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DRAF

KEMENTERIAN PENDIDIKAN MALAYSIA

KURIKULUM STANDARD SEKOLAH RENDAH


DOKUMEN STANDARD KURIKULUM DAN PENTAKSIRAN

MATEMATIK

TAHUN 4

(EDISI BAHASA INGGERIS)

DOKUMEN STANDARD

KURIKULUM STANDARD SEKOLAH RENDAH


(KSSR)

MATEMATIK
(EDISI BAHASA INGGERIS)

TAHUN EMPAT

BAHAGIAN PEMBANGUNAN KURIKULUM


i

Cetakan Pertama 2016


Kementerian Pendidikan Malaysia

Hak Cipta Terpelihara. Tidak dibenarkan mengeluar ulang mana-mana bahagian artikel, ilustrasi dan isi kandungan buku ini dalam apa juga
bentuk dan dengan cara apa jua sama ada secara elektronik, fotokopi, mekanik, rakaman atau cara lain sebelum mendapat kebenaran bertulis
daripada Pengarah, Bahagian Pembangunan Kurikulum, Kementerian Pelajaran Malaysia, Aras 4-8, Blok E9, Parcel E, Kompleks Pentadbiran
Kerajaan Persekutuan, 62604 Putrajaya

ii

CONTENT
CONTENT

iii

RUKUN NEGARA

FALSAFAH PENDIDIKAN KEBANGSAAN

vi

INTRODUCTION

THE RATIONALE OF MATHEMATICS EDUCATION

AIMS

FOCUS

NATIONAL CURRICULUM FRAMEWORK

STRUCTURE OF PRIMARY SCHOOL


MATHEMATICS EDUCATION

OBJECTIVES

MATHEMATICS CURRICULUM FRAMEWORK

CONTENT STANDARD AND LEARNING STANDARD 10


STRATEGIES IN TEACHING AND LEARNING

10

HIGHER ORDER THINKING SKILLS (HOTS)

11

21st CENTURY SKILLS

13

ELEMENTS OF ADDED VALUES

14

ASSESSMENT

16

SCHOOL BASED ASSESSMENT

16

PERFORMANCE STANDARD FRAMEWORK

17

INTERPRETATION OF PERFORMANCE FOR


MATHEMATICS

18

iii

NUMBERS AND OPERATIONS


WHOLE NUMBERS UP TO 100 000
ADDITION IN THE RANGE OF 100 000
SUBTRACTION IN THE RANGE OF 100 000
MULTIPLICATION
DIVISION
MIXED OPERATIONS
FRACTIONS
DECIMALS
PERCENTAGE
MONEY

25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
34
35

MEASUREMENT AND GEOMETRY


TIME
LENGTH
MASS
VOLUME OF LIQUID
SPACE

37
39
41
42
43

RELATIONSHIP AND ALGEBRA


COORDINATE
RATIO AND PROPORTION

44
45

STATISTIC AND PROBABILITY


DATA HANDLING

46

iv

RUKUN NEGARA
BAHAWASANYA negara kita Malaysia mendukung citacita untuk mencapai perpaduan yang lebih erat
dalam kalangan seluruh masyarakatnya; memelihara
satu cara hidup demokratik; mencipta masyarakat
yang adil bagi kemakmuran negara yang akan
dapat dinikmati bersama secara adil dan saksama;
menjamin satu cara yang liberal terhadap tradisitradisi kebudayaannya yang kaya dan berbagaibagai corak; membina satu masyarakat progresif
yang akan menggunakan sains dan teknologi
moden;
MAKA KAMI, rakyat Malaysia, berikrar akan
menumpukan seluruh tenaga dan usaha kami untuk
mencapai cita-cita tersebut berdasarkan atas prinsipprinsip yang berikut:

KEPERCAYAAN KEPADA TUHAN


KESETIAAN KEPADA RAJA DAN NEGARA
KELUHURAN PERLEMBAGAAN
KEDAULATAN UNDANG-UNDANG
KESOPANAN DAN KESUSILAAN

RUKUNEGARA
DECLARATION

OUR NATION, MALAYSIA, being dedicated


to achieving a greater unity of all her peoples;
to maintaining a democratic way of life;
to creating a just society in which the wealth of
the nation shall be equitably shared;
to ensuring a liberal approach to her rich and
diverse cultural traditions;
to building a progressive society which shall be
orientated to modern science and technology;
WE, her peoples, pledge our united efforts to attain
these ends guided by these principles:
Belief in God
Loyalty to King and Country
Upholding the Constitution
Rule of Law
Good Behaviour and Morality

vi

Pendidikan di Malaysia adalah suatu usaha


berterusan ke arah memperkembangkan lagi
potensi individu secara menyeluruh dan
bersepadu untuk mewujudkan insan yang
seimbang dan harmonis dari segi intelek,
rohani, emosi dan jasmani berdasarkan
kepercayaan dan kepatuhan kepada Tuhan.
Usaha ini adalah bagi melahirkan rakyat
Malaysia yang berilmu pengetahuan,
berketerampilan, berakhlak mulia,
bertanggungjawab dan berkeupayaan
mencapai kesejahteraan diri serta
memberikan sumbangan terhadap
keharmonian dan kemakmuran keluarga,
masyarakat dan negara.

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viii

INTRODUCTION

THE RATIONALE OF MATHEMATICS EDUCATION

Sekolah Unggul Penjana Generasi Terbilang (Ideal Schools


Generating an Illustrious Generation) is the vision of the Malaysian
Ministry of Education. The education purpose in Malaysia is to
develop individual potential through quality education by preparing
committed citizens and a generation that has the ability to think. The
Ministry of Education continuously reviews the curriculum to ensure
that the implementation of the curriculum in schools equips pupils
with knowledge, skills and values to face current and future
challenges.

Mathematics is the best platform to develop individual intellectual


proficiency in making logical reasoning, space visualization, abstract
thinking skills and analyzing. Pupils develop numeracy skills,
reasoning, thinking and problem solving ways of thinking through
learning and application of mathematics.
Mathematics provides opportunities for students to perform creative
tasks and experience the fun and excitement of learning something
new. Such experiences increase interest and are the driving forces
for students to learn mathematics outside the classroom and at the
higher level of education.

Mathematics is a discipline that trains the mind to think logically and


systematically in problem solving and decision making. Inherently,
mathematical nature promotes meaningful learning and challenge the
mind. Due to this, mathematics is one of the most important
disciplines in any endeavour for human development. Based on the
National Philosophy of Education and to ensure the relevancy of the
curriculum, the Primary School Standard Curriculum for Mathematics
is adapted and restructured. This restructuring takes into account the
ongoing continuity to the next level. Measures taken are consistent
with the need to provide the knowledge and mathematical skills to
pupils from various backgrounds and abilities. With the knowledge
and skills, they are able to explore the knowledge, make adaptations,
modifications and innovations in managing changes and dealing with
future challenges.

AIMS
The aim of the Primary School Standard Curriculum for Mathematics
is to develop pupils understanding on the concept of numbers, basic
calculation skills, understanding simple mathematical ideas and are
competent in applying mathematical knowledge and skills effectively
and responsibly in everyday life.

FOCUS

Mathematical teaching and learning process gives priority to mastering knowledge and understanding to enable pupils to apply concepts,
principles and the mathematical processes they have learned. Emphasis on the development of mathematical thinking is built and
developed through the teaching and learning in the classroom based on the following principles, which are, problem solving,
communication, reasoning, making connections, making representations and the application of technology in mathematics.
.

NATIONAL CURRICULUM
FRAMEWORK
The Standard curriculum is based on six pillars, namely
Communication; Spiritual, Attitudes and Values;
Humanity; Physical Development and Aesthetic;
Personal
Experience;
and
Science
and
Technology. The six pillars are the main domain that
supports each other and are integrated with critical
thinking, creative and innovative thinking. This
integration aims to develop balanced, knowledgeable
and competent human capital as shown in the adjacent
figure.

STRUCTURE
OF
PRIMARY
.
MATHEMATICS EDUCATION

SCHOOL

Each pupil in Malaysia has the opportunity to go through at


least six
years
of
basic
education in
schools. This
includes three years of Level I studies and three years of Level II
studies.
Subsequently, pupils
can pursue education at a
higher level of education.

