Strength of Materials Principle Stress Examples

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Strength of Materials Principle Stress Examples

© All Rights Reserved

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Anda di halaman 1dari 36

to be determined. The bracket is made from standard

steel with a yield stress of 36 ksi.

Since there are both bending stress and torsional

shear stress in the circular bar section, the stress state

will not be uniaxial. This will require the use of

the stress transformation equations to find the principal

stresses.

energy failure criteria can be applied, and the total

allowable load, P, can be determined. For safety, a

factor of safety of 2 is required. Thus, the bracket

stress should not exceed 36/2 = 18 ksi.

It is assumed that the maximum torsional shear

stresses and bending stresses will occur in the circular

section at the wall.

The load P will cause a bending moment at the joint

between the circular and rectangular sections. The

equivalent moment or torque, T, at the joint will be

T = (6 in) P

This torque will cause a constant twist in the circular

section which will produce a torsional shear stress,

Equivalent Torque in the Circular

Section due to the Force P

in the Rectangular Section

Bending Stress

directions. The first will be about the circular section,

but there is no torsional stress in this section. Second,

there will be a moment reaction at the wall that will

bend the circular cross section. This moment, M, is

shown in the diagram at the left and is equals to

Bending Moment M and

Twisting Torque T at Wall

M = (6 in) P

The bending stress will be,

Both the torsional moment, T and the bending moment

M, cause shear and bending normal stresses,

respectively. If an element at the top of the circular

section is analyzed as shown in the diagram, the stress

state would be

x = 144.87 P

xy = 72.43 P

Stress State at top of

Circular Sections near wall

the load P, the failure criteria can be applied. For the

maximum distortion energy criteria, the following

relationship must be meet,

not forget the factor of safety), gives

(174.88P)2 + (-30.00P)2

- (174.88P)(-30.00P) = (36,000/2)2

Solving for P, gives

P = 93.91 lb

The final principal stresses are

2 = -30.00 P = -2.82 ksi

These principal normal stresses can be normalized

with the design stress, 18 ksi, to give

Stress Location on Failure Envelop

with Maximum Load P of 93.9 lb

This point are plotted on the failure envelop diagram at

the left.

MECHANICS - EXAMPLE

Example

gas and the stresses in the x and y direction were found

to be x = 150 MPa, y = 75 MPa, and xy = 0. However,

in actual use, the tank must also withstand a torque on

the cap that will introduce a possible shear stress in the

tank walls. This shear stress is in addition to the

stresses due to the tank pressure. What is the

maximum torque that can be applied if the vessel

material can only withstand a shear stress of 100 MPa?

The wall thickness is 15 mm and the outside diameter is

35 cm. Also, the maximum allowable shear stress for

the vessel material is 100 MPa.

Solution

Mohr's circle can be used to understand the solve for

this stress state by first finding the largest radius R for

which the shearing stress does not exceed 100 MPa

and then determine the allowable torque.

To draw the Mohr's circle, first the center should be

determined. Since, (x + y)/2 = (150 + 75)/2 = 112.5,

this will be at (112.5 , 0).

Assuming a radius R, the Mohr's circle is plotted on the

left. From the diagram principal stresses are,

1 = (x + y)/2 - R

= 112.5 - R

Mohr's Circle

2 = (x + y)/2 + R

= 112.5 + R

where R = | (1 - 2)/2 |

the shear stress does not exceed 100 MPa. This can be

found using "Maximum Shear Stress Theory" that states

that for any combination of loading for 1 and2, the

shear stress cannot exceed yld/2 = max. This condition

gives three separate possible situations that need to be

checked,

given, and not the yield stress. However, the yield

stress is simply two times the yield stress for a uniaxial

test. The three conditions become,

1st: | 1 | = yld = 2max = 2(100)

| 112.5 - R | = 200

R = 312.5 MPa

2nd: | 2 | = yld = 2max = 2(100)

| 112.5 + R | = 200 MPa

R = 87.5 MPa

3rd: | 1 -2 | = yld = 2max = 2(100)

R = | (1 - 2)/2 | = 100 MPa

of R is the minimum of above three.

