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22.1
84

, , ( )
. , .
, , . , , , | ,
.

, . . 9|11
17 2002 .
,
: , , : : :

ISBN 5-94057-025-9

,
. . .
. . . .
: . . ; . . .
01335 24/III 2000 .
60 88 1=16 . . . . 2,50.

5/III 2002 .
. . . 2,50. 1500 .

.
121002, , -2, . ., 11.
.
111024, , -24, ., 20/17.

, , .
, (, ,
, ,
).


.

i
1
. 1. .

1 , i
( imaginary, . . ).
a + b i ( a ):
b
i
1

. 2. .

:
z1 =
a1
+
b1 i
z2 =
a2
+
b2 i
z1 + z2 = (a1 + a2 ) + (b1 + b2 ) i
1

, .
:
1 1 = 1;

1 i = i = i 1:

i i:
i i = 1:
i , a,
a2 = 1:

:
z1 z2 = (a1 a2 b1 b2 ) + (a1 b2 + a2 b1 )i:
, a1 a2 b1 b2 ,
( ), a1 b2 b1 a2 |
( ).
.
. (: z1 z2 =
= z2 z1 ; : (z1 z2 )z3 = z1 (z2 z3 ); : z1 (z2 + z3 ) = z1 z2 + z1 z3 )
.
C .

| . ,
.
z =abi
z = a + b i.
4

K
1

. 3. K.

z z |
O1.
. ; :
z1 + z2 = z 1 + z 2 :
.
; :
z1 z2 = z 1 z 2 :
.
:
|z|2 = zz:
. | .
. :
zz = zz = zz;
. , |z|2 = zz =
= a2 + b2 > 0, |
.

.
O1 Oi .
5

. |z| = 1,
a = cos ;

b = sin :

, ,
.
. w C.
z, w zw, |z| = 1, arg z = .
. c {w}.
. w.
, w :
|zw|2 = zwzw = (zz) (ww) = ww = |w|2 :
, . , :
|zw1 zw2 | = |z(w1 w2 )| = |w1 w2 |:
zw1
i
zw2

w2

w1

1
. 4. .

,
.
: .

. {w}
(. .
, ).
.
, , |
6

. {(X; Y )} .
, , A = (x1 ; y1 ), | B = (x2 ; y2 ).
Y
y2
y1
x2

x1

. 5. .

. S(A; B) , A B; A :
S(A1 + A2 ; B) = S(A1 ; B) + S(A2 ; B):

(x2 ; y2 ) = B
(x1 ; y1 ) = A

. 6. , A B.

, A B |

( | ). ,
, A B | .
,
S(kA; B) = kS(A; B):
.
7

e = (1; 0), f = (0; 1). A = A1


B = A2
A1 = x1 e + y1 f;

A2 = x2 e + y2 f:

S(A1 ; A2 ).

S(A1 ; A2 ) = x1 x2 S(e; e) + x1 y2 S(e; f ) + y1 x2 S(f; e) + y1 y2 S(f; f ):
S(e; e) = 0, , (e; e),
. S(f; f ) = 0.
, S(e; f ) = 1; S(f; e) = 1,
f e | . ,
S(A1 ; A2 ) = x1 y2 x2 y1 :

,
:


x1 y1

:
S(A1 ; A2 ) =
x2 y2

: z ?
{w} ,
. ,
, , ( , ) .
e f
ze = z = a + bi; zf = zi = b + ai:
, -


x1
x2

y1
y2

a
b

b
a

( z 6= 0),


a b
2
2
2


b a = a (b) b = a + b > 0:
8

, z .
, w z? ,
.
. 0,
, w = 1.
z zw = z = a + bi.
z = z w = 1 |

w = 1 |
. 7. w z.

,
w = 1 = arg z.
. z, |z| = 1,
, arg z.
. :
arg(zw) = arg z + arg w:
. , w = 1 z . z
, w.
arg w = . zw + , . .
arg(zw) = arg w + .