LEVEL

AIMS

Primary School Mathematics Curriculum Level I aims


to build understanding, mathematical skills and basic
application.
Primary Mathematics Curriculum Level II aims to build
understanding, mathematical skills and more complex
application skills that can be used in effectively
overcoming the challenges in the pupils daily life.

II

MATHEMATICS CURRICULUM FRAMEWORK


The Mathematics curriculum framework shows a mathematical
programme that could be utilized at the primary level. Mathematical
Learning is planned with the aim of moulding pupils mathematical
thoughtful learning.
MATHEMATICAL THOUGHTFUL LEARNING

OBJECTIVES

The definition of fikrah (thoughtful learning) according to the fourth


edition of the Kamus Dewan (2005) has the same
meaning with thinking and reasoning. In the context of mathematics
education, thoughtful learning refers to the desired quality of pupils to
be delivered through the national mathematics education system.
Pupils who are mathematically inclined are those capable of
doing mathematics
and understanding mathematical
ideas, and
responsibly applying the mathematical knowledge and skills in their
daily lives based on attitudes and values of mathematics.

The primary school mathematics curriculum will enable pupils to:

Communicate using mathematical ideas clearly and use correct


symbols and terminologies.
Use mathematical knowledge and skills to be applied and
adapted to various strategies to solve problems.
Think, reason, and explore mathematically in daily life.
Use various representations to deliver mathematical ideas and
associations.
Appreciate and internalise the beauty of mathematics.
Use various mathematical instruments effectively including ICT to
build conceptual understanding and apply mathematical
knowledge.

Understand and apply the concepts and mathematical skills in


various contexts.
Expand the use of basic operations of addition, subtraction,
multiplication and division basic skills related to Numbers and
Operations, Measurement and Geometry, Relationship and
Algebra, and Statistic and Probability.
Identify and use the relationship in mathematical ideas, between
mathematical fields with other fields and with daily life.
3

MATHEMATICS CURRICULUM FRAMEWORK

CONTENT ORGANISATION

Numbers and Operations


Measurement and Geometry
Relationship and Algebra
Statistics and Probability

The Mathematics Curriculum encompasses four learning areas:


Numbers and Operations
Measurement and Geometry
Relationship and Algebra
Statistics and Probability
The contents of the KSSR Mathematics are as follows:
NUMBERS AND OPERATIONS

Communication
Reasoning
Connection
Problem Solving
Represention

Perception, interest,
appreciation,
confidently resilient
and perseverance.
Personality,
interaction, procedure,
intrinsic.

Mathematical skills
Analytical skills
Problems solving skills
Research skills
Communication skills
Information Communication Technology skills

Whole Numbers
Addition
Subtraction
Multiplication
Division
Mixed Operations
Fractions
Decimals
Percentage
Money

RELATIONSHIP AND ALGEBRA

Coordinates
Ratio and Proportion

MEASUREMENT AND GEOMETRY

Time
Length
Mass
Volume of Liquid
Three Dimensional Shapes
Two Dimensional Shapes

STATISTICS AND PROBABILITY

Data Handling
Likelihood

Pupils should develop and explore mathematical ideas in depth


through various learning opportunities and experiences. Awareness
should be fostered and developed among pupils that mathematical
ideas are intertwined, and mathematics is comprehensive; not
isolated bits of knowledge. With such awareness and understanding,
comprehending of mathematical ideas becomes more meaningful,
and thus can enhance the capability of pupils to apply mathematics.

Stating mathematical ideas concisely.


Creating, testing, and proving conjecture.
Extracting meaning from a mathematical writing.
Using mathematics to explain physical world.

Analysing Skills
Analysing skills refer to the following abilities:
Thinking clearly.
Giving attention and concentration to each aspect.
Manipulating precise, concise and detail ideas.
Understanding complex reasoning.
Constructing and defending logical arguments.
Debating illogical arguments.

Opportunities and a variety of learning experiences provided should


actively engage the pupils in learning mathematics, help them to form
a deep understanding of mathematical concepts, and establish a
more meaningful understanding of various mathematical ideas.
Based on the understanding and comprehension developed, pupils
are able to relate and apply mathematical ideas, and subsequently,
make pupils more confident in exploring and applying mathematics.
The use of teaching aids, technological equipment and the
implementation of assignments / practical / project work should be
encompassed in the learning experiences provided for pupils.

Problem Solving Skills


Problem solving skills refer to the following abilities:

SKILLS

Skills in mathematics that should be developed and instilled in pupils


include numeracy, measuring and constructing, data handling and
interpretation, arithmetic manipulation, algebra manipulation, using
alogarithm, and using mathematical instruments and ICT.

Mathematical Skills
Mathematical skills refer to the following abilities:

Using correct standard mathematical language and applying


logical reasoning.
5

Constructing problems precisely and identifying the main issues.


Presenting solutions clearly and explicating assumptions.
Solving difficult problems by analysing simple and specific
problems.
Be open-minded and using different approaches in solving the
same problem.
Solving problems confidently even though the solutions are not
envisioned
Asking for assistance if required.

Research Skills
Research skills refer to the following abilities:
Referring to notes, textbooks and other sources.
Accessing books in the library.
Using database.
Gaining information from various individuals.
Thinking.

PROCESS
Communication

Communication Skills

Communication about mathematical ideas can help pupils clarify and


reinforce the understanding of mathematics. By sharing the
understanding of mathematics in writing and orally with classmates,
teachers and parents, pupils will be able to increase their confidence
and facilitate their teachers in monitoring the progress of their
mathematical skills.

Communication skills refer to the following abilities:


Listening effectively.
Writing mathematical ideas precisely and clearly.
Writing essays and reports.
Doing presentations.

Communication plays a vital role in ensuring meaningful learning of


mathematics. Through communication, mathematical ideas can be
expressed and understood better. Mathematical communication,
whether oral, written, or in symbols and visual representations (using
charts, graphs, diagrams etc), can help pupils to understand and
apply mathematics more effectively.
Communication among themselves or with peers, parents, adults and
teachers can help pupils to reflect, clarify and reinforce their ideas
and understanding on mathematics. To ensure the process of
generating, sharing and increasing understanding, pupils should be
given the opportunity to debate their mathematical ideas analytically
and systematically. Communication involves a variety of perspectives
and these points of view can help pupils to increase their
understanding of mathematics better.

Information and Communication Technology Skills


Information and communication technology skills refer to the abilities
in using and handling mathematical instruments such as abacus,
calculators, computers, educational software, websites on the internet
and educational packages for:
Developing and understanding mathematical concepts in-depth.
Doing, testing and proving conjecture.
Exploring mathematical ideas.
Solving problems.

An important aspect of effective communication in mathematics is the


ability to provide information effectively, understand and apply the
correct mathematical notation. Pupils need to use mathematical
language and symbols correctly to ensure that mathematical ideas
can be explained accurately. Mathematical communication also
involves the use of various media like charts, graphs manipulatives,
6

calculators, computers and others. Pupils should be able to use the


different media to explain mathematical ideas and solve mathematical
problems.

activities. In addition, teachers need to provide space and


opportunities for the discussion of mathematics which is not only
engaging but also allows each pupil to be involved well.

Effective communication requires a sensitive environment towards


pupils needs to feel comfortable in a conversation, ask questions,
answer questions and explain statements to classmates and
teachers. Pupils should be given opportunity to communicate actively
in various situations, for example communicating during activities in
pairs, groups or providing explanations to the entire class.

Reasoning can be done inductively through mathematical activities


that involve the identification of mathematical patterns and making
conclusions based on the patterns.

Assessment on ability of pupils to communicate in mathematics


effectively should show evidence that they are able to generate,
explain and share their mathematical ideas through various forms of
communication in various environment. Pupils, who are always given
opportunities and encouragement to speak, read, write and listen
during the teaching and learning of mathematics will be able to
communicate to learn mathematics and learn to communicate
mathematically.

Reasoning element in teaching and learning prevents pupils from


assuming mathematics as only one set of procedures or algorithms
that need to be followed to obtain a solution, without actually
understand the true concepts of mathematics. Reasoning does not
only change the paradigm of pupils from just learning to think, but
also gives an intellectual empowerment when pupils are guided and
trained to make a conjecture, prove the conjecture, provide a logical
explanation, analyse, evaluate and justifiy all mathematical activities.
This training will produce pupils who are self-confident and resilient in
line with the aspiration to mould mathematics thinkers with high
capabilities.

