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Autoflood 700

Operating
Manual

User Guide
VERSION 1.0.

Revision 1.0
June 14
2014 by VINCI Technologies, Inc. All rights reserved.
No part of this publication may be reproduced or used in any form, or by any
mechanical or electrical means, without permission in writing from manufacturer.

Core Flooding System User Guide V1.0.

WARRANTY AND LIABILITY


Apart from glass items, consumable and spare parts, and subject to use according to
standard operating conditions, our equipment is guaranteed free of any defects due to
error in manufacturing or design as acknowledged by us, for a period of 12 months as from
delivery ex-shop. Parts substituted or remade under this warranty shall be guaranteed only
for the remaining initial warranty period.
Warranty is under exclusion:
a. if faulty material or design comes from the buyer or third party imposed by the
Customer
b. if malfunction results from servicing or changes performed by the Customer without
our prior written permission
c. if malfunction arises from fair wear and tear, carelessness or defective maintenance
by the Customer, unusual applications or non-observance of our instructions for use
and servicing
d. if malfunction is the result of absolute necessity ; import or export bans or embargo
and exchange control measures shall be regarded as absolute necessity for the
performance of the contract
e. if the Customer does not follow the instructions that VINCI TECHNOLOGIES may have
notified for installation and starting of equipment.
Liability of VINCI TECHNOLOGIES is specifically limited to the terms above, any claims
including warranty claims imposing penalties for further liability being excluded.
VINCI TECHNOLOGIES guarantees that the software complies with contractual specifications.
VINCI TECHNOLOGIES liability is limited to delivery of licensed programs on an input medium
without material or manufacturing flaws and to debugging of proven programming errors,
free of charge for a period of three months following delivery. Beyond the warranty period,
the Licensee may take out a specific maintenance contract (of available). This service
provides the Licensee with technical support and user assistance especially on the
telephone. User assistance is restricted to practical help with software functions and by no
means covers the related operating system or any mass-marketed input-output software
(word processor, spreadsheet, etc.).
It is expressly agreed that VINCI TECHNOLOGIES shall not be liable for any Licensee
compensation for any direct or indirect injury : whatever the damage; in particular to
information, data, files, programs or other property set apart from the software, or any loss
of profit. Excluded from the warranty are floppy disks damaged by accident, misuse,
improper use, servicing or alterations provided by a third party other than VINCI
TECHNOLOGIES.
The liability of VINCI TECHNOLOGIES may not be presumed for any reason whatsoever
outside the scope of the aforementioned warranty provisions.
VINCI TECHNOLOGIES is bound by mere obligation to provide means. In particular, liability
cannot be incurred if direct VINCI TECHNOLOGIES advice or software messages are not
implemented.

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Core Flooding System User Guide V1.0.

SAFETY AND GENERAL ADVICES


Vinci-Technologies warranty is limited to proper use of each part of the equipment, by
trained operators. This equipment supplied by Vinci-Technologies is in accordance with
specific local legislation limited as indicated in the written contractual documents.
The operation and maintenance must only be carried out after all necessary steps have
been taken to ensure the safety of staff and equipment in accordance with the
recommendations of this manual.
The customer must supply working staff with facilities to operate and maintain the
equipment, within its specified performance and in good working condition at all time.

At the same time, it is the customers responsibility to allow or not allow that:
Operators,
Technical staff (electrician, chemist...),
Employees,
Non employees (visitors and contract personnel)
Room maintenance staff, etc

Or other people to approach the equipment during operation. As the same way the
customer management is responsible of the authorized working staff.
The equipment, documentation and software are protected under applicable copyright
laws and international treaty provisions.
No part of this manual can be reproduced prior to written permission granted by for the
exact context in which a reference to Vinci Technologies intellectual property is made.
Important: This operating manual is not an exhaustive manual. It has been prepared for
use by trained and experienced operators. Any doubt must be resolved before performing
a test or maintenance. Contact manufacturer if necessary.

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Autoflood 700 User Guide V1.0.

TABLE OF CONTENT

1.

INTRODUCTION ......................................................................................................................................... 1
1.1. SYSTEM OVERVIEW ................................................................................................................................................. 1
1.2. INJECTION PUMPS (BENCHTOP DUAL PUMPS S BTDPS 100-10).............................................................................. 1
1.3. ACCUMULATORS ...................................................................................................................................................... 2
1.4. CONFINING SYSTEMS (BTDPS 250 MODULE 1) ....................................................................................................... 2
1.5. HYDROSTATIC CORE HOLDERS ................................................................................................................................ 2
1.6. VISUAL CELL / HPHT SEPARATOR .......................................................................................................................... 3
1.7. HEATING SYSTEMS .................................................................................................................................................. 3
1.8. BACK PRESSURE REGULATOR .................................................................................................................................. 4
1.9. BACK PRESSURE PUMP (BTDPS 250 MODULE 2) .................................................................................................... 4
1.10. WET GAS METER ................................................................................................................................................... 4
1.11. PRESSURE TRANSDUCERS ...................................................................................................................................... 4
1.12. DIFFERENTIAL PRESSURE TRANSDUCERS .............................................................................................................. 5
1.13. ELECTRICAL CONNECTIONS ................................................................................................................................... 5

2.

SYSTEM CAPABILITIES ........................................................................................................................... 6


2.1. OVERALL SYSTEM ................................................................................................................................................... 6
2.2. MAIN OVEN ............................................................................................................................................................. 6
2.3. AUTOMATIC PUMPS ................................................................................................................................................. 7
2.3.1. Injection pump ............................................................................................................................................ 7
2.3.2. Pump for BPR ............................................................................................................................................. 8
2.3.3. Pump for Confining .................................................................................................................................... 9
2.4. CORE HOLDER ....................................................................................................................................................... 10
2.5. ACCUMULATORS, 1L CAPACITY ............................................................................................................................. 10
2.6. ACCESSORIES ......................................................................................................................................................... 10
2.6.1. HP/HT Separator ...................................................................................................................................... 10
2.6.2. Back Pressure Regulator .......................................................................................................................... 11
2.6.3. Vacuum Pump ........................................................................................................................................... 11
2.6.4. Gas Meter ................................................................................................................................................. 11
2.7. INSTRUMENTATION ................................................................................................................................................ 12
2.7.1. Pressure Transducers ............................................................................................................................... 12
2.7.2. Differential Pressure Transducers ............................................................................................................ 12
2.7.3. Temperature Probes.................................................................................................................................. 12
2.7.4. Temperature Controllers .......................................................................................................................... 13
2.8. PIPING AND VALVES .............................................................................................................................................. 14
2.8.1. Flow Lines ................................................................................................................................................ 14
2.8.2. Hand Valves .............................................................................................................................................. 14

3.

INSTALLATION ........................................................................................................................................ 16
3.1. UTILITY AND FLOOR SPACE REQUIREMENTS ......................................................................................................... 16
3.2. LOCATION OF THE EQUIPMENT .............................................................................................................................. 16
3.3. INSTALLING THE SYSTEM COMPONENTS ................................................................................................................ 17
3.3.1. The Core Holders...................................................................................................................................... 17
3.3.2. The Accumulators ..................................................................................................................................... 17
3.3.3. The BPR .................................................................................................................................................... 17
3.4. TURNING THE SYSTEM ON ..................................................................................................................................... 18

4.

PIPING INSTRUMENTATION DIAGRAM ........................................................................................... 19

5.

THEORY OF OPERATION ...................................................................................................................... 20


5.1. UNSTEADY STATE VERSUS STEADY STATE METHODS ........................................................................................... 21
5.2. RESERVOIR CONDITION VERSUS ROOM CONDITION TEST ...................................................................................... 23
5.3. PRESERVED CORE VERSUS RESTORED CORE TEST ................................................................................................. 23
5.4. BASIC FLOOD, WFS AND KW/KO TEST ................................................................................................................... 23
5.5. UNSTEADY STATE METHOD ................................................................................................................................... 24
5.5.1. Monophasic Permeability ......................................................................................................................... 24
5.5.2. Gas Permeability ...................................................................................................................................... 26

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Autoflood 700 User Guide V1.0.


5.5.3.

Relative Permeability ................................................................................................................................ 28

5.5.3.1.
5.5.3.2.

6.

Oil-Water relative permeability curve ..............................................................................................................30


Gas-Liquid relative permeability ......................................................................................................................31

PREPARATION FOR A TEST ................................................................................................................. 32


6.1. PREPARING THE CORE SAMPLE .............................................................................................................................. 32
6.2. SYSTEM PREPARATION .......................................................................................................................................... 32
6.2.1. Rebuild the Core Holder ........................................................................................................................... 32
6.2.2. Rebuild the Accumulators ......................................................................................................................... 33
6.2.3. Rebuild the BPR ........................................................................................................................................ 33
6.2.4. Refill the Confining Pump ......................................................................................................................... 33
6.2.5. Clean all Upstream and Downstream Tubing .......................................................................................... 34
6.2.6. Measure the dead volumes ........................................................................................................................ 34

7.

TEST PROCEDURES ................................................................................................................................ 35


7.1. ARE YOU READY FOR THE UPCOMING TEST? ......................................................................................................... 36
7.2. SYSTEM PREPARATION .......................................................................................................................................... 37
7.2.1. Load the Core Sample............................................................................................................................... 37
7.2.2. Prime the Sensors ..................................................................................................................................... 38
7.2.3. Apply Confining Pressure ......................................................................................................................... 41
7.2.4. Fill the Accumulators ................................................................................................................................ 41
7.2.5. Saturate the Tubing and Accumulators ..................................................................................................... 42
7.2.6. Pressurize the System ................................................................................................................................ 43
7.2.7. Raising the Temperature ........................................................................................................................... 44
7.3. PERFORMING A TEST.............................................................................................................................................. 45
7.3.1. Typical Water Permeability Procedure .................................................................................................... 45
7.3.2. Typical Oil Flood Procedure .................................................................................................................... 45
7.3.3. Determining the Flood Rate and Expected Differential Pressure ............................................................ 46
7.4. REDUCING THE SYSTEM TEMPERATURE ................................................................................................................ 48
7.5. UNLOADING THE CORE .......................................................................................................................................... 48

8.

DATA CALCULATIONS ........................................................................................................................... 50


8.1. HISTORY AND BASIC DEFINITIONS ......................................................................................................................... 50
8.2. MANUAL CALCULATIONS FOR UNSTEADY STATE 2-PHASE RELATIVE PERMEABILITY .......................................... 51
8.2.1. Relative Permeability Ratio Unsteady State .......................................................................................... 51
8.2.2. Relative Permeability to Each Phase (fraction) ........................................................................................ 53
8.3. MANUAL CALCULATIONS FOR STEADY STATE 2-PHASE RELATIVE PERMEABILITY .............................................. 55
8.4. NOMENCLATURE FOR THE MANUAL CALCULATION SECTION ................................................................................ 55

9.

APPLILAB SOFTWARE ........................................................................................................................... 56


9.1. PUMP INFORMATION .............................................................................................................................................. 57
9.2. PRESSURE TRANSDUCER (PT), DIFFERENTIAL PRESSURE TRANSDUCERS (DPT), AND WET GAS METER (WGM)
INFORMATION ............................................................................................................................................................... 57
9.3. DPT MODE ............................................................................................................................................................. 57
9.4. VALVE STATUS ...................................................................................................................................................... 58
9.5. ACCUMULATOR STATUS ........................................................................................................................................ 58
9.6. MASS FLOW CONTROLLER (MFC) ......................................................................................................................... 58
9.7. COREHOLDER AND OVENS TEMPERATURES ............................................................................................................ 58
9.8. L-G OR L-L INTERFACE INFORMATION .................................................................................................................. 58
9.9. TEST INFORMATION ............................................................................................................................................... 59
9.10. MONOPHASIC PERMEABILITY MACRO .................................................................................................................. 60

10.

CARE AND ROUTINE MAINTENANCE ............................................................................................... 63

10.1. PRESSURE TRANSDUCERS CALIBRATION ............................................................................................................. 63


10.1.1.
Calibration Coefficients Default Values ........................................................................................... 63
10.2. REPAIRING LEAKS................................................................................................................................................ 64
10.3. SENSORS CALIBRATION ....................................................................................................................................... 64
11.

GENERAL PARTS LIST ........................................................................................................................... 66

12.

MANUALS ................................................................................................................................................... 72

Autoflood 700 User Guide V1.0.


12.1. HYDROSTATIC CORE HOLDER H-05-042-0 .......................................................................................................... 72
12.2. VINCI ACQUISITION 2012 CAMERA SOFTWARE ................................................................................................... 72
12.3. ZEAL WET GAS METER........................................................................................................................................ 72
12.4. ESI SENSOR PRESSURE TRANSDUCER .................................................................................................................. 72
12.5. ROSEMOUNT DIFFERENTIAL PRESSURE TRANSDUCER ......................................................................................... 72
12.6. BACK PRESSURE REGULATOR C-06-003-1 .......................................................................................................... 72
12.7. BENCHTOP DUAL PUMP BTDPS100-10 ............................................................................................................... 72
12.8. BENCHTOP DUAL PUMP BTDPS250-10 ............................................................................................................... 72
12.9. HP/HT SEPARATOR C02-002-1 ........................................................................................................................... 72
12.10. FLOATING PISTON ACCUMULATOR HASTELLOY FPA-1000-10-HAST ............................................................... 72
12.11. BROOKS MASS FLOW CONTROLLER X-TMF-SLA5800..................................................................................... 72
12.12. EUROTHERM 2416.............................................................................................................................................. 72

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Autoflood 700 User Guide V1.0.

TABLE OF FIGURES
FIGURE 1: EXAMPLE OF SLEEVE WITH PRESSURE TAPS ........................................................................................................ 2
FIGURE 2: PID OF THE AUTOFLOOD 700 ............................................................................................................................ 19
FIGURE 3: ILLUSTRATION OF KLINKENBERG EFFECT ......................................................................................................... 27
FIGURE 4: SUMMARY OF EXPERIMENTS CARRIED OUT IN ORDER TO GET RELATIVE PERMEABILITY OF OIL AND BRINE ...... 29
FIGURE 5: A TYPICAL OIL-WATER RELATIVE PERMEABILITY CURVE ................................................................................ 30
FIGURE 6: TYPICAL GAS-LIQUID RELATIVE PERMEABILITY CURVE ................................................................................... 31
FIGURE 7: CLEANING PROCEDURE FOR THE DPT LINE ...................................................................................................... 38
FIGURE 8: FILLING DPT LINE STEP 1 ................................................................................................................................. 39
FIGURE 9: FILLING DPT LINE STEP 2-3 .............................................................................................................................. 40
FIGURE 10: APPLILAB SOFTWARE MAIN WINDOW ............................................................................................................. 56
FIGURE 11: SAMPLE AND FLUIDS INFORMATION ............................................................................................................... 59
FIGURE 12: KMONO WINDOW ........................................................................................................................................... 60
FIGURE 13: TEMPLATE KMONO ......................................................................................................................................... 61
FIGURE 14: DELTAP SELECTION ........................................................................................................................................ 62
FIGURE 15: ACCUMULATOR SELECTION FOR KMONO CALCULATION ................................................................................. 62
FIGURE 16: EXAMPLE OF DELTAP VS Q LINE ..................................................................................................................... 62
FIGURE 17: PICTURE OF THE PRESSURE TRANSDUCER....................................................................................................... 65
FIGURE 18: PICTURE OF THE PINS OF THE TRANSDUCER..................................................................................................... 65
FIGURE 19: PICTURE OF THE INSIDE OF THE HEAD OF THE TRANSDUCER............................................................................ 65

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Autoflood 700 User Guide V1.0.

