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360 Degree Feedback: In human resources, 360-degree feedback is employee development

feedback that comes from all around the employee. The feedback would come from
subordinates, peers and super ordinates in the organizational hierarchy, as well as a selfassessment.
Ambiguity Tolerance: Extent to which individual are threatened by or have difficulty coping
with situations that are ambiguous; changing rapidly or unpredictably; information is
inadequate; or where complexity exits.
Assessment centres: A set of performance simulation tests designed to evaluate a candidates
managerial potential.
Attrition: The gradual reduction of the size of a work force that occurs when personnel lost
through retirement or resignation are not replaced
Baby Boomers: A baby boomer is someone who was born during the period of increased
birth rates when economic prosperity arose in many countries following World War II. In the
United States, the term is commonly used to refer to the generation which demographic
popularizers have identified with birth years from the span 1946 to 1964.
Balanced Business Score Cards: A method of measuring and managing business
performance, presenting a balanced view of financial and operational perspectives to
accelerate the management process.
Bargaining Zone: In any negotiation, the maximum amount that a buyer will pay for a good,
service, or other legal entitlement is called his "reservation point" or, if the deal being
negotiated is a monetary transaction, his "reservation price" (RP). The minimum amount that
a seller would accept for that item is her RP If the buyer's RP is higher than the seller's, the
distance between the two points is called the "bargaining zone.
Barriers of Communication : (1) Wrong choice of medium, (2) Physical barriers: (a) noise,
(b) time and distance, (3) Semantic barriers: (a) Interpretation of words,(b) Bypassed
instructions,(c) denotations and connotations, (4) Different comprehension of reality: (a)
abstracting,(b) slanting,(c)inferring,(5) Socio-Psychological barriers: (a) attitudes and
opinions,(b) emotions,(c) closed mind, (d) status-consciousness,(e) the source of
communication,(f) inattentiveness,(g) faulty transmission,(h) poor retention,(i) unsolicited
BARS : (Behaviourally Anchored Rating Scale)An appraisal method that aims at combining
the benefits of narrative critical incidents and quantified ratings by anchoring a quantified
scale with specific narrative examples of good and poor performance.
Behaviour Modelling : A training technique in which trainees are first shown good
management techniques in a film and then asked to play roles in a simulated situation, and
are then given feedback and praise by their supervisor.

Behaviour Modification: The change in the knowledge, skills, or attitude of an individual

which occurs as the result of a planned set and schedule of reinforcements
Bench Marking: A job that is used to anchor the employers pay scale and around which
other jobs are arranged in order of relative worth.
Big 5 Personality Dimensions: (a) Extroversion (b) Agreeableness (c) Conscientiousness
(d) Emotional stability (e) Openness to experience.
Blue Mooning: The term blue mooning is defined as having an alternative for your job when
you are working in the current organisation
Brain Storming: An idea generation process that specifically encourages any and all
alternatives, while withholding any criticism of those alternatives.
Business Excellence Models: The Business Excellence Model is a nine-box model,
originally developed by the European Foundation for Quality Management (EFQM). Its
purpose is to "support the management of Western European organizations in accelerating the
process of making quality a decisive influence for achieving global competitive advantage
Career Anchors: Pivots around which a persons career swings; require self-awareness of
talents and abilities, motives and needs, and attitudes and values. A concern or value that you
will not give up if a (career) choice has to be made.
Carrot & Stick Approach: Reward or punishment offered in order to get people to do a
certain task
Competency Based Management: Competency-based management refers to the functional
knowledge and behavioural skills essential for sound managerial performance. Competencybased management appeals to a wide variety of people including: organizational members
assuming greater work responsibilities, supervisors advancing to higher managerial positions,
team leaders dealing with a broader range of leadership roles and responsibilities, and
professionals who want to become more proficient in supervising and managing functions
and processes.
Conflict Resolution Strategies: There are 5 strategies to resolving conflict. The appropriate
style may fall somewhere in between any of these extremes such as assertiveness and
cooperation and can actually change at different moments in the process. Strategies such as
competing, accommodating, avoiding, compromising and collaborating are used to solve
Corporate Governance: Corporate governance is a field in economics that investigates how
to secure/motivate efficient management of corporations by the use of incentive mechanisms,
such as contracts, organizational designs and legislation. This is often limited to the question
of improving financial performance, for example, how the corporate owners can
secure/motivate that the corporate managers will deliver a competitive rate of return.

