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ANALYSIS3:InteriorFitOutBIMImplementation

ProblemIdentification
Whenbuildingaspeculativeofficebuilding,ownersareburdenedwithfindingatenanttoleasethe
space.Thiscanbeastressfulsituationespeciallywhenthespeculativeofficemarketisonadecline.One
reasonthatleasingaspacecanbedifficultismostpotentialtenantscannotvisualizethespaceand
prefertowaittosignacontractuntiltheshellbuildingiscomplete.BridgesideIIisdesignedtomeetthe
demandforlaboratoryspaceandwillaccommodate80percentlaboratoryspaceand20percentoffice
space.Itisalsodesignedwithanopenfloorplantoaccommodateavarietyoflayouts.Onceatenantis
identified,itistheirresponsibilitytodeterminetheirspacelayout.BuildingInformationModelingcanbe
beneficialduringthedesignphaseduetoitsabilitytoorganizeinformation.Italsoprovidesastronger
visualizationofthebuilding.BIMwasnotutilizedduringthecoreandshellphaseortheinteriordesign
phaseoftheBridgesideIIproject.
Proposal
ForthisanalysisIwillproposetoutilizeBIMfortheinteriordesignphaseofBridgesideII.Ownersare
sometimeshesitanttoutilizeBIMbecausetheyareunfamiliarwithitanddonotknowhowtoapplyitto
theirproject.ForthisanalysisIwilldeterminehowmuchdetailshouldbeincorporatedintothemodel,
whowillberesponsibleforthedetails,andwhatsomeofthespecificationsshouldbeforhowBIMwill
beapplied.Thiswillbeaccomplishedthroughresearch,casestudies,andinterviewswithindustry
memberswhoarefamiliarwithBIM.
Goal
Thegoalofthisanalysisistodetermineastandardofdetailtobeusedforinteriorfitoutmodelsandto
determinehowBIMshouldbeappliedtotheBridgesideIIproject.Thisanalysiswilldefine
responsibilitiesandwhattheownershouldexpectbyutilizingBIM.Thegoalwhendeterminingthe
modelrequirementsistouseenoughdetailsothedesignersandpotentialtenantscandesignaspace
andallowthetenantstoseewhattheywouldbepayingfor.Thiswouldbebeneficialtotheproject
becausemultiplelayoutscanbedesignedmoreefficientlyandtenantswillhopefullyagreeonalease
beforetheshellbuildingiscomplete,whichwouldspeedupthefitoutprocess.
Methodology
1) Determineasetofquestionstobasetheanalysison.
2) Answerthequestionsthroughresearchandinterviewswithindustrymembers.
3) DeterminethebenefitsofusingBIMontheBridgesideIIprojectandwhatthespecifications
shouldbe.
4) Analyzethemodelbenefitsforpotentialclients.
5) Developasetofcriteriafortheamountofdetailincorporatedintotheinteriormodels.

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AnalysisQuestions
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)

InwhatwaysisBIMbeneficialforinteriorfitouts?
HowwillpotentialtenantsutilizeaBIMmodelwhendesigningtheirspace?
WhatarethecostandscheduleimplicationsofimplementingBIM?
WhatdetersownersfromimplementingBIMontheirprojects?
Whatarethemodelrequirementsforinteriordesign?

BIMandInteriorDesign
IthasalreadybeenproventhatBIMisavaluableresourceforconstructionprojects.Itprovides3Dand
4Dvisualizations,detectsclashes,manageschanges,andactsasadatabaseforalltheproject
information.Forobviousreasons,theBIMbenefitsthataretypicallyfocusedonpertaintothe
structural,buildingenclosure,andMEPphases.Thesephasesdrivethescheduleofabuildingproject.
BIMalsoprovidesanumberofbenefitsfortheinteriorfitoutphasesespeciallyforcoreandshell
projectswhereatenanthasnotbeenarrangedandtheinteriorlayoutisnotdesigned.Someofthe
benefitsandusesarelistedbelow.

Thespeedandeaseofcreatinganinteriormodel.
Theabilitytovisualizethedesign,whichisimportanttopotentialtenants.
Theabilitytocreatemultipleinteriordesignsononebuildingmodel,whichwillaccommodate
multipletenantsormultipleideas.
Organizingmaterialinformation,costdata,schedules,andmaterialquantities.