1. Introduction
1.1. System Overview
The Autoflood 700 Sytem is designed to perform tests on core plug samples to aid the
reservoir engineer in determining effective permeability to oil ahead of the flood front,
residual oil content after water flood, and the effective permeability to water behind the
flood front. These data are used with permeability distribution and injection pattern
efficiency to make predictions of reservoir performance.
Some of the tests available with the system include specific liquid permeability, effective
permeability, and relative permeability that involve flowing fluids that are compatible with
the materials of construction. Confining and pore pressure can be up to 700 bars or
10,000 psi maximum. Temperature can be up to 150C or 300F maximum. Note,
however, that the confining pressure must be at least 35 bars or 500 psi higher
than the pore pressure all the time to be able to seal the rubber sleeve around the
core sample. The pore pressure is measured at inlet and outlet ports of the core
sample by using relative and differential pressure transducers. Pressure taps (optional)
may be used to monitor the pressure along the core thanks to differential pressure
transducers. Likewise, the confining pressure is measured with a pressure transducer.
All wetted components are of Stainless Steel 316, Hastelloy C-276 or Titanium TA6V for
chemical compatibility and corrosion resistance.
The pressure control system including oven, pumps, valves, core holder, and
transducers are mounted on specific cabinets. Operation of the system is controlled
through an IBM-compatible computer. The software included with the system is
designed to allow for automated data acquisition and some basic calculations. The
TM
software operates under the Microsoft Windows 8 operating system for multitasking
capability. This gives the user maximum versatility in performing tests. Each of the key
components is discussed in later sections of this manual.

1.2. Injection Pumps (BenchTop Dual Pumps S BTDPs 100-10)


The Autoflood-700 includes a two-piston syringe pump, model BTDPs100-10. The
pump is capable of constant flow operation over wide pressure range. The pump design
incorporates motor driven piston, pressure measurement to comply with most
application requirements. The dual pump configuration is designed to provide
continuous, pulse-free flow over a wide range of pressures and operate at reservoir
temperature. Pump cylinders can be operated either individually or synchronized to
pump and/or receive fluids simultaneously. Fluid delivery is possible at constant rate or
constant pressure. Note that the pump may inject directly or not directly the test fluids
into the core sample. In the not directly mode, the pump injects the driving fluid
exclusively into the accumulators placed in the oven. The pump has a flow rate range
adjustable from 0.01 to 50 ml/min by increment of 0.001 ml. The maximum pressure
rating is 700 bars or 10,000 psi. The pump is controlled either from its own front panel
or remotely from the Vinci Technologies computer data-acquisition-and-control system.
The pump can be also equipped with its own heating system.

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Autoflood 700 User Guide V1.0.

1.3. Accumulators
The accumulators supplied as part of the system allow you to maintain the test fluids at
reservoir condition during experiment. Accumulators are basically cylinders equipped
with two end plugs and one floating piston, which separates the cylinder into a driving
chamber and a test chamber. The driving chamber contains the driving fluids (water or
hydraulic oil) while the test chamber contains the test fluids. The cylinders are made of
Hastelloy C-276 (Stainless steel SS-316 or Titanium TA6V upon request) for chemical
compatibility and corrosion resistance.

1.4. Confining Systems (BTDPs 250 Module 1)


An automatic pump, model BTSPs250, filled with hydraulic oil or water allows to build
up the confining pressure in the core holder. The pump has a maximum rating of 700
bars or 10,000 psi at room temperature. A special feature allows the pump to maintain a
constant net pressure, which is the difference between the confining pressure and the
pore pressure. The pumps design incorporates motor driven piston, pressure
measurement to comply with most application requirements. Fluid delivery is possible at
constant rate or constant pressure. Note that the pump injects only silicon oil (or
hydraulic oil, if it can resist to the temperature rating of the core holder) or water. The
pump has a flow rate range adjustable from 0.02 to 80 ml/min by increment of 0.001 ml.
The pump is controlled either from its own front panel or remotely from the Vinci
Technologies computer data-acquisition-and-control system. The pump can be also
equipped with its own heating system.

1.5. Hydrostatic Core Holders


The Hydrostatic type core holder belongs to the Vinci Technologies HY Series core
holder. These core holders are routinely used for gas and liquid permeability testing and
water flooding experiments. The core sample is held within a rubber sleeve by confining
pressure (radial stress). The confining pressure simulates reservoir overburden
pressure. Inlet and outlet end plugs allow fluids to be flooded through the core sample.
The inlet end plug can be equipped with several injection ports (number upon request).
All internal volumes are kept to a minimum, so that accurate flow data can be
determined. By releasing the confining pressure, draining the confining fluid and
unscrewing the end closer, the core sample can be easily removed. This allows the core
sample to be easily installed or removed
Note: for the core holder with pressure taps, all ports are equally distributed along the
core with same distance of 4 (101.6mm).

Figure 1: Example of sleeve with pressure taps

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1.6. Visual Cell / HPHT Separator


The separator is designed to separate and measure two immiscible fluids volumes
(liquid/liquid or liquid/gas) at reservoir conditions of pressure and temperature that are
produced from the core during relative permeability tests. It consists of (1) a separation
bore used to collect and separate produced fluids under gravity and (2) a measurement
bore used to visualize the two phases interface at reservoir conditions. The
measurement bore consists of a through-visual cell made of two windows mounted
opposite each other to allow for sample visibility. Placing a light behind one window
allows easy discernment of the two phases interface level. The mixture flow is driven to
the separation bore. Emulsion or foam at interface is trapped in this bore. The demixed
fluids feed the measurement bore in separate phases by gravity. The measurement
bore has 2 long windows. A video tracker detects the interface between the two fluids.
There are 2 ports, one at the bottom and one at the top of the measurement bore
respectively for phases 1 and 2.
Video:
The video system is designed to monitor the fluids flowing through the visual cell. The
system comprises (i) 3 high resolution cameras equipped with an integrated zoom and
(ii) a back lighting installed behind the separator in the air bath. Note that the position of
the cameras is factory adjusted in order to have the best vision of the cell. The camera
is connected to the computer station so that the image of the fluids can be displayed
and recorded on the PC.

1.7. Heating Systems


The measurements can be conducted at representative reservoir temperatures using an
oven (air bath), which heats the core holder and core sample. The Eurotherm 2614 is
capable of maintaining temperatures higher than the maximum temperature of the
system, so make sure not to adjust it above 150C or 300F, the maximum rating of the
core holder and the system (refer to NOTE below). The computer data-acquisition
system reads the analog output from the RTD probe (PT 100) placed in the oven and
controls the temperature setting as well.
Note: The oven set-up parameters, set point high (SP_h), was reduced from 200C to
150C to help prevent setting the oven above the maximum system temperature.

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1.8. Back Pressure Regulator


The BPR utilizes a gas dome pressure loading design that allows for extremely precise
control of the flow rate of either binary or tertiary fluids. It consists of two chambers
separated by a piston with a needle connected to it on the lower side. The upper
chamber receives the gas dome pressure and the lower chamber the process pressure.
The BPR acts as a comparator. When the dome pressure is higher than the process
pressure, the needle seals off the pressure and maintains the pressure. Inversely, when
the process pressure exceeds the dome pressure, the needle opens up and the excess
process fluid flows out. The BPR has a maximum rating of 700 bars or 10,000 psi at
room temperature. The pressure is controlled by gas (bottle and/or pump).

1.9. Back Pressure Pump (BTDPs 250 Module 2)


An automatic pump, model BTSPs250, filled with gas allows to control the dome
pressure of the BPR via a 250 ml cylinder for nitrogen buffering. The pump has a
maximum rating of 700 bars or 10,000 psi at room temperature. The pumps design
incorporates motor driven piston, pressure measurement to comply with most
application requirements. Fluid delivery is possible at constant rate or constant
pressure. Note that the pump injects only gas with a small amount of silicon oil at the
bottom for O-Ring protection. The pump has a flow rate range adjustable from 0.02 to
80 ml/min by increment of 0.001 ml. The maximum pressure rating is 700 bars or
10,000 psi. The pump is controlled either from its own front panel or remotely from the
Vinci Technologies computer data-acquisition-and-control system. The pump can be
also equipped with its own heating system.

1.10. Wet Gas Meter


The Wet Gas Meter is of the positive displacement type. It consists essentially of a gas
tight casing containing a measuring drum, with 4 separate compartments, mounted on a
spindle that is free to revolve. The casing is filled to approximately 60% of its volume
with distilled water (or light oil). The measuring drum capacity is 500 ml, the dial
capacity per revolution is 250 ml and the minimal dial division is 5 ml. Note that the
pressure in the meter must not to exceed 65 mbars. A built-in shaft encoder is provided
along with the gas meter, which allows a resolution of 0.5 ml per encoder pulse. The
gas volume is monitored on a digital display. The minimum flow rate is 1 ml/min and the
maximum flow rate is 1 liter/min.

1.11. Pressure Transducers


The pressure transducers supplied as part of the system are ESI gauge-pressure
transducers with digital displays with an accuracy of +/- 0.25% of full scale. The
standard full-scale range is 700 bars or 10,000 psi at room temperature (other rating to
order). As a standard configuration, one monitors the confining pressure, two monitor
the inlet pore and outlet pore pressures of the core and one monitors the BPR pressure.
A last one monitors gas pressure just after the humidifier.

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1.12. Differential Pressure Transducers


The differential pressure transducers supplied as part of the system are Rosemount
gauge-pressure transducers with digital displays with an accuracy of +/- 0.055% of the
span. The standard full-scale range is +/- 2000 psi at room temperature. Two other
differential pressure transducers with a full-scale range of +/- 300 psi and +/- 9 psi are
supplied to have more accuracy for the most permeable cores. All transducers monitor the
difference between the inlet pore pressure and (i) the outlet pore of the core sample, or (ii)
any positions along the core sample (pressure tap configuration). The maximum line
pressure rating is 700 bars or 10,000 psi at room temperature.

1.13. Electrical Connections


Electric voltage required for the entire system is:
220 VAC, 1-Phase, 50/60 Hz, 3.0 kW
220 VAC, 1-Phase, 50/60 Hz, 2.0 kW.
Power is distributed as follows:
The main oven is 220 VAC, 1-Phase, 50/60 Hz, 3.0 kW
The 2 Benchtop Double pumps (BTDPs100-10 and BTDPs250-10) are 230 VAC,
1-Phase, 50/60 Hz, 1.0 kW each
The monitor(s), printer(s) and computer(s) can be plugged on standard 230 VAC, 1Phase, 50/60 Hz sockets.
It is highly recommended to plug the all system into a surge suppressor (UPS). Contact
your local electric department for the connections.

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2. System Capabilities
2.1. Overall System
Max. Pore Press.:
Max. Conf. Press.:
Temp. Range:
Basic Procedures:

700 bars (10,000 psi)


700 bars (10,000 psi).
room temperature to 150C (300F) maximum
Constant Rate specific permeability
Effective permeability and relative permeability
up to 4 different fluids
316 Stainless Steel, C-276 Hastelloy (or Titanium TA6V)
220 VAC, 1-Phase, 50/60 Hz, 3.0 kW
220 VAC, 1-Phase, 50/60 Hz, 2.0 kW

Multiple Fluids:
Wetted Material:
Electrical:

Warning: power should be disconnected before attempting to repair or work on any


electrical components as electrical shock could occur.

2.2. Main Oven


Model No.:
Max. Temp.:

Measurement:
Resolution:
Dimensions:
Weight:
Electrical:

XU_SP 1365
150C (300F)
Microprocessor auto-tune Controller (Eurotherm 2416)
Built-in Temperature Limit Switch prevent over-heating
2 type P thermocouples (1 for control, 1 for limit)
0.1C
150 cm W x 120 cm D x 190 cm H
approx. 250 kg
230 VAC, 50/60 Hz, 1-Phase, 3,000 W

The oven is used to heat the core holder and associated parts. Within the oven, full access
to the core holder and valves is provided. A forced air fan and heater is used to heat the
system. A P-type thermocouple and Eurotherm digital temperature controller with a
proportioning solid state relay are used to control oven temperature. All control electronics
are located in the top section of the oven. These include an integral digital-display
microprocessor auto-tune controller for control of the test temperature and a separate
back-up temperature limit switch (see the dedicated manual).

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2.3. Automatic Pumps


2.3.1.

Injection pump

Model No.:
Delivery Mode:
Max. Pressure:
Flow range:
Wetted Material:

Dimension:
Weight:
Electrical:

BTDPs100-10
Positive Displacement, Constant-Flow or Constant-Pressure
700 bars (10,000 psi)
0 to 50 ml/min (increment by 0.001 ml)
Stainless Steel 316
Panel PC Interfaced for local operation
Computer Interfaced to AppliLab software for remote control
25 cm W x 41 cm D x 76 cm H
43 kg
230 VAC, 50/60 Hz, 1 Phase, 1,000 W

The Injection System consists of an automatic pump BTDPs 100-10 equipped with a
fill/drain system. This is placed on a moveable trolley to provide easy access for
maintenance. Use the constant flow mode of the pump to continuously inject the driving
fluid through the accumulators (see the dedicated manual).
Note that the pump is injecting only silicon oil (or water if under high temperature) through
the accumulators. The supply reservoir is not included in the pump. Please use a glass
beaker or a reservoir made in a resistant plastic as Nalgene. Use a low viscosity, Silicon
oil (or light weight refined oil) in the supply reservoir.
The procedure used for filling and draining the driving fluid from the accumulators is
discussed in the operating procedure section of this manual.
The basic control functions of the injection pump are operated manually (from the local
Panel PC interface user) or automatically from the computer. Automatic valves are used to
isolate or drain the driving section of the accumulators.
A separate operator manual for the BTDPs100-10 pump is included with this manual.
Warning: refer to the BTDPs100-10 dedicated User Guide included with this manual for
descriptions of the available operational details and maintenance.

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2.3.2.