R = 87.5 MPa

From the Mohr's Circle diagram corresponding torsional

shear stress is found as,

stress,

T = J / r

= [(79.06) (/2) (ro4 - ri4)] / (0.35/2)

= 124.2 [(0.35/2)4 - (0.35/2 - 0.015)4] / 0.175

= 0.2005 MN-m = 200.5 kN-m

MECHANICS - THEORY

Failure Thoeries

be easy to predict failure. All that would be needed was a

single uniaxial test to find the yield stress and ultimate

stress levels. If it is a brittle material, then the ultimate

stress will determine failure. For ductile material, failure is

assumed to be when the material starts to yield and

permanently deform.

However, when a structure has multiple stresses at a given

local (x, y and xy for 2D as discussed in Stresses at a

Point section), then the interaction between those stresses

may effect the final failure. This section presents three

basic failure theories that can be used for different types of

materials to help predict failure when multiple stresses are

applied.

Uniaxial Stress-Strain Curve with

Yield Stress and Ultimate Stress

stresses (1, 2) which can be determined from any

(x, y and xy) stress state. This removes the shear stress

terms since the shear stress is zero at the principal

directions. Using principal stresses does not change the

results from the failure theories.

The simpliest theory ignores any interaction between the

normal principal stresses, and assumes that failure occurs

when either of the normal stresses exceed the ultimate

stress. This is written as

normal stress as 1/ult and 2/ult. This gives a square

region where the stress state is safe. Outside the region is

failure.

Maximum Normal Stress Criterion

(Blue Regoin is Safe)

should not used for ductile material like steel, aluminum,

and plastics.

(Tresca's Yield Criterion)

the maximum shear stress exceeds the shear stress in a

simple uniaxial test. In a unixial test, the principal stresses

are 1 = x (axial direction) and 2 = 0 (transverse to axial

direction). Using the stress transformation equations, the

maximum shear stress for this stress state is

Thus, for any combination of loading for 1 and 2, the

shear stress cannot exceed = yld/2. This condition gives

three seperate possible situations that need to checked,

or Tresca's Yield Criterion

(Blue Regoin is Safe)

like steel, alumunim and plastics. The difficulty is that three

conditions need to be checked.

(von Mises' Yield Criterion)

The third theory looks at the total energy at failure and

compares that with the total energy in a unixial test at

failure. Any elastic member under load acts like a spring

and stores energy. This is commonly called distortational

energy and can be calculated as

or von Mises' Yield Criterion

(Blue Regoin is Safe)

general stress state can be compared to distortion energy

for a uniaxial test that fails at x = 1 = yld. This gives,

equation. It is also accurate for ductile materials. The

shape of the region is an ellispe that is rotated 45 degrees.

For 3D stress state, a similar calculation can be done

based on the three principal stresses, 1, 2 and 3.

Introduction

A new steel bracket was designed to support various

loads being hung from the end. The designer would

like to know what is the largest load that can be hung

on the bracket.

What is known:

2.

Question

What is the maximum load that can be placed on the

bracket using the maximum distortion energy theory?

Approach

bar.

circular bar.

(location of the maximum bending stress and

torsional stress)

Introduction

A new passenger plane is being designed with a

composite fuselage skin. The fibers will be placed in

four different directions; 1) along the length of the

fuselage or longitudinal (long) direction, 2) around the

circumferential (circ) direction, 3) 30o from the

longitudinal fibers, and 4) -30o from the longitudinal

fibers. The skin is made from multiple layers of

graphite reinforced epoxy, but the fibers are only

placed in the four directions as described.

What is known:

50 ksi.

Aircraft Fuselage Loading

stress, twist of 25 ksi.

Question

What is the normal and shear stress in the direction of

the 30o and -30o fibers?

Approach

the stress state to plus and minus 30

degrees.

MECHANICS - THEORY

Combined Stress (or Loads)

for a Cantilever Beam

(Element on Beam is Movable)

stresses were presented for beams. Recall, the

bending stress will cause a normal stress (either

tension or compression, depending on vertical

location) and the shear stress will cause a tearing

stress. Both of the stresses can act at the same point

and should be considered at the same time. Since only

linear elastic materials are considered in this eBook,

both stresses can be added together using the

principle of superposition. This is shown at the left on a

square element called a 'stress element'. This element

is really just a point, but to see the stress direction, the

point is shown as a square element.