Oneofthedifficultieswithcoreandshellprojectsisthechangeinteamsforthefitoutphase.Coreand
shellprojectstypicallyhaveadifferentdesignteamfortheinteriorphasesandthiscanbedifficult
becausetheyareunfamiliarwiththeproject.Thenewteamwillbegiventheplansbuttheyessentially
havetoredesigntheprojectsimilartoabuildingrenovation.IfBIMisusedonacoreandshellproject
thentheinteriordesignteamcanstartwithanaccuratemodel,whichwillsavetime.
OneofthebenefitsofBIMthatwillbeusefulfortheBridgesideIIprojectistheserviceitwillprovidefor
thepotentialtenants.Interiormodelsallowtenantstoplantheirspacebeforethebuildingiscomplete.
Tenantscandesignopenfloorplans,closedofficespace,materialselections,andfurniturelocations
efficiently.Themodelcanalsoberenderedtogivethetenantaclearvisualizationoftheirmaterialand
lightingselections.ThevisualizationaspectofBIMisimportantbecauseitallowsdesignerstotry
differentmaterialsandevaluatetheirdesigns.Itiseasytopictureabrickbuildingversesametalpanel
faadebutinteriorspacesaremoredifficult.Figure3.1isanexampleofaninteriorrenderingdeveloped
byAutodesk.Nongraphicalinformation,suchasmaterialproperties,leadtimes,andcostdata,isalso
importanttoownersandtenants.BIMmodelseasilyorganizethisinformationforeachinteriordesign
andcanperformmaterialtakeoffs.Thisisimportantbecausetenantstypicallyhaveabudgetandthe
materialtakeoffscanbeusedtoperformquickestimatesfortheirdesigns.

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Figure3.1InteriorRenderingExample
BridgesideIIisdesignedtoaccommodatemultiplelayoutsperfloororatenantcanleaseentirefloors.
Withallthetenantandfloorplancombinationstherearemanypotentialdesigns.Modelingsoftware
allowsyoutocreatemultiplefloorplandesignswithinonemodel.Thisisbeneficialbecausethe
differentdesigns,costs,andschedulescanbeeasilycompared.Currentlytheonlypotentialtenantfor
BridgesideIIistheUniversityofPittsburgh.Theywouldbeleasingthebuildingtofilltheirneedfor
additionallaboratoryspace.Oneofthemostdifficulttasksforinexperiencedbuildingtenantsisto
visualizeabuildingorfloorplanwhenlookingattwodimensionaldrawings.Thisoftenmakesthem
hesitanttoleaseaspacebeforetheycanseeit.IbelievethatimplementingBIMforinteriorfitoutswill
helppotentialtenantsvisualizetheirspaceandhelpalleviatesomeoftheirhesitations.TheUniversityof
PittsburghwouldbeabletouseBIMtolayouttheirlaboratoryandofficespacesinrelationtothe
utilities,wetstacks,andfumehoods.Theycouldalsoutilizethemodeltoorganizealltheinformation
fortheirequipmentandappliancesthatwillbeinthelabs.
CostandSchedule
TheuseofBIMonconstructionprojectsisbecominganexpectedservice.Architectsandengineers
previouslychargedextraandrequiredextratimetodevelopthemodel.However,asownersstartedto
expectBIMmodelstheinitialchargeshavedecreasedorwereremovedandthemodelingtimebecame
partofthescheduleratherthanadelay.Manydesignprofessionalsdevelopmodelsregardlessof
whetheritisrequired;therefore,theirfeesandschedulesarenotaffected.Designprofessionalswho
lackthetechnologyandtrainingtoaccommodateBIMspecificationsmayfindthemselvesata
competitivedisadvantage.Thetransitionfromcoreandshellteamstointeriorfitoutteamsisimproved
withtheuseofBIM.AssumingthatBIMisutilizedfortheentireproject,theinteriorfitoutschedule
wouldbereducedbecausethedesignteamwouldhaveanaccurateinformationalmodeltoworkwith.
Thealternativewouldrequirethedesignteamtoworkoffoftwodimensionaldrawingsandredesign
partsofthebuilding.ABIMmodelprovidesmoreprojectinformationandisinaformatthatcanbe
developedfurther,comparedtoasetofasbuiltdocuments.