Pump for BPR

Model No.:
Delivery Mode:
Max. Pressure:
Flow range:
Wetted Material:

Dimension:
Weight:
Electrical:

BTSPs250
Constant-Flow or Constant-Pressure
700 bars (10,000 psi)
0 to 80 ml/min (increment by 0.001 ml)
Stainless Steel 316
Panel PC Interfaced for local operation
Computer Interfaced to AppliLab software for remote control
25 cm W x 41 cm D x 97 cm H
48.5 kg
230 VAC, 50/60 Hz, 1 Phase, 500 W

The BPR Pressurizing System consists of an automatic pump BTSP250 equipped with a
fluid fill/drain system and an inert gas circuitry. This is placed on the back side of the main
oven to provide easy access for maintenance. Note that the use of inert gas is
compulsory in order to have a smooth and precise pressure regulation of the BPR. If the
pressure of inert gas is not enough for the experiment condition, use the constant pressure
mode of the pump to build up the BPR pressure (see the dedicated manual).
The supply reservoir is not included in the pump. Please use a glass beaker or a reservoir
made in a resistant plastic as Nalgene. Use a low viscosity, Silicon oil (or light weight
refined oil) in the supply reservoir. This will allow you to fill about 10cc of oil in order to
protect the piston sealing from the high pressure gas.
The procedure used for filling and draining the inert gas from the BPR is discussed in the
operating procedure section of this manual.
The basic control functions of the BPR pressure pump are operated manually (from the
local Panel PC interface user) or automatically from the computer. Automatic valves are
used to isolate or drain the pressure section of the BPR.
A separate operator manual for the BTSP250 pump is included with this manual.
Warning: refer to the BTSP250 dedicated User Guide included with this manual for
descriptions of the available operational details and maintenance.

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2.3.3.

Pump for Confining

Model No.:
Delivery Mode:
Max. Pressure:
Flow range:
Wetted Material:

Dimension:
Weight:
Electrical:

BTSPs250
Constant-Flow or Constant-Pressure
700 bars (10,000 psi)
0 to 80 ml/min (increment by 0.001 ml)
Stainless Steel 316
Panel PC Interfaced for local operation
Computer Interfaced to AppliLab software for remote control
25 cm W x 41 cm D x 97 cm H
48.5 kg
230 VAC, 50/60 Hz, 1 Phase, 500 W

The Confining Pressurizing System consists of an automatic pump BTSP250 equipped


with a fluid fill/drain system. This is placed on the back side of the main oven to provide
easy access for maintenance. Use the constant pressure mode of the pump to build up the
confining pressure (see the dedicated manual).
The supply reservoir is not included in the pump. Please use a glass beaker or a reservoir
made in a resistant plastic as Nalgene. Use a low viscosity, Silicon oil (or light weight
refined oil, which must be compatible with high temperature use) in the supply reservoir.
The procedure used for filling and draining fluid from the core holder is discussed in the
operating procedure section of this manual.
The basic control functions of the confining pressure pump are operated manually (from
the local Panel PC interface user) or automatically from the computer. Automatic valves
are used to isolate or drain the confining section of the core holder.
A separate operator manual for the BTSP250 pump is included with this manual.
Warning: refer to the BTSP250 dedicated User Guide included with this manual for
descriptions of the available operational details and maintenance.

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2.4. Core Holder


The system provides one of Vinci Technologies HY Series core holders. The core holder is
designed for easy assembly, disassembly, core sample installation and cleaning. The core
lengths are fully adjustable per the specifications.
Model No.:
Core Diameters:
Core Length:
Max. Pressure:
Max. Temp.:
Wetted Material:
Sleeve Material:
Inlets:
Outlets:

H05-043-0 (HY Series)


3.8 cm (1.5)
2.5 to 30 cm (1 to 12)
700 bars (10,000 psi)
150C (300F)
C-276 Hastelloy
fluorocarbon rubber (Viton)
4
3

2.5. Accumulators, 1L capacity


Model No.:
Max. Pressure:
Max. Temp.:
Wetted Material:
Outer Diameter:
Inner Diameter:
Overall Length:
Weight:

FPA 1000-10
700 bars (10,000 psi)
150C (300F)
C-276 Hastelloy
88 mm,
63 mm
615 mm
13.4 kg

2.6. Accessories
2.6.1.

HP/HT Separator

Model:
Fluid Ports:
Material:
Working Pressure:
Working Temp.:
Sapphire ID:
Sapphire OD:
Sapphire Length:
Visual Length:
Weight:

C-02-002-1
1/8 tube compression fitting
C-276 Hastelloy
10,000 psig
Ambient to 150C
2mm
20mm
70mm
45mm
20.0 kg

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2.6.2.

Back Pressure Regulator

Model:
Wetted Material:
Flowing Lines:
Pressure Rating:
Temp. Rating:
Dimension:
Weight:

2.6.3.

Vacuum Pump

Model No.:
Ultimate Pressure:
Nominal Pumping:
Oil Capacity:
Dimension:
Weight:
Electrical:

2.6.4.

C06-003-1
C-276 Hastelloy
1/8 outer diameter
700 bars (10,000 psi)
150C (300F)
7 cm Diameter x 14 cm Height
3 kg

2005SD
2x10-3 mbar
5.4 m3/h
0.83 L
42 cm L x 19 cm W x 24 cm H
25 kg
230 VAC, 50/60 Hz, 1 Phase, 500 W

Gas Meter

Model:
Drum Capacity:
Dial Capacity:
Min. Dial Division:
Hourly rate:
Accuracy:
Filling:
Dimension:
Weight:
Electrical:

DM3A
0.5 dm3
0.25 dm3 per rev.
0.005 dm3
50 dm3 (0.1 dm3 to 100 dm3)
< 0.25% of Full Scale
With a shaft encoder of 500 pts per rev.
about 1.2 L
23 cm W x 19 cm D x 24 cm H
3.5 kg
5 VDC

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2.7. Instrumentation
2.7.1.

Pressure Transducers

Manufacturer:
Pressure Range:

Accuracy:
Electrical:

ESI
0 700 bars (0 10,000 psi)
0 7 bars (0 100 psi)
0 1 bar (0 15 psi)
0.25% of Full Scale
With 5-digit Digital Display
24 VCC

The pressure transducers supplied as part of the system are ESI gauge-pressure
transducers with digital displays with an accuracy of +/- 0.25% of full scale. The maximum
full-scale range is 700 bars (10,000 psi) at room temperature. For each system, one
monitors the CONFINING pressure, one monitors the INLET PORE pressure, one
monitors the OUTLET PORE pressure, one monitors the BPR pressure.
2.7.2.

Differential Pressure Transducers

Manufacturer:
Pressure Range:
Line Pressure:
Accuracy:
Electrical:
2.7.3.

Rosemount
+/- 2000 psi, +/-300 psi and +/-9 psi (other range on request)
700 bars (10,000 psi)
0.055% of Full Scale
With 5-digit Digital Display
24 VCC

Temperature Probes

Type:
Resolution:
Electrical:

RTD (PT100) probe


5-digit Digital Display
0.1C
24 VCC

The temperature probes supplied as part of the system are PT100 type with an accuracy
of +/- 0.1C. They have a full-scale range according to the oven specification. The
temperature probes monitor the core holders, and the oven.
.

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2.7.4.

Temperature Controllers

Manufacturer:
Model:
Resolution:
Electrical:

Eurotherm
2416
5-digit Digital Display
0.1C
230 VAC

This controller is microprocessor based indicator, single loop controller, and profiler
capable of measuring, displaying or controlling process variables such as temperature,
pressure, flow and level from a variety of inputs. Control functions, alarm settings and
other parameters are easily entered through the front keypad or by using the PC based
configuration software. Controller models are easily tuned using the instruments automatic
tuning features. EEPROM technology protects against data or configuration loss during AC
power outages.
Inputs are user configurable for direct connection to thermocouple and RTD probes. Most
models will also accept linear process signal types such as mV DC, VDC or mA DC. If the
instrument is configured with a linear output option module, this output can be scaled to retransmit the process variable or set point to external devices such as data recorders or
PLC.s.
Alarm indication is standard on all instruments; up to three alarms are possible on some
models. The alarm types may be set as process high or low, deviation (active above or
below controller set point), band (active both above and below set point), or control loop
type. Models with a heater current input also have high, low or short circuit heater break
alarms based on control load current. These alarms can be linked to any suitable output.
Alarm status is indicated by an LED and the alarm status screen.
If the instrument is configured with the transmitter power supply option module, an
unregulated 24V DC (22mA) auxiliary output voltage is provided to power external signal
transmitters.

Controllers can be programmed for on-off, time proportioning, or current proportioning


control implementations, depending on the output modules fitted. A secondary control
output is available when the appropriate extra output module is fitted. Valve Motor Drive
(VMD) is also possible on some models. All proportional control implementations are
provided with fully programmable PID parameters. Controllers with analogue Remote Set
point inputs and Profile Controllers are included in the range.

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2.8. Piping and Valves


2.8.1.

Flow Lines

The system provides flow lines as normally required for the performance of the system.
Wetted Material:

Stainless Steel 316, Hastelloy C-276


TeflonTM for air net (10 bars max.)
1/8 & 1/4 outer diameter
Butech & Swagelok type
10 bars (145 psi)
700 bars (10,000 psi)
150C (300F)

Flowing Lines:
Fittings:
Low Pressure Rating:
High Pressure Rating:
Temp. Rating:

Low Pressure Tubing


TM

The low pressure (white and clear plastic) tubing utilized in this system is Teflon made to
withstand the temperature inside the oven. Please do not use nylon or polyethylene tubing
as this may melt or become brittle and break after repeated use in a high temperature
environment. The maximum pressure rating is 10 bars or 145 psi at 150C.
High Pressure Tubing
The high pressure tubing utilized in the pore wetted portion of this system is manufactured
from Hastelloy C-276. The OD is 1/8 (3.18mm) and ID is 0.89mm. Quality assurance
certificates are available to order. The maximum pressure rating is 700 bars or 10,000 psi
at 150C.
2.8.2.

Hand Valves

The system provides hand valves as normally required for the performance of the system.
Wetted Material:
Flowing Lines:
Fittings:
Pressure Rating:
Temp. Rating:

Stainless Steel 316, Hastelloy C-276


1/8 outer diameter
Butech
690 bars (10,000 psi)
175C (350F)

These valves are manufactured by Butech and/or Swagelok. The wetted material of
construction is Stainless steel SS-316 (Hastelloy C-276 or Titanium TA6V upon request).
For more information about these valves, please refer to the Component Manual section at
the end of this manual.
The maximum pressure rating is 700 bars or 10,000 psi at 175C.

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For additional information on any of the components used within the Core Flooding
System, please contact the engineering Department at Vinci Technologies.

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3. Installation
3.1. Utility and Floor Space Requirements
Utility Requirements:
Main oven:
BTDPs100-10/250-10:
Air Supply pressure:

230 VAC, 50/60 Hz, 3,000W


230 VAC, 50/60 Hz, 2,000W
90 - 125 psi max.

Room Requirements:
Main Oven:
Computer Stand:
Suggested Floor Space:

245 cm W X 100 cm D X 205 cm H / 1750 kg


155 cm W x 90 cm D x 190 cm H / 100 kg
6.00 x 4.00 meters
plus sample preparation bench and computer / printer
table area and vice.

3.2. Location of the Equipment


The Autoflood-700 should be placed in a low traffic area away from any frequently traveled
doors that may allow inadvertent tampering with the apparatus during a test procedure.
The equipment should be located in an area with sufficient power utilities (see the
Specifications section), a vacuum source and a source of air pressure (100 - 125 psi).
There should be sufficient area around the equipment to allow the operator access to all
sides of the instrument at any time without restriction (usually a 24 square meters area will
be enough for the instrument).
A sample and equipment preparation area with a tabletop and a vice should also be
available in the immediate vicinity. This tabletop area will be utilized to load the sample
into the core holder sleeve and also to clean components and tubing between test
procedures.
The Autoflood-700 should be utilized in a clean and dry area that offers temperature
control to within +/- 2 degrees Celsius.

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3.3. Installing the System Components


3.3.1.

The Core Holders

Install the core holder on its bracket. Then, bolt the two screws of the claw on the core
holder bracket assembly. Due to its heavy weight, it is not recommended to dismount the
core holder body from the frame.
To install a sample, undo the end closer as explained in this manual but do not dismount
the body. It is recommended to leave the body bolted on its support unless it is necessary
to clean it completely or to change the position to +/-90C.
Reconnect the plumbing (if needed). Be sure to tighten the tubing nuts snugly (do not over
tighten).

3.3.2.

The Accumulators

The piston accumulators have to be mounted in their sanded steel bracket assembly. Slide
the accumulator on the bottom bracket then, clamp the retaining plate in order to hold the
accumulator. The accumulators are equipped with their own handle but they are heavy, so
be careful when handling them.
Reconnect the plumbing (if needed). Be sure to tighten the tubing nuts snugly (do not over
tighten).

3.3.3.

The BPR

Bolt the BPR(s) on its support located under the main oven.
Reconnect the plumbing (if needed). Be sure to tighten the tubing nuts snugly (do not over
tighten).

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3.4. Turning the System On


Place the appropriate electrical plug (not provided) on the end of the power cord for the
system. Note that every unit has its own cable: electrical cabinet and pumps. Make sure
that all switches are set to OFF before plugging the cables into proper socket.
Warning: if the air pressure is connected and turned on there may be a loud pop when the
system power is turned on as the solenoid valves are energized. This is normal.
The power connected to the electrical cabinet does not control the computer items. They
must be connected to power separately and they must be turned on/off separately from the
electrical cabinet.

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4. Piping Instrumentation Diagram

Figure 2: PID of the Autoflood 700


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5. Theory of Operation
Relative permeability is mathematically defined as the effective permeability to one fluid
divided by a base permeability. The base permeability can be to any fluid of choice;
however, there are certain fluids and sample saturation conditions that are suggested
as the standard base permeability to use for particular relative permeability tests:

The base permeability that is normally used for a water-displacing-oil relative


permeability test (Kw/Ko) is the permeability to oil at irreducible water saturation.
The base permeability for a gas-displacing-oil relative permeability test (Kg/Ko) is the
permeability to oil at irreducible water saturation.
The base permeability for a water-displacing-gas relative permeability (Kw/Kg) is the
permeability to gas at irreducible water saturation.
The base permeability for a gas-displacing-water relative permeability (Kg/Kw) is the
permeability to water at 100% water saturation.

