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DSKP Mathematics Year 4 (DLP)

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DSKP Mathematics Year 4 (DLP)

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DOKUMEN STANDARD KURIKULUM DAN PENTAKSIRAN

MATEMATIK

TAHUN 4

DOKUMEN STANDARD

(KSSR)

MATEMATIK

(EDISI BAHASA INGGERIS)

TAHUN EMPAT

i

Kementerian Pendidikan Malaysia

Hak Cipta Terpelihara. Tidak dibenarkan mengeluar ulang mana-mana bahagian artikel, ilustrasi dan isi kandungan buku ini dalam apa juga

bentuk dan dengan cara apa jua sama ada secara elektronik, fotokopi, mekanik, rakaman atau cara lain sebelum mendapat kebenaran bertulis

daripada Pengarah, Bahagian Pembangunan Kurikulum, Kementerian Pelajaran Malaysia, Aras 4-8, Blok E9, Parcel E, Kompleks Pentadbiran

Kerajaan Persekutuan, 62604 Putrajaya

ii

CONTENT

CONTENT

iii

RUKUN NEGARA

vi

INTRODUCTION

AIMS

FOCUS

MATHEMATICS EDUCATION

OBJECTIVES

STRATEGIES IN TEACHING AND LEARNING

10

11

13

14

ASSESSMENT

16

16

17

MATHEMATICS

18

iii

WHOLE NUMBERS UP TO 100 000

ADDITION IN THE RANGE OF 100 000

SUBTRACTION IN THE RANGE OF 100 000

MULTIPLICATION

DIVISION

MIXED OPERATIONS

FRACTIONS

DECIMALS

PERCENTAGE

MONEY

25

26

27

28

29

30

31

32

34

35

TIME

LENGTH

MASS

VOLUME OF LIQUID

SPACE

37

39

41

42

43

COORDINATE

RATIO AND PROPORTION

44

45

DATA HANDLING

46

iv

RUKUN NEGARA

BAHAWASANYA negara kita Malaysia mendukung citacita untuk mencapai perpaduan yang lebih erat

dalam kalangan seluruh masyarakatnya; memelihara

satu cara hidup demokratik; mencipta masyarakat

yang adil bagi kemakmuran negara yang akan

dapat dinikmati bersama secara adil dan saksama;

menjamin satu cara yang liberal terhadap tradisitradisi kebudayaannya yang kaya dan berbagaibagai corak; membina satu masyarakat progresif

yang akan menggunakan sains dan teknologi

moden;

MAKA KAMI, rakyat Malaysia, berikrar akan

menumpukan seluruh tenaga dan usaha kami untuk

mencapai cita-cita tersebut berdasarkan atas prinsipprinsip yang berikut:

KESETIAAN KEPADA RAJA DAN NEGARA

KELUHURAN PERLEMBAGAAN

KEDAULATAN UNDANG-UNDANG

KESOPANAN DAN KESUSILAAN

RUKUNEGARA

DECLARATION

to achieving a greater unity of all her peoples;

to maintaining a democratic way of life;

to creating a just society in which the wealth of

the nation shall be equitably shared;

to ensuring a liberal approach to her rich and

diverse cultural traditions;

to building a progressive society which shall be

orientated to modern science and technology;

WE, her peoples, pledge our united efforts to attain

these ends guided by these principles:

Belief in God

Loyalty to King and Country

Upholding the Constitution

Rule of Law

Good Behaviour and Morality

vi

berterusan ke arah memperkembangkan lagi

potensi individu secara menyeluruh dan

bersepadu untuk mewujudkan insan yang

seimbang dan harmonis dari segi intelek,

rohani, emosi dan jasmani berdasarkan

kepercayaan dan kepatuhan kepada Tuhan.

Usaha ini adalah bagi melahirkan rakyat

Malaysia yang berilmu pengetahuan,

berketerampilan, berakhlak mulia,

bertanggungjawab dan berkeupayaan

mencapai kesejahteraan diri serta

memberikan sumbangan terhadap

keharmonian dan kemakmuran keluarga,

masyarakat dan negara.

vii

viii

INTRODUCTION

Generating an Illustrious Generation) is the vision of the Malaysian

Ministry of Education. The education purpose in Malaysia is to

develop individual potential through quality education by preparing

committed citizens and a generation that has the ability to think. The

Ministry of Education continuously reviews the curriculum to ensure

that the implementation of the curriculum in schools equips pupils

with knowledge, skills and values to face current and future

challenges.

proficiency in making logical reasoning, space visualization, abstract

thinking skills and analyzing. Pupils develop numeracy skills,

reasoning, thinking and problem solving ways of thinking through

learning and application of mathematics.

Mathematics provides opportunities for students to perform creative

tasks and experience the fun and excitement of learning something

new. Such experiences increase interest and are the driving forces

for students to learn mathematics outside the classroom and at the

higher level of education.

systematically in problem solving and decision making. Inherently,

mathematical nature promotes meaningful learning and challenge the

mind. Due to this, mathematics is one of the most important

disciplines in any endeavour for human development. Based on the

National Philosophy of Education and to ensure the relevancy of the

curriculum, the Primary School Standard Curriculum for Mathematics

is adapted and restructured. This restructuring takes into account the

ongoing continuity to the next level. Measures taken are consistent

with the need to provide the knowledge and mathematical skills to

pupils from various backgrounds and abilities. With the knowledge

and skills, they are able to explore the knowledge, make adaptations,

modifications and innovations in managing changes and dealing with

future challenges.

AIMS

The aim of the Primary School Standard Curriculum for Mathematics

is to develop pupils understanding on the concept of numbers, basic

calculation skills, understanding simple mathematical ideas and are

competent in applying mathematical knowledge and skills effectively

and responsibly in everyday life.

FOCUS

Mathematical teaching and learning process gives priority to mastering knowledge and understanding to enable pupils to apply concepts,

principles and the mathematical processes they have learned. Emphasis on the development of mathematical thinking is built and

developed through the teaching and learning in the classroom based on the following principles, which are, problem solving,

communication, reasoning, making connections, making representations and the application of technology in mathematics.

.

NATIONAL CURRICULUM

FRAMEWORK

The Standard curriculum is based on six pillars, namely

Communication; Spiritual, Attitudes and Values;

Humanity; Physical Development and Aesthetic;

Personal

Experience;

and

Science

and

Technology. The six pillars are the main domain that

supports each other and are integrated with critical

thinking, creative and innovative thinking. This

integration aims to develop balanced, knowledgeable

and competent human capital as shown in the adjacent

figure.