,
. z = a + bi, w = c + di, |z| = 1, |w| = 1.
zw = (ac bd) + (ad + bc)i:
arg z = , a = cos , b = sin . ,
arg w = , c = cos , d = sin .
zw
cos( + ) = ac bd = cos cos sin sin ;
sin( + ) = ad + bc = cos sin + sin cos :

2{..

. , .

.
. , n
cos(n) + i sin(n) = (cos + i sin )n
( ,
).
. ( ), cos(n), sin(n) | x = cos , y = sin .
, , ( )
(x y) (x2 + y 2 = 1).
,
cos(2) = cos2 sin2 ;

sin(2) = 2 sin cos ;

cos(3) = 4 cos3 3 cos ; sin(3) = 3 sin 4 sin3 :


| , |
, cos(n)
x = cos ( sin2 1 cos2 ). , ( , *
. .). :
F1 (x) = x;

F2 (x) = 2x2 1;

F3 (x) = 4x3 3x;

:::

, :
R2 R3 .
* ., , . . ,
(.: , 2000).

10

? - 1820 .

.
-
. , (
). , , ,
. , , ,
*.


, R3 4 ,
4- | . ijk = 1
.
, | 4- 1, i, j, k ( ): a + bi + cj + dk. a
(), v = bi + cj + dk |
. .
, .
1, i, j, k .
| . .
| , . ,
.

* 16 1843 , ijk = 1.
5 1865
: : : : , , , . (. . , , ,
.: , 1960, 103{104.) | . .
2

11

:
1 1 = 1,
i 1 = i,
j 1 = j,
k 1 = k,

1 i = i,
i i = 1,
j i = k,
k i = j,

1j
i j
j j
kj

= j,
= k,
= 1,
= i,

1k
i k
j k
kk

= k;
= j;
= i;
= 1:

, , : ij = k, ji = k.
, ij = k, . , ik = iij = j, i2 = 1.

ij = k :
ij = k;

jk = i;

ki = j:

, .
, , .
p, q, r c :
p + q = q + p ( );
(p + q) + r = p + (q + r) ( );
(p q) r = p (q r) ( );
p (q + r) = p q + p r ():
,
*.
,
p = a1 + v1 ;

q = a2 + v2 :

.
:
Re(pq) = a1 a2 b1 b2 c1 c2 d1 d2 :
* , :
, .

12

, a1 a2 ,

i2 = 1, j 2 = 1, k 2 = 1, . ,
(i; j; k)
b1 b2 + c1 c2 + d1 d2 = (v1 ; v2 ):
. , :
(v1 ; v2 ) = kv1 k kv2 k cos(v1 ; v2 ):
pq.
Im(pq) = a1 v2 + a2 v1 + [v1 ; v2 ];
[v1 ; v2 ] | v1 v2 .
| :






b1 b2
c1 c2
a1 a2





k:
[v1 ; v2 ] =
i+
j+
c1 c2
a1 a2
b1 b2

. , [v1 ; v2 ] v1 v2 .
( ).
(v1 ; v2 ; [v1 ; v2 ]) ,
(i; j; k). , ,
. , (i; j; k) (j; k; i) , (i; k; j) | .
.
. [i; j] = k = [j; i]; [i; i] = 0.
v1 v2 .

. . , R2
13

R2 C z, w 7 zw, z = cos + i sin .


k

v = (cos )i + (cos )j + (cos )k

c. 9. .

z. (,
).
R3 c i, j, k. R3 . v,
, , c (i; j; k): v = i cos + j cos + k cos .
.
.
( ). , v
.
| ,
. (
).

R3 ? . . , , . 4 : kvk = 1. SO(3)
R3 O .
. SO(n) R4 , R5 . . .
14

SO(n) O , . . Rn , S
() | .
.
. q = a + v
q = a v.
. q
q q = a2 (v; (v)) = a2 + kvk2 > 0.
| , q 6= 0. ,

qq = (a + bi + cj + dk)(a bi cj dk) = a2 + b2 + c2 + d2 > 0:


| .
- ,
q = a + v:

kqk = 1:


a2 + kvk2 = 1:
a kvk :
a = cos ;

kvk = sin :

q = cos + sin v , v |
. v .
, v
.
. | .
,
: , , v ,
, = =2,
 
 

q = cos
+ sin
v :
2
2
.
15

. - . 2n, n Z.
=2 n. n , 2n .
q = cos(=2) + sin(=2) v .
, ( ).
(kqk = 1) S 3 R4 .
,
, S 3 |
: S 3 SO(3) = S 3 =1.
. , . .
: g(q) | ; q,
g(q1 q2 ) = g(q1 )g(q2 ):