Laboratory water flood tests are designed to furnish the effective permeability to oil
ahead of the flood front, residual oil content after water flood, and the effective
permeability to water behind the flood front. These data are used with permeability
distribution and injection pattern efficiency to make predictions of reservoir performance.
Several tests may be run in the laboratory to furnish the required information. These
tests vary in complexity and ease of application from the Basic Flood through Water
Flood Susceptibility (WFS) to water-oil relative permeability (Kw/Ko) measurements.
Water flooding projects normally measure performance relating oil recovery to pore
volumes of injected water and to water-cut. These data are not developed in the Basic
Flood tests, and are reported only for the Water Flood Susceptibility measurements.
This performance data can also be calculated from the K w/Ko data. Basic flood tests can
also be run in addition to a Kw/Ko test as a quality control measure to compare with
Kw/Ko residual oil and to furnish an ultimate residual oil saturation. The RPS system
enables adequate data measurement capability for K w/Ko tests which in turn enable the
calculation of both the WFS and Basic data.
Pore geometry and wettability are two key factors that influence the relative permeability
of a core sample. In some high permeability rock, for example, the pore geometry can
make the relative permeability data appear to be that of an oil-wet rock when it is
actually water wet. If the sample wettability has been altered due to contamination with
surfactants during the coring process or if it is tested with contaminated reservoir fluids,
this can cause pessimistic oil wet characteristics.
Basic flood, Kw/Ko and WFS tests can be made under reservoir conditions of
temperature and pressure using live reservoir oil. This is an improvement over room
condition techniques where tests are made at atmospheric conditions with refined
laboratory oils. Use of the live crude exposes the rock to compounds present in the oil
that might influence wettability and establishes a plug environment as close as possible
to reservoir conditions.

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5.1. Unsteady State versus Steady State Methods


There are two primary test procedures utilized to measure relative permeability 1)
Unsteady-state and 2) Steady-state. In an unsteady-state test procedure only one fluid is
pumped into the sample displacing an immiscible phase from the core sample. Relative
permeability is calculated using incremental measurements of the two effluent volumes
produced versus time. In a steady-state test procedure two immiscible phases are
pumped through the core sample simultaneously until a stable saturation is reached in the
core sample and equilibrium flow conditions are obtained. This dual phase pumping is
performed at several different ratios of the two fluids. The relative permeability to each
phase is calculated at each ratio.
Several factors should be used to determine the optimum relative permeability test
procedure to use on a core sample. Some of these factors include permeability, the wateroil viscosity ratio, saturation history (imbibition or drainage), duration of test, flow rates/end
effects, rock wettability and pore geometry.
One criteria for selection of unsteady-state versus steady state test procedures is the
reservoir condition viscosity ratio. Relative permeability characteristics are independent of
the oil-water viscosity ratio, however, this ratio will affect the range of saturation that can
be measured in an unsteady-state relative permeability test. In the unsteady-state relative
permeability test procedure, relative permeability can only be calculated for data that is
measured after water breakthrough from the sample. A water-wet core sample with a
water-oil viscosity ratio below 5 to 10 will only yield data from a very small saturation
range. A low water-oil viscosity ratio creates a situation where the steady-state technique
should be chosen in order to measure data that will better define a larger saturation range
for that sample.
Saturation history is also a determining factor. The test procedure must follow the reservoir
history. Imbibition is defined as the situation where the wetting phase saturation is
increasing. Drainage is defined as the situation where the wetting phase saturation is
decreasing. Imbibition is often used to refer to water saturation increasing but this is only
correct terminology if water is the wetting phase for that rock. Water floods carried out on
water wet rock follows the imbibition process and in most cases should be tested using the
steady-state process. For drainage systems where the rock is predominantly oil wet a high
rate unsteady-state test procedure is quite adequate, however, steady-state tests are also
recommended. For mixed wettability systems the most desirable approach is to generate
data from both unsteady-state and steady-state techniques along with capillary pressure
and wettability index data that will all help aid in the determination of the predominant
wettability characteristic. From this information the relative permeability test procedure that
will offer the most representative data can be selected.
Duration of test can also be a factor in determining what test procedure to use. In general
an unsteady-state test can be measured in a fraction of the time required for steady-state
test procedures. A steady-state test procedure can take from one to two weeks and up to
one month to perform. An unsteady-state test can usually be performed in one day.

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Flow rates can affect the final saturation values and relative permeability data as a result
of a situation called "capillary end effects". Capillary end effects are the result of a low
viscous to capillary ratio and they result in an excessively high saturation of the wetting
phase at the outlet end of the sample. This results is unrealistic residual oil saturations.
Therefore, special precautions should be taken in both the unsteady-state and steadystate procedures to reduce the possibility of capillary end effect problems. The unsteadystate relative permeability procedure should be undertaken on a sample as long as
possible and should be made at a high flow rate (between 1 and 5 ml/min for plug size
samples). The steady-state relative permeability procedure should also be made on a core
sample as long as possible and the core holder should have either Berea mixing heads or
Archimedes spiral heads to reduce or eliminate the capillary end effect problems within the
core sample itself.
Rock wettability is one of the most important factors concerning the characteristic behavior
of a relative permeability test. As mentioned above in the paragraph discussing saturation
history, there are certain situations and wettability conditions that will help select the most
representative test procedure. Another primary concern of any laboratory planning to
perform reservoir condition relative permeability tests is to obtain uncontaminated cores
and fluids with which to carry out the test procedure. Cores can be contaminated during
the coring procedure if any surface active agents are placed in the drilling mud. These
same surface active agents can also contaminate a fluid sample at the well site. Extreme
care must be observed in the selection and execution of the coring program and fluid
sampling techniques.
Rock pore geometry is also a very important factor concerning the characteristic behavior
of a relative permeability test. Several of the rock properties that will affect the pore
geometry are as follows:
Grain Size
Grain shape
Grain sorting
Grain packing
Grain solution
Grain overgrowths

Grain alteration
Pressure solution effects
Clay (Intergranular)
Clay or shale streaks
Detrital mineral pore fillers
Authigenic mineral pore fillers

In general, a reservoir condition steady-state test is recommended on medium to high


permeability rocks. Closed system, re-circulating steady-state apparatus requires the
differential pressure to be below 40 - 50 psi in order to minimize pressure pulsations during
this type of test procedure. If the core is a low permeability sample and will require more
than 40 - 50 psi with the reservoir crude and brine then either an unsteady-state test or a
room condition steady-state test using laboratory oils and brines with a continuous
throughput is required.

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5.2. Reservoir Condition versus Room Condition Test


Basic flood, Kw/Ko, and WFS tests can be made under reservoir conditions of temperature
and pressure using live reservoir oil. This is an improvement over room condition
techniques where tests are made at atmospheric conditions with refined laboratory oils.
Use of the live crude exposes the rock to compounds present in the oil that might influence
wettability, and establishes a plug environment as close as possible to reservoir
conditions.
In those cases where reservoir condition tests cannot be performed, room condition Basic
Flood and WFS tests are in many cases satisfactory substitutes. These tests require
refined oils specifically selected so that the laboratory oil-water viscosity ratio equals the
oil-water ratio existing under reservoir conditions in the reservoir.

5.3. Preserved Core versus Restored Core Test


It is desirable to perform all flood tests on native state or fresh core samples when
possible. Drying and cleaning of the samples prior to analysis may alter the wetting
properties of the formation, thereby altering flood performance. Exposure to air for a
sustained length of time may invalidate native state and fresh core tests. It is essential
that cores for native and fresh state floods be stored under air free conditions. Samples
brought to the field laboratory that are exposed six to eight hours during routine analysis
often suffer from water evaporation and exposure and may not be suitable for native state
or fresh flood tests. Where possible, native state and fresh core should be preserved
immediately after removal from the core barrel by wrapping with Saran wrap and foil, then
either sealing in a chromatographic bag or dipping in a meltable plastic sealing material.

5.4. Basic Flood, WFS and Kw/Ko Test


Water flood tests are normally carried to water cuts in excess of 99.9 percent. During
Basic Flood and WFS tests several hundred pore volumes of injected fluid are required to
reach 99.9 percent water cut when oil greater than four or five centipoises viscosity is
present. Basic Flood tests yield only the residual oil value at the terminal condition of the
laboratory test when several hundred pore volumes of water are injected. Much of the oil
recovered in the laboratory is at a water cut and at injected volumes greatly in excess of
field conditions. Most field waterfloods have only one or two pore volumes of fluid injected
and become uneconomic at water cuts in excess of 95 percent. The Basic Flood test may
indicate optimistic recovery values and is not recommended for reservoirs with viscous oil.
WFS tests or Kw/Ko tests are recommended in these cases because performance as a
function of injected water volume is presented or can be calculated.

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5.5. Unsteady State Method


Unsteady-state water-oil relative permeability tests normally require that viscous oil be
used. This results in a high oil-water viscosity ratio and forces an early breakthrough of the
water phase with a long subordinate production phase (where both oil and water flow). The
unsteady-state Kw/Ko measurement technique requires both oil and water flowing before
Kw/Ko can be calculated.
On certain occasions where the actual reservoir oil-water viscosity ratio is low, if a viscous
oil is used the Kw/Ko residual oil saturations obtained with the viscous oil in the samples
are higher than obtained when comparison flood tests simulating the reservoir viscosity
ratio are made. Equal saturations would probably be reached if the K w/Ko tests could be
extended to infinite pore volumes of injection. However, this is not feasible, and where the
absolute residual oil at essentially 100 percent water cut (99.99%) is required, Basic Flood
tests simulating the reservoir oil-water viscosity ratio conditions can be used to furnish
supporting residual oil values for a Kw/Ko test. Where the reservoir oil-water viscosity ratio
equals five to ten, the subordinate production is generally long enough to enable the
calculation of Kw/Ko data from a WFS test.
As noted above, if the reservoir oil-water viscosity ratio is high a reservoir condition K w/Ko
test can be performed and WFS can be calculated from the data. Where the reservoir oil
water viscosity ratio is low, normally a late water breakthrough and small subordinate
production period is observed, and Kw/Ko can be calculated for only a limited water
saturation range and in some cases not at all. Use of refined viscous laboratory oils at
reservoir conditions of temperature and pressure are not recommended. This is easy
enough to do in the laboratory, but the main advantage of using reservoir crude is lost.
Therefore, unless the oil-water viscosity ratio is high, unsteady-state reservoir condition
Kw/Ko over a large saturation range is often not available. Sometimes, if a low oil-water
viscosity ratio is used in a Kw/Ko test, the calculated points at the terminal conditions can
be extrapolated over the saturations prior to water breakthrough to yield additional data.
5.5.1.

Monophasic Permeability

Monophasic permeability describes the ability of a single fluid or phase to flow or transmit
through a rock.
In 1856 Henry Darcy studying water injection through a column of sand, found a
relationship between the flow rate and the pressure gradient along the sample:

K P
A
L

Equation 1: Darcys Equation

Where:
Q is the flow rate in m3.s-1, K the permeability in m, the viscosity in Pa.s, P the
difference between inlet and outlet pressure in Pa, L the core length in m and A the cross
sectional area to flow in m.

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The following table enables to convert standard units to SI units:


Table 1: Conversion from standard units to SI units

Standard Units SI units


1 cc/min 10-6/60 m3/s
1 psi 6894.76 Pa
1 cP 10-3 Pa.s
1 mm 10-3 m
1 cm 10-4 m
1 m 1.01325.1015 mD
Consequently, the coefficient which must be applied for standard units is: 24.49593767
The monophasic liquid permeability is therefore calculated by:

Q
L
24.49593767
P
A

Equation 2: Corrected Darcys equation

with Q the flow rate in cc/min, K the permeability in mD, the viscosity in cP, P the
difference between inlet and outlet pressure in psi, L the core length in mm and A the
cross sectional area to flow in cm.
Darcys law can be applied under the following assumptions:

The core plug is 100% saturated with the flowing fluid.

The flowing fluid is incompressible.

The flow is horizontal, steady state and under the laminar regime.

The flow of fluid through the porous medium takes place under viscous regime (i.e.
the rate of flow is sufficiently low so that it is directly proportional to the pressure
differential or the hydraulic gradient).

The flowing fluid does not react with the porous medium because it may alter the
characteristics of the porous medium thereby changing its permeability as flow continues.

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5.5.2.

Gas Permeability

Even though the experimental procedures for permeability measurement using liquids and
gases are basically similar, one major difference exists between liquids and gases in the
approach used for the determination of absolute permeability: the compressible nature of
gases. The original Darcy equation was indeed developed under the assumption of an
incompressible fluid flow.
According to Boyles law, if the temperature is constant:

Q1 P1 Q2 P2 Qavg Pavg
Equation 3: Boyles Law

The Darcy equation can then be expressed in terms of the average gas flow rate to
account for gas expansion in the sample:

Qavg

K ( P1 P2 )
A

Equation 4: Darcys law for averaged flowrates

With the MFC, the flow rate is reported to atmospheric pressure. Therefore, the previous
equations can be rearranged as:

Q2 P2
K ( P1 P2 )

A
L
P1 P2

2
Equation 5

or

K . A.( P1 P2 )
Q2
2..L.P2
2

Equation 6

Finally, the gas permeability can be expressed as:

Q2 2..L.P2
2
2
A.( P1 P2 )

Equation 7: Gas permeability equation

where Q2 is the outlet flow rate in m3.s-1, K the permeability in m, the viscosity in Pa.s,
P1 the inlet pressure in Pa, P2 the outlet pressure in Pa, L the core length in m and A the
cross sectional area to flow in m.
As for the liquid permeability, a coefficient has to be applied for non S.I units:
24.49593767.

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However, in 1941, Klinkenberg reported that the gas permeability is always higher than the
liquid permeability. His measurements showed a trend of increasing permeability as a
function of increasing reciprocal mean pressure when gas is used. This phenomenon is
due to the gas slippage: the gas does not adhere to the pore walls as liquid does, and the
slippage of gases along the pore walls gives rise to an apparent dependence of
permeability on pressure. This is called the Klinkenberg effect, and it is especially
important in low-permeable rocks.
The following graph represents the Klinkenberg effect for absolute permeability
measurement using gases.

Figure 3: Illustration of Klinkenberg effect

Mathematically, the Klinkenberg effect can be written as

k gas kliquid (1

b
Pmean

Equation 8: Equation for Klinkenberg effect

Where kgas is the measured gas permeability, Kliquid the equivalent liquid permeability or the
Klinkenberg corrected liquid permeability, b the slippage factor, Pmean the mean pressure.

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5.5.3.