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BIMSpecifications
OneofthelargestobstacleswhenchoosingtoutilizeBIMonaconstructionprojectisgettingallthe
projectteamstoagreeontheirresponsibilitiestoeachotherandtothemodel.Theambiguityin
implementingBIMcausesmanyownerstoshyaway.Thekeytosuccessisdefiningtheresponsibilities
fromthebeginningoftheprojecttopreventfutureconflicts.ThiscanbedifficultbecauseBIMoften
requiresdifferentrelationshipsbetweenprojectparticipantsthanthosetheytypicallyemploy.The
modelrequirestimelyandupdatedinformation,increasingtheamountofcommunicationrequired.
Otherspecificationsregardingthemodelthatneedtobestatedinclude;whoownsthemodelrights,
accessrights,andthemodelintentions.Ifthemodelisonlybeingusedduringthedesignphaseandnot
forconstruction,itshouldbespecifiedbecauseitwillaffectthelevelofdetailinthemodel.
TherearetwodocumentsthatwerereleasedtoassistprojectteamsinadoptingBIM.Thefirstisa
ModelProgressionSpecificationdevelopedbyWebcorBuilders,VICO,andAIACaliforniaCouncils
IntegratedProjectDeliveryTaskForce.TheseconddocumentisAIADocumentE202titledBuilding
InformationModelingProtocolExhibit.Thesetwodocumentsassistprojectteamstodeterminethe
purposeofthemodel,thelevelofdetail,andtheresponsibleparties.
TheBridgesideIIprojectteamhadconsideredusingBIMforpiecesoftheinteriordesignbutopted
againstitduetouncertaintiesaboutresponsibilitiesandscheduleimplications.AIAE202isanimportant
toolforimplementingBIMbecauseitallowsownerstospecifysomeoftheBIMrequirementsina
contractualformfortheowner/architectandowner/contractoragreements.Itisespeciallybeneficial
forinexperiencedprojectteamsbecauseitidentifiestheimportantaspectsofBIMsuchas
responsibilities,levelofdetail,andfilerequirements.AIAE202wasreleasedin2008,afterthestartof
theBridgesideIIproject.IftheyhadthisdocumenttheymayhavebeenmorewillingtoutilizeBIM
becauseitprovidesamoreuserfriendlymethodtodeterminethescopeofthemodel.TheAIA
documentdefinesimportantBIMdecisionsandprovidestheownerwithaspacetospecifytheir
preferences.Theitemssetupfortheownertospecifywithinthecontractlanguagearelistedbelow.

Modelstandards
Fileformatsformodeluses
Responsiblepartiesformodelmanagement
Modelarchiverequirements
Modelusesperlevelofdetail
ModelElementAuthors

Aftertheownerdetermineswhowillberesponsibleformanagingthemodel,theAIAdocument
specifiestheinitialresponsibilitiesrequiredforthemodelandwhattheongoingresponsibilitieswillbe
throughouttheproject.Thisisespeciallyimportantbecausetheresponsibilitiesofthemodelmanager
arewritteninacontractuallanguagepreventingfutureconflictsregardingresponsibilityforupdating
andmanagingthemodel.Theinitialandongoingmodelresponsibilitiesareshowninfigures3.2and3.3.

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Figure3.2InitialModelResponsibilities

Figure3.3OngoingModelResponsibilities
AnotherrequirementthatownersexperiencedinBIMoftenspecifyisforthegeneralcontractoror
constructionmanagertosubmitanimplementationplan.Theimplementationplanwilldescribehow
themodelwillbeutilizedfromtheconceptualdesignphasethroughtheasbuilts.Areaswherethe
modelwillbeusedandshouldbedescribedinclude;design,construction,coordination,scheduling,cost
estimating,anddocumentation.Thisisbeneficialbecausetheownerandcontractorwillhavetocome
toanagreementonhowthemodelwillbeutilized.
ModelRequirements
ABIMhasmanypotentialusesandeachuserequiresacertainlevelofdetailinthemodel.Througheach
phaseoftheprojectthemodelbecomesmorepreciseanditcanbeconfusingtodeterminewhatitcan
beusedfor.Inaddition,itispossiblethattheauthorofthemodeldidnotconsiderallofthepotential
uses.Ifthemodelismisinterpretedthenthiswillleadtoinaccurateoutputs.TheModelProgression
Specificationwasdevelopedtoassignspecificusestoeachlevelofdetailasthemodelprogresses.Itis
alsobeneficialtoownersbecausetheycanspecifywhattheywanttousethemodelforandwhatlevel
ofdetailwillberequired.TheMPSwasincorporatedintotheAIABIMProtocoldocumenttoallowthe
levelsofdetailtobespecifiedinthecontract.Thispreventsconfusionoverwhenthemodelcanbeused
andwhoisresponsibleforeachlevelofdetail.
TheModelProgressionSpecificationdefines5levelsofdetaillabeled100through500.Eachofthe5
levelshasaminimumlevelofdetailthatmustbeincorporatedintothemodelandspecifieshowthe
modelcanbeusedatthatlevel.Theauthorizedusesperlevelofdetailinclude;costestimating,4D
scheduling,programcompliance,sustainablematerials,andenvironmental.EachlevelintheMPSis
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authorizedtoprovidemoredetailforeachoftheusesthanthepreviouslevel.TheAIAE202
incorporateseachofthedetaillevelsandauthorizedusesanditallowstheownertowriteinadditional
usesateachlevel.Table3.1showseachofthelevelsofdetailandhowdetailedeachoftheauthorized
usescanbe.ThesecondpartoftheModelProgressionSpecificationisusedtodetermineresponsibility.
Mostofthebuildingcomponentsarelisted,suchasthestructureandtheshell,andundereachlevelof
detailtheresponsiblepartyislisted.Thisclearlydefineswhoisresponsibleforthedetailsateachphase
ofthemodel.Table3.2showsthemodelprogressionresponsibilitiesfortheinteriorcomponents.The
responsiblepartiescanbeadjustedtomeettheneedsoftheprojectandteammembers.TheMPSis
progressingBIMbecauseitclearlydefineshowmuchdetailisnecessaryforcertainmodelpurposesand
whoisresponsibleforthedetail.Thispreventsconflictsandmisinterpretationsofthemodel.