STRUCTURE

OF

PRIMARY

.

MATHEMATICS EDUCATION

SCHOOL

least six

years

of

basic

education in

schools. This

includes three years of Level I studies and three years of Level II

studies.

Subsequently, pupils

can pursue education at a

higher level of education.

LEVEL

AIMS

to build understanding, mathematical skills and basic

application.

Primary Mathematics Curriculum Level II aims to build

understanding, mathematical skills and more complex

application skills that can be used in effectively

overcoming the challenges in the pupils daily life.

II

The Mathematics curriculum framework shows a mathematical

programme that could be utilized at the primary level. Mathematical

Learning is planned with the aim of moulding pupils mathematical

thoughtful learning.

MATHEMATICAL THOUGHTFUL LEARNING

OBJECTIVES

edition of the Kamus Dewan (2005) has the same

meaning with thinking and reasoning. In the context of mathematics

education, thoughtful learning refers to the desired quality of pupils to

be delivered through the national mathematics education system.

Pupils who are mathematically inclined are those capable of

doing mathematics

and understanding mathematical

ideas, and

responsibly applying the mathematical knowledge and skills in their

daily lives based on attitudes and values of mathematics.

symbols and terminologies.

Use mathematical knowledge and skills to be applied and

adapted to various strategies to solve problems.

Think, reason, and explore mathematically in daily life.

Use various representations to deliver mathematical ideas and

associations.

Appreciate and internalise the beauty of mathematics.

Use various mathematical instruments effectively including ICT to

build conceptual understanding and apply mathematical

knowledge.

various contexts.

Expand the use of basic operations of addition, subtraction,

multiplication and division basic skills related to Numbers and

Operations, Measurement and Geometry, Relationship and

Algebra, and Statistic and Probability.

Identify and use the relationship in mathematical ideas, between

mathematical fields with other fields and with daily life.

3

CONTENT ORGANISATION

Measurement and Geometry

Relationship and Algebra

Statistics and Probability

Numbers and Operations

Measurement and Geometry

Relationship and Algebra

Statistics and Probability

The contents of the KSSR Mathematics are as follows:

NUMBERS AND OPERATIONS

Communication

Reasoning

Connection

Problem Solving

Represention

Perception, interest,

appreciation,

confidently resilient

and perseverance.

Personality,

interaction, procedure,

intrinsic.

Mathematical skills

Analytical skills

Problems solving skills

Research skills

Communication skills

Information Communication Technology skills

Whole Numbers

Addition

Subtraction

Multiplication

Division

Mixed Operations

Fractions

Decimals

Percentage

Money

Coordinates

Ratio and Proportion

Time

Length

Mass

Volume of Liquid

Three Dimensional Shapes

Two Dimensional Shapes

Data Handling

Likelihood

through various learning opportunities and experiences. Awareness

should be fostered and developed among pupils that mathematical

ideas are intertwined, and mathematics is comprehensive; not

isolated bits of knowledge. With such awareness and understanding,

comprehending of mathematical ideas becomes more meaningful,

and thus can enhance the capability of pupils to apply mathematics.

Creating, testing, and proving conjecture.

Extracting meaning from a mathematical writing.

Using mathematics to explain physical world.

Analysing Skills

Analysing skills refer to the following abilities:

Thinking clearly.

Giving attention and concentration to each aspect.

Manipulating precise, concise and detail ideas.

Understanding complex reasoning.

Constructing and defending logical arguments.

Debating illogical arguments.

actively engage the pupils in learning mathematics, help them to form

a deep understanding of mathematical concepts, and establish a

more meaningful understanding of various mathematical ideas.

Based on the understanding and comprehension developed, pupils

are able to relate and apply mathematical ideas, and subsequently,

make pupils more confident in exploring and applying mathematics.

The use of teaching aids, technological equipment and the

implementation of assignments / practical / project work should be

encompassed in the learning experiences provided for pupils.

Problem solving skills refer to the following abilities:

SKILLS

include numeracy, measuring and constructing, data handling and

interpretation, arithmetic manipulation, algebra manipulation, using

alogarithm, and using mathematical instruments and ICT.

Mathematical Skills

Mathematical skills refer to the following abilities:

logical reasoning.

5

Presenting solutions clearly and explicating assumptions.

Solving difficult problems by analysing simple and specific

problems.

Be open-minded and using different approaches in solving the

same problem.

Solving problems confidently even though the solutions are not

envisioned

Asking for assistance if required.

Research Skills

Research skills refer to the following abilities:

Referring to notes, textbooks and other sources.

Accessing books in the library.

Using database.

Gaining information from various individuals.

Thinking.

PROCESS

Communication

Communication Skills

reinforce the understanding of mathematics. By sharing the

understanding of mathematics in writing and orally with classmates,

teachers and parents, pupils will be able to increase their confidence

and facilitate their teachers in monitoring the progress of their

mathematical skills.

Listening effectively.

Writing mathematical ideas precisely and clearly.

Writing essays and reports.

Doing presentations.

mathematics. Through communication, mathematical ideas can be

expressed and understood better. Mathematical communication,

whether oral, written, or in symbols and visual representations (using

charts, graphs, diagrams etc), can help pupils to understand and

apply mathematics more effectively.

Communication among themselves or with peers, parents, adults and

teachers can help pupils to reflect, clarify and reinforce their ideas

and understanding on mathematics. To ensure the process of

generating, sharing and increasing understanding, pupils should be

given the opportunity to debate their mathematical ideas analytically

and systematically. Communication involves a variety of perspectives

and these points of view can help pupils to increase their

understanding of mathematics better.

Information and communication technology skills refer to the abilities

in using and handling mathematical instruments such as abacus,

calculators, computers, educational software, websites on the internet

and educational packages for:

Developing and understanding mathematical concepts in-depth.

Doing, testing and proving conjecture.

Exploring mathematical ideas.