Relative Permeability

While absolute permeability refers to a single fluid, relative permeability is the ability of a
fluid to flow in the presence of another fluid. Relative permeability is helpful in determining
the ratios Kw/Ko, which is used to predict the performance of the reservoir.
The gas, oil and water relative permeabilities are normally denoted by K rg, Kro and Krw,
respectively. Relative permeabilities are usually expressed by the ratio of effective
permeability to absolute permeability. Effective permeability is a relative measure of the
conductance of the porous medium for one fluid phase when the medium is saturated with
multiple fluid phases, i.e. Ko, Kw or Kg. Absolute permeability can be expressed as
monophasic permeability or usually the effective oil permeability at irreducible water
saturation, i.e. Ko(@Swi). You can express relative permeability as follows:

Kro Ko / K
Equation 9: Expression of relative permeability of oil

where Kro is the relative permeability of oil, Ko is the permeability of oil and K=Ko(@Swi) is
the
absolute
permeabily.
The Unsteady State Method for relative permeability is based on the Buckley-Leverett two
phases flow model. (Refer to literature). This model can be applied under the following
assumptions:

Immiscible and uncompressible fluids


No capillary pressure
No gravity
Unidirectional flow along the core axe

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Experimental runs are conducted as follows:

Figure 4: Summary of experiments carried out in order to get relative permeability of oil and brine

From the differential pressure, the flow rate and the cumulative production of injected and
displaced fluids, the model permits to calculate the relative permeability.
In this experiment, the second step is called Drainage and the third one Imbibition.

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5.5.3.1.

Oil-Water relative permeability curve

At the initial or irreducible water saturation, the oil relative permeability, K ro, always equals
1 if the base permeability used is the effective permeability to oil at S wi. At this point, Krw is
always equal to 0 because water is immobile.
At residual oil saturation Sor, the oil relative permeability, Kro, always equals 0 because the
oil phase is immobile. However, at this saturation water relative permeability is at its
maximum value because water is the only phase that is mobile.

Figure 5: A typical Oil-Water relative permeability curve

In order to get more details on how to generate these plots, one should read the Operating
Manual of KrLab.

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5.5.3.2.

Gas-Liquid relative permeability

At 100% liquid saturation, i.e. the irreversible liquid saturation of the sample SL,ir, the oil
relative permeability, Kro, always equals 1 if the base permeability used is the effective
permeability of oil at Swi. At this point, Krg is always equal to 0 because gas is immobile.
At the residual liquid-phase saturation, the oil relative permeability, Kro, always equals 0
because the liquid phase is immobile. However, at this saturation, the gas relative
permeability is at its maximum value because gas is the only phase that is mobile.

Figure 6: Typical Gas-Liquid relative permeability curve

Once again, for more detailed information on the method used to get these plots, one
should refer to the Operating Manual of KrLab.

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6. Preparation for a Test


6.1. Preparing the Core Sample
All core samples should be precision right cylinders with end faces parallel to within +/0.2mm. Sample preparation for a capillary pressure test or a permeability test is quite often
the same. The following descriptions should help you determine the best procedure to use.

6.2. System Preparation


Warning: the best procedure for removing and filling the system will result in the fewest
fittings being removed each time. The reason for this is the requirement for this system to
remain completely leak free. The fewer times a fitting is removed and replaced, the longer
the fitting will remain leak free. The procedure stated below offers a recommended
procedure. However, there are several ways to accomplish the same end result. The end
result is to have all pressure transducer tubing and downstream tubing up to the back
pressure regulator completely liquid filled with no air cavities when connecting to the core
sample.
The system must first be prepared. System preparation requires cleaning out existing fluid,
washing and drying liquid saturated parts and reassembly. Inspect and replace all seals by
new seals if needed. Refer to the illustrations in the Installation section and the plumbing
schematic for identification of specified components.
If the pumps and transducers systems have already been filled with the correct liquid(s),
then it may not be necessary to refill these systems before the start of a test.

6.2.1.

Rebuild the Core Holder

1.

Slide the end closer into the nut, then place the anti-friction washer and install the
retainer ring (see the Parts List for help).

2.

Clean the end closer assembly, the end piece and the 1/4" tubing with solvents
and/or distilled water and then blow air through it to remove any residual fluid and
dirt.

3.

Bolt the 1/4 tubing on the end piece by using the specific 1/4 HP fitting (gland and
left thread collar). You may hold the end piece in a wise to properly tight the gland.

4.

Choose a sleeve according to the diameter and/or length of the core sample to be
loaded. Inspect the sleeve and replace if it is obviously cracked and/or deformed.

5.

Inspect all O-Rings and replace it if the O-Rings are obviously worn, torn or are
brittle. Replace all O-Rings that have been exposed to elevated temperatures
(greater than 150C) for more than 24 hours. Always use 75 (or greater) Shore A
Viton O-Ring seals.

6.

Attach the body on its support. The core holder is now ready to be assembled with
a sample.

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6.2.2.

Rebuild the Accumulators

1.

Slide the end closer into the nut then, install the retainer ring (see the Parts List for
help).

2.

Clean the end closer assembly and the body with solvents and/or distilled water and
then blow air through it to remove any residual fluid and dirt.

3.

Inspect all O-Rings and replace it if the O-Rings are obviously worn, torn or are
brittle. Replace all O-Rings that have been exposed to elevated temperatures
(greater than 150C) for more than 24 hours. Always use 75 (or greater) Shore A
Viton O-Ring seals.

4.

Reassemble the accumulators and replace them in their frames. Do not reconnect
the tubing until it has been cleaned.

6.2.3.

Rebuild the BPR

1.

Clean the end plug, the piston and the body with solvents and/or distilled water and
then blow air through it to remove any residual fluid and dirt. Particularly, be sure
that the inlet and outlet holes of the body are clean.

2.

Bolt the needle to the piston by using a 5.5mm (7/32) socket wrench. Do not over
tighten.

3.

Clean the sealing washer and inspect it carefully. Replace it if the washer is cracked
and/or the hole is out of specification (diameter greater than 1mm). Install it properly
(see the Parts List for help).

4.

Inspect all O-Rings and replace it if the O-Rings are obviously worn, torn or are
brittle. Replace all O-Rings that have been exposed to elevated temperatures
(greater than 150C) for more than 24 hours. Always use 75 (or greater) Shore A
Viton O-Ring seals.

5.

Reassemble the BPR in that order: piston, end plug and nut. Then, attach it to its
support. Do not reconnect the tubing until it has been cleaned.

6.2.4.

Refill the Confining Pump

It is recommended to use silicon oil to load the core holder. If silicon oil is not available,
use only oil that can resist to high temperature without smoke and/or explosion in case of
leakage.
Warning:

IF A NEW LIQUID IS TO BE USED IN THE UPCOMING TEST, CLEAN THE PUMPS SUPPLY
RESERVOIR, TUBING AND CYLINDERS FIRST!! It is extremely important that the pump reservoir

is clean and dry prior to filling them with the silicon oil for the upcoming test. If the oil is the
same as was used in the previous test no special cleaning is necessary.

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6.2.5.

Clean all Upstream and Downstream Tubing

Flow solvents and/or distilled water through all flow tubing and valves to clean any
unwanted oil and/or brine from the tubing and valves then, air dry it.
Do not forget to refill the instrumentation piping and the sensors with silicon oil or low
viscosity oil in order to protect it from corrosive fluids. It will also avoid any blockage in the
piping than could occur with crude oil for example.

6.2.6.

Measure the dead volumes

For dead volumes measurement, the standard procedure is :


1.

Flush the line to be measured with compressed air.

2.

Connect the line to the injection pump.

3.

Run the pump at low flow rate (less than 1 cc/min).

4.

Stop the pump when the first drop in flowing out of the line.

5.

Read the volume on the pump monitor.

Usually, dead volumes are measured at the factory before shipment. However, it is
recommended to check the dead volume again, particularly if tubing or fitting have been
moved, replaced or modified.
Please use the following table to calculate the dead volumes:
Core holder 1
Section
Inlet line
Outlet line
Inlet end closer
End piece + fitting
1/4" HP tubing

Volume (cc/mm)
0.002
0.002
N/A
N/A
0.005

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Length (mm)

Total (cc)

N/A
N/A
100

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Autoflood 700 User Guide V1.0.

7. Test Procedures
The operation of the system is briefly discussed below. Detailed procedures should be
determined by the user depending on their specific needs and desires.
If live or recombined fluids are to be used, special procedures must be followed after
loading the core sample into the system. Special equipment is also required to charge the
system with live fluids at the required pressures. For more information concerning test
procedures using live fluids, please contact Vinci-Technologies. The following section
describes test procedures using non-pressurized fluids with no gas in solution.

Caution: THE

OPERATOR SHOULD BECOME FAMILIAR WITH THE ENTIRE SYSTEM TO OPERATE THE
EQUIPMENT SAFELY AND EFFECTIVELY.

High-pressure Caution:

HANDLE PRESSURIZED COMPONENTS SAFELY AND CAREFULLY TO


AVOID INJURY TO PERSONNEL AND TO AVOID DAMAGING EQUIPMENT.

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7.1. Are you Ready for the Upcoming Test?


Use the following list to insure all information and system parameters are ready for the
upcoming test procedure.

Know the sample dimensions (will the sample fit in the core holder?).

Have at least 500cc (1 liter is recommended) of the liquid to flow through the sample
during the test procedure.

Know the flowing liquid viscosity (cP) at ambient and test temperatures.

Know the flowing liquid density (g/cc) at ambient temperature.

Know the pore pressure (psi) required for the test procedure.

Know the effective confining stress (psi) required for the test procedure.

Know the desired flow rate (cc/min) to use during the test procedure.

Sample Pore Volume (cc).

Sample Bulk Volume (cc).

Sample Length (cm).

Sample Diameter (cm).

Know the liquid content (cc or % pore space) in the sample pore space.

Initial flowing liquid saturation (%) of pore space.

If 2 liquids are present, know the initial liquid saturation (%) of pore space.

Sample weight (g) saturated.

Insure that the confining pressure supply reservoir is full.

Insure that the injection pumps supply reservoir is full.

Insure that there is enough gas pressure for the BPR.

Insure that all upstream and downstream flow lines are clean and dry.

Insure that the BPR has been rebuilt and is ready for service.

Insure that the accumulators are cleaned and filled with the correct liquid (if used).

Insure the core holder is cleaned, rebuilt and ready to load a core sample.

Insure that all pressure transducers are zeroed and calibrated.

Store the core sample under the last fluid flowed through the sample until it is ready to
load into the confining sleeve.

(print out this page and use it as a check list)

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7.2. System Preparation


Use the following list to insure all information and system parameters are ready for the
upcoming test procedure.

7.2.1.
1.
2.

Load the Core Sample

Have the core holder disassembled with the inlet assembly, downstream end piece,
core sleeve, tubing, nuts and ferrules easily accessible and clean.
Measure the sample weight before loading and record the value. Be sure to wipe
excess liquid off the surface of the sample without wiping liquid out of the pores on
the surface of the rock before weighing it.

Note: normally a core sample is pre-prepared in a separate system before it is loaded into
the Autoflood-700 system. It is recommended that the core is saturated and flushed
outside of the system.
3.
4.
5.

6.
7.
8.

Slide the sleeve on the fixed end closer.


Insert the prepared core plug sample into the sleeve, followed by the end piece
equipped with the 1/4 tubing.
Slide the assembly into the core holder body. Be careful to place the 1/4 tubing in
the open hole located at the downstream end of the core holder (refer to core holder
illustration).
Screw the retaining nut all the way then, back off for 5 degree.
Install the O-Ring, Parbak and bolt the packing gland on the 1/4 tubing all the way
by hand then, connect the adapter (usually reducer 1/4 MP - 1/8LP).
Push the 1/4 tubing until the core sample is firmly sandwiched in the assembly.

Warning: avoid any gap between the core and the end piece. The gap could occur if the
floating end piece is not pushed in all the way or if the core sample has not square end
faces. Upon pressurizing, a gap will cause the sleeve to extrude and rupture.
9. Connect the confining pressure tubing to the confining port.
10. If present, connect all tubing between the DPTs and the pressure taps ports on the
core holder according to the following drawing (not applicable here).
11. The sample is now loaded into the core holder body and locked in place. Insure that
the temperature probe is in place in the core holder (downstream side).

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7.2.2.

Prime the Sensors

The pressure transducers measure the pressure of the test fluids, which may be corrosive
fluids. In order to avoid any damages to those transducers, the transducers lines must be
filled with silicon (or refined) oil prior to start an experiment. The oil will act as a buffer to
protect the transducers against the corrosive fluids without affecting the pressure
measurement. All transducers are bolted in the instrumentation panel located on the back
side of the main.
Note that all transducers lines are factory filled with silicon (or refined) oil. However, after
replacing any of the transducers lines or the transducers themselves, you may need to
refill the lines with silicon (or refined) oil.
It is not necessary to prime the sensors every time you make a test, particularly if no lines
have been disconnected. However, it is recommended to clean and prime the lines and
sensors every 10 tests. In that case, please follow the procedures described below:
Cleaning Procedure:

1.
Close the 2nd inlet of HV04
and HV12 (connected to the
coreholder)
2.
Connect a vaccum pump to
rd
the 3 inlet of HV04 and open the
3rd inlet of HV12 and open these
valves.
3.
Open the automatic valves
AV11, AV12, AV13, AV14, AV15,
AV16, and AV23.
4.

Start vacuuming the lines.

Figure 7: Cleaning Procedure for the DPT line

Do the same for all the instrumentation panels if present.


You can also use an air-line and blow air in all the different lines to push away the
remaining fluid in the line.

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Filling Procedure:
1.

First, You need to vacuum the line. Close the 2nd inlet of HV04, which is going to
the coreholder inlet. Connect a vacuum pump to the 3rd port of HV04 that is not
connected. Use a trap full of silicon oil in order to be able to break the vacuum and
fill it with the silicon oil. Open AV11, AV12, AV13, AV14, AV15, AV16 and AV23.
Close all the inlets of HV12. Vacuum the system for at least 30min.

Figure 8: Filling DPT line Step 1

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2.

Break vacuum by disconnecting the hose from the vacuum pump. Oil will fill the
system.

3.

Connect your hand pump to the trap. Inject silicon oil until pressure is increasing for
PT and the different DPTs. Be very careful when filling, it is easy to reach 9psi with
a hand pump, it could damage the deltaP. Make sure that the inlet that goes to the
coreholder of HV04 is closed and that both ways of HV12 are closed.

Figure 9: Filling DPT line Step 2-3

4.

Your system is now filled with silicon oil. Depending on the type of experiment, it is
possible to open the inlets of HV04 and HV12 in order to fill the lines connected to
the coreholder.

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7.2.3.

Apply Confining Pressure

1.

Check the liquid level in the pump reservoir. Add additional liquid as required to fill
it. Use only high temperature silicon oil (or suitable refined oil) or water (if no high
Temperature). Check the connections to the core holder to make sure that all
connections are tight. Only pressurize the core holder if a core sample is properly
installed.

2.

Remove the plug located on the top of the core holder. This will allow the air to be
purged from the core holder.

3.

Run the confining pump until some silicon (or refined) oil flows out of the core
holder. You may also use vacuum pump or pour directly the confining oil in the core
holder by using a funnel or use a transfer vessel (option).