Delphi Technique: Delphi technique is to elicit information and judgments from participants
to facilitate problem-solving, planning, and decision-making. It does so without physically
assembling the contributors.
Eustress: Eustress can be defined as a pleasant or curative stress. Eustress is the amount of
positive energy that motivates, excites and moves you to achieve something. It's the opposite
of distress.
Empowerment: Putting employees in charge of what they do.
EEO: (Equal Employment Opportunity) Where all personnel activities are conducted so as to
assure equal access in all phases of the employment process. Employment decisions are based
solely on the individual merit and fitness of applicants and employees related to specific jobs,
without regard to race, color, religion, sex, age, national origin, handicapping conditions,
marital status or criminal record
Expertise Power: Influence based on special skills or knowledge
Exit Management: The term exit management is defined as anticipating the needs of people
in the organisation
Flexi Time working : Employees work during a common core time period each day but
have discretion in forming their total workday from a flexible set of hours outside the core.
Gain sharing Plans: An incentive plan that engages employees in a common effort to
achieve productivity objectives and share the gains.
Generation X: The term Generation X is now popularly associated with the people born
between the early to mid-1960s and the early 1980s, although this is disputed. Generation X
has also been described as a generation consisting of those people whose teen years were
touched by the 1980s, although many who are considered part of this genration had their
teenage years stretching into the 1990s.
Generation Y: Generation Y is generally considered to be the last generation of Americans
wholly born in the 20th century, whose birth years have now concluded. Using the broadest
definition commonly cited, Generation Y currently includes
Americans in their mid and early 20s, teenagers, and children over the age of 5
Glass Ceiling Effect: Glass ceiling effects implies that gender (or other) disadvantages are
stronger at the top of the hierarchy than at lower levels and that these disadvantages become
worse later in a person's career
Golden Offering :
Grapevine: The organizations informal communication network.

Graphology Test: Testing a persons personality trait by analyzing his handwriting.

Grievance : A complaint of one or more workers with respect to wages and allowances,
conditions of work and interpretations of service stipulations, covering such areas as
overtime, leave, transfer, promotion, seniority, job assignment and termination of services.
Halo Effect: Drawing a general impression about an individual on the basis of a single
Hiring Freeze: Freezing all classified, administrative and bargaining units refers to
employment actions. All current openings are frozen except those where an offer has been
In basket: The term in basket can be defined as the decision making technique in which the
real time situations are given to analyse, the ability to take decisions according to the given
Informal Organisation: The term informal organization refers to the unplanned, informal set
of groups, friendships, and attachments that inevitably develop when people are placed in
regular proximity to one other. These relationships, which grow out of the personal needs of
members, are not fully accounted for by the formal organization; in fact, they are sometimes
designed to protect the members from the demands of the formal organizations. The
behaviours and sentiments that constitute the informal aspects of organization have no place
in the formal plan
Intrinsic Motivation: This can be described as a motivation to engage in activities that
enhance or maintain a persons self-concept. Intrinsic motivation is when a person is
motivated by internal factors, as opposed to the external drivers of extrinsic motivation.
Intrinsic motivation drives a person to do things just for the fun of it or because he believes it
is good or right thing to do.
Job Enrichment: Redesigning jobs in a way that increases the opportunities for the worker
to experience feelings of responsibility, achievement, growth, and recognition.
Knowledge Management: A process of organizing and distributing an organizations
collective wisdom so the right information gets to the right people at the right time.
Layoff: A situation in which there is a temporary shortage of work and employees are told
there is no work for them but that management intends to recall them but when work is again
Learning Organisation: An Organisation that has developed the continuous capacity to
adapt and change.
Lockout: A refusal by the employer to provide opportunities to work.