Table3.1MPSLevelsofDetail
Model Content
100
200
Non-geometric data Generic elements
Design &
shown in three
Coordination~(function /
or line work, areas, dimensions
form / behavior)
volumes zones, etc.
- maximum size
- purpose

Authorized uses
4D Scheduling

Cost Estimating

100

300

400

500

Specific elements
Confirmed 3D Object
Geometry

Shop drawing/
fabrication

As-built

- dimensions
- capacities
- connections

- purchase
- manufacture
- install
- specified

- actual

200

300

400

total project
Time-scaled, ordered
construction duration appearance of major
activities
phasing of major
elements

Time-scaled, ordered
appearance of
detailed assemblies

Conceptual cost
allowance Example
$/sf of floor area,
$/hospital bed,
$/parking stall, etc.

Estimated cost based


on measurement of
generic element. E.g.,
generic interior wall.

Estimated cost based Committed purchase


on measurement of
price of specific
specific assembly.
assembly at Buyout.
E.g., specific wall
type.

FF&E, casework,
utility connections

500

fabrication and
assembly detail
including construction
means and methods
(cranes, man-lifts,
shoring, etc.)
Record costs

assumptions on
future content

Program Compliance

Gross departmental
areas

Specific room
requirements

Sustainable Materials

LEED strategies

Approximate
Precise quantities of
quantities of materials materials with
by LEED categories
percentages of
recycled/locally
purchased materials

Specific manufacturer purchase


selections
documentation

Environmental: Lighting,
Energy use, air
movement
Analysis/Simulation

Strategy and
performance criteria
based on volumes
and areas

Conceptual design
based on geometry
and assumed system
types

Precise simulation
based on specific
manufacturer and
detailed system
components

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simulation based on
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engineered systems

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Commissioning
and recording of
measured
performance

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Table3.2InteriorModelResponsibilities
Level of Detail (LOD) and
Model Component Author (MCA)

Element (ASTM Uniformat II Classification)

C INTERIORS C10 Interior Construction

C20 Stairs
C30 Interior Finishes

C1010
C1020
C1030
C2010
C2020
C3010
C3020
C3030

Partitions
Interior Doors
Fittings
Stair Construction
Stair Finishes
Wall Finishes
Floor Finishes
Ceiling Finishes

Conceptualization
LOD MCA
100
PD
100
PD
100
PD
100
PD
100
PD
100
PD
100
PD
100
PD

Criteria
Design
LOD MCA
200
PD
200
PD
100
PD
200
PD
100
PD
100
PD
100
PD
100
PD

Detailed
Design
LOD MCA
300
PD
300
PD
300
PD
300
TC
100
TC
100
PD
100
PD
100
PD

Implementation Docs
LOD MCA
400
TC
400
TC
400
TC
400
TC
100
TC
100
TC
100
TC
100
TC

ModelComponentAuthors:

PDPrimeDesigner
DCDesignConsultants
PCPrimeConstructor
TCTradeContractors
SSuppliers