Reasoning

Connection

Reasoning is fundamental in understanding mathematics more


effectively and making the delineation of mathematics more
meaningful. The development of mathematical reasoning is closely
related to intellectual development and communication of the pupils.
Reasoning has the ability to expand not only the capacity of logical
thinking but also increase the capacity of critical thinking, which is
also the basis for a deeper and meaningful understanding of
mathematics. To achieve this objective, pupils should be trained and
guided to make a conjecture, prove the conjecture, give a logical
explanation, analyse, consider, evaluate, and justify all mathematical

In implementing the mathematics curriculum, the opportunities for


making connections need to be established so that pupils can link
conceptual and procedural knowledge and also able to relate topics
in mathematics particularly and mathematics with other areas in
general. This
will enhance
the
pupils
understanding of
mathematics and makes mathematics clearer, more meaningful and
interesting to them.

Mathematics Curriculum generally consists of several discrete areas


such as calculation, geometry, algebra, measurement and problem
solving. Without
relating these areas,
pupils will
learn and
remember too many concepts and skills separately. Instead, by
recognizing how the concepts or skills in different fields relate to each
other, mathematics will be seen and studied as a disciplined and
comprehensive knowledge
and
can
be easily
understood.

The various uses of general strategies in problem solving including


steps in solving need to be expanded more in the use of this subject.
In carrying out learning activities to build problem solving skills,
problems based on human activities should be introduced. Through
these activities, pupils can use mathematics when facing new
situations and reinforce themselves when dealing with various daily
situations that are more challenging. Some of the problems solving
strategies that can be considered are:

When these mathematical ideas are related with everyday experience


inside and outside the school, pupils will be more aware of the use,
importance, strength and beauty of mathematics. In addition, pupils
have the opportunity to use mathematics contextually in
other fields and in their daily lives. Mathematical models are used to
describe real life situations mathematically. Pupils will find this
method can be used to find solutions to problems or to predict the
likelihood of a situation based on the mathematical model.

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4.
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7.
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9.
10.

Problem Solving
Problem solving is the main focus in the teaching and learning of
mathematics. Thus, teaching and learning need to involve problem
solving skills comprehensively and across the whole curriculum. The
development of problem solving skills needs to be given due
emphasis so that pupils are able to solve various problems
effectively. These skills involve the following steps:
Understanding and interpreting problems;
Planning the strategy;
Carrying out the strategy; and
Checking the solutions.

Try an easier problem


Try and error
Draw a diagram
Identify patterns
Create a table/chart or a systematic list
Do simulation
Use analogy
Work backwards
Do logical reasoning
Use algebra

Represention
Mathematics is often used to represent the world that we live in.
Therefore, there
must
be similarities between aspects
of the
represented world and aspects that are represented by the world.
The abstract relationship between these two worlds can be depicted
as follows:

Concrete Models
Facilitate

Mathematical World

Real World

Review

Representation is necessary for pupils understanding in


mathematical conceptual relationship. It allows pupils to communicate
approaches, debates and to understand mathematics for themselves
and others. It also allows pupils to recognize the relationships
between
related
concepts
and
apply
mathematics to
realistic problems.

Represent

Representation is an important component in the development of


mathematical understanding and quantitative thinking. As a whole,
without
representation,
mathematics
is an
abstract, mostly
philosophic, and unapproachable by most of the population. With
the representation, ideas can be formed into a mathematical model,
important relationship can be elaborated and understanding can be
stimulated through a construction and sequencing of suitable
experiences and observations.

Calculate
Forecast

Representation can be regarded as a facilitator that allows the


relationship between the real world and the world of mathematics.
Formula, table, graph, equation etc. are mathematical objects used to
represent various conglomerates and real world relationships.

ATTITUDES AND VALUES


The aim of the nurturing of values and attitudes in Mathematics
curriculum is to produce competent individuals with virtuous moral
standards. In addition, the appreciation of attitudes and values can
shape a well mannered and noble younger generation.
Understanding and awareness of
the attitudes and values in
the
Malaysian society should be directly or indirectly fostered in line
with universal values.

Representation can be defined as any configuration of letters, images


or concrete objects that can reflect or represent others. The
representation system is naturally
divided
into
internal
and
external. The internal representation of the system exists in the mind
of individual,
whereas
the external
representation is
easily shared and viewed by others. Internal representation consists
of ideas that help in describing the human process of learning and
solving problems in mathematics, and external representation
consists of items such as diagrams, the formal language, and
notational symbols.
Using multiple representations in order to
show a concept helps to develop better understanding and also to
strengthen one's ability in solving problems.

Attitudes and values are instilled through learning experiences


provided by teachers. It involves an element of trust, interest,
appreciation, confidence, efficiency and endurance. Instilling of
attitudes and values also include personal aspects, interaction,
procedural and intrinsic.
9

In mathematics, attitudes and values need to be mould through


appropriate context. Attitudes in mathematics refer to the affective
aspects of mathematical learning that covers, among others:

Positive response towards mathematics and


the
usefulness
of mathematics

Interest and joy in learning mathematics.

Appreciation of the beauty and mathematical ability.

Confidence in using and applying mathematics.

Steadfast and perseverance in solving problems related to


mathematics.

CONTENT STANDARD AND LEARNING STANDARD


Primary School Mathematics Standard Curriculum is formulated with
emphasis on Content Standard and Learning Standard that should be
known and can be done by pupils. This standard is presented in a
modular form divided into topics based on areas of learning.
Content Standard
General statements of the cognitive domain (knowledge) and
affective (attitudes and values) can be achieved by pupils through a
subtopic.

Personal values refer to the values that are related with the
formation of individual traits and personality such as
honesty, systematic, perserverence, hardworking and steadfast,
creative, confidence, conscientious, good time managers,
independent, trustworthy, efficient, responsible, patient
and
dedicated.

Learning Standard
Specific statement of what pupils should know and do in terms of
knowledge or concepts and the ability to show their proficiency in
measureable knowledge acquisition, skills and values.

Interaction values are related with the instillation of good behavior in


the classroom context. This value refers to the emphasized values in
the interaction during mathematical activities such as appreciation for
mathematics, teamwork, discussion and sharing of ideas, tolerance,
fairness, open-minded, and respectful.

Learning Standard does not show the steps of teaching and


learning. It gives teachers space and opportunity to prepare a
condusive learning environment creatively for pupils to form concepts
and develop skills, attitudes and values in mathematics.

Procedural values
are associated with specific activities in
mathematics such as reasoning, making representations, solving
problems, communication, making connection, and using technology.

STRATEGIES IN TEACHING AND LEARNING


Mathematical thoughtful learning is transformed into teaching and
learning practices. Teaching and learning are implemented based on
the principle of mastery learning and learning occurs in access, selfdirected and at its own pace.

Intrinsic
values are associated
with the
formation
of
mathematical
content
and
its
discipline
such
as the epistemology, cultural and historical values.

10

Teaching and learning strategies should be pupil-centred to enable


them to interact and master the learning skills through their own
experience. Pupil-centred inquiry or discovery approach with the aid
of appropriate technology which is used comprehensively and
effectively
make
the
experience
of
learning
mathematics fun, meaningful, useful and challenging.

HIGHER ORDER THINKING SKILLS (HOTS)


The National Curriculum aims to produce pupils who are well
balanced, resilient, curious, principled, well-informed and patriotism
with thinking skills, communication skills and able to work as a team.
21st century skills in line with the six aspirations required by each
pupil enable them to compete at global level are outlined in the
National Education Blueprint that every pupil will have leadership
skills, bilingual proficiency, ethics and spiritual, social identity,
knowledge and thinking skills.

Teaching and learning of primary school mathematics encourage the


use of diverse teaching methods. Teachers can choose appropriate
teaching and learning approaches and methods that suit pupils
abilities. The effectiveness of teaching and learning depends on the
processing techniques and the use of teaching aids as well as
technology that can stimulate and encourage pupils to think critically
and creatively, be innovative, able to communicate, and interact.

Thinking skills were emphasized in the curriculum since 1994 to


introduce Critical and Creative Thinking Skills (CCTS). Thinking skills
are focused from lower level to higher level of thinking. Beginning
2011, the Standard Curriculum for Primary School (KSSR) has
emphasis on Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS).