4.

Put back the plug located on the top of the core holder and tight it correctly. Run the
pump to pressurize to 1000 psi at first.

Warning: if core holder temperature is increased during or after setting the confining
pressure, the core holder confining pressure will increase, due to thermal expansion of the
fluid. You must carefully monitor this pressure as the core holder heats. Be sure that the
pump is not full to insure pressure regulation.

7.2.4.

Fill the Accumulators

You may fill the accumulators by removing the top end closer and pour directly the fluid
into. You may also use a transfer vessel (option) to fill the accumulators as described here:
1.

Open the refilling valve of the accumulator and connect a tubing to recover any
fluids that might come out of the accumulator.

2.

Move the piston of the accumulator up by pressurizing the driving chamber with
compressed air (3bar is usually enough).

3.

Fill the transfer bottle with process fluid. Connect a TeflonTM tube between the valve
of the transfer vessel and the refilling valve of the accumulator.

4.

Fill the accumulator by pressurizing the transfer bottle though the compressed air
regulator (3bar is usually enough). You might have to increase the air pressure
depending on the viscosity of the process fluid.

Warning: DO NOT OVER-PRESSURIZE THE TRANSFER BOTTLE: 5BAR MAXIMUM!


Warning: after refilling the accumulators, you must vacuum their driving chamber and the
injection pump for 15min minimum (see below). This is not required if the driving chamber
of the accumulator was not disconnected during the refilling procedure.

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7.2.5.

Saturate the Tubing and Accumulators

Accumulators must be filled with process fluids (see above).


1.

Run the injection pump in order to have the half of each cylinder free of liquid.

2.

Vacuum the injection pump, tubing and driving chamber of the accumulators
through the tank valves of the injection pump. Do not forget to open the process
valves of the injection pump as well. Wait under vacuum for at least 15min.

3.

Close the tank valves, stop the vacuum and reconnect the tank valves to silicon oil
reservoir.

4.

Open the tank valves and wait until the level of oil in the reservoir is stable, which
means that no more oil is entering in the system.

5.

Open the refilling valve of the accumulators and run the injection pump to purge the
process chamber of the accumulators. It is recommended to purge the
accumulators one by one. Inject 50cc minimum into each accumulator.

6.

Purge the tubing all the way between accumulators and the core holder inlet(s).

Warning: the core sample must be loaded into the core holder and the initial confining of
at least 1000 psi must be placed on the core holder prior to vacuum filling any tubing that
connects to the core sample pore system.
Warning: always purge the process chambers of the accumulators by running the injection
pump. If the accumulators are not correctly purged, you may inject air in the system.

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7.2.6.

Pressurize the System

The injection pump will be used to create pressure in the pore system. Determine what
liquid is the flowing liquid in the core sample and use the pump and accumulator system
with that fluid in it. Open the appropriate valves to connect the correct flow system to the
core sample.
Warning: it is imperative to set all the differential pressure transducers in the SAFETY or
BYPASS position to avoid any damages to them during pore pressurization. Failure to do
this could result in sensors damaging.
The following procedure is described assuming the core sample is 100% saturated with
brine:
1.

Upon raising the confining pressure on the core sample to 1000 psi, insuring that
there are no leaks, vacuum filling and connecting the flow tubing, effluent tubing
and pressure ports to the core holder the pore system can be pressurized.

2.

Using the brine accumulator, run the injection pump at 5cc/min (less or more,
depending on the permeability of the sample) and begin flowing into the core
sample.

3.

Set the BPR to 100 psi initially. Monitor the pump pressure, the upstream and the
downstream pressure while also inspecting for any leaks in the system. The pump
and upstream pressures should remain very close throughout the test procedure.

4.

When the downstream pressure raises to the BPR set pressure and the BPR allows
liquid to flow, that is the time to raise the confining pressure and BPR pressure to
the required pressures.

5.

Check for leaks in the system and fix any found. Upon fixing all leaks the system is
ready to apply heat.

Warning: it is imperative that the confining pressure is always maintained at least 35 bars
(500 psi) above the pore pressure. Failure to do this could result in failure and core sample
contamination.

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7.2.7.

Raising the Temperature

Upon filling and pressurizing the system and fixing any leaks, the operator should set the
temperature of the main oven. Upon doing so the follow steps should be followed:
1.

Set the temperature to the temperature to be used in the upcoming test. To raise the
set temperature, press the up arrow button on the controller. To lower the set point,
press the down arrow button. The temperature controller may display the actual
temperature or the set point (see dedicated manual of temperature controller for
more details). You may also set the temperature remotely from the computer.

Warning: during temperature increase, one should continuously monitor the confining
pressure and pore pressure of the system, even if pressures are automatically controlled.
If the confining pressure ever becomes less than the pore pressure, the core end piece
could be expelled from the core sleeve and the confining fluid could contaminate the core
sample. This would require starting the test over again with another sample.
2.

Monitor the temperature inside the core holder on the computer screen. When the
core holder temperature reaches the preset temperature (within 5 degrees), wait for
an additional 2 hours or more before starting the test.

Note: as the main oven heats up, the liquid and gas in the system will expand. This
expanded volume in the pore system will exit from the BPR at the set point pressure. This
is normal but inspect for leaks frequently.

Remember: the temperature stability will always take a few hours, depending on the
temperature set point and the weight to be heated. Even if pressures are automatically
controlled, it is highly recommended to watch the system during temperature increasing or
decreasing. Never start raising the temperature when leaving the system without watching.

DO NOT FORGET : TEMPERATURE IS STABLE ONLY WHEN THE PRESSURE IS STABLE.

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7.3. Performing a Test


7.3.1.

Typical Water Permeability Procedure

Note: This procedure assumes that the sample has been saturated with brine outside of
the system before the core sample is loaded into the system.
Set several Flow rates based on the air permeability data measured outside of the
system. The basic things to remember are to attempt to flow between 1 and 5 cc per
minute if the differential pressure required to develop this flow rate is not above the high
differential pressure transducer range. Set the other parameters based on the general
information in the previous section.
Be sure to flow enough brine through the core sample (usually 10 to 20 pore volumes) to
determine the brine permeability.

7.3.2.

Typical Oil Flood Procedure

Set the Flow rate based on the data measured during the brine permeability
determination. The final oil permeability measured at residual brine saturation will help
determine the rate to perform the water flood. The basic things to remember are to attempt
to flow between 1 and 5 cc per minute if the differential pressure required to develop this
flow rate is not above the high differential pressure transducer range. Set the other
parameters based on the general information in the previous section.
After the Oil Flood procedure has ended, it is standard procedure to flow enough oil
through the core to determine the oil permeability.
Warning: it is important to remember to isolate the crude oil accumulator if live crude oil is
used. Closing the accumulator valves promptly after the test will help insure that the live oil
pressure will remain above the bubble point of the oil enabling the remaining volume of oil
to be used in any forthcoming tests.

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7.3.3.

Determining the Flood Rate and Expected Differential Pressure

This requires that several factors are known about the core sample to be tested and the
fluids that will be used to test the core sample. During the sample preparation procedure
an effective permeability to kerosene (dead oil) is measured as the final step. Knowing this
permeability value, the viscosity of the kerosene at ambient temperature and the viscosity
of the crude oil and brine at test temperatures will enable the user to calculate the
expected differential pressure ranges that may be encountered during the relative
permeability test.
The differential pressure transducer ranges should be calculated based on two criteria (i)
viscosity ratio between sample preparation effective permeability and the viscosity of the
crude oil at test temperature and (ii) Scaling Coefficient as described in a paper by
Rapoport and Leas in an AIME paper published in 1953.
a. First, the ratio of oil viscosities used in the sample preparation Ko and the reservoir
condition test will be used to calculate the differential pressure expected during the crude
oil flush and aging process. The equation for this calculation is as follows:
Reservoir_Oil_Viscos ity

* Upstream_Pressure_used_in_Init ial_Sample _Preparation_Ko


Laboratory_Oil_Visco sity

Unit for Viscosity: centipoise (cP)


Unit for Pressure: pound per square inch (psi)
The above equation yields the expected maximum differential pressure that will be utilized
in the reservoir condition test procedure assuming the oil viscosity at reservoir temperature
is greater than the brine viscosity. The High Range differential pressure transducer
diaphragm must be able to measure at least this pressure. If not the diaphragm will either
have to be changed or the sample cannot be tested.
b. Next, the optimum flow rate to use during the water flood process can be calculated.
This calculation is most useful for constant rate water flood test procedures. In a constant
rate test procedure, this rate can be set in the beginning of the water flood procedure for
optimum test results. Constant pressure test procedures do not offer the ability to set the
rate at which the test will be run. During a constant pressure, test the differential pressure
across the core sample is maintained constant while the flow rate normally increases from
the beginning to the end of the test. For constant pressure tests, this calculated rate can
be utilized to verify that the average flow rate utilized during the water flood test was
adequate to minimize "end effects" after the test is completed.

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The calculation of this optimum flow rate is based on a "Scaling Coefficient" equation
proposed by Rapoport and Leas must be utilized. The basic form of the equation is as
follows:

Scaling _ Coefficien t

( Sample _ Length )( Flow _ Rate )(Vis cos ity )


Sample _ Area

Unit for Length: centimeter (cm)


Unit for Flow Rate: cubic centimeter per minute (cc/min)
Unit for Viscosity: centipoise (cP)
Unit for Area: square centimeter (cm2)
Rearranging this formula and solving for Flow Rate we obtain a method by which the
optimum average flow rate required during the waterflood test can be estimated.
Solving for Flow Rate yields the following equation:

Flow _ Rate

( Scaling _ Coefficien t )(Sample _ Area )


( Sample _ Length )( Brine _ Vis cos ity )

Unit for Length: centimeter (cm)


Unit for Flow Rate: cubic centimeter per minute (cc/min)
Unit for Viscosity: centipoise (cP) (at reservoir testing temperature)
Unit for Area: square centimeter (cm2)
Scaling Coefficient: dimensionless
The above equation is meant to calculate the optimum average flow rate that will be
achieved during the reservoir condition water flood test. Rapoport and Leas found that for
water-wet rocks, a scaling coefficient close to 1.0 is adequate, therefore, when testing
water-wet rocks substitute 1.0 for scaling coefficient and solve for flow rate. For oil-wet
rocks, the optimum scaling coefficient is around 5.0, therefore, when testing oil-wet rocks
substitute 5.0 for the scaling coefficient and solve for flow rate. Please note that these are
optimum values that will yield flow rates sufficient in magnitude to minimize "end effects"
during the water flood test.
Note: refer to the following paper for more detailed discussion of the above mentioned
calculation and its uses: Rapport, L.A., and Leas, W.J.: "Properties of Linear Waterfloods",
trans. AIME (1953) 198,139.

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7.4. Reducing the System Temperature


1.

At the end of the test procedures, the operator should set the temperature of the
oven to 0C to stop the heating.

Warning: the pore and confining pressure will lower as the temperature lowers. The
operator should continuously monitor these pressures to insure that the confining pressure
never drops below the pore pressure during cool down.
2.

Allow the components to cool the room temperature or at least to a temperature that
will not cause any burns when touched.

3.

Upon reaching a cooled state, the backpressure can be lowered followed by the
confining pressure.

Warning: it is imperative that the confining pressure is always maintained at least 35 bars
(500 psi) above the pore pressure. Failure to do this could result in failure and core sample
contamination.

7.5. Unloading the Core


1.

After the test is completed and the temperature is lowered, the operator should lower
the backpressure to zero followed by lowering the confining pressure to zero. It is
best to do this in no more than 100 psi increments.

Warning: if live oil is used, insure that the oil piston accumulator automatic isolation valves
are closed at top and bottom insuring that the oil pressure remains above its bubble point.
Warning: check the level of the liquid in the confining pressure supply reservoir. The liquid
level should not be higher than about 1 cm below the reservoir cap of the pump. If too
much liquid is in the container, it may overflow when liquid is being drained from the core
holder.
2.

After lowering the confining pressure to zero, place a beaker under the lower plug of
the core holder. Then, open the upper plug of the core holder. The core holder will
now begin draining back into the beaker.

Alternative way for drainage: you may also use compressed air to help draining the core
holder. In that case, listen to the sound at the supply reservoir. When air is heard gurgling
into the container, close confining isolation valve. The core holder is now drained of oil in
the confining annulus. It may be advantageous to wait approximately 15 to 30 minutes and
reopen the confining isolation valve to remove any excess oil that may drain off the interior
surfaces with time. After the final draining, close the confining inlet valve and allow the
core holder to vent to atmospheric pressure. This will be verified when no gurgling is heard
at the supply reservoir.

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3.

Remove all the tubing connected to the core holder.

4.

Disconnect the connector 1/4 MP - 1/8LP and remove the brass nut on the 1/4
tubing.

5.

Check that the anti-friction washer and the external ring are correctly in place, then
remove the retaining nut. Slide the assembly out of the core holder body. Be sure to
push up on the 1/4" tubing while sliding the assembly out of the body. Have a
container or at least a rag under the opening at the end of the core holder to catch
any excess confining oil that is still in the annulus.

After a high temperature test, the sleeve will sometimes mold to the end piece and core
sample making it difficult to slide them out of the sleeve. If this happens, use compressed
air (no more pressure than 15 psi) to help removing everything from the sleeve. If it does
not work, it may be necessary to cut the sleeve off the head with a sharp knife by making a
cut along the length of the sleeve and prying the sleeve away from the end pieces and
core sample. In that case, a new sleeve is needed for a new test.
Upon removing the core sample from the sleeve, immediately wrap it in saran plastic wrap
and foil for short term storage.
The system is now ready for cleaning and rebuilding as described in previous sections.

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8. Data Calculations
Relative Permeability (fraction and ratio) data must be calculated from the data collected
during the test. This can be performed manually or using the supplied calculation program.
A brief history with definitions, introduction to the use of Formation Volume Factors, and
both relative permeability calculation methods are discussed in this section.