()

( ).
.
. |q1 q2 | = |q1 | |q2 |.
, |q1 | = 1,
. () (
).
z | |z| = 1.
z w :
w 7 zwz 1 :

()

. z z 1 , z 1 z = 1.
z ,
(). z 1 = z,
zz = 1. () | R4 ( C).
w = 1, 1 7 z 1 z, 1
() . R4 .
16

1 R4 R3 . ,
,
.
() z1 z2 : z1 z2 w(z1 z2 )1 .
(z1 z2 )1 ?
: (ab)1 = a1 b1 .
| !
. a , b | .
ba | , | . | . ,
. (ba)1 = a1 b1 .
, z1 z2 w
(z1 z2 )w(z1 z2 )1 = z1 z2 wz21 z11 = z1 (z2 wz21 )z11 :
() z1 z2 , () z2 w () z1 :
(z1 z2 )w(z1 z2 )1 = z1 [z2 wz21 ]z11 :
, ( 1) w
(g(z1 z2 ))(w) = (g(z1 ))[(g(z2 ))(w)]:
, g, z , ,
g(z1 z2 ) = g(z1 )g(z2 );
g(z)
.

, .
()
z = cos (=2) + v sin (=2) ; |v | = 1;
3{..

17

( v ) R3 .
1) v . ,
.
) cos(=2) .
) v v (
).
) z z 1 = z , z,
(c ), z 1 ,
z , a) ).
1) ), ) ).
2) , ()
v , - w v
R3 .
w z =2 ( ).
z 1 | =2 (,
,
wz 1 = wz = zw;
). 2) .
. (, ) , SO(3), ,
, ( 1=2).

S n Rn+1 n- , n- RPn
(. 9).
18

A
A

C
N

2
S+

R2

B
A
B

( )

-
RP 1
C

. 9. A B C ( RP1 -
R2 ).

O OM Rn+1 :
N () .
. RP1 S 1 ,
+ { mod 2}
{ mod } = S 1 =1 S 1 .
RP2 R2
- RP1 ,
-
( ,
- ).
, , S 2 , S 2
(, ).
A , A,
(. 9).
, ,
- ( , ) RP2 ( ), RP2
( RP2n
3

19

RP2n+1 , ).
, SO(3) = S 3 =1 = RP3 | .
, 0 6 6 , ,
! .
{!} .
, !
! ( ).
. A: R4 R4 , . . (, -),
x y
A(x + y) = A(x) + A(y);

A(xy) = A(x)A(y) ?

.
: A(z) = z A(z) = z.
,
z w
zw = wz, zw ( | ).
, ,
:
A(a + bi + cj + dk) = a + bi cj dk:
. ( ).

. ( )
,
.
. ,
, ( , , | ).
20

. RP2 . , , A3
, 24
R3 , .
RP3 CP2 , 4 . A3 , .
. , A3 B3 48 . ,
.
. ,
A3 ( B3
) H3 120
.
: (. 10) 6 = 2 3 ,
12 = 3 4 ( ), 30 = 5 6 ( ).

|A3 | = 24
=6

|B3 | = 48
= 12

|H3 | = 120
= 30

. 10. , , . , , , , .

(n + 1)(n + 2), n = 1, 2, 4 |
( ,
, ).
( ).
21

, ,
( |B3 |=|A3 | = 48=24 = 2) , (

, . 11). 5
, , ,
, 48 ( ,
).

. 11. , , , .