The inculcation of attitudes and moral values should be


considered when planning the teaching and learning of a distinctive
skill. Moral values could be instilled appropriately according to the
well planned lesson.

Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS) is the ability to apply knowledge,


skills and values in reasoning and reflection to solve problems, make
decisions, being innovative and able to create something. HOTS
refers to skills of applying, analyzing, evaluating and creating as the
following table.

Elements of history, patriotism, environment and science can be


applied accordingly to the appropriate topics to enable pupils to
appreciate mathematics and to stimulate their interest on a particular
topic. Elements of history can be on a specific event about a
mathematician or a brief history of a concept or symbol.
To enhance pupils analytical and creative thinking, problem solving is
an important aspect that must be embedded in teaching and learning
of mathematics. Solutions given for problems should be appropriate
in accordance to the pupils level. In addition, pupils are also
encouraged to communicate and courageously make decisions.

11

HOTS

Description

Application

Using knowledge, skills and values in different


situations to complete a piece of work.

Analysis

Ability to break down information into smaller


parts in order to understand and make
connections between these parts.

Evaluation

Creation

before. Routine problem solving emphasizes the use of a set of


prosedures known or determined to solve the problem.
The non-routine problem requires analysis and mathematical
reasoning; many non-routine problems can be solved by more than
one way and there are more than one solution.
The balance of mathematical problem solving should be implemented
for both type of questions to ensure that every pupil is able to solve
the problem well and effectively.

Ability to consider, make decisions using


knowledge, experience, skills, and values and
justify decisions made.

Routine and non-routine problems can be explained as follows:

Produce an idea or a product using creative


and innovative methods.

ROUTINE QUESTION

Does
not
require students to
use higher order
thinking skills.

Operation
that should be
used is clear

Skills is written explicitly in the curriculum of each subject.


HOTS can be applied in the classroom through activities in the form
of reasoning, inquiry learning, problem solving and projects. Teachers
and pupils have to use their thinking tools such as thinking maps,
mind maps and Thingking Hats as well as high level of questioning
inside and outside of the classroom to encourage pupils to think.
Higher order questions promote learning because they requires
pupils to apply, analyze, synthesize and evaluate information not
merely memorizing facts.
There are two kinds of questions in mathematics that is the routine
and the non-routine questions.
Routine questions are problems that can be solved with methods that
are commonly used by pupils by replicating the steps that are learned
12

NON-ROUTINE QUESTION

Requires higher order thinking skills


Improves reasoning skills
Responses and procedures to be
used are not immediately obvious

Encourages more than one solutions


and strategies

There are more than one answer

More challenging

Capable of producing pupils who are


creative and innovative

Solution requires more than just


making decisions and choosing
mathematical operations

Need more time to resolve

Encourage group discussion in


finding solution

Values: Are the guidelines for pupils to become individuals with noble
characters and are capable of making decisions and taking actions in
carrying out responsibilities to family, society and country which
encompass:
Spirituality
Humanity
Patriotism
Integrity
Responsibility
Oneness

21st CENTURY SKILLS


A student need to be equipped with skills, knowledge and values to
succeed in life and career in the 21st century.
The Ministry of Education Malaysia (MOE) has identified the skills
and values that each student needs to have to face the 21st century.
The skills and values are divided into 3 aspects:
Thinking skills: Prepare pupils to face life that is becoming more
challenging as well as the current work environment. Among the skills
are:
Creativity
Critical thinking
Reasoning
Innovative
Problem solving
Making decisions

STUDENT PROFILE
The critical factor that contributes to social, culture and economy
growth of a country is the development of human capital that are
innovative and highly skilled. With that, each student that is produced
should be physically, emotionally, spiritually and intellectually
balanced as stated in the National Education Philosophy.

Career and Life Skills: Needs more than thinking skills and
knowledge. Pupils develop life and career skills to face life that is
complex and work environment in a world that is getting more
challenging. Among the skills are:
Communication Skills
Information and Communication Technology
Cooperation
Entrepreneurship
Leadership
Lifelong learning
Flexibility
Ability to Adapt
Initiative and Self-directed

MOE has outlined 10 Pupil Profiles that each pupil needs to have to
compete globally. Pupil Profiles are characteristics that each student
has:
Balanced: They are physically, emotionally, spiritually and
intellectually balanced to achieve personal well-being, as well as to
show empathy, compassion, and respect for others. Able to
contribute towards the harmony of family, community and country.
Resistant: They are able to face and overcome difficulties, face
challenges with wisdom, confidence, tolerance and empathy.

13

Thinker: They think critically, creatively and innovatively; able to


handle complex problems and make ethical decisions. They think
about learning and themselves as pupils. They come up with
questions and are open to perspectives, values and individual
traditions and societal traditions. They are confident and creative in
handling new learning fields.

Caring/Attentive: They show empathy, compassion and respect


towards needs and feelings of others. They are committed to the
society and ensure the sustainability of nature.
Patriotism: They portray love, support and respect towards the
country.

Communicator: They can voice and express their thoughts, ideas


and information confidently and creatively through verbal, written form
or use of various media and technology.

ELEMENTS OF ADDED VALUES

Teamwork: They can work together effectively and harmoniously


with others. They take on responsibility together while respecting and
appreciating the contributions given by all team members. They
obtain interpersonal skills through collaborative activities, and this
makes them better leaders and team mates.

CREATIVITY AND INNOVATION


There are many definitions of creativity. According to the Kamus
Dewan, 1997 creativity means the capability or the ability to create.
Whereas according to PPK, 1999 creativity means the ability to digest
and produce new and original ideas. The ideas are developed
through inspiration or combination of existing ideas.

Curious: They develop natural curiosity to explore strategies and


new ideas. They learn skills that are needed to carry out inquiry and
research, as well as behave independently in learning. They enjoy
continuous lifelong learning experiences.

Creativity should be embedded effectively in teaching and learning in


which teachers need to be creative and innovative in their role as
triggers of ideas and to produce pupils who are knowledgeable, able
to master and practise the good attitudes and values as well as to
expand pupils creativity and innovation.

Principled: They are honest and have integrity, equality, fairness and
respect individual, group and community dignity. They are
responsible for their actions, consequences and decisions.

This is important as creativity and innovation need to be developed


among pupils at an early stage of schooling. This is to enable them to
know their potential and personal preferences as well as to trigger the
hidden potential in themselves.

Informative:
They gain knowledge and form wide and balanced
understanding across various knowledge disciplines. They explore
knowledge effectively and efficiently in the context of local and global
issues. They understand ethical issues/laws related to the information
that was gained.

Creative and innovative teaching and learning can be instilled through


problem solving, logical reasoning, communication, making
connections and use of technology, where pupils:
14

Build a mathematical model through patterns and relationships.


Apply mathematical skills for estimation, measurement and
visualization of data in everyday situations.
Make interconnections between mathematical skills with other
disciplines of knowledge.
Apply mathematical knowledge to find solutions to routine and
non-routine problems.
Make a conjecture (extrapolation, projections, cause and effect).

INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY (ICT)


Explosion of progress in various technologies now and in future make
this element important in classroom teaching and learning. Exposure
of ICT application in Mathematics teaching and learning can be
applied successfully in:
Learning about ICT
Pupils are taught about ICT knowledge and skills in handling
hardware and software.
Learning through ICT
Use ICT to access information and knowledge through media
such as CD-Rom, DVD-Rom, Internet and etc.
Learning with ICT
Teachers and pupils use ICT as their teaching and learning aids
ICT teaching and learning
This can be as an access to make learning more interesting and fun.
Pupils can be exposed to various kinds of latest communication
information and the effective use will produce a quality teaching and
learning.

The process of building creative and innovative skills can be initiated


from the preparation phase, imagination, development and action in
planning the preparation of teaching and learning in the classroom.
Through this process, pupil-centered teaching and learning is formed
to instigate the creative skills among pupils.

ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN MATHEMATICS
An effort to build the entrepreneurship characteristics and practice it
to make them as a culture among pupils. The entrepreneurship
characteristics and practices can be formed by:
Practicing the entrepreneurs attitude.
Applying the entrepreneurs thinking.
Applying the knowledge and skills of business management.
Formulating either entrepreneurship concept, process or product.
Practicing moral values and good ethics in entrepreneurship.
Therefore, this element can be applied in the appropriate learning
areas of mathematics in primary schools such as in numbers and
operations, measurement and geometry as well as statistics and
probability.