BIMImplementation
TheBridgesideIIprojectcouldbenefitfromanyofthevariousBIMuses,however,basedontheproject
needsIbelievethemostbeneficialaspectwouldbevisualization.Throughoutthedurationofthe
project,theFerchillGrouphasbeenworkingtoobtaintenantsforthebuilding.Assoonasatenantis
arrangedthenthepreconstructionworkcanbeginfortheinteriordesignandthiswillexpeditethe
scheduleifitcanbeoverlappedwiththeshellconstruction.TheBridgesideIIfloorplansareflexibleand
canbedesignedtothetenantsneeds.Unlessthepotentialtenantisexperiencedininteriordesign,they
probablywontbeabletovisualizethespacefromasetoftwodimensionaldrawings.Thismaymake
themhesitanttowardleasinganunfinishedspace.Beingabletovisualizethespacewiththeuseofa
modelisverybeneficialbecauseitallowsthedesignteamandtenantstoworktogetherandagreeona
design.Italsoallowsthetenantstoselectmaterialsandcomparevariouslayoutswithonemodel.If
someorallofthetenantswerearrangedduringthecoreandshellphasesthentheywouldbeableto
havetheirdesignfinalizedandgettheirlongleadtimematerialsandequipmentorderedbeforethe
interiorfitoutphasesbegin.Byspeedinguptheschedulethetenantswillbeabletomoveinsoonerand
theFerchillGroupwillbeginreceivingrentpayments.
Inordertoprovidethetenantswithavaluabledesigntooltheinteriormodelwouldneedtohaveat
leastalevelofdetailof300.Amodelwithalevelofdetailof300requiresalltheassembliestobe
accurateincluding;quantity,size,shape,location,andorientation.Thislevelofdetailalso
accommodatesnongeometricalinformationattachedtothemodel.Inadditiontovisualization,thecost
andscheduledataisveryimportanttotenants.A300levelofdetailwillhaveenoughinformationto
createcostestimatesbasedonspecificdataandconceptualestimatetechniques.Withthismodel
tenantswillbeabletocreateaccuratebudgetsandcomparethecostofseveraldesignsandmaterial
selections.Fortheschedule,thetenantswillbeprovidedwithanaccuratecompletiondateandthe

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modelwillhaveenoughdetailandinformationtosupportafourdimensionalmodel.A4Dmodelwillbe
morebeneficialforthedesignersandcontractorsduringtheconstructionphasesbutitwillalsoprovide
thetenantswithagraphicalmethodofkeepingtrackofprogress.IfBIMisutilizedfortheentireproject
thentheinteriordesignerscantaketheexistingmodelandaddtheinteriordetails.Otherwise,the
interiordesignerswouldalsohavetomodelthebuildingshellanditwouldtakemoreworktodevelopa
modelwithalevelofdetailof300.The300levelisdetailedenoughtocreateshopdrawingsandas
moredetailisaddeditwillresultinanasbuiltmodelthatcanbesavedbythebuildingownersfor
futureconstructionandreference.
ConclusionsandRecommendations
TheuseofBuildingInformationModelingisgrowingintheconstructionindustryandwiththecreation
oftheModelProgressionSpecificationandtheAIABIMProtocolExhibititiseasierforownerstospecify
incontractlanguagehowtheywanttoapplyamodel.Theyalsohelpowners,designers,andcontractors
determinewhoisresponsibleforthevariousdetailsinthemodel.OutofallthebenefitsthatBIMcan
provideforabuildingprojectIbelievethevisualizationaspectisthemostbeneficialforBridgesideII.I
feelthattheabilitytoseeathreedimensionalspaceandeasilyalterdesignswillattractpotential
tenantsandhelpthemreachanagreementwiththeowneratanearlierdateintheproject.I
recommendthatatleastadetaillevelof300bedevelopedinthemodeltoprovidethetenantswithan
accuraterepresentationoftheirspaceandreliablecostandscheduledata.UsingBIMfromthestartof
theprojectcouldresultinaschedulereductionfortheinteriorfitoutphases.Thisisbecausethe
interiordesignerswillhaveanaccuratemodeltoworkwithandtheywontneedtoredesignanypartof
thebuilding.AlsotheuseofBIMwillhopefullyattractsometenantsearlierintheprojectresultingin
earlierdesignconsiderations.InconclusionIfeelthatutilizingBIMforatleasttheinteriorfitoutphases
ofBridgesideIIwouldbeavaluableadditiontotheproject.Thisisbasedonthebenefitsitprovidesfor
theprojectteamsandpotentialtenantsandtheuseoftheBIMspecificationstoprovidecontract
requirements.

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