Solving problems.

ability to provide information effectively, understand and apply the

correct mathematical notation. Pupils need to use mathematical

language and symbols correctly to ensure that mathematical ideas

can be explained accurately. Mathematical communication also

involves the use of various media like charts, graphs manipulatives,

6

different media to explain mathematical ideas and solve mathematical

problems.

opportunities for the discussion of mathematics which is not only

engaging but also allows each pupil to be involved well.

pupils needs to feel comfortable in a conversation, ask questions,

answer questions and explain statements to classmates and

teachers. Pupils should be given opportunity to communicate actively

in various situations, for example communicating during activities in

pairs, groups or providing explanations to the entire class.

that involve the identification of mathematical patterns and making

conclusions based on the patterns.

effectively should show evidence that they are able to generate,

explain and share their mathematical ideas through various forms of

communication in various environment. Pupils, who are always given

opportunities and encouragement to speak, read, write and listen

during the teaching and learning of mathematics will be able to

communicate to learn mathematics and learn to communicate

mathematically.

assuming mathematics as only one set of procedures or algorithms

that need to be followed to obtain a solution, without actually

understand the true concepts of mathematics. Reasoning does not

only change the paradigm of pupils from just learning to think, but

also gives an intellectual empowerment when pupils are guided and

trained to make a conjecture, prove the conjecture, provide a logical

explanation, analyse, evaluate and justifiy all mathematical activities.

This training will produce pupils who are self-confident and resilient in

line with the aspiration to mould mathematics thinkers with high

capabilities.

Reasoning

Connection

effectively and making the delineation of mathematics more

meaningful. The development of mathematical reasoning is closely

related to intellectual development and communication of the pupils.

Reasoning has the ability to expand not only the capacity of logical

thinking but also increase the capacity of critical thinking, which is

also the basis for a deeper and meaningful understanding of

mathematics. To achieve this objective, pupils should be trained and

guided to make a conjecture, prove the conjecture, give a logical

explanation, analyse, consider, evaluate, and justify all mathematical

making connections need to be established so that pupils can link

conceptual and procedural knowledge and also able to relate topics

in mathematics particularly and mathematics with other areas in

general. This

will enhance

the

pupils

understanding of

mathematics and makes mathematics clearer, more meaningful and

interesting to them.

such as calculation, geometry, algebra, measurement and problem

solving. Without

relating these areas,

pupils will

learn and

remember too many concepts and skills separately. Instead, by

recognizing how the concepts or skills in different fields relate to each

other, mathematics will be seen and studied as a disciplined and

comprehensive knowledge

and

can

be easily

understood.

steps in solving need to be expanded more in the use of this subject.

In carrying out learning activities to build problem solving skills,

problems based on human activities should be introduced. Through

these activities, pupils can use mathematics when facing new

situations and reinforce themselves when dealing with various daily

situations that are more challenging. Some of the problems solving

strategies that can be considered are:

inside and outside the school, pupils will be more aware of the use,

importance, strength and beauty of mathematics. In addition, pupils

have the opportunity to use mathematics contextually in

other fields and in their daily lives. Mathematical models are used to

describe real life situations mathematically. Pupils will find this

method can be used to find solutions to problems or to predict the

likelihood of a situation based on the mathematical model.

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

Problem Solving

Problem solving is the main focus in the teaching and learning of

mathematics. Thus, teaching and learning need to involve problem

solving skills comprehensively and across the whole curriculum. The

development of problem solving skills needs to be given due

emphasis so that pupils are able to solve various problems

effectively. These skills involve the following steps:

Understanding and interpreting problems;

Planning the strategy;

Carrying out the strategy; and

Checking the solutions.

Try and error

Draw a diagram

Identify patterns

Create a table/chart or a systematic list

Do simulation

Use analogy

Work backwards

Do logical reasoning

Use algebra

Represention

Mathematics is often used to represent the world that we live in.

Therefore, there

must

be similarities between aspects

of the

represented world and aspects that are represented by the world.

The abstract relationship between these two worlds can be depicted

as follows:

Concrete Models

Facilitate

Mathematical World

Real World

Review

mathematical conceptual relationship. It allows pupils to communicate

approaches, debates and to understand mathematics for themselves

and others. It also allows pupils to recognize the relationships

between

related

concepts

and

apply

mathematics to

realistic problems.

Represent

mathematical understanding and quantitative thinking. As a whole,

without

representation,

mathematics

is an

abstract, mostly

philosophic, and unapproachable by most of the population. With

the representation, ideas can be formed into a mathematical model,

important relationship can be elaborated and understanding can be

stimulated through a construction and sequencing of suitable

experiences and observations.

Calculate

Forecast

relationship between the real world and the world of mathematics.

Formula, table, graph, equation etc. are mathematical objects used to

represent various conglomerates and real world relationships.

The aim of the nurturing of values and attitudes in Mathematics

curriculum is to produce competent individuals with virtuous moral

standards. In addition, the appreciation of attitudes and values can

shape a well mannered and noble younger generation.

Understanding and awareness of

the attitudes and values in

the

Malaysian society should be directly or indirectly fostered in line

with universal values.

or concrete objects that can reflect or represent others. The

representation system is naturally

divided

into

internal

and

external. The internal representation of the system exists in the mind

of individual,

whereas

the external

representation is

easily shared and viewed by others. Internal representation consists

of ideas that help in describing the human process of learning and

solving problems in mathematics, and external representation

consists of items such as diagrams, the formal language, and

notational symbols.

Using multiple representations in order to

show a concept helps to develop better understanding and also to

strengthen one's ability in solving problems.

provided by teachers. It involves an element of trust, interest,

appreciation, confidence, efficiency and endurance. Instilling of

attitudes and values also include personal aspects, interaction,

procedural and intrinsic.

9

appropriate context. Attitudes in mathematics refer to the affective

aspects of mathematical learning that covers, among others:

the

usefulness

of mathematics

mathematics.

Primary School Mathematics Standard Curriculum is formulated with

emphasis on Content Standard and Learning Standard that should be

known and can be done by pupils. This standard is presented in a

modular form divided into topics based on areas of learning.

Content Standard

General statements of the cognitive domain (knowledge) and

affective (attitudes and values) can be achieved by pupils through a

subtopic.

Personal values refer to the values that are related with the

formation of individual traits and personality such as

honesty, systematic, perserverence, hardworking and steadfast,

creative, confidence, conscientious, good time managers,

independent, trustworthy, efficient, responsible, patient

and

dedicated.