15

ASSESSMENT

SCHOOL BASED ASSESSMENT

Assessment is an integral part of teaching and learning process. It


has to be well-planned and carried out continuously as part of
classroom activities. By focusing on a broad range of mathematical
activities, the strengths and weaknesses of pupils can be assessed.
Different methods of assessment can be conducted using various
assessment techniques including oral and written work as well as
demonstrations. These may be carried out in the form of interviews,
open-ended questions, observations and research. Based on the
results, teachers can rectify the pupils misconception and
weaknesses and at the same time improve their teaching skills. As
such, teachers can take subsequent effective measures in conducting
remedial and enrichment activities to upgrade pupils performance.

School Based Assessment (SBA) is a major component in teaching


and learning process (T&L) that serve to reinforce pupils learning,
improve teaching and give valid information about what has been
done or achieved in the process of T&L.
SBA is completely carried out by teachers and schools in the aspects
starting from planning, construction of items and assessment of
instruments,administration,inspection or scoring,documentation and
making reports.
SBA is important to determine the effectiveness of teachers and
schools in an effort to produce a harmonious and balanced human.
SBA is an ongoing activity that charge high commitment and clear
direction from teachers and schools to develop pupils potential to the
maximum.
SBA has the following characteristic: Holistic, i.e. able to provide overall information on the achievement
of knowledge,skills and practice of moral values..
Continuity, i.e. continuous assessment activities go hand in hand
with T&L process.
Flexibility, i.e. assessment approaches vary according to suitability
and readiness of pupils.
Referring to the performance standards developed by Curriculum
Standard.

16

PERFORMANCE STANDARDS

SBA can be carried out through: Formative assessment which is conducted in line with T&L
process.
Summative assessment which is conducted at the end of learning
unit,semester or year.

Performance standard is a statement about pupils levels of learning


development as measured based on standards and it indicates the
position of pupils in the development or progress of learning.
Developments in the standard is divided into two, that is, horizontal
development (construct) and vertical development (performance
level). The performance of pupil is indicated by one or more qualifiers
using words or phrases that correctly describe the standards in the
form of learning outcomes.

STANDARD REFERENCE ASSESSMENT


Standard
Reference
Assessment
was
introduced,
using
Performance Standard to see the progress and growth of pupils
learning and their achievement. It is a process of obtaning information
about the extent to which pupils know,understand and can do or have
mastered what is learned based on the performance standards
established in accordance with the stages in achievement in
Standard Based Curriculum and Assessment Document.

PERFORMANCE STANDARD FRAMEWORK


PERFORMANCE
DESCRIPTOR
LEVEL
1
Know
2
Know and understand
3
Know,understand and able to do.
Know,understand and able to do with good
4
manner.
Know,understand and able to do with admirable
5
manner.
Know,understand and able to do with exemplary
6
manner.

Standard Reference Assessment does not compare the performance


of a pupil with others but report pupils performance,progress and
growth in learning referring to the standard statement.

Pupils are assessed fairly and equitably as individuals in society


based on their abilities, capabilities, talents, skills and potentials
without comparison with others. Schools are able to obtain
completed response in the form of qualitative and quantitative data
that covers all aspects of a pupils to enable those responsible to
identify, understand,appreciate, recognize and honour pupils as
individuals who are useful, important and has the potential to
contribute to the development of country and nation according to their
respective capabilities and abilities.

Performance level is a label used to indicate benchmarks which are


arranged in a hierarchy for individual report purposes.
Standard is a statement about a domain which refers to specific
benchmarks and is generic in nature to provide a holistic picture of an
individual .
17

THE GENERAL DESCRIPTOR OF PERFORMANCE LEVEL

Performance
Level

DESCRIPTOR

Pupils know the basics or can perform basic


skills or respond to the basic subject matter.

Pupils demonstrate an understanding of the


changing forms of communication or translate
and explain what they have learned.

Pupils use knowledge to perform a skill in a


particular situation.

INTERPRETATION OF PERFORMANCE FOR


MATHEMATICS
There are 3 groups that need to be evaluated to determine the level
of students as follows :1.
Knowledge
2.
Skills and Process
3.
Attitudes and Values in Mathematics.
1.

KNOWLEDGE
(Overall interpretation of performance level of mathematics)
Performance
Interpretation
Level
1

Know basic knowledge of mathematics.

Pupils carry out a skill following the procedures


with good manner or systematically.

Know and understand basic knowledge of


mathematics.

Pupils perform a skill in a new situation


following the procedures, systematically and
consistently with a positive attitude.

Know and understand basic


knowledge to perform basic
operations and conversions.

Know and understand mathematical knowledge


to perform steps in calculation for daily routine
problems.

Master and apply mathematical knowledge and


skills in solving daily routine problems using
various strategies.

Master and apply mathematical knowledge and


skills in solving daily non-routine problems
creatively and innovatively.

Pupils are able to use existing knowledge and


skills in a new situation in a systematic,
positive,creative and innovative and exemplary
manner.

18

mathematical
mathematical

Note:
There are 18 titles in Year Five. Each title has its own interpretation of
performance level.The indicators below are sample guidance which
are designed for each title of group knowledge.

. MATHEMATICAL SKILLS AND PROCESS


a.

INDICATOR:
Learning Area
Topic

Performance
Level

DESCRIPTOR

Able to state the steps of problem solving


without performing the process.

Able to solve routine problems given with


guidance.

Able to solve routine problems involving


one step of calculation without guidance.

Able to solve complex routine problems.

Able to solve complex routine problems


using various strategies.

Able to solve non routine


creatively and innovatively

Learning Year
Performance Standard

Pupils Performance level (1 to 6)


Learning Standard
Content Standard

Problem Solving

Performance level intrepretation

19

problems

c. Relationship

b. Reasoning

Performance
Level

DESCRIPTOR

Performance
Level

DESCRIPTOR

Able to give justification for mathematics activity


logically with guidance.

Able to relate skills learnt to other topics and


daily life with guidance.

Able to give justification for mathematics activity


logically without guidance.

Able to relate skills learnt to other topics and


daily life without guidance.

Able to show accurate justification for


mathematics activity involving one calculation.

Able to relate concepts and procedurse to solve


mathematical sentence.

Able to show accurate justification for


mathematics activity involving more than one
calculation.

Able to relate concepts and procedures to solve


daily routine problems.

Able to relate concepts and procedures to solve


daily routine problems using various strategies.

Able to relate concepts and procedures to solve


daily non-routine problems creatively and
innovatively.

Able to show accurate justification for


mathematics activity involving routine problem
solving.
Able to explain accurate justification for
mathematics activity involving non routine
problem solving creatively and innovatively.

20

d. Representation
Performance
Level
1
2

e.
DESCRIPTOR

Communication
Performance
Level

DESCRIPTOR

Able to state mathematical idea verbally or in


written using mathematical symbols or visual
representations.

Able to explain mathematical idea verbally or in


written using mathematical symbols or visual
representations.

Able to use correct mathematical language,


symbols or visual representations.

Able to explain mathematical idea systematically


using correct mathematical language, symbols or
visual representations.

Able to explain mathematical idea systematically


using correct mathematical language, symbols or
visual representations to solve routine problems.

Able to explain mathematical idea systematically


using correct mathematical language, symbols or
visual representations to solve non-routine
problems creatively and innovatively.

Able to use representation with guidance.


Able
to
use
representation to
show
mathematical understanding without guidance.

Able to explain mathematical concepts and


prosedures using representation.

Able to use representation to solve daily routine


problems.

Able to use various representations to solve


daily routine problems in various strategy.

Able to use representation to solve daily nonroutine problems creatively and innovatively.

21

f.

Thinking Skills

Performance
Level

g. Soft skills
Performance
Level

DESCRIPTOR

Able to state mathematical knowledge and


skills.

Able to explain mathematical knowledge and


skills.

Able to use mathematical knowledge and skills


in different situations to carry out a task.

Able to break down information into small


portion for better understanding and relate it to
other parts.

Able to make judgements and decisions using


the knowledge, experience, skills and give
justification.

Able to produce creative and innovative ideas,


products or methods.