8.1. History and Basic Definitions


Permeability is defined as the rate of diffusion of a fluid through a porous body under
standard conditions of area, thickness and pressure. Henry Darcy was a French engineer
who performed a series of experiments on the downward flow of water through filter sands
whereby it was established that the rate of flow is given by the equation:
q

Where:

K (h2 h1 )
L

q = the volume of water crossing unit area in unit time


L = the thickness of the sand
h1 and h2 = the heights, above a reference level, of the water in
meters above and below the sand respectively
K = a factor of proportionality

This relationship soon evolved into what became known as Darcy's Law. When the terms
are expressed in suitable units the equation for liquid flow becomes:

( K )( A)( P)
( )( L)(14700)

or

(14700)( )(Q )( L)
( A)( P)

Permeability may be expressed in various ways. Specific permeability is the permeability


to a fluid with which the porous medium is 100 percent saturated. Specific permeability
determined with gas is usually too high due to a phenomenon known as gas slippage.
Liquid permeability determined at 100 percent saturation is a more realistic number. The
Klinkenberg corrected permeability is an attempt to convert specific gas permeability
measurements to a liquid permeability.
Effective permeability is a permeability measured under a stated saturation condition. The
base permeability used for relative permeability calculations is an effective permeability
determined with initial water saturation. Specific permeability is a special case of effective
permeability. Relative permeability is the ratio of the effective permeability at certain
saturation to a base permeability at another saturation condition. For practicality, we use
the oil permeability at initial water saturation as our base for water-oil and gas-oil relative
permeability data: (i) because it is difficult to determine an absolute permeability in a single
phase system in a reservoir and (ii) the determination of permeability to oil at 100 percent
saturation would require additional saturation and cleaning steps in the test.

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8.2. Manual Calculations for Unsteady State 2-Phase Relative


Permeability
8.2.1.

Relative Permeability Ratio Unsteady State

When one fluid is injected into a sample to displace a fluid with which it is immiscible, the
displacement does not occur in a piston-like manner. The displacing fluid will finger into
the displaced fluid, so that you do not have a solid bank of one fluid followed by a solid
bank of another fluid. The amount of fingering will depend on various factors, primarily the
viscosity ratio of the two fluids and the homogeneity of the sample.
Since this fingering takes place, there is a continually changing saturation profile and we
don't know what the saturation condition is at any point. We also have two fluids flowing
whose rate ratio is changing continually; therefore we cannot determine the specific
permeability directly. We need some form of expression, which will relate the
instantaneous rates of flow and thus, the permeability of each flowing phase to the
saturation of the sample at some point in the sample. The fractional flow of oil is a number,
which can be determined from oil and water production data. Buckley and Leverett took
Darcy's Law and came up with an expression, which related fractional flow to relative
permeability ratio.
Considering a water-oil relative permeability test with oil and water production,
(ko)( A)(P)
qo
( o)( L)14700
fo

(
ko
)(
A
)(
P)
(kw)( A)(P)
qo qw

( o)( L)14700 ( w)( L)14700


ko
o
fo
ko kw

o w

fo

1
kw o
1

ko w

Where:
fo =
ko =
o =
kw =
w =

fractional oil flow


permeability to oil, md
viscosity of oil, cp
permeability to water, md
viscosity of water, cp

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Henry Welge in his paper "A Simplified Method for Computing Oil Recovery by Gas or
Water-Drive" used this relationship and developed mathematically an expression for
determining the instantaneous fraction of oil flowing at the outflow face of a sample. This
relationship is:

fo

dSav
dWi

Where:
Sav = the average saturation of the sample
Wi = the total amount of fluid injected, expressed in the same units
(pore volumes commonly)
This is a calculus expression, but if you are not familiar with it don't let it frighten you. The
equation can be solved graphically by determining the slope of the tangent to a curve. The
instantaneous slope of a curve at any point is equal to the slope of the tangent to the curve
at that point. Mathematically the instantaneous slope is as follows:

dS av
dWi
Using fo and the fractional flow equation, we calculate kw/ko as follows:
fo

1
kw o

1
ko w

This can be rearranged to yield:


kw
1 fo

ko o

( f o )
w

To obtain the saturation at the outflow face of the core, Welge developed the following
relationship:

Sav Sout ( f o )(Wi )


We already know fo, Wi and Sav, so Sout (the Outflow Face Saturation, fraction of pore)
volume can be easily calculated. So far, we have a relative permeability ratio and a
saturation to which it is related.

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8.2.2.

Relative Permeability to Each Phase (fraction)

Johnson, Bossler and Naumann, in their paper "Calculation of Relative Permeability from
Displacement Experiments", reported the development of a procedure for calculating the
individual relative permeability curves. In their derivation, they extended the theory
developed by Welge. Two conditions are assumed, which must be achieved before this
method is applicable:
1)
2)

The flow velocity must be high enough to achieve stabilized displacement


The flow velocity is constant at all cross sections of the linear porous body.

Johnson et al. have derived mathematically an expression, which involves an Injectivity


Ratio or Relative Injectivity as they call it. The injectivity ratio is simply a ratio of the total
intake capacity at any given flood stage to the intake capacity at the very initiation of the
flood at which moment practically only oil is flowing through the system. The intake
capacity at the initiation of the flood is calculated from the base permeability. The
expression which they derived is as follows:

1
f
(Wi )( I r )
o
1
k ro
d
Wi

Solving for kro gives:

fo
1
d
(Wi)( Ir )
1
d
Wi

kro

This again should not frighten you because it simply involves the instantaneous slope of a
curve or the slope of the tangent to the curve (when measured graphically).
In order to calculate the intake capacity at various times during the test, we have to
determine instantaneous rates of flow for the oil stream
(

dVo
)
dT

and the water stream :


(

dVw
)
dT

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Simply make a plot of oil versus time and take the tangent at the times at which we
calculated kw/ko and outflow face saturation and in the same manner that we determined
fractional oil flow. Go through the same process of determining the slope to determine the
instantaneous rate for the water,
Then:

qo qw qt
The intake capacity is calculated from the base permeability and the test pressure using
Darcy's Law:

Qo

(ko)( A)(P)
( o )( L)14700

Then, qt divided by the intake capacity Q at the initiation of the flood is the relative
injectivity:

Ir

qo qw qt

Q
Q

The relationships between relative permeability and injectivity as given by Johnson, et al


is:
1
d
fo
(Wi)( Ir )

1
kro
d
Wi
Again by plotting

1
versus
(Wi)( Ir )

1
, we can take slopes of the resultant curves to
Wi

evaluate the following calculus equation:

1
(Wi )( Ir )
1
d
Wi

Since we have used the same time values for all of our calculations, the fraction curves,
ratio curve and saturations are related to each other.
Gas/oil unsteady-state relative permeability data is treated in the same manner as wateroil relative permeability data, except that gas volumes measured at the outflow pressure
must be converted to gas volumes at the mean pressure of the test.

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8.3. Manual Calculations


Permeability

for

Steady

State

2-Phase

Relative

The steady state process provides simultaneous flow of displacing and displaced fluids
through the core sample at a number of equilibrium ratios. At each ratio from 100%
displaced phased to 100 % displacing phase an equilibrium condition must be reached at
which the inflow ratio of fluids equals the outflow ratio and at which the pressure gradient
between the inlet and outlet is constant. At such condition the Darcy law equation is
applied to each phase to calculate effective permeability at the given steady state
saturation. Between five and ten stages are usually needed to establish relative
permeability curves.
In the steady state re-circulating flow mode, the fluids are injected through the core sample
using a re-circulating pumping system. The fluids produced from the core sample enter the
separator where they are separated and measured at reservoir conditions by a video
tracker. Then, they return back to the core holder inlet via the re-circulating pumping
system.
The test consists of saturating the core sample with one phase. The two phases are then
injected at different flow rate and the differential pressure along the core (delta P) is
recorded. The level of the two phases in the separator is monitored in order to derive the
saturation of the core sample in phase 1 and 2.
When equilibrium is achieved, and knowing the flow rates of the two phases, the core
saturation and the delta P, the determination of the steady state relative permeability is
straight forward using the Darcy law:

Ko

(14700)( o)(Qo)( L)
( A)( P)

and

Kw

(14700)( w)(Qw)( L)
( A)( P)

8.4. Nomenclature for the Manual Calculation Section


Q
k
A
L
P

f
o
w
Sav
Sout
Wi
V
T
Ir

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

Flow Rate, cc/sec


Permeability, millidarcies
Sample cross sectional area, square centimeters
Sample length, centimeters
Differential Pressure across the core sample, atmospheres
Viscosity, centipoise
Fraction
Oil
Water
Average Saturation, fraction of pore volume
Outflow Face Saturation, fraction of pore volume
Pore Volumes of Fluid Injected
Volume, milliliters
Time, seconds
Relative Injectivity

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9. AppliLab Software
The picture below shows the AppliLab software main window.
Figure 10: AppliLab Software main window

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On this main window we have all the information about our process:

Pump status and information (Pressure, Volume, Flowrate, Displaced Volume)


Pressure Transducers Values
Differential Pressure Transducers Values
Differential Pressure Transducers Mode (Valves open)
Wet Gas Meter Value
Valves status
Accumulator status (estimation of level of fluid left)
Mass Flow Controller Process Value (PV) and Set Point (SP)
Temperature in the Coreholder
Temperature of the main Oven (SP and PV)
Visual for estimation of the interface height and interface information
Chronometer

One should note that every value which is in blue can be modified and that every value in
red is either measured or calculated and cannot be changed by clicking on it.

9.1. Pump Information


The pump icon is the same for both injection pumps, BPR, and confining pumps.
We can see the status of the pump indicated by the red dot/green triangles.
The values of the Volume of the pump, the pressure in the pump, the flowrate currently
delivered by the pump, and the displaced volume are displayed.

9.2. Pressure Transducer (PT), Differential Pressure Transducers


(DPT), and Wet Gas Meter (WGM) information
The offset of all the PTs and DPTs as well as the WGM can be set to 0 using the small 0
button next to every value window. It is recommended to use the macro before starting a
new test to make sure that the value given by the transducer or gas metter is accurate.

9.3. DPT mode


The small window right next to the differential pressure transducers allows the user to
choose the measure mode used in the equipment. You can put both DPT in safety mode,
measure the pressure with DPT+/-2000 psi, DPT+/-300psi or DPT+/-9psi.
When in Safety mode, the automatic valves AV11, AV13 or AV15 are closed and auto
valve AV23 is open as well as AV12, AV14 or AV16. This way the pressure delivered on
the sensor is the same on the + and the - side of the DPT.
The value of the DPT calculated by Pinlet-Poutlet is always displayed.

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9.4. Valve Status


The valve status is given by different color. A valve is green when it is open, it is red when
it is closed. The user can open or close most of the automatic valves using the AppliLab
software. Nevertheless, the valves dealing with the DPTs change automatically with the
DPT mode to insure the safety of the transducers.

9.5. Accumulator Status


The amount of fluid injected in the system is estimated in real time by the software. A
small bar next to each accumulator gives an idea of the amount of fluid that has been
injected. A small window close to the accumulators gives the value calculated by the
software. When it gives a value of 750, it means that there is 750cc of your fluid left in
accumulator X. It allows the user to predict whether he will have enough fluid for his
experiment or not.

9.6. Mass Flow Controller (MFC)


The MFC has two different values, the Process Value (PV) which the actual flowrate
delivered and the Set Point (SP) which the value that the user wants to set. In order to
start working it may need an important deltaP so the user should use the gas boxes
accordingly.

9.7. Coreholder and ovens temperatures


The temperature of the coreholder (TE01) is displayed while two values are available for
the oven: the Process Value and the Set Point. Just like the MFC, the set point is the value
that is wanted by the user while the PV is the value that is actually in the system.

9.8. L-G or L-L Interface information


The interface is monitored by 3 cameras and measured by the Vinci Acquisition 2012
software (see dedicated manual for more information). The value is then transferred to
AppliLab and displayed in the small window next to the separator picture. The actual
height of the interface, a correction factor that changes this value into a volume, and the
calculated volume are given.
A graphic bar close to the separator gives an estimation of the height of the interface
compared to the sapphire total height.

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9.9. Test Information

Figure 11: Sample and Fluids information

In this window, the user can input information about the sample he will use for the test. He
can also input information about the fluid used in the different accumulator. The unit used
for each parameter is given in this window.

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9.10. Monophasic permeability macro


A window can be selected in order to use a macro to calculate the monophasic
permeability of the sample. First, select the Window Kmono under the Window option at
the top of AppliLabs main window. This window will appear:

Figure 12: Kmono Window

In this window you can select the parameters that will be used for the monophasic
permeability calculation.
The initial flowrate is the flowrate that will be delivered by the injection pump for the first
step.
The final flowrate is the limit flowrate of the macro. It will stop when the flowrate delivered
by the pump is bigger than this value.
The multiplicative factor is the factor that will be applied between the flowrate of step n and
the flowrate of step n+1.
Example: Step 1: QI = 0.5 cc.min-1; multiplicative factor is 2; limit QF= 5 cc.min-1.
You will have Q1=0.5 cc.min-1;Q2=1 cc.min-1;Q3=2 cc.min-1;Q4=4 cc.min-1, and the macro
stops because Q5 would be 8 cc.min-1
You have 2 different options for the monophasic permeability macro: one non automatic
macro and a fully automated one.

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In this window you can select the file name. Both macros will generate an Excel file based on the Template-Kmono.xlsm file.

Figure 13: Template Kmono

As we can see on the above picture, all the data about the sample and the fluids will be written. For each flowrate, the
software will write the flowrate applied to the system, and the different DeltaP that can be read: P1-P2, DeltaP500, and
DeltaP8. DeltaPs do not have to be in measure mode to be written in the file. Even if you do not use them in measure, their
value will be written.

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Between each step, the non-auto macro will ask the operator if the deltaP is stabilized
enough. If one clicks OK, then the software will write all DeltaPs and increase the
flowrate to the next step. Once the last step is done, the macro stops and Excel is
quitted.
Note: The files are accessible in the following folder: C/Applilab/Project/32814/Excel.
When the file is opened, one can check the data and select how the monophasic
permeability is calculated. When one clicks under the Select DeltaP mode cell, one
will be able to select which deltaP will be used to calculate Kmono. One can select P1P2, DeltaP500 or DeltaP8.

Figure 14: DeltaP selection

It is also possible to select which fluid was used to calculate the correct Kmono. Under
the cell Accumulator one will choose between Accu. A, B or C.

Figure 15: Accumulator selection for Kmono calculation

Based on these choices, a value of effective permeability will be calculated for each
flowrate using Darcys law.
The plot of DeltaP vs Q is then accessible and gives a precise value of monophasic
permeability in cell M28. This value is based on the regression of the slope, i.e. P/Q,
and Darcys law.

Figure 16: Example of DeltaP vs Q line

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10.

Care and Routine Maintenance

Key areas of maintenance include transducer and pressure set point calibrations as well
as seal replacement in the core holder, piston accumulator, BPR, fluid separator and air
operated valves to reduce the risk of leaks in the system. Make sure to bleed pressure
from the system before attempting to do any work on either the pore or overburden
pressure systems.

10.1. Pressure Transducers Calibration


There are several pressure transducers utilized throughout the system. Each of these
transducers has a characteristic output in response to the pressure that is applied to the
sensing element. The output is converted to engineering units in the control program
software. Calibration of most of these transducers can be accomplished in two ways, (i) in
hardware and (ii) in software. Initially, upon uncrating the system, the calibrations should
be made by first setting the default configuration coefficients in the software then using
hardware settings to fine tune the calibration adjustments. This procedure should be
repeated every 6 months thereafter. It is recommended that every month the calibrations
are checked and adjusted in software, if necessary, to insure the highest quality
measurements.