Learning Standard

Specific statement of what pupils should know and do in terms of

knowledge or concepts and the ability to show their proficiency in

measureable knowledge acquisition, skills and values.

the classroom context. This value refers to the emphasized values in

the interaction during mathematical activities such as appreciation for

mathematics, teamwork, discussion and sharing of ideas, tolerance,

fairness, open-minded, and respectful.

learning. It gives teachers space and opportunity to prepare a

condusive learning environment creatively for pupils to form concepts

and develop skills, attitudes and values in mathematics.

Procedural values

are associated with specific activities in

mathematics such as reasoning, making representations, solving

problems, communication, making connection, and using technology.

Mathematical thoughtful learning is transformed into teaching and

learning practices. Teaching and learning are implemented based on

the principle of mastery learning and learning occurs in access, selfdirected and at its own pace.

Intrinsic

values are associated

with the

formation

of

mathematical

content

and

its

discipline

such

as the epistemology, cultural and historical values.

10

them to interact and master the learning skills through their own

experience. Pupil-centred inquiry or discovery approach with the aid

of appropriate technology which is used comprehensively and

effectively

make

the

experience

of

learning

mathematics fun, meaningful, useful and challenging.

The National Curriculum aims to produce pupils who are well

balanced, resilient, curious, principled, well-informed and patriotism

with thinking skills, communication skills and able to work as a team.

21st century skills in line with the six aspirations required by each

pupil enable them to compete at global level are outlined in the

National Education Blueprint that every pupil will have leadership

skills, bilingual proficiency, ethics and spiritual, social identity,

knowledge and thinking skills.

use of diverse teaching methods. Teachers can choose appropriate

teaching and learning approaches and methods that suit pupils

abilities. The effectiveness of teaching and learning depends on the

processing techniques and the use of teaching aids as well as

technology that can stimulate and encourage pupils to think critically

and creatively, be innovative, able to communicate, and interact.

introduce Critical and Creative Thinking Skills (CCTS). Thinking skills

are focused from lower level to higher level of thinking. Beginning

2011, the Standard Curriculum for Primary School (KSSR) has

emphasis on Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS).

considered when planning the teaching and learning of a distinctive

skill. Moral values could be instilled appropriately according to the

well planned lesson.

skills and values in reasoning and reflection to solve problems, make

decisions, being innovative and able to create something. HOTS

refers to skills of applying, analyzing, evaluating and creating as the

following table.

applied accordingly to the appropriate topics to enable pupils to

appreciate mathematics and to stimulate their interest on a particular

topic. Elements of history can be on a specific event about a

mathematician or a brief history of a concept or symbol.

To enhance pupils analytical and creative thinking, problem solving is

an important aspect that must be embedded in teaching and learning

of mathematics. Solutions given for problems should be appropriate

in accordance to the pupils level. In addition, pupils are also

encouraged to communicate and courageously make decisions.

11

HOTS

Description

Application

situations to complete a piece of work.

Analysis

parts in order to understand and make

connections between these parts.

Evaluation

Creation

prosedures known or determined to solve the problem.

The non-routine problem requires analysis and mathematical

reasoning; many non-routine problems can be solved by more than

one way and there are more than one solution.

The balance of mathematical problem solving should be implemented

for both type of questions to ensure that every pupil is able to solve

the problem well and effectively.

knowledge, experience, skills, and values and

justify decisions made.

and innovative methods.

ROUTINE QUESTION

Does

not

require students to

use higher order

thinking skills.

Operation

that should be

used is clear

HOTS can be applied in the classroom through activities in the form

of reasoning, inquiry learning, problem solving and projects. Teachers

and pupils have to use their thinking tools such as thinking maps,

mind maps and Thingking Hats as well as high level of questioning

inside and outside of the classroom to encourage pupils to think.

Higher order questions promote learning because they requires

pupils to apply, analyze, synthesize and evaluate information not

merely memorizing facts.

There are two kinds of questions in mathematics that is the routine

and the non-routine questions.

Routine questions are problems that can be solved with methods that

are commonly used by pupils by replicating the steps that are learned

12

NON-ROUTINE QUESTION

Improves reasoning skills

Responses and procedures to be

used are not immediately obvious

and strategies

More challenging

creative and innovative

making decisions and choosing

mathematical operations

finding solution

Values: Are the guidelines for pupils to become individuals with noble

characters and are capable of making decisions and taking actions in

carrying out responsibilities to family, society and country which

encompass:

Spirituality

Humanity

Patriotism

Integrity

Responsibility

Oneness

A student need to be equipped with skills, knowledge and values to

succeed in life and career in the 21st century.

The Ministry of Education Malaysia (MOE) has identified the skills

and values that each student needs to have to face the 21st century.

The skills and values are divided into 3 aspects:

Thinking skills: Prepare pupils to face life that is becoming more

challenging as well as the current work environment. Among the skills

are:

Creativity

Critical thinking

Reasoning

Innovative

Problem solving

Making decisions

STUDENT PROFILE

The critical factor that contributes to social, culture and economy

growth of a country is the development of human capital that are

innovative and highly skilled. With that, each student that is produced

should be physically, emotionally, spiritually and intellectually

balanced as stated in the National Education Philosophy.

Career and Life Skills: Needs more than thinking skills and

knowledge. Pupils develop life and career skills to face life that is

complex and work environment in a world that is getting more

challenging. Among the skills are:

Communication Skills

Information and Communication Technology

Cooperation

Entrepreneurship

Leadership

Lifelong learning

Flexibility

Ability to Adapt

Initiative and Self-directed

MOE has outlined 10 Pupil Profiles that each pupil needs to have to

compete globally. Pupil Profiles are characteristics that each student

has:

Balanced: They are physically, emotionally, spiritually and

intellectually balanced to achieve personal well-being, as well as to

show empathy, compassion, and respect for others. Able to

contribute towards the harmony of family, community and country.

Resistant: They are able to face and overcome difficulties, face

challenges with wisdom, confidence, tolerance and empathy.

13

handle complex problems and make ethical decisions. They think

about learning and themselves as pupils. They come up with

questions and are open to perspectives, values and individual

traditions and societal traditions. They are confident and creative in

handling new learning fields.

towards needs and feelings of others. They are committed to the

society and ensure the sustainability of nature.

Patriotism: They portray love, support and respect towards the

country.

and information confidently and creatively through verbal, written form

or use of various media and technology.

with others. They take on responsibility together while respecting and

appreciating the contributions given by all team members. They

obtain interpersonal skills through collaborative activities, and this

makes them better leaders and team mates.