DESCRIPTOR

Show interest and want to learn

Try to understand a problem

Can communicate and is interested in learning

Can work in team to solve problems.

Able to lead and guide the peer.

Able to become mentor and role-model to their


peer

Note:
Soft skills include aspects of generic skills that involve the
psychomotor and effective elements related to non-academic skills
such as positive values, leadership, teamwork, communication,
continuous learning ability to work (employability) and preparation for
the working world.

22

h.

3. Attitude and Values in Mathematics

Skills in Using Technologies

Performance
Level
1

Know and can state mathematical tools.

Able to use and handle basic mathematical tools.

Performance
Level

DESCRIPTOR

Abe to use and handle basic mathematical tools,


establish and understand mathematical concepts
and explore mathematical ideas.

Able to use mathematical tools to solve routine


problems.

Able to use mathematical tools to solve routine


problems using variety of strategies.

Able to use mathematical tools to solve nonroutine problems creatively and innovatively.

DESCRIPTOR

Pupils are able to state one of the items of attitude


and values in Mathematics with teachers guidance.
Pupils are able to explain one of the items of attitude
and values in Mathematics by giving reasonable
example.
Pupils are able to show attitude and values in
Mathematics for a given situation with teachers
guidance.
Pupils are able to demonstrate attitude and values
related to mathematics in various situation.
Pupils always practice attitude and values related to
mathematics in teaching and learning process.
Pupils always practice attitude and values related to
mathematics in daily life and become adviser and
example to other peers.

Every mathematic teacher should implement a T&L process with reference


to the Content Standard and Learning Standard. Teachers wisdom is
needed to determine that T&L process is implemented effectively and
appropriately. In a similar situation, teachers should assess pupils abilities
to determine the performance level based om the list of Performance
Standards which have been prepared in accordance with learning topics.
Teachers should provide opportunities for every pupil to acquire better
ability by carrying out guidance and reinforcement process.

23

24

NUMBERS AND OPERATIONS

Year 4

1. WHOLE NUMBERS UP TO 100 000


PERFORMANCE STANDARD

CONTENT
STANDARD
1.1 Value of
numbers.

LEARNING STANDARD
LEVEL
Read, say and write any given
numbers up to 100 000 in words
and numerals.
(ii) Name the place value and digit
value for any number.
(iii) Write any number in expanded
notation according to place value
and digit value.
(iv) Determine the value of numbers up
to 100 000 by arranging numbers
according to ascending and
descending order.

(i)

1.2 Estimation of
quantity.

(i)

1.3 Numbers in
pattern.

(i) Classify the pattern of a given


number sequence.
(ii) Complete the given number pattern.

1.4 Application of
numbers.

DESCRIPTOR

Estimate number of objects by stating


the reasonable quantity based on a
given set of references.

Round off any numbers up to the


nearest ten thousands.
(ii) Identify numbers that can represent a
given number rounded off up to the
nearest ten thousands.

State any numbers up to100 000.

Determine the place value and digit value of any numbers


up to 100 000.

Estimate and round off any numbers to the nearest tens,


hundreds, thousands and ten thousands.

Classify and complete the number pattern.

Solve routine problems for any number by using various


strategies.

Solve daily non-routine problems for any numbers


creatively and innovatively.

(i)

25

NUMBERS AND OPERATIONS

Year 4

2. ADDITION UP TO 100 000


PERFORMANCE STANDARD

CONTENT
STANDARD
2.1 Addition of any
two up to four
numbers.

2.2 Problem solving.

2.3 Usage of
unknown in
addition.

LEARNING STANDARD
LEVEL
(i)

(i)

Add any two, three and four


numbers up to five digits with the
total up to 100 000 including making
estimation.

Solve daily problems involving


addition up to three numbers.

Identify an unknown involving


addition of two numbers.
(ii) Form number sentences involving
addition of two numbers.

Identify unknown and write number sentences.

Add any two up to four numbers up to five digits without


regrouping.

Add any two up to four numbers up to five digits with


regrouping.

Solve daily routine problems involving addition up to three


numbers.

Solve daily routine problems involving addition using


various strategies.

Solve daily non-routine problems involving addition


creatively and innovatively.

(i)

26

DESCRIPTOR

NUMBERS AND OPERATIONS

Year 4

3. SUBTRACTION UP TO 100 000


PERFORMANCE STANDARD

CONTENT
STANDARD

LEARNING STANDARD
LEVEL

3.1 Subtraction of
any two
numbers.

(i)

3.2 Subtraction of
two numbers
consecutively
from any
number.

(i)

3.3 Problem solving.

(i)

3.4 Usage of
unknown in
subtraction.

(i)

DESCRIPTOR

Subtract any two numbers up to


100 000.

Identify unknown and write number sentences.

Subtract consecutively two numbers


from any number up to 100 000.

Subtract any two numbers up to 100 000.

Subtract consecutively two numbers from any number up to


100 000.

Solve daily routine problems involving subtraction of two


numbers.

Solve daily routine problems involving subtraction using


various strategies.

Solve daily non-routine problems involving subtraction


creatively and innovatively.

Solve daily problems involving


subtraction of two numbers.

Identify unknown involving


subtraction of two numbers.
(ii) Form number sentences involving
subtraction of two numbers.

27

Year 4

NUMBERS AND OPERATIONS

4. MULTIPLICATION UP TO 100 000


PERFORMANCE STANDARD

CONTENT
STANDARD
4.1 Multiplication of
two numbers.

LEARNING STANDARD
LEVEL
(i)

(ii)

(iii)

(iv)

4.2 Problem solving.

(i)

Multiply any numbers up to four


digits by one-digit number, and the
product up to 100 000.
Multiply any numbers up to three
digits by two-digit number, and the
product up to 100 000.
Multiply any numbers with 100 and
1000, and the product up to
100 000.
Multiply any numbers with numbers
up to two-digit, 100 and 1000, and
the product up to 100 000 including
making estimations.
Solve daily problems involving
multiplication of two numbers.

28

DESCRIPTOR

Multiply any numbers up to four digits with one-digit number


without regrouping.

Multiply any numbers up to four digits with one-digit number


with regrouping.

Multiply any numbers up to three digits with two-digit


number, 100 and 1000.

Solve daily routine problems involving multiplication of two


numbers.

Solve daily routine problems involving multiplication using


various strategies.

Solve daily non-routine problems involving multiplication


creatively and innovatively.

Year 4

NUMBERS AND OPERATIONS

5. DIVISION UP TO 100 000


PERFORMANCE STANDARD

CONTENT
STANDARD
5.1 Division of two
numbers.

5.2 Problem solving.

LEARNING STANDARD
LEVEL
(i)

(i)

Divide any number up to 100 000 by


one-digit number, two-digit number,
100, and 1000.

Solve daily problems involving


division of two numbers.

29

DESCRIPTOR

Divide any numbers up to 100 000 with one-digit number


without remainder.

Divide any numbers up to 100 000 with one-digit number with


remainder.

Divide any numbers up to 100 000 with two-digit number,


100 and 1000.

Solve daily routine problems involving division of two


numbers.

Solve daily routine problems involving division using


various strategies.

Solve daily non-routine problems involving division creatively


and innovatively.

NUMBERS AND OPERATIONS

Year 4

6. MIXED OPERATIONS
PERFORMANCE STANDARD

CONTENT
STANDARD

LEARNING STANDARD
LEVEL

DESCRIPTOR

6.1 Addition and


subtraction.

(i)

Add and subtract any numbers


within 100 000.

Do mixed operations involving addition and subtraction without


regrouping, multiplication and division of any numbers by onedigit number without remainder within 100 000.

6.2 Multiplication
and division.

(i) Multiply and divide any number by


one-digit number and two digit
number within 100 000.

Do mixed operations involving addition and subtraction with


regrouping, multiplication and division of any numbers with
one-digit number with remainder within 100 000.

Do mixed operations involving addition and subtraction without


and with regrouping, and division of any numbers with
numbers up to two-digit without and with remainders within
100 000.

Solve daily routine problems using mixed operations


involving addition and subtraction, multiplication and
division.

Solve daily routine problems using mixed operations involving


addition and subtraction, multiplication and division with
various strategies.

Solve daily non-routine problems using mixed operations


involving addition and subtraction, multiplication and division
creatively and innovatively.