Stress Element

multiple stresses acting at a point. Another possibility is

a pipe that is pulled, pressurized and twisted at the

same time. These three loads on the pipe will cause

tension normal stress in both directions (axial and

circumferential) and cause a twisting or shear stress.

All three loads and their associate stresses can be

combined together to give a total stress state at any

point.

for Pressurized Pipe

left. This section will examine a stress element to

better understand stresses at a point and how they can

be analyzed.

Positive Directions

other stresses. Normal tension stress in both the x and

y direction are assumed positive. The shear stress is

assumed positive as shown in the diagram at the left.

Shear stress act on four sides of the stress element,

causing a pinching or shear action. All shear stresses

on all four sides are the same, thus

xy = yx

Stress Rotation

In the Normal Stress section, stress on an inclined

plane was presented. It was noted that stresses are

not vector quantities, and are not rotated by just using

a single sin or cos function. For the normal and shear

stress on an inclined plane, the rotated stresses were

found to be

Stress on an Inclined Plane

also be rotated to give a new stress state at any

particular angle. The rotation angle, , is assumed

positive using the right hand rule (counter-clockwise in

the x-y plane is positive). The new coordinate system

is labeled as x' and y'. The new rotated stresses are

shown in the diagram at the left. The shear

stresses,x'y' and y'x, are still equal.

coordinate system to the original stresses in the x and

y coordinate. To do this, the original stress element is

sliced at an angle , as shown in the diagram at the

left. The stresses on the cut plane must be in

equilibrium with the stresses on the outside surfaces of

the stress element. Remember, nothing is moving, so

all stresses and their associated forces must obey

static equilibrium equations, F = 0 and M = 0.

each surface needs to be defined. The plane section at

the angle is assumed to have a basic area of dA. The

stress element is really just a point, so the area is

infinitesimal, or just dA. The other two surfaces are

based on dA. The bottom surface will be 'sin dA' and

the left surface will be 'cos dA', which are shown in

the diagram at the left.

Summing the forces in each direction gives

- x (cos dA) - xy (sin dA)

Fy = 0 = (x dA) sin - (xy dA) cos

There are two unknowns, x and xy and two

equations, so they can be determined, giving

xy = - (x - y ) sin cos +xy (cos2 - sin2)

The y' direction can be developed in the same way, but

the section plane is 90o offset. The final equation is

equations can be simplified to

To help visualize how the stress changes when the

stress element is rotated, the simulation at the left

plots x y and x y as a function of the angle. Notice,

the period is 180o. The initial stress state can be

changed.

A plane fuselage undergoes both a pressure and twist

load. This causes a tension stress in both the

longitudinal and circumferential directions and a

twisting load or a shear stress.

If a stress element is cut from the fuselage, the

induced stresses can be shown in a common x-y

coordinate system. This longitudinal, or x-direction

would be 25 ksi. The circumferential or y-direction

would be 50 ksi. The shear stress would be 25 ksi.

These stresses are shown in the diagram at the left.

The shear arrows in the diagram are in the negative

direction, and thus the shear is a negative shear

stress.

(Fibers oriented in 0o, 90o, 30o, and -30o)

For the +30o, the initial stress element is shown at the

left with the positive directions and thus the shear

stress is negative.

The stress element needs to be rotated 30o in the

positive direction. Using the stress transformation

equations, the stresses in the new x'-y' coordinate

system are

Initial and 30o Rotated Stress Element

Simplifying gives

y = 37.5 + 12.5(0.5) + 25(0.8660) = 65.40 ksi

xy = 12.5(0.8660) - 25(0.5) = -1.675 ksi

as for the +30o. Starting with the basic stress

transformation equations, gives

Simplifying gives

y = 37.5 + 12.5(0.5) + 25(-0.8660) = 22.10 ksi

xy = 12.5(-0.8660) - 25(0.5) = -23.33 ksi

Any Angle

It is interesting to plot the changing stresses as a

function of angle. As expected, the stresses vary in a

periodic cycle. Due to the double angle trigonometry

terms in all three equations, the period is 180 o.