There are many definitions of creativity. According to the Kamus

Dewan, 1997 creativity means the capability or the ability to create.

Whereas according to PPK, 1999 creativity means the ability to digest

and produce new and original ideas. The ideas are developed

through inspiration or combination of existing ideas.

new ideas. They learn skills that are needed to carry out inquiry and

research, as well as behave independently in learning. They enjoy

continuous lifelong learning experiences.

which teachers need to be creative and innovative in their role as

triggers of ideas and to produce pupils who are knowledgeable, able

to master and practise the good attitudes and values as well as to

expand pupils creativity and innovation.

Principled: They are honest and have integrity, equality, fairness and

respect individual, group and community dignity. They are

responsible for their actions, consequences and decisions.

among pupils at an early stage of schooling. This is to enable them to

know their potential and personal preferences as well as to trigger the

hidden potential in themselves.

Informative:

They gain knowledge and form wide and balanced

understanding across various knowledge disciplines. They explore

knowledge effectively and efficiently in the context of local and global

issues. They understand ethical issues/laws related to the information

that was gained.

problem solving, logical reasoning, communication, making

connections and use of technology, where pupils:

14

Apply mathematical skills for estimation, measurement and

visualization of data in everyday situations.

Make interconnections between mathematical skills with other

disciplines of knowledge.

Apply mathematical knowledge to find solutions to routine and

non-routine problems.

Make a conjecture (extrapolation, projections, cause and effect).

Explosion of progress in various technologies now and in future make

this element important in classroom teaching and learning. Exposure

of ICT application in Mathematics teaching and learning can be

applied successfully in:

Learning about ICT

Pupils are taught about ICT knowledge and skills in handling

hardware and software.

Learning through ICT

Use ICT to access information and knowledge through media

such as CD-Rom, DVD-Rom, Internet and etc.

Learning with ICT

Teachers and pupils use ICT as their teaching and learning aids

ICT teaching and learning

This can be as an access to make learning more interesting and fun.

Pupils can be exposed to various kinds of latest communication

information and the effective use will produce a quality teaching and

learning.

from the preparation phase, imagination, development and action in

planning the preparation of teaching and learning in the classroom.

Through this process, pupil-centered teaching and learning is formed

to instigate the creative skills among pupils.

ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN MATHEMATICS

An effort to build the entrepreneurship characteristics and practice it

to make them as a culture among pupils. The entrepreneurship

characteristics and practices can be formed by:

Practicing the entrepreneurs attitude.

Applying the entrepreneurs thinking.

Applying the knowledge and skills of business management.

Formulating either entrepreneurship concept, process or product.

Practicing moral values and good ethics in entrepreneurship.

Therefore, this element can be applied in the appropriate learning

areas of mathematics in primary schools such as in numbers and

operations, measurement and geometry as well as statistics and

probability.

15

ASSESSMENT

has to be well-planned and carried out continuously as part of

classroom activities. By focusing on a broad range of mathematical

activities, the strengths and weaknesses of pupils can be assessed.

Different methods of assessment can be conducted using various

assessment techniques including oral and written work as well as

demonstrations. These may be carried out in the form of interviews,

open-ended questions, observations and research. Based on the

results, teachers can rectify the pupils misconception and

weaknesses and at the same time improve their teaching skills. As

such, teachers can take subsequent effective measures in conducting

remedial and enrichment activities to upgrade pupils performance.

and learning process (T&L) that serve to reinforce pupils learning,

improve teaching and give valid information about what has been

done or achieved in the process of T&L.

SBA is completely carried out by teachers and schools in the aspects

starting from planning, construction of items and assessment of

instruments,administration,inspection or scoring,documentation and

making reports.

SBA is important to determine the effectiveness of teachers and

schools in an effort to produce a harmonious and balanced human.

SBA is an ongoing activity that charge high commitment and clear

direction from teachers and schools to develop pupils potential to the

maximum.

SBA has the following characteristic: Holistic, i.e. able to provide overall information on the achievement

of knowledge,skills and practice of moral values..

Continuity, i.e. continuous assessment activities go hand in hand

with T&L process.

Flexibility, i.e. assessment approaches vary according to suitability

and readiness of pupils.

Referring to the performance standards developed by Curriculum

Standard.

16

PERFORMANCE STANDARDS

SBA can be carried out through: Formative assessment which is conducted in line with T&L

process.

Summative assessment which is conducted at the end of learning

unit,semester or year.

development as measured based on standards and it indicates the

position of pupils in the development or progress of learning.

Developments in the standard is divided into two, that is, horizontal

development (construct) and vertical development (performance

level). The performance of pupil is indicated by one or more qualifiers

using words or phrases that correctly describe the standards in the

form of learning outcomes.

Standard

Reference

Assessment

was

introduced,

using

Performance Standard to see the progress and growth of pupils

learning and their achievement. It is a process of obtaning information

about the extent to which pupils know,understand and can do or have

mastered what is learned based on the performance standards

established in accordance with the stages in achievement in

Standard Based Curriculum and Assessment Document.

PERFORMANCE

DESCRIPTOR

LEVEL

1

Know

2

Know and understand

3

Know,understand and able to do.

Know,understand and able to do with good

4

manner.

Know,understand and able to do with admirable

5

manner.

Know,understand and able to do with exemplary

6

manner.

of a pupil with others but report pupils performance,progress and

growth in learning referring to the standard statement.

based on their abilities, capabilities, talents, skills and potentials

without comparison with others. Schools are able to obtain

completed response in the form of qualitative and quantitative data

that covers all aspects of a pupils to enable those responsible to

identify, understand,appreciate, recognize and honour pupils as

individuals who are useful, important and has the potential to

contribute to the development of country and nation according to their

respective capabilities and abilities.

arranged in a hierarchy for individual report purposes.

Standard is a statement about a domain which refers to specific

benchmarks and is generic in nature to provide a holistic picture of an

individual .

17

Performance

Level

DESCRIPTOR

skills or respond to the basic subject matter.

changing forms of communication or translate

and explain what they have learned.

particular situation.

MATHEMATICS

There are 3 groups that need to be evaluated to determine the level

of students as follows :1.

Knowledge

2.

Skills and Process

3.

Attitudes and Values in Mathematics.

1.