Macro Manpower Planning: Manpower Planning- a conceptual Framework; Macro and

Micro Manpower Planning; Method of Measuring General and Special Abilities and
Aptitude; Evaluating Transfer of Learning to the job; Follow up of Evaluation Corporate
Planning and Manpower Planning; Technological changes and Manpower Planning;
Redeployment; Manpower Planning Practices; Manpower Planning Models; Career and
succession Planning; Personal Inventory and Audit; Controlling Manpower Costs; Manpower
Information System; Use of computer in Manpower Planning; Linking training with
Manpower Planning; Competency Mapping; Manpower Redeployment
Managerial Grid: A nine-by-nine matrix outlining 81 different leadership styles.
MBWA: (Management By Walking Around) Managers getting away from their desks and
starting to talk to individual employees. The idea is that they should learn about problems and
concerns at first hand. At the same time they should teach employees new methods to manage
particular problems. The communication goes both ways.
McGregors Hot Stove Approach: McGregors rule for corrective action. Corrective action
should be immediate, impartial, and consistent with a warning like the results of touching a
red hot stove.
Micro Manpower Planning:
OSHA: (Occupational Safety and Health Administration) the agency created within the
department of labour to set safety and health standards for almost all workers in the country
(United States).
Outplacement Counselling: A systematic process by which a terminated person is trained
and counselled in the techniques of self-appraisal and securing a new position.
Performance management: Managing all elements of the organizational process that affect
how well employees perform.
Pooled Interdependence: Interdependence that results when organizational subunits operate
independently of each other in fulfilling their usual work ...
Presenteeism: Employees, who are at the worksite regularly, but for a variety of reasons, are
not producing as they should.
P-CMM: The People Capability Maturity Model (People CMM) is a framework that helps
organizations successfully address their critical people issues.
The People CMM helps organizations characterize the maturity of their workforce practices,
establish a program of continuous workforce development, set priorities for improvement
actions, integrate workforce development with process improvement, and establish a culture
of excellence

Quality of Work Life (QWL): is a comprehensive, department-wide program designed to

enhance HHS' service to the public by improving employee satisfaction, strengthening
workplace learning and helping employees better manage change and transition. For more
information on the history of the QWL Initiative
Reality shock: Results of a period that may occur at the initial career entry when the new
employees high job expectations confront the reality of a boring, unchallenging job.
Rogerian Counselling: Rogerian" or "non-directive" counselling, known as "client-centred
therapy", is a therapeutic method of interviewing that begins with a client's (patient's) own
verbal constructions
Role play: A training technique in which trainees act out parts in a realistic management
Sabbatical: Leave granted to an employee (university teacher) for study and travel.
Sexual Harassment: Unwelcome advances, requests for sexual favors, and other verbal or
physical conduct of a sexual nature.
Shorter/ Compressed Work Week: Compressed Work Weeks allows employees to shorten
their work week by one or more days. Employees work their "regular" number of hours in a
shorter-than-normal number of days per week or per pay period. For instance, 40 hours in
four days (4/40) or 80 hours in 9 days (9/80).
Situational Leadership: A contingency theory that focuses on followers readiness.
Social Security : Federal program that provides three types of benefits: retirement income at
the age of 62 and thereafter; survivors or death benefits payable to the employees
dependents regardless of age at time of death; and disability benefits payable to disabled
employees and their dependents. These benefits are payable only if the employee is insured
under the Social Security Act.
Sons of the Soil:
Stereotype: Judging someone on the basis of ones perception of the group to which that
person belongs.
Succession Planning: The process through which senior-level openings are planned for and
eventually filled.
Theory X: The assumption that employees dislike work, are lazy, dislike responsibility, and
must be corrected to perform.
Theory Y: The assumption that employees like work, are creative, seek responsibility, and

can exercise self-direction.

Type A behaviour: Aggressive involvement in a chronic, incessant struggle to achieve more
and more in less and less time and, if necessary, against the opposing efforts of other things or
other people.
Type B behaviour: Rarely harried by the desire to obtain a wildly increasing number of
things or participate in endless growing series of events in an ever-decreasing amount of time.
Whistle Blowing: Individuals who report unethical practices by their employer to outsiders.
Wild Cat Strike: An unauthorized strike occurring during the term of a contact.