MECHANICS - EXAMPLE

Example

What is the shear stress on a plane 42o from the horizontal

(plane a-a)?

Solution

Stress Element

the stress rotation equations. This problems asks for the shear

stress on a plane 42o from the horizontal. The basic parameters

are

x = -10 ksi

y = -20 ksi

xy = 30 ksi

= 42o

Notice, the two normal stress are negative since the arrows in

the original problem diagram are pointing in the negative

direction.

Stress Element Rotated 42o

= -[(-10 -(-20)) sin84] / 2 + 30 cos84

= -4.973 + 3.136 ksi

Introduction

The shelves are relatively short but carry a large

distributed load. Each "T" beam is firmly fixed to the

wall and acts as a cantilever beam. The design team

would like to know what the largest shear stress in the

"T" at the joint between the top flange and bottom web

(point A).

What is known:

50 kN/m.

section, but it is not known along the length of

the beam.

diagram. All beams are the same dimensions.

Question

What is the maximum shearing stress at point A

anywhere along the beam length? What is the

maximum normal stress?

Approach

Shelf System

and shear load using shear-moment

diagrams.

for the location with the maximum moment

and shear load.

orientation gives a maximum shear.

give the maximum normal stress.

MECHANICS - THEORY

stresses for any angle. But usually, the maximum

normal or shear stresses are the most important. Thus,

this section will find the angle which will give the

maximum (or minimum) normal stress.

Start with the basic stress transformation equation for

the x or y direction.

System to new x'-y' Coordinate System

ofx with respective to the rotation angle is equated

to zero. This gives,

dx / d = 0 - (x - x) sin2p + 2xy cos2p = 0

where subscript p represents the principal angle that

produces the maximum or minimum. Rearranging

gives,

stress equation to give the actual maximum and

minimum stress values. These stresses are commonly

referred to as 1 (maximum) and 2 (minimum),

Principal Stresses, 1 and 2,

at Principal Angle, p

of2 (minimum) may actually be be larger

than 1(maximum).

For convenience, the principal stresses, 1 and 2, are

generally written as,

stress equations.

It is interesting to note that the shear stress, xy will go

to zero when the stress element is rotated p.

Like the normal stress, the shear stress will also have

a maximum at a given angle, -max. This angle can be

determined by taking a derivative of the shear stress

rotation equation with respect to the angle and set

equate to zero.

at Angle, -max

stress transformation equation, the shear stress

maximum is

value as the maximum, but in the opposite direction.

The maximum shear stress can also be found from the

principal stresses, 1 and 2, as

The relationships between principal normal stresses

and maximum shear stress can be better understood

by examining a plot of the stresses as a function of the

rotation angle.

Notice that there are multiple p and -max angles

because of the periodical nature of the equations.

However, they will give the same absolute values.

always be zero, as shown in the diagram. And the

maximum shear stress will occur when the two

principal normal stresses, 1 and 2, are equal.

Principal Stresses in 3D

are known in all three directions. This would give three

normal stresses and three shear stresses (some may

be zero, of course). It is possible to rotate a 3D plane

so that there are no shear stresses on that plane. Then

the three normal stresses at that orientation would be

the three principal normal stresses, 1, 2 and 3.

These three principal stress can be found by solving

the following cubic equation,

three principal stresses for the given three normal

stresses (x, y and z) and the three shear stresses

(xy, yz and zx).

Before the stress state at point A can be analyzed for

maximum shear and normal stresses, the maximum

bending moment and shear load in the beam needs to

be determined.

From the maximum bending moment, the maximum

bending stress can be found. Also, from the maximum

shear load, the maximum shear stress can be

determined. Both of these stresses are in the beam

oriented coordinate system.

Beam Loading

element can be rotated to given the absolute maximum

something other than the natural beam coordinate

system.

and Cross Section

find both the beam shear stress and bending stress.

These include determining the moment-shear diagram,

the neutral axis, moment of inertia, I, and the first

moment of the area, Q.

To find the maximum bending moment and shear load,

the moment and shear equations can be used. Cutting

the structure and summing the forces and moments,

gives,

Fy = 0 = V - 50(0.2 - x)

V = (10 - 50x) kN

and

Shear-Moment Diagrams

M = (1 - 10 x + 25 x2) kN-m

The maximum shear and moment will be at the wall,

Vmax = 10 kN and Mmax = 1 kN-m

The neutral axis is critical in finding the cross section

moment of inertia and the first moment of the area.