KNOWLEDGE

(Overall interpretation of performance level of mathematics)

Performance

Interpretation

Level

1

with good manner or systematically.

mathematics.

following the procedures, systematically and

consistently with a positive attitude.

knowledge to perform basic

operations and conversions.

to perform steps in calculation for daily routine

problems.

skills in solving daily routine problems using

various strategies.

skills in solving daily non-routine problems

creatively and innovatively.

skills in a new situation in a systematic,

positive,creative and innovative and exemplary

manner.

18

mathematical

mathematical

Note:

There are 18 titles in Year Five. Each title has its own interpretation of

performance level.The indicators below are sample guidance which

are designed for each title of group knowledge.

a.

INDICATOR:

Learning Area

Topic

Performance

Level

DESCRIPTOR

without performing the process.

guidance.

one step of calculation without guidance.

using various strategies.

creatively and innovatively

Learning Year

Performance Standard

Learning Standard

Content Standard

Problem Solving

19

problems

c. Relationship

b. Reasoning

Performance

Level

DESCRIPTOR

Performance

Level

DESCRIPTOR

logically with guidance.

daily life with guidance.

logically without guidance.

daily life without guidance.

mathematics activity involving one calculation.

mathematical sentence.

mathematics activity involving more than one

calculation.

daily routine problems.

daily routine problems using various strategies.

daily non-routine problems creatively and

innovatively.

mathematics activity involving routine problem

solving.

Able to explain accurate justification for

mathematics activity involving non routine

problem solving creatively and innovatively.

20

d. Representation

Performance

Level

1

2

e.

DESCRIPTOR

Communication

Performance

Level

DESCRIPTOR

written using mathematical symbols or visual

representations.

written using mathematical symbols or visual

representations.

symbols or visual representations.

using correct mathematical language, symbols or

visual representations.

using correct mathematical language, symbols or

visual representations to solve routine problems.

using correct mathematical language, symbols or

visual representations to solve non-routine

problems creatively and innovatively.

Able

to

use

representation to

show

mathematical understanding without guidance.

prosedures using representation.

problems.

daily routine problems in various strategy.

Able to use representation to solve daily nonroutine problems creatively and innovatively.

21

f.

Thinking Skills

Performance

Level

g. Soft skills

Performance

Level

DESCRIPTOR

skills.

skills.

in different situations to carry out a task.

portion for better understanding and relate it to

other parts.

the knowledge, experience, skills and give

justification.

products or methods.

DESCRIPTOR

peer

Note:

Soft skills include aspects of generic skills that involve the

psychomotor and effective elements related to non-academic skills

such as positive values, leadership, teamwork, communication,

continuous learning ability to work (employability) and preparation for

the working world.

22

h.

Performance

Level

1

Performance

Level

DESCRIPTOR

establish and understand mathematical concepts

and explore mathematical ideas.

problems.

problems using variety of strategies.

Able to use mathematical tools to solve nonroutine problems creatively and innovatively.

DESCRIPTOR

and values in Mathematics with teachers guidance.

Pupils are able to explain one of the items of attitude

and values in Mathematics by giving reasonable

example.

Pupils are able to show attitude and values in

Mathematics for a given situation with teachers

guidance.

Pupils are able to demonstrate attitude and values

related to mathematics in various situation.

Pupils always practice attitude and values related to

mathematics in teaching and learning process.

Pupils always practice attitude and values related to

mathematics in daily life and become adviser and

example to other peers.

to the Content Standard and Learning Standard. Teachers wisdom is

needed to determine that T&L process is implemented effectively and

appropriately. In a similar situation, teachers should assess pupils abilities

to determine the performance level based om the list of Performance

Standards which have been prepared in accordance with learning topics.

Teachers should provide opportunities for every pupil to acquire better

ability by carrying out guidance and reinforcement process.

23

24

Year 4

PERFORMANCE STANDARD

CONTENT

STANDARD

1.1 Value of

numbers.

LEARNING STANDARD

LEVEL

Read, say and write any given

numbers up to 100 000 in words

and numerals.

(ii) Name the place value and digit

value for any number.

(iii) Write any number in expanded

notation according to place value

and digit value.

(iv) Determine the value of numbers up

to 100 000 by arranging numbers

according to ascending and

descending order.

(i)

1.2 Estimation of

quantity.

(i)

1.3 Numbers in

pattern.

number sequence.

(ii) Complete the given number pattern.

1.4 Application of

numbers.

DESCRIPTOR

the reasonable quantity based on a

given set of references.

nearest ten thousands.

(ii) Identify numbers that can represent a

given number rounded off up to the

nearest ten thousands.

up to 100 000.

hundreds, thousands and ten thousands.

strategies.

creatively and innovatively.

(i)

25

Year 4

PERFORMANCE STANDARD

CONTENT

STANDARD

2.1 Addition of any

two up to four

numbers.

2.3 Usage of

unknown in

addition.

LEARNING STANDARD

LEVEL

(i)

(i)

numbers up to five digits with the

total up to 100 000 including making

estimation.

addition up to three numbers.

addition of two numbers.

(ii) Form number sentences involving

addition of two numbers.

regrouping.

regrouping.

numbers.

various strategies.

creatively and innovatively.

(i)

26

DESCRIPTOR

Year 4

PERFORMANCE STANDARD

CONTENT

STANDARD

LEARNING STANDARD

LEVEL

3.1 Subtraction of

any two

numbers.

(i)

3.2 Subtraction of

two numbers

consecutively

from any

number.

(i)

(i)

3.4 Usage of

unknown in

subtraction.

(i)

DESCRIPTOR

100 000.

from any number up to 100 000.

100 000.

numbers.

various strategies.

creatively and innovatively.

subtraction of two numbers.

subtraction of two numbers.

(ii) Form number sentences involving

subtraction of two numbers.

27

Year 4

PERFORMANCE STANDARD

CONTENT

STANDARD

4.1 Multiplication of

two numbers.

LEARNING STANDARD

LEVEL

(i)

(ii)

(iii)

(iv)

(i)

digits by one-digit number, and the

product up to 100 000.

Multiply any numbers up to three

digits by two-digit number, and the

product up to 100 000.

Multiply any numbers with 100 and

1000, and the product up to

100 000.

Multiply any numbers with numbers

up to two-digit, 100 and 1000, and

the product up to 100 000 including

making estimations.

Solve daily problems involving

multiplication of two numbers.

