|--W--- D P--- C W aPb
XgW | r. B-- ------ --X-g---- -i--- G --- C --|--W--.
CP BW, QW Xg
W ES rX C C.
25. WPP P ""PP QpQp'' G WPR ..
WP ""AQo'' Pw G X A hPw.
Ar P|W D P W Xg
P|W W? CPR X b PW,
A QW |WPX? Ab v
a Xga W
g PX E.
E: ""PP QpQp'' G g. PW AP
QoW . BP| C PW G .
Xg Qo P|. C b Qo
""A'' G AX. W W CW C
AW Pr .

Es Xg C GPR W PP
a a g, , ,
$P, W, g,

226

W, P PW W g ""X
...'' G P, "" a'' G
P r ESW. CW 5 PW g&
PW, AaWP W|QR aWv PW
WP. a E AP W,
PW G | C. D G BW
Ab AaWPPR W g G P PW
. A g P "" |'' GPR
"" s'' GX A SP W P A
PR aW? gW @ Pc ""'',
""|'' G Gv WW ""'', ""s'' G A. C
Ar P|W D P W Xg
P|W W? C SW W
g Eb.

AaWP PPR, g W X b WW&
C? A | a C? C. B
WPP PW Pv | W R WW
| E. PW or.

P a P W
A|P|W . D A| ""g''
s G P|W WY A a C. ...Pqr
G C BW .

g P Xg ""CW |''
GX ~. CWPR PW S (|P)
| J Qo GX A Pv . Xg
g D Gv W | B g A
Pv. D |W |PR Es
Xg W D | .
26. "" ...'' G P aPX X
G X. D Q J s W qr C
""A W'' G r W.
a W Eac PR ""Ws

"" s'' BP WW |

227

'' G ... WP WY
H?
E: "" ...'' G P aPX X. G
W? P g,
, g QW
, g, Z PX QW
. D
Q.. 1649&1710. A or W W ""
'' G Q S. AX A aP
S Q. B W W S.
A W QW S .

W SW B
Es s A gX X
G | . hW or W
B Q X.

W W S w
(""EsPR a WW '' G
aPR ) ""W'' G W''.
""J s W qr '' G BP AP W Bc!
J s W qr a b
W A B sPR (EsPR) WWW? J
W s CP? W
wW Es S PW w Gr
G Pw.
27. Po ""W '' G P 4 w WW
Por ""WB'' | PoW
W W?, AP ?,
PO[?, AP W W ?.... (o 112)
E: Po ""W '' G P 4 w &
WW Por ""W B'' | X WW SPW
iXorPv aW 5 PaW . W WW
a ""B W P w

228

WX P W
prW WPv P'' G B
AP@ Po D P G w
. ( X W Po
. B C $ W AP WY . D P
A vX.)

A~P gg P g P
P "" gX, i X
qr. ZX A'' G
P PW C W W? AP
GP? PO[? G X P E?
28. J P W? g PW ""WP
G W G'' G P &T
d C.
E: g Gv PW J G JPv P?
""W P G'' G P g
w W W . s
w B W sW, W PP,
w, r, a, r, wW. C
W g W P?
W W "" Pvw''
G BP?

g WW ,
W Awx BPW i s
J ( W i Jr)
A W s WW P,
? C. C ""P -H a'' Wr?
29. g "" g...'' G Q
""B W '' G G Pw. Ev Ar sW
C A sW A AP? Z G
C Lb? Gv w s WP
b X PR O ? W. (o. 113)

"" s'' BP WW |

229

E: ! .s SPW g D P W X G
P|. A C su P .
D PW WY O W
v P 1947 W b. C s
. WX . s . ( o. 113) SP P
Wwo Es BW. .s. SP P
W , W o Pv,
v DWW WwW.
a P DWW P Pq PW
PW E G W. A .. PP
Pv C.

a W E
PW P Es
sW W , C W B r.
B Por G Ab? D P Wv
E. .s SPW Wqr prX Gr
qrW Wqr? Ww? G, g Ppr
W @ Pv |, PR
i vXor W PP. C
qr-. i~PW C Es O.
30. J Q PW ""EsPR B Pqr'' G
Pw. J W BX P
A H? C Q @? A PP ?
E: J W BX P A H? C
Q @? A PP ? G WX
P. D W ""'' G W Gv (CaW
W W v W) P PW
ac P. D ""'' W WY w P ""W
A '' J W PvPR
A Q A a W
, gW, i W
W . C a Q @ G
.s SP W A?

230

31. gW ""B WW '' G Q b, s


A r . (o 117)
E: .s.SP gW (Es )
""B WW '' G Q WY ""C A
r '' G gWW Pqr.