I = I1 + y12 A1 + I2 + y22 A2

= 40(10)3/12 + (50 - 38.33 + 10/2)2(40)(10)

+ 10(50)3/12 + (38.33 - 50/2)2(50)(10)

The first moment of the area, Q, is needed to

determine the shear stress at point A. The area below

or above point A can be used to calculate Q. If the area

above is used, then Q is

= 16.67 (400)

= 6,668 mm3 = 6.668 10-6 m3

(at Point A)

The maximum moment and shear occur at the wall and

thus the maximum stresses will also occur at the wall.

The normal stress at point A is

b = My/I

= (1 kN-m)(0.01167 m)/(3.075 10-7 m4)

= 37.95 MPa

The shear stress at A, is

Distance from NA to Point A

= 21.68 MPa

(all arrows pointing in positive directions)

shown on a stress element at the left. The bending

stress is considered to be acting in the x direction.

There is no normal vertical stress, so y is zero. The

shear stress is acting down on the right edge of the

stress element. Thus, the stress is negative and the

shear stress on the right edge is drawn in the up

direction.

= 28.81 MPa

This occurs at an angle of

for Maximum Shear Stress

-max = 20.60o

The rotated normal stresses are equal when the shear

stress is a maximum, giving

All rotated stresses are labeled on the stress element

at the left. Notice, the shear stress is actually negative

when the shear stress rotation equation is used. On

the other hand, the maximum shear stress equation

above can be either positive or negative due to the

square root.

The maximum normal stress, or principal

stresses 1and 2, are

for Maximum Normal Stress

p = -24.41o

by plotting the stresses as a function of . This is

shown in the diagram at the left. Note, the stresses

have a period of , or 180o. This is due to the

symmetric nature of the stresses.

MECHANICS - EXAMPLE

Example

What is the maximum shear stress in the stress element

shown?

Solution

Stress Element

be positive (tension) but the shear stress arrows are in

the negative direction. Thus, the stress state is

x = 10.1 ksi

y = 6.2 ksi

xy = -3.7 ksi

square root. Angle that the max shear stress acts at is,

p = 13.90o

It is interesting to note, the new normal stresses are,

x' = y' = (x+ y)/2 = 8.15 ksi

Introduction

A rail car needs to transport pressurized gas and due

to shipping constraints, each cylinder can have only a

diameter of 34 cm (inside dimension). The end caps

are not considered in this initial design.

What is known:

on Rail Car

250 MPa.

themaximum distortion energy criteria for

predicting failure.

Question

Dimensions

section of the gas pressure vessel?

Approach

function of the thickness.

equation to determine the wall thickness.

MECHANICS - THEORY

Thin-walled Pressure Vessels

Both cylinderical and spherical pressure vessels are

common structures that are used ranging from large

gas storage structures to small compressed air tanks

in industrial equipment. In this section, only thin-walled

pressure vessels will be analyzed.

A pressure vessel is assumed to be thin-walled if the

wall thickness is less than 10% of the radius (r/t > 10).

This condition assumes that the pressure load will be

transfered into the shell as pure tension (or

compression) without any bending. Thin-walled

pressure vessels are also known as shell structures

and are efficient storage structures.

Cylindrical Pressure Vessel with

Internal Pressure

pressure, the shell could also fail due to buckling. This

is an advanced topic and is not considered in this

section.

Only the middle cylindrical section of a cylinder

pressure vessel is examined in this section. The joint

between the end caps and the mid-section will have

complex stresses that are beyond the discussion in

this chapter.

Both Hoop and Axial Stress in

the Mid-section

to expand or strain in only the axial (or longitudinal)

and the hoop (or circumferential) directions. There will

be no twisting or shear strains. Thus, there will only be

the hoop stress, h and the axial stress, a. as shown

in the diagram at the left.

two sections, and then equating the pressure load at

the cut with the stress load in the thin walls. In the

axial direction, the axial pressure from the discarded

sections will produce a total axial force of p(r2) which

is simply the cross section area times the internal

pressure. It is generally assumed that r is the inside

radius.