6.3 Problem solving.

(i)

Solve daily problems involving


addition and subtraction.
(ii) Solve daily problems involving
multiplication and division.

30

NUMBERS AND OPERATIONS

Year 4

7. FRACTIONS
PERFORMANCE STANDARD

CONTENT
STANDARD
7.1 Improper
fraction and
mixed
number.

LEARNING STANDARD
LEVEL
Recognise, name and write improper
fractions and mixed numbers with
denominator up to 10 using:
(a)
Objects,
(b) Diagrams.
(ii) Convert improper fractions with
denominator up to 10 to mixed
numbers and vice-versa.

DESCRIPTOR

(i)

7.2 Addition of
fraction.

(i)

7.3 Subtraction of
fraction.

(i)

7.4 Addition and


subtraction of
fraction.

(i)

7.5 Problem
solving
involving
fraction.

(i)

Add up to three proper fractions with:


(a) same denominator up to 10,
(b) different denominator up to 10.
Subtract up to two proper fractions
from a proper fraction with:
(a) same denominator up to 10,
(b) different denominator up to 10.
Add and subtract proper fractions with:
(a) same denominator up to 10,
(b) different denominator up to 10.

State improper fractions and mixed numbers with


denominator up to 10.

Convert improper fractions with denominator up to 10 to


mixed numbers and vice-versa.

Add up to three proper fractions, subtract up to two


fractions using mixed operations involving addition and
subtraction with same denominator up to 10.

Add up to three proper fractions, subtract up to two


fractions using mixed operations involving addition and
subtraction with different denominator up to 10.

Solve daily routine problems involving fractions using


various strategies.

Solve daily non-routine problems involving fractions


creatively and innovatively.

Solve daily problems involving addition


and subtraction of two proper fractions.

31

NUMBERS AND OPERATIONS

8. DECIMALS
CONTENT
STANDARD

Year 4
PERFORMANCE STANDARD
LEARNING STANDARD
LEVEL

8.1 Decimal
numbers up to
three decimal
places.

(i) Recognise, name and write decimals


using diagrams.
(ii) Say and write decimal numbers up to
three decimal places in words and
numerals.

8.2 Value of
decimals.

(i) Convert fractions of thousandths to


decimals and vice-versa.
(ii) Compare values of two decimal
numbers up to three decimal places.

8.3 Addition of
decimal
numbers.

(i) Add two decimal numbers up to three


decimal places.

8.4 Subtraction of
decimal
numbers.
8.5 Multiplication of
decimal
numbers.

State any decimal numbers based on concrete materials


and diagrams.

Convert fractions of thousandths to decimals and viceversa.

Add and subtract decimal numbers up to three decimal


places; multiply and divide decimal numbers with one-digit
number, 10, 100 and 1000, and the answer up to three
decimal places.

Solve daily routine problems involving decimal numbers


up to three decimal places in addition, subtraction,
multiplication and division.

Solve daily routine problems involving decimal numbers up


to three decimal places using various strategies.

Solve daily non-routine problems involving decimal numbers


up to three decimal places creatively and innovatively.

(i) Subtract two decimal numbers up to


three decimal places.
(i) Multiply decimal numbers by one-digit
number, and the product up to three
decimal places.
(ii) Multiply decimal numbers up to three
decimal places by 10, 100 and 1000.

32

DESCRIPTOR

NUMBERS AND OPERATIONS

Year 4

8. DECIMALS
CONTENT
STANDARD

PERFORMANCE STANDARD
LEARNING STANDARD
LEVEL

8.5 Division of
(i) Divide decimal numbers by one-digit
decimal numbers.
number, and the quotient up to three
decimal places.
(ii) Divide decimal numbers by 10, 100
and 1000, and the quotient up to three
decimal places.

8.6 Problem solving


involving
decimals.

(i) Solve daily problems involving


addition, subtraction, multiplication
and division.

33

DESCRIPTOR

NUMBERS AND OPERATIONS

Year 4

9. PERCENTAGE
PERFORMANCE STANDARD

CONTENT
STANDARD
9.1 Value of
percentage.

LEARNING STANDARD
LEVEL
(i) Convert decimals up to two decimal
places to percentage and vice-versa.

DESCRIPTOR

State the decimals and percentage based on concrete


materials and diagrams.

Convert percentage to decimals.

Convert decimals up to two decimal places to percentage.

Solve daily routine problems involving the conversion of


decimal to percentage and vice-versa.

Solve daily routine problems involving the conversion of


decimal to percentage and vice-versa using various
strategies.

Solve daily non-routine problems involving conversion of


decimal to percentage and vice-versa creatively and
innovatively.

34

NUMBERS AND OPERATIONS

10. MONEY UP TO RM100 000

Year 4
PERFORMANCE STANDARD

CONTENT
STANDARD

LEARNING STANDARD
LEVEL

DESCRIPTOR

10.1 Value of money (i)


up to
RM100 000.
(ii)

State combinations of money with


value up to RM100 000 based on
daily situations.
Round off money to the nearest
ringgit.

State
a) currencies of ASEAN and major countries in the world,
b) payment instrument,
c) equivalent value of RM1 to currencies of other countries

10.2 Addition of
money.

(i)

Add up to three values of money


with the sum up to RM100 000.

State any combined value of money up to RM 100 000.

10.3 Subtraction of
money.

(i)

Subtract up to two values of money


from one value of money up to
RM100 000.

10.4 Addition and


subtraction of
money.

(i)

Add and subtract values of money


up to RM100 000.

a) Do addition of money up to three values with the sum up


to RM 100 000,
b) Do subtraction up to two values from one value of
money up to RM 100 000,
c) Do multiplication and division of money by numbers up to
two digits, 100 and 1000,
d) Do mixed operations involving addition and subtraction
up to RM100 000.

10.5 Multiplication of
money.

(i)

Multiply values of money by


numbers up to two-digit, 100 and
1000 up to RM100 000.

Solve daily routine problems involving addition, subtraction,


multiplication and divison of money.

10.6 Division of
money.

(i)

Solve daily routine problems involving addition, subtraction,


multiplication and divison of money with various strategies.

Solve daily non-routine problems involving addition,


subtraction, multiplication and divison of money creatively
and innovatively.

Divide values of money by number


up to two-digit, 100 and 1000 up to
RM100 000.

35

NUMBERS AND OPERATIONS

Year 4

10. MONEY UP TO RM100 000


PERFORMANCE STANDARD

CONTENT
STANDARD

LEARNING STANDARD
LEVEL

10.7 Problem
solving.

(i)

10.8 Foreign
currencies.

(i)

10.9 Payment
instrument.

(i)

Solve daily problems including


transaction of items and services
involving addition, subtraction,
multiplication, and division of money

Recognise currencies of ASEAN and


major countries in the world.
(ii) State the equivalent value of RM1 to
currencies of other countries.
Recognise various payment
instruments.

36

DESCRIPTOR

MESUREMENT AND GEOMETRY

11. TIME

CONTENT
STANDARD

PERFORMANCE STANDARD
LEARNING STANDARD
LEVEL

11.1 Relationship in
time.

(i) State the relationship between units


of time involving:
(a) day and hour,
(b) week and day,
(c) year and month.

11.2 Addition of
time.

(i) Add up to three units of time


involving:
(a) day and hour,
(b) week and day,
(c) year and month,
with and without conversion of units.

11.3 Subtraction of
time.

11.4 Multiplication of
time.

Year 4

(i) Subtract up to two units of time from


one unit of time involving:
(a) day and hour,
(b) week and day,
(c) year and month,
with and without conversion of units.
(i) Multiply units of time involving:
(a) day and hour,
(b) week and day,
(c) year and month,
by one digit with and without
conversion of units.

37

DESCRIPTOR

State the relationship between units of time.

Add, subtract, multiply, and divide units of time without


conversion of units.

Add, subtract, multiply, and divide units of time with


conversion of units.

Solve daily routine problems involving time.

Solve daily routine problems involving units of time using


various strategies.

Solve daily non-routine problems involving units of time


creatively and innovatively.

MESUREMENT AND GEOMETRY

11. TIME
CONTENT
STANDARD

Year 4
PERFORMANCE STANDARD
LEARNING STANDARD
LEVEL

11.5 Division of
time.

(i) Divide units of time involving:


(a) day and hour,
(b) week and day,
(c) year and month,
by one digit with and without
conversion of units.