10.1.1.

Calibration Coefficients Default Values

The following table indicates the default Slope and Offset values to use in the control
program to insure correct engineering units are calculated by the computer and displayed
on the computer screen. The calibration coefficient values are in the control software
under Calibration. The default values in the table below are given in case the system is
tampered with causing the calculated engineering units in the software program to be
incorrect. The values in the table below will result in calculated engineering units that are
close to the correct values. Further calibration will result in accurate operation of the
system.

Transducer
Reference
PT01, 02, 03, 04
DPT01, 02

Default
Slope
1
1

Default
Offset
0
0

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Maximum
Rating (psi)
10,152
+/-0.5; +/-0.8; +/-1.25

Full Scale
Output
4-20 mA
4-20 mA

Autoflood 700 User Guide V1.0.

10.2. Repairing Leaks


The system is designed to operate at pressures up to 10,000 psi without leaks; however, it
is impossible to remove all leaks forever in a high pressure system, especially when
fittings are being routinely removed and retightened. If a small amount of extra tightening
does not stop the leak, the fitting or ferrule may have to be replaced, especially if the leak
affects the operation of the test. For NPT fittings, try wrapping a new amount of Teflon TM
tape around the male piece before inserting into the fitting. If this still does not fix the
problem, then the fitting may have to be replaced, especially if the leak affects the
operation of the test. Use stainless steel SS-316 (or Hastelloy C-276 or Titanium TA6V)
fitting and tubing for the pore wetted fluid parts of the system. For the overburden, use 316
stainless tubing and fittings.

10.3. Sensors Calibration


As supplied from the factory, DC transducers have been calibrated for the full scale
pressure and output voltage levels specified on the purchase order. If desired, the
transducer can be adjusted for other pressure/voltage relationships, using internal Zero
and Span adjustments provided in the electronics module.
EQUIPMENT REQUIRED: scale Calibrated Pressure Source
PROCEDURE:
A. Use a cross tip screwdriver to remove the electrical connector (#1)
B. Remove the black plastic nut (#2). Be careful to not damage or lose the o-ring (#3)
C. Pull up the sensor cap (#4) gently. Be careful to not break the wires (#5)
D. Re-connect the electrical connector (#1) to the sensor cap (#4). Be careful to not
touch the sensor body (#6) with any of the welds (#7)
E. Apply zero pressure to the transducer, and adjust ZERO potentiometer for a reading of
1psi. Clockwise rotation causes (+) increases in output
F. Apply full scale pressure to the transducer and adjust SPAN potentiometer for a reading
of max. range 1psi.
G. Repeat steps E and F until interaction between adjustments is eliminated

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Figure 17: Picture of the Pressure Transducer

Figure 18: Picture of the pins of the transducer

Figure 19: Picture of the inside of the head of the transducer

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11. General Parts List


Table 2: General Parts List

Item

Designation

P/N

Ovstd-001 - Bulkhead d80 L130 no paint with nut

Ovstd-001 - Bulkhead d80 L80 paint with nut

Ovstd-005 - Bulkhead d40 L80 paint with nut

Ovstd-105 - Window80 350x180

Ovstd-106 - Window80 350x40

Qc-010 - Quick coupling SS M1/8LP-1/8od

Std-015 - Sensor SS ESI 3ways 1/8LP longue + safety disc

Std-016 - Buffer T 20cc sans support+entretoise

Std-023 - Traverse de cloison 1_8LP 8 voies T

10

Std-024 - Traverse de cloison 1_8LP 3 voies T

11

Std-026 - Chassis court 1 bouteille

12

Std-035 - Traverse de cloison 1_8LP 6 voies T

13

Std-058 - Separator support short

14

Std-084 - Support Ecran PC double

15

Std-111 - Traverse de cloison electrique et pneumatique

16

Std-119 - Sensor SS ESI 3ways 1/8LP longue + safety disc


+ buffer 20cc

17

Std-138 - Support 3 cameras

18

Std-147 - Articulation CH vis d'indexage

19

Std-168 - Lateral support L500

20

Std-170 - Delta P Rosemount support

21 Ap0002677

Square BPR support

22 Ap0012218

Rotary washer inf

23 Ap0012220

Rotary washer sup

24 Ap0017759

Instrumentation panel valve manometer

25 Ap0018034

Back instrumentation panel

26 Ap-299-001-0

Gas regulator box 4000psi

27

Gas regulator box 500psi

28 Ap-299-002-0

MFC master box 4000psi 100cc/min

29 Ap-299-004-0

Humidifier

30 Bh-001-0

Bulkhead H 1/8LP

31 BTs-0710-0

Benchtop dual 10kpsi 100cc SS

32 BTs-0810-0

Benchtop dual 10kpsi 250cc SS

33 C02-001-1

Separator T 10kpsi 150d 220cc 100ccvisual

66/72

Autoflood 700 User Guide V1.0.

34 C06-003-1

BPR H 1/8LP 700b

35 FPA-055-0

Accumulator H 700b 1000cc d64

36 H05-043-0

Coreholder hydro d1.5p L12p 10kpsi 150d H 4E 3S

37 Ov0004902

Half bulkhead d80 paint with nut

38 Ov0004904

Half bulkhead d80 no paint without nut

39 Ov0004965

Window 350x180

40 Ov0005003

Half bulkhead d40 screwed

41 Ov0005004

Half bulkhead d40

42 Ov0005425

Bulkhead tube d83x90 L70

43 Ov0006196

Bulkhead tube d43x50 L70

44 Ov0006705

Frame top and bottom

45 Ov0006707

Frame right and left

46 Ov0006712

Rubber joint top and bottom

47 Ov0006713

Rubber joint right and left

48 Ov0006715

External frame

49 Ov0006725

Internal frame

50 Ov0006734

Window corner

51 Ov0006767

Window 350x40

52 Ov0006768

Rubber joint top and bottom

53 Ov0006769

Frame top and bottom

54 Ov0006770

Internal frame

55 Ov0006773

External frame

56 Ov0006776

Window guide

57 Ov0006819

Isolator top and bottom

58 Ov0006820

Isolator right and left

59 Ov0006821

Isolator top and bottom

60 Ov0009757

Rail

61 Ov0014412

Bulkhead tube d83x90 L120

62 Ov0014413

Half bulkhead d80 no paint with nut

63 Ov0017707

Oven assembly

64 Ov0017747

Drain pan

65 Ov-903-0

Oven standard 500x1300x900

66 Std0000159

Sensor support ESI 3ways 1_8LP

67 Std0000170

Long square

68 Std0000175

Buffer cylinder T 1_8LP

69 Std0000176

Screw caps T 1_8LP

70 Std0000177

Drawing bead buffer T 1_8LP

71 Std0000245

Bulkhead T 1_8LP 8ways

67/72

Autoflood 700 User Guide V1.0.

72 Std0000313

Male connector SS 1/8LP

73 Std0000314

Male connector H 1/8LP

74 Std0000781

Bulkhead electrical and pneumatical

75 Std0001107

Flange bottle

76 Std0001109

Flange support bottle

77 Std0001110

Bottle support

78 Std0001839

Bulkhead T 1_8LP 3 ways

79 Std0002369

Base plate support 1 bottle

80 Std0002716

Valve support autoclave-butech-HIP

81 Std0003514

Bulkhead T 1_8LP 6ways

82 Std0006397

Separator support short

83 Std0006697

Valves support simple

84 Std0007109

Square support light

85 Std0008618

Lateral support

86 Std0008622

Base plate support

87 Std0008805

Clamping frame

88 Std0008937

Base screen support

89 Std0009170

Plate support screen

90 Std0009171

Plate support

91 Std0009717

Adapter H F1/8LP F1/4NPT

92 Std0012905

Plug

93 Std0015467

Guiding ring

94 Std0016189

Camera support

95 Std0016195

Plate support

96 Std0016196

Spacer plate support

97 Std0016468

Male connector SS 1/8LP

98 Std0016469

Screw caps SS M20x1.5

99 Std0016473

Female connector SS 1/8LP

100 Std0016483

V support

101 Std0016485

Shaft

102 Std0016488

Mobile jaw d87

103 Std0016556

Block bearing

104 Std0016688

Support bearing

105 Std0017640

Delta P rosemount support

106 Std0017761

Drain pan back oven L1458

107 Std0017802

Rotating support

108 Std0017804

Articulation support

109 Std0017868

Plate Support V d88-87 L160

68/72

Autoflood 700 User Guide V1.0.

110 Std-004-0

Eclairage tuve

111 Std-077

Frame for oven 1300

112 Std-081

Frame for 2 pumps +PC

113 Std-095

Eclairage 3 leds pour hublot long

114 Te-002-0

Tee H female female 1/8LP

115 Vn-002-0

Valve 3ways 2pressures H F1/8LP stem butech 1/8LP

116

0 Bidon 2L avec bouchon

117 SW02200-HC

Oring check valves H for tubing 1/8od

118 EXG50c-11012596

Camera

119 LPA2P2L

Adapter M1/8npt F1/8LP

120 LPF2

Ferrule 1/8LP

121 LPF2-HC

Ferrule 1/8LP - hastelloy

122 LPG2

Gland 1/8LP

123 LPG2

Glang 1/8LP

124 4IN12.00

Rupture disc

125 LPSH2-1/4A

Safety head 1/4 angle disc

126 LPT2

Tee 1/8LP

127 23-415-8

Rondelle articule concave forme D inox d8

128 23-411-8

Rondelle articule convexe forme C inox d8

129 16-015-6-12

Vis molete inox M6x12

130 GS-4200-700b - 0.1%

Transmetteur de pression piezo resisti 4-20mA-1/4-700bar0.1%-Membrane titane

IMPG63-CN1/4F131 PP10kG-N-O22

Manomtre 63 M1/4npt 0/10000psi M front flange

132 LM35JC1MS

Objectif

133 3118.06.13

Banjo simple 1/4-6

134 0205.10.00

Bouchon 1/8G

135 3805.06.13

Piquage droit 1/4-6

136 3175.06.10

Piquage droit 1/8-6

137 0674.00.10

Silencieux d'chappement

138 N0116 Lg:600

Profile N0116 lg:600

139 4215-08

Embout de raccordement G1/4

140 B72G-2GKQT3-RMN

Filtre dtendeur

141 18-013-989

Manomtre 40

142 4246-52

Manostat

143 4214-51

Quickclamp

144 4214-52

Quickclamp avec fixation murale

145 2-009-V747-90

Oring 5.28x1.78 - viton

69/72

Autoflood 700 User Guide V1.0.

3051S2CD5A3F52A1AE2
146 L8P0Q4Q8 3051S
Delta P serie 3051S 2000psi calibration -2000 to 2000psi
3051S2CD4A3F52A1AE2
147 L8P0Q4Q8 3051S
Delta P serie 3051S 300psi calibration -300 to 300psi
3051S2CD2A3F52A1AE2
148 L8P0Q4Q8 3051S
Delta P serie 3051S 9psi calibration -9 to 9psi
149

0 Rondelle cuivre

150 CV 210HC - HT-VITON

2ways/2positions valve HC 10kpsi viton with fitting high


temperature

151 CV 210SS-HT - VITON

2ways/2positions valve SS 10kpsi viton with fitting high


temperature

152 CV 210SS - VITON


153 CV 310HC-HT - VITON

3ways/4positions valve HC 10kpsi viton with fitting high


temperature

154 CV 310SS - VITON

3ways/4positions valve SS 10kpsi viton with fitting

155 CV 310SS-HT - VITON

3ways/4positions valve SS 10kpsi viton with fitting high


temperature

156 CV-PIGTAIL-10FT

Connecteur electrovannes 10 foot

CV-MAN-12 STA-W/SOL- Manifold base for 12 pneumatic pilot valves 5/2 with
157 AT
solenoids 24VDC
158

0 Ecrou H M6 - inox

159

Ecrou H M8 - inox

160

Ecrou HM M24 - inox

161

Rivet A2/A2 3.2 L=6 - inox

162

Rivet A2/A2 4.8 L=12 - inox

163

Rivet 3.2 L=6 - inox

164

Rivet 3.2 L6 - inox

165

Rondelle M12 - inox

166

Rondelle M24 - inox

167

Rondelle M6 - inox

168

Vis CHC M10x25 - inox

169

Vis CHC M10x30 - inox

170

Vis CHC M10x40 - inox

171

Vis CHC M12x25 - inox

172

Vis CHC M3x6 - inox

173

Vis CHC M4x10 - inox

174

Vis CHC M4x12 - inox

175

Vis CHC M4x20 - inox

176

Vis CHC M5x10 - inox

177

Vis CHC M6x12 - inox

178

Vis CHC M6x16 - inox

70/72

Autoflood 700 User Guide V1.0.

179

Vis CHC M6x20 - inox

180

Vis CHC M6x25 - inox

181

Vis CHC M6x65 - inox

182

Vis CHC M8x12 - inox

183

Vis CHC M8x16 - inox

184

Vis CHC M8x20 - inox

185

Vis CHC M8x25 - inox

186

Vis CHC M8x30 - inox

187

Vis CHC M8x35 - inox

188

Vis CHC M8x50 - inox

189

Vis CHC M8x55 - inox

190

Vis CHC M8x60 - inox

191

Vis CHC M8x80 - inox

192

Vis FHC M3x8 - inox

193

Vis FHC M5x10 - inox

194

Vis HC BP M8x35 - inox

195

Vis HC BP M8x40 - inox

196

Vis HC P M8x30 - inox

197

0 Compteur Gaz

For more information about the spare parts for each equipment please refer to the
dedicated user manual.

71/72

Autoflood 700 User Guide V1.0.

12. Manuals
12.1. Hydrostatic Core Holder H-05-042-0
12.2. Vinci Acquisition 2012 Camera Software
12.3. Zeal Wet Gas Meter
12.4. ESI Sensor Pressure Transducer
12.5. Rosemount Differential Pressure Transducer
12.6. Back Pressure Regulator C-06-003-1
12.7. BenchTop Dual Pump BTDPs100-10
12.8. Benchtop Dual Pump BTDPs250-10
12.9. HP/HT Separator C02-002-1
12.10. Floating Piston Accumulator Hastelloy FPA-1000-10-Hast
12.11. Brooks Mass Flow Controller X-TMF-SLA5800
12.12. Eurotherm 2416

72/72

VINCI TECHNOLOGIES
Parc de lIle 27B rue du Port
92022 NANTERRE CEDEX FRANCE
Tel. +33 1 41 37 9200 Fax. +33 1 41 37 0476
Web site : http://www.vinci-technologies.com