The axial force is resisted by the axial stress in the

vessel walls which have a thickness of t. The total axial

load in the walls will be a(2rt). Since the cross

section is in equilbrium, the two axial forces must be

equal, giving

Cross Section Cut of

Cylindrical Vessel

p(r2) = a(2rt)

This can be simplified to

stress around the circumference. The hoop stress, h,

can be determined by taking a vertical hoop section

that has a width of dx. The total horizontal pressure

load pushing against the section will be p(2r dx) as

shown in the diagram.

The top and bottom edge section will resist the

pressure and exert a load of h(t dx) (each edge). The

edge loads have to equal the pressure load, or

p(2r dx) =h(2t dx)

This can be simplified to

Hoop Section Cut from

Cylindrical Vessel

of a cylinderical vessel. No matter how the a sphere is

cut in half, the pressure load perpendicular to the cut

must equal the shell stress load. This is the same

situation with the axial direction in a cylindrical vessel.

Equating the to loads give,

p(r2) = h(2rt)

This can be simplified to

Spherical Pressure Vessel

Cut in Half

Notice, the hoop and axial stress are the same due to

symmetry.

A gas storage tank needs to be designed to hold

pressurized gas at 10 MPa. The tank inside diameter is

set at 34 cm due to tank stacking system on a rail car.

For safety reasons, a factor of safety of 2.0 is required.

The material is steel with a yield stress of 250 MPa. The

thickness of the material needs to be determined.

and axial directions, the maximum distortion energy

theory (von Mises' Yield Criterion) will be used to predict

failure.

It is assumed that the end caps will not fail and only the

cylinder middle section will be considered (end cap

stresses are complex and not studied in this eBook).

Functions for the hoop and axial stress can be

determined for a cylindrical pressure vessel. These are

h = Pr/(2t) = (10 MPa)(0.17 m)/(2t) = 0.85/t

Failure Criteria

The maximum distortion energy criteria takes into

consideration stresses in multiple directions. The

equation is

account for a factor of safety of 2.0, the actual yield

stress is reduced in half. Substituting into the failure

equation gives,

t = 0.1178 m = 11.78 mm

MECHANICS - EXAMPLE

Example

diameter of 1.5 m and is composed of wooden staves

bound together by steel hoops. The cross-sectional area

for each steel hoop is 300 mm2. If the allowable tensile

stress for the steel is 130 MPa, what is the maximum

space, L, between the hoop bands under a head of water

of 30 m? The mass density of water is 1,000 kg/m3. The

water pressure can be assumed to be the same at all

interior locations of the penstock.

Solution

The pressure corresponding to a head of 30 m water is

given by

p = gh

= (1,000) (9.81) (30)

= 294 kPa

in the Penstock

the failure criteria for a safe design. If the maximum

spacing between hoops is denoted as L, then each hoop

must resist the water pressure over a length L of the

penstock.

fluid equals the pressure intensity p multiplied by the

area, DL, over which it acts.

F = pDL

= (294) (1.5) L

= 441 L

This bursting force will be resisted by the equal forces P

acting on each cut surface of the cylindrical wall.

Assuming the whole resisting force will be given by the

steel hoops,

P = A

= (30010-6) (130103) kN

= 39 kN

Applying the summation of forces,

Direct Evaluation of Bursting Force F

F = 0

F - 2P = 0

F = 2P

441 L = 2 (39)

L = 0.1769 m = 177 mm

Introduction

designers need to know the maximum shear strain.

The problem is there is no way to measure shear

strain accurately. Also, they do not know what

direction the maximum shear strain will be a

maximum.

However, they do have a new laser instrument that

can accurately measure the displacement between

any two points on an object.

What is known:

perfect square (before loading).

distance between point O and the other three

points after loading is:

Pt 1 Pt 2

O

A

O

B

O

C

Distance (cm)

Initial

Final

1.0

1.00150

1.41421

1.41775

1.0

1.00200

Question

What is the maximum shear strain in the area of

OABC?

Approach

points.

x-axis and OA the y-axis.

determine the shear strain in the x-y

coordinate system.

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