28

DESCRIPTOR

without regrouping.

with regrouping.

number, 100 and 1000.

numbers.

various strategies.

creatively and innovatively.

Year 4

PERFORMANCE STANDARD

CONTENT

STANDARD

5.1 Division of two

numbers.

LEARNING STANDARD

LEVEL

(i)

(i)

one-digit number, two-digit number,

100, and 1000.

division of two numbers.

29

DESCRIPTOR

without remainder.

remainder.

100 and 1000.

numbers.

various strategies.

and innovatively.

Year 4

6. MIXED OPERATIONS

PERFORMANCE STANDARD

CONTENT

STANDARD

LEARNING STANDARD

LEVEL

DESCRIPTOR

subtraction.

(i)

within 100 000.

regrouping, multiplication and division of any numbers by onedigit number without remainder within 100 000.

6.2 Multiplication

and division.

one-digit number and two digit

number within 100 000.

regrouping, multiplication and division of any numbers with

one-digit number with remainder within 100 000.

and with regrouping, and division of any numbers with

numbers up to two-digit without and with remainders within

100 000.

involving addition and subtraction, multiplication and

division.

addition and subtraction, multiplication and division with

various strategies.

involving addition and subtraction, multiplication and division

creatively and innovatively.

(i)

addition and subtraction.

(ii) Solve daily problems involving

multiplication and division.

30

Year 4

7. FRACTIONS

PERFORMANCE STANDARD

CONTENT

STANDARD

7.1 Improper

fraction and

mixed

number.

LEARNING STANDARD

LEVEL

Recognise, name and write improper

fractions and mixed numbers with

denominator up to 10 using:

(a)

Objects,

(b) Diagrams.

(ii) Convert improper fractions with

denominator up to 10 to mixed

numbers and vice-versa.

DESCRIPTOR

(i)

7.2 Addition of

fraction.

(i)

7.3 Subtraction of

fraction.

(i)

subtraction of

fraction.

(i)

7.5 Problem

solving

involving

fraction.

(i)

(a) same denominator up to 10,

(b) different denominator up to 10.

Subtract up to two proper fractions

from a proper fraction with:

(a) same denominator up to 10,

(b) different denominator up to 10.

Add and subtract proper fractions with:

(a) same denominator up to 10,

(b) different denominator up to 10.

denominator up to 10.

mixed numbers and vice-versa.

fractions using mixed operations involving addition and

subtraction with same denominator up to 10.

fractions using mixed operations involving addition and

subtraction with different denominator up to 10.

various strategies.

creatively and innovatively.

and subtraction of two proper fractions.

31

8. DECIMALS

CONTENT

STANDARD

Year 4

PERFORMANCE STANDARD

LEARNING STANDARD

LEVEL

8.1 Decimal

numbers up to

three decimal

places.

using diagrams.

(ii) Say and write decimal numbers up to

three decimal places in words and

numerals.

8.2 Value of

decimals.

decimals and vice-versa.

(ii) Compare values of two decimal

numbers up to three decimal places.

8.3 Addition of

decimal

numbers.

decimal places.

8.4 Subtraction of

decimal

numbers.

8.5 Multiplication of

decimal

numbers.

and diagrams.

places; multiply and divide decimal numbers with one-digit

number, 10, 100 and 1000, and the answer up to three

decimal places.

up to three decimal places in addition, subtraction,

multiplication and division.

to three decimal places using various strategies.

up to three decimal places creatively and innovatively.

three decimal places.

(i) Multiply decimal numbers by one-digit

number, and the product up to three

decimal places.

(ii) Multiply decimal numbers up to three

decimal places by 10, 100 and 1000.

32

DESCRIPTOR

Year 4

8. DECIMALS

CONTENT

STANDARD

PERFORMANCE STANDARD

LEARNING STANDARD

LEVEL

8.5 Division of

(i) Divide decimal numbers by one-digit

decimal numbers.

number, and the quotient up to three

decimal places.

(ii) Divide decimal numbers by 10, 100

and 1000, and the quotient up to three

decimal places.

involving

decimals.

addition, subtraction, multiplication

and division.

33

DESCRIPTOR

Year 4

9. PERCENTAGE

PERFORMANCE STANDARD

CONTENT

STANDARD

9.1 Value of

percentage.

LEARNING STANDARD

LEVEL

(i) Convert decimals up to two decimal

places to percentage and vice-versa.

DESCRIPTOR

materials and diagrams.

decimal to percentage and vice-versa.

decimal to percentage and vice-versa using various

strategies.

decimal to percentage and vice-versa creatively and

innovatively.

34

Year 4

PERFORMANCE STANDARD

CONTENT

STANDARD

LEARNING STANDARD

LEVEL

DESCRIPTOR

up to

RM100 000.

(ii)

value up to RM100 000 based on

daily situations.

Round off money to the nearest

ringgit.

State

a) currencies of ASEAN and major countries in the world,

b) payment instrument,

c) equivalent value of RM1 to currencies of other countries

10.2 Addition of

money.

(i)

with the sum up to RM100 000.

10.3 Subtraction of

money.

(i)

from one value of money up to

RM100 000.

subtraction of

money.

(i)

up to RM100 000.

to RM 100 000,

b) Do subtraction up to two values from one value of

money up to RM 100 000,

c) Do multiplication and division of money by numbers up to

two digits, 100 and 1000,

d) Do mixed operations involving addition and subtraction

up to RM100 000.

10.5 Multiplication of

money.

(i)

numbers up to two-digit, 100 and

1000 up to RM100 000.

multiplication and divison of money.

10.6 Division of

money.

(i)

multiplication and divison of money with various strategies.

subtraction, multiplication and divison of money creatively

and innovatively.

up to two-digit, 100 and 1000 up to

RM100 000.

35

Year 4

PERFORMANCE STANDARD

CONTENT

STANDARD

LEARNING STANDARD

LEVEL

10.7 Problem

solving.

(i)

10.8 Foreign

currencies.

(i)

10.9 Payment

instrument.

(i)

transaction of items and services

involving addition, subtraction,

multiplication, and division of money

major countries in the world.

(ii) State the equivalent value of RM1 to

currencies of other countries.

Recognise various payment

instruments.

36

DESCRIPTOR

11. TIME

CONTENT

STANDARD

PERFORMANCE STANDARD

LEARNING STANDARD

LEVEL

11.1 Relationship in

time.

of time involving:

(a) day and hour,

(b) week and day,

(c) year and month.