(
) HP1 S 4 ,
,
cos =

1 t2
;
1 + t2

sin =

2t
;
1 + t2

t = tg

;
2

RP1 CP1 .
Spin(4)
Spin(5) SO(4) SO(5) 3 4
: . . , (. .,
. 85, 1 (2001), 74{77).
, , -,
: (X; Y; Z), , X 2 + Y 2 = Z 2 ?
22

(32 + 42 = 52 , 122 + 52 = 132 ) , ,


(, ).
, ,
:
X = u2 v 2 ;

Y = 2uv;

Z = u2 + v 2 ;

(u; v) | ( ,
).
, , (. . x2 + y 2 = 1 |
). , ,
,

2 dx ( |
1

x
R
R(x; y) dx H(x; y) = 0, H | , R | ).


d2 x
= F (x);
dt2
x F ,
H(x; y) = const;

H =

y2
+ U (x);
2

y = dx=dt | ; U | , F (x) = dU=dx.


F | n,
, H(x; y) = E, c
x y (), E, t dt = dx=y (
y = dx=dt).
23


H = E (, dt = 1 ). , ( , dt, . . ,
).
. U |
( ). ,
, E. , : ?
. | . , H = E | , | ,
.
. dt = dx=y
,
, : Z!1 + Z!2 = `, !1
!2 | . t
,

`.
, ( ) 1
- C=` = C=(Z!1 + Z!2 ), = !
!2
.
, , 2
(
).

S 2 = CP1 .
, .

24


x2 + y 2 = 1
(x; y). : (x = 1; y = 0).
t Ox (. . y = t(x 1), . 12).
y
y = t(x 1)
y

x2 + y 2 = 1

=2

. 12. t .

. x t
x
t . , | ,
x = P (t);

y = Q(t);

(1)

P Q | .
, ,
P =

t2 1
;
t2 + 1

Q=

2t
:
1 + t2

y
, x y t = x1
t x y (1).
t = u=v u v
( x = X=Z, y = Y =Z). ( ) ( , u v
!).

4{..

25

, , x2 + y 2 = 1, -, , t,
, S 2 = CP1 .
y

H(x; y) = 0

. 13. 3:
.

H(x; y)
H = 0, . ,
y 2 = x3 x + E
E S 1 S 1 ,
(. 13).

. 14. g = 3: .

(, 3 x3 2g +1)
g (. 14, g ).
( ) g
(g = 0, 1, 2, : : : ).
26

H(x; y) = 0 ,
( R(x; y) dx)
H = 0 (. .
).
, H = x2 + y 2 1 ,
t
Z
Z
R(x; y) dx = R(P (t); Q(t))P (t) dt
( | ,
).
0 , . .
,
( , ).
H = 0 ,


,
. .
,
g = 1 ( - ).
, , ,
.
.
( ) , ,
x5 + ax + 1 = 0
( , , ).
x a, , a .
4

27


xj (a), , ,
,
x a, . 15.

. 15.
.

( ). 5 . ( ).
. . (.: , 1976), 1964 .
H(x; y) = 0 , g
.
: n H ,
.
, , .
, c, xn = c
, n, , , ( ), . . ( | c = a + bi = 0 (a = 0; b = 0)).
H
n ,
(, ) .
g .
: , , 28

H = 0, H = L1 : : : Ln + ", Lj | .
n N , N |
n (. 16).

L2
L1

L2

L1

"=0

L3

,
" 6= 0

L3

">0
. 16. 3 (
n = 3, N = 3, g = 1).

{:
g=

(n 1)(n 2)
:
2

, , n = 1 ()
n = 2 (, , ) , . . , .
, . . , ( ) , (
,
: , | ).

t.
H = 0 ,
( ,
, ). , n
29

( ) 0,
(n1)(n2)
2
. . ,
. , , (. 17) y 2 = x3 3x + 2
( x = 1; y = 0).
: g = 0
: n = 3

C:

R:
g=0

g=1

. 17. , , ( ).

. t,
x y ,
Ox , (
x(t) y(t) | ).
, , . t1 t2 t,
, | x
, .

,
, .
, , . .
30

( ) (, , ,
| | -
).
. y 2 = x2 x4 .
?

| , |
, , ( , ,
) .
*.
1. :
RP1 = S 1 :
( , ,
,

, ).
. :
CP2 = Conj S 4 :
, , (
, , , | ).
* :
. . , :
Mathematics: Frontier and Perspectives,
2000 ( . . . , . , . . ). , .