11.6 Problem
solving
involving time.

(i) Solve daily problems involving


addition, subtraction, multiplication
and division of time.

38

DESCRIPTOR

MEASUREMENT AND GEOMETRY

12. LENGTH

PERFORMANCE STANDARD

CONTENT
STANDARD
12.1 Units of length.

12.2 Measurement
and estimate
length.

LEARNING STANDARD
LEVEL
Recognise units of length:
(a) milimetre (mm),
(b) kilometre (km).
(ii) State the relationship between:
(a) centimetre and milimetre,
(b) kilometre and metre,
and vice-versa.

DESCRIPTOR

(i)

(i)
(ii)

(i)
12.3 Addition of
length.

(i)
12.4 Subtraction of
length.

Year 4

Measure objects in unit of millimetre.


Estimate distance in unit of
kilometre.
Add up to three units of length
involving:
(a) centimetre and millimetre,
(b) kilometre and metre,
with and without conversion of units.
Subtract up to two units of length
from one unit of length involving:
(a) centimetre and millimetre,
(b) kilometre and metre,
with and without conversion of units.

39

State the relationship between the units of length.

a)
b)

Add, subtract, multiply and divide involving units of length.

Solve daily routine problems involving units of length.

Solve daily routine problems involving units of length using


various strategies.

Solve daily non-routine problems involving units of length


creatively and innovatively.

Measure objects in unit of millimetre.


Estimate distance in unit of kilometre.

MEASUREMENT AND GEOMETRY

12. LENGTH

Year 4
PERFORMANCE STANDARD

CONTENT
STANDARD

LEARNING STANDARD
LEVEL

12.5 Multiplication of
length.

(i)

Multiply units of length involving:


(a) centimetre and millimetre,
(b) kilometre and metre,
by one digit number with and without
conversion of units.

12.6 Division of
length.

(i)

Divide units of length involving:


(a) centimetre and millimetre,
(b) kilometre and metre,
by one digit number with and without
conversion of units.

12.7 Problem
solving
involving
length.

(i)

Solve daily problems involving


addition, subtraction, multiplication
and division of length.

40

DESCRIPTOR

MEASUREMENT AND GEOMETRY

Year 4

13. MASS
PERFORMANCE STANDARD
CONTENT STANDARD

LEARNING STANDARD
LEVEL

13.1 Mixed
operations
involving mass.

(i)

(ii)

13.2 Problem
solving
involving mass.

(i)

Add and subtract mass involving


kilogram and gram, with and without
conversion of units.
Multiply and divide mass involving
kilogram and gram, with and without
conversion of units.

Add, subtract, multiply and divide involving units of mass.

Able to do mixed operations involving addition and


subtraction, multiplication and division involving kilogram
and gram without conversion of units.

Able to do mixed operations involving addition and


subtraction, multiplication and division involving kilogram
and gram with conversion of units.

Solve daily routine problems involving mixed operations of


mass.

Solve daily routine problems involving mixed operations of


mass using various strategies.

Solve daily non-routine problems involving mixed operations


of mass creatively and innovatively.

Solve daily problems involving


mixed operations of mass.

41

DESCRIPTOR

MEASUREMENT AND GEOMETRY

14. VOLUME OF LIQUID

Year 4
PERFORMANCE STANDARD

CONTENT STANDARD
14.1 Mixed operations (i)
involving volume
of liquid.
(ii)

14.2 Problem solving (i)


involving volume
of liquid.

LEARNING STANDARD
LEVEL

DESCRIPTOR

Add, subtract, multiply and divide involving volume of liquid.

Do mixed operations involving addition and subtraction,


multiplication and division involving litre and millilitre without
conversion of units.

Do mixed operations involving addition and subtraction,


multiplication and division involving litre and millilitre with
conversion of units.

Solve daily routine problems using mixed operations


involving volume of liquid.

Solve daily routine problems using mixed operations


involving volume of liquid with various strategies.

Solve daily non-routine problems using mixed operations


involving volume of liquid creatively and innovatively.

Add and subtract volume of liquid


involving litre and millilitre, with and
without conversion of units.
Multiply and divide volume of liquid
involving litre and millilitre, with and
without conversion of units.
Solve daily problems involving
mixed operations related to volume
of liquid.

42

MEASUREMENT AND GEOMETRY

15. SPACE
CONTENT
STANDARD
15.1 Angles.

Year 4
PERFORMANCE STANDARD
LEARNING STANDARD
LEVEL

DESCRIPTOR

(i) Recognise and name right angles,


acute angles and obtuse angles for
rectangle, square and triangle.

State the types of angle and line on two-dimensional basic


shapes.

15.2 Parallel and


perpendicular
lines.

(i) Recognize and name:


(a) parallel lines,
(b) perpendicular lines,
on two-dimensional basic shapes.

State the meaning of perimeter, area and volume with


formula.

15.3 Perimeter and


area.

(i) Determine perimeter of rectangle,


square, triangle and polygon.
(ii) Determine area of rectangle, square,
and triangle using square grid and
formula.

Calculate perimeter, area and volume.

Solve daily routine problems involving angles, lines,


perimeter, area, and volume.

Solve daily routine problems involving angles, lines,


perimeter, area, and volume using various strategies.

Solve daily non-routine problems involving angles, lines,


perimeter, area, and volume creatively and innovatively.

15.4 Volume.

(i) Determine volume of cube and


cuboid using unit of one cubic
centimeter (
) cubes and formula.

43

RELATIONSHIP AND ALGEBRA

16. COORDINATES

PERFORMANCE STANDARD

CONTENT
STANDARD
16.1 Coordinates in
the first
quadrant.

Year 4

LEARNING STANDARD
LEVEL
State vocabulary to explain the
meaning of horizontal axis and
vertical axis.
(ii) Name the objects based on the
position on the horizontal axis and
vertical axis on grid paper.
(iii) Determine and state the position of
objects on the horizontal axis and
vertical axis on grid paper.

DESCRIPTOR

(i)

44

State vocabulary related to horizontal axis and vertical axis.

State object based on the position on the horizontal axis and


vertical axis.

Determine the position of objects on the horizontal axis


and vertical axis.

Solve daily routine problems involving coordinates.

Solve daily routine problems involving coordinates using


various strategies.

Solve daily non-routine problems involving coordinates


creatively and innovatively.

RELATIONSHIP AND ALGEBRA

17. RATIO AND PROPORTION


PERFORMANCE STANDARD

CONTENT
STANDARD
17.1 Proportion.

Year 4

LEARNING STANDARD
LEVEL
(i)

Determine a value using unitary


method in daily life.

45

DESCRIPTOR

State the meaning of unitary.

Compare the value for one unit.

Find the value using unitary method.

Solve daily routine problems involving unitary method.

Solve daily routine problems involving unitary method using


various strategies.

Solve daily non-routine problems involving unitary method


creatively and innovatively.

STATISTICS AND PROBABILITY

18. DATA HANDLING


CONTENT
STANDARD
18.1 Data.

Year 4
PERFORMANCE STANDARD

LEARNING STANDARD
LEVEL
(i) Read and get information from:
(a) pictograph,
(b) bar chart,
(c) pie chart.
(ii) Compare information from:
(a) pictograph,
(b) bar chart,
(c) pie chart.

46

DESCRIPTOR

Name types of graph: pictograph, bar chart, and pie chart.

State information from pictograph, bar chart and pie chart.

Compare the information from pictograph, bar chart or pie


chart.

Solve daily routine problems involving data representation.

Solve daily routine problems involving data representation


using various strategies.

Solve daily non-routine problems involving data


representation creatively and innovatively.

This curriculum document is published in Bahasa Melayu and English language. If there is any conflict or inconsistency between the Bahasa
Melayu version and the English version, the Bahasa Melayu version shall, to the extent of the conflict or inconsistency, prevail.

BAHAGIAN PEMBANGUNAN KURIKULUM


KEMENTERIAN PENDIDIKAN MALAYSIA
Aras 4-8, Blok E9
Presint 1
Pusat Pentadbiran Kerajaan Persekutuan
62604 PUTRAJAYA
Tel: 03-8884 2000 Faks: 03-8888 9917
http://www.moe.gov.my/bpk