11.2 Addition of

time.

involving:

(a) day and hour,

(b) week and day,

(c) year and month,

with and without conversion of units.

11.3 Subtraction of

time.

11.4 Multiplication of

time.

Year 4

one unit of time involving:

(a) day and hour,

(b) week and day,

(c) year and month,

with and without conversion of units.

(i) Multiply units of time involving:

(a) day and hour,

(b) week and day,

(c) year and month,

by one digit with and without

conversion of units.

37

DESCRIPTOR

conversion of units.

conversion of units.

various strategies.

creatively and innovatively.

11. TIME

CONTENT

STANDARD

Year 4

PERFORMANCE STANDARD

LEARNING STANDARD

LEVEL

11.5 Division of

time.

(a) day and hour,

(b) week and day,

(c) year and month,

by one digit with and without

conversion of units.

11.6 Problem

solving

involving time.

addition, subtraction, multiplication

and division of time.

38

DESCRIPTOR

12. LENGTH

PERFORMANCE STANDARD

CONTENT

STANDARD

12.1 Units of length.

12.2 Measurement

and estimate

length.

LEARNING STANDARD

LEVEL

Recognise units of length:

(a) milimetre (mm),

(b) kilometre (km).

(ii) State the relationship between:

(a) centimetre and milimetre,

(b) kilometre and metre,

and vice-versa.

DESCRIPTOR

(i)

(i)

(ii)

(i)

12.3 Addition of

length.

(i)

12.4 Subtraction of

length.

Year 4

Estimate distance in unit of

kilometre.

Add up to three units of length

involving:

(a) centimetre and millimetre,

(b) kilometre and metre,

with and without conversion of units.

Subtract up to two units of length

from one unit of length involving:

(a) centimetre and millimetre,

(b) kilometre and metre,

with and without conversion of units.

39

a)

b)

various strategies.

creatively and innovatively.

Estimate distance in unit of kilometre.

12. LENGTH

Year 4

PERFORMANCE STANDARD

CONTENT

STANDARD

LEARNING STANDARD

LEVEL

12.5 Multiplication of

length.

(i)

(a) centimetre and millimetre,

(b) kilometre and metre,

by one digit number with and without

conversion of units.

12.6 Division of

length.

(i)

(a) centimetre and millimetre,

(b) kilometre and metre,

by one digit number with and without

conversion of units.

12.7 Problem

solving

involving

length.

(i)

addition, subtraction, multiplication

and division of length.

40

DESCRIPTOR

Year 4

13. MASS

PERFORMANCE STANDARD

CONTENT STANDARD

LEARNING STANDARD

LEVEL

13.1 Mixed

operations

involving mass.

(i)

(ii)

13.2 Problem

solving

involving mass.

(i)

kilogram and gram, with and without

conversion of units.

Multiply and divide mass involving

kilogram and gram, with and without

conversion of units.

subtraction, multiplication and division involving kilogram

and gram without conversion of units.

subtraction, multiplication and division involving kilogram

and gram with conversion of units.

mass.

mass using various strategies.

of mass creatively and innovatively.

mixed operations of mass.

41

DESCRIPTOR

Year 4

PERFORMANCE STANDARD

CONTENT STANDARD

14.1 Mixed operations (i)

involving volume

of liquid.

(ii)

involving volume

of liquid.

LEARNING STANDARD

LEVEL

DESCRIPTOR

multiplication and division involving litre and millilitre without

conversion of units.

multiplication and division involving litre and millilitre with

conversion of units.

involving volume of liquid.

involving volume of liquid with various strategies.

involving volume of liquid creatively and innovatively.

involving litre and millilitre, with and

without conversion of units.

Multiply and divide volume of liquid

involving litre and millilitre, with and

without conversion of units.

Solve daily problems involving

mixed operations related to volume

of liquid.

42

15. SPACE

CONTENT

STANDARD

15.1 Angles.

Year 4

PERFORMANCE STANDARD

LEARNING STANDARD

LEVEL

DESCRIPTOR

acute angles and obtuse angles for

rectangle, square and triangle.

shapes.

perpendicular

lines.

(a) parallel lines,

(b) perpendicular lines,

on two-dimensional basic shapes.

formula.

area.

square, triangle and polygon.

(ii) Determine area of rectangle, square,

and triangle using square grid and

formula.

perimeter, area, and volume.

perimeter, area, and volume using various strategies.

perimeter, area, and volume creatively and innovatively.

15.4 Volume.

cuboid using unit of one cubic

centimeter (

) cubes and formula.

43

16. COORDINATES

PERFORMANCE STANDARD

CONTENT

STANDARD

16.1 Coordinates in

the first

quadrant.

Year 4

LEARNING STANDARD

LEVEL

State vocabulary to explain the

meaning of horizontal axis and

vertical axis.

(ii) Name the objects based on the

position on the horizontal axis and

vertical axis on grid paper.

(iii) Determine and state the position of

objects on the horizontal axis and

vertical axis on grid paper.

DESCRIPTOR

(i)

44

vertical axis.

and vertical axis.

various strategies.

creatively and innovatively.

PERFORMANCE STANDARD

CONTENT

STANDARD

17.1 Proportion.

Year 4

LEARNING STANDARD

LEVEL

(i)

method in daily life.

45

DESCRIPTOR

various strategies.

creatively and innovatively.

CONTENT

STANDARD

18.1 Data.

Year 4

PERFORMANCE STANDARD

LEARNING STANDARD

LEVEL

(i) Read and get information from:

(a) pictograph,

(b) bar chart,

(c) pie chart.

(ii) Compare information from:

(a) pictograph,

(b) bar chart,

(c) pie chart.

46

DESCRIPTOR

chart.

using various strategies.

representation creatively and innovatively.

This curriculum document is published in Bahasa Melayu and English language. If there is any conflict or inconsistency between the Bahasa

Melayu version and the English version, the Bahasa Melayu version shall, to the extent of the conflict or inconsistency, prevail.

KEMENTERIAN PENDIDIKAN MALAYSIA

Aras 4-8, Blok E9

Presint 1

Pusat Pentadbiran Kerajaan Persekutuan

62604 PUTRAJAYA

Tel: 03-8884 2000 Faks: 03-8888 9917

http://www.moe.gov.my/bpk

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