31

,
*:
HP4 = Aut = Conj S 13 :
(. . ) , | ( SO(3))
.
, ,
| ( ),
(

Pn
m=1 am x2m ) |
( ) , x2m |x2m |.
(
Cn Hn ) | ( R2n R4n ),
- () .
, - f , | f = 1. ( | ) :

i ( i, j, k | ).
.
2. , .

, , ( {).
( ) (,
, , ).
* . . ,
. . . . . ,
224 (1999).

32

.
, | a = b, .
, , :
Ax2 + 2Bxy + Cy 2
3 ( A, B, C), | 1 ( ).

, , (A + C)2 = 4(AC B 2 ), . .
, (A C)2 + 4B 2 = 0, ( , A = C,
B = 0).
{ , n- n
,
, .
n am (p)
, p, (p; a) n (m = 1; : : : ; n),
p, ,
(. 18).
an ,
.
, | , ( ) . , , , , . { , ,
,
:
.
5{..

33

p
. 18. .


.
Rn
Cn , .
,
(
).

( ,
, ) : . . , , .
., . 6 2 (1972), 12{20.
( -,
,
, .

. , 1972 . |
{ , , .
, 1972 . , { .
34

(. . ) . | 2, 3 5 |
, :
d + 1, d | (, ).
S 3 S 2 ( S 1 ),
, , S 7 S 4 ( S 3 ).
(CP1 S 2 , HP1 S 4 ) (S 3 C3 \ 0, S 7 H2 \ 0):
, . , , ( { ) (
).
, ( ,
, ).
R | C | H { | | ,
Z2 { Z ,
Z2 ( Z)
( , ,
Z Z + iZ ).

SO(3)
Spin(3) = S 3 = SU (2) , .
M n . n M ,
n M .
5

35

,
. . ,
, , ,
n ,
.
n ,
( | , ).
, a . ak (k = 1, 2, : : : )
, ( a0 = e) e ( Z) B(2)
2 .
B(3)
a b, I, II II, III
( ) (I; II; III), . 19.
aba = bab (
. 19), ( ).

II III
a

II III

II III

II III

. 19. .

-: n
n ( ), , ,
(
).

, n S 2 (,
n = 4).
36

:
m- - , .
,
.

, S 2
(, | ).
, SO(3) RP3 ,
S 3 SO(3),
, .
. , , .
, (
-,
, n ).
, ,
, ( )
, .
, , .
4
( ),
(
).
, , .

. , z


1
1
z+
;
F (z) =
2
z
.
1. |z| = r
z 37

a, b, 2a = r + r1 , 2b = r r1 ,
w = F (z).
. z
r cos r sin ,
1
1
= (cos i sin );
z
r

w=

1
[(r + r1 ) cos + i(r r1 ) sin ];
2

.

, ( ).
.
2 (). , C C, z w = z 2 ,
.
. u |u| = r. z = u + u1 (
1) 2a 2b ( ).
.
z
z 2 = u2 + u2 + 2:
(1)
( 1)
. 2A = r2 r2 .
:
(2A)2 (2B)2 = [(r2 + r2 )2 (r2 r2 )2 ] = 4;
{u2 + u2 }
2C = 2.

, (1) +2
, .
. :
38

( ),
.
: .
. ,
.
( ) A B,
A B ,
(A + 3)(B + 3) = 4:
, , A = 1, , B = 2. = (A + 3)=2
( , = (B + 3)=2 = 1=).
. . ( !)
,
, w = z
( ) w(z) (, w = ez w = ln z).
{z} {w} ,
U (z) = |dw=dz|2 ;

V (w) = |dz=dw|2 :

z
E U w 1=E
V .
- (R. Faure). - ,
.
39


1. E. Kasner, Dierential-Geometric Aspects of Dynamics, AMS, 1913
2. T. Needham, Newton and Transmutation of Force, Amer. Math. Monthly,
100, 2 (1993), 119{137.
3. . . , , .
., 1 (2002).

40