.s.SP P Q.. 1444 a C a
b EsPR H v B G b
s (Es) W WW gW
P? W ? W w r
Pw G? Es WY C SPW gW
r BX P P|?

r G? C W|W, W
P rW
GW rW.

. s P w ( o xiii) s
a W EsW
. Bc gW W
q P W
EsPR Ep D P . C D P r$.
C W .s.SP P Pa w.

EsW a B a W
G ""gW P r
'' G .s.SP X. C QPR
PP .
32. PPR W, A
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Basic Principles of Carbon Dating :
Radiocarbon dating - Radiocarbon, or carbon 14, is an isotope of the element
carbon that is unstable and weakly radioactive. The stable isotopes are carbon 12
and carbon 13.
Carbon 14 is continually being formed in the upper atmosphere by the effect
of cosmic ray neutrons on nitrogen 14 atoms. It is rapidly oxidized in air to form
carbon dioxide and enters the global carbon cycle.
Plants and animals assimilate carbon 14 from carbon dioxide throughout their
lifetimes. When they die, they stop exchanging carbon with the biosphere and
their carbon 14 content then starts to decrease at a rate determined by the law of
radioactive decay.
Radiocarbon dating is essentially a method designed to measure residual
radioactivity. By knowing how much carbon 14 is left in a sample, the age of the
organism when it died can be known. It must be noted though that radiocarbon
dating results indicate when the organism was alive but not when a material from
that organism was used.
Radiocarbon Datable Materials
Not all materials can be radiocarbon dated. Most, if not all, organic compounds
can be dated. Some inorganic matter, like a shell''s aragonite portion, can also be
dated for as long as their formation involved assimilation of carbon 14 in equilibrium
with the atmosphere.

250

Samples that have been radiocarbon dated since the inception of the method
include charcoal, wood, twigs, seeds, bones, shells, leather, peat, lake mud, soil, hair,
pottery, pollen, wall paintings, corals, blood residues, fabrics, paper or parchment,
resins, and water, among others.
Physical and chemical pretreatments are done on these materials to remove
possible contaminants before they are analyzed for their radiocarbon content.
- BETA The worlds largest professional Radio carbon dating service, America

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PO P &
PW gP >
P g >> 2 >>
o XPp Zop >
ZoWbc o >
o Wsu
o W oq >> 3 >>
Po QW P g "" C PP''
G EY v v a
Pq Po APq PW G P Eo.
C Po SP
G P A rX
W hW G .

258

6. ----- P-

H C Q
>>>>
A P|&
P Pv C >
C W W
P~ Pv >> 1 >>
BW Z XW P
X P >
DW WP
W aX Pv >> 2 >>
A W
A W >
P P D WW P
~ >> 3 >>
Wv D C
W A P J >
W
D X >> 4 >>
J wW
W gWW T >>
A
J W w C >> 5 >>

Y|
P o >>
S Sw C P bc
X >> 6 >>
WW P W &
W s >>
XW P
Zq gj P >> 7 >>
g PPR D P PPR b.
C bX W P|X.

A 5: bc BW |

259

7. -P-o--su- P-
g >
bg E Pv >>>>
g D
B gW
Q >> 1 >>
W E P >
g D Q gW
>> 2 >>
A E|
A wWP| >
>> 3 >>
WWW X EW X
AW
W w A >> 4 >>
X >
W Xg
P P AP i >> 5 >>
qr h W pr|W
o v o P|P|P
qr Cr w >> 6 >>
Sb o >
W W
bg b >> 7 >>
W >
A A
W P| >> 8 >>
C w G
W Po s
a|W Q >> 9 >>

260

Posu g P . D P bX
C 77 321 . (. a Pqr C
a G P o 27 E$)

8. Ws P

Z WWW WW
W WPv >>>>
W
W Ba W
WW v w
W w >> 1 >>
Q(W) vv
CW
C E W B
w >> 2 >>
W Y| P
W P
WW
AW X iW P W >> 3 >>
B A EP i
W
P g vX
B PX G >> 4 >>
PW Pv Pv (Pv) W W
QP w
X AP v W P(W)
W s WW >> 5 >>

P s W 22 o (Pv).

A 5: bc BW |

261

9. s P

> u Pg >
Pqr, W| r >>>>
BW Z > Ar P >
gW @&
W g W| >> 1 >>
Pv
v >
PW Q$
W h >> 2 >>

a| P
| g
P v d
s >> 3 >>
(C gW wW P. W ac W
v.)
D G PW b W o.