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CABLE SUPPORTED

STRUCTURES
STATIC AND DYNAMIC ANALYSIS
OF CABLES

3/22/2005

Prof. dr Stanko Brcic

Cable Supported Structures

Suspension bridges
Cable-Stayed Bridges
Masts
Roof structures
etc

3/22/2005

Prof. dr Stanko Brcic

Cable Analysis Main Assumptions


Cables are flexible material lines
In-extensible or elastic lines
Consequently, the only internal cross
- sectional force is the cable tension:

T ( s ) = T ( s )

3/22/2005

Prof. dr Stanko Brcic

Cable Analysis
Differential equation of equilibrium

dT
+ q (s) = 0
ds
If the loading is gravitational (or,
constant direction), i.e. if
q ( s) = q( s) e

3/22/2005

e = const

Prof. dr Stanko Brcic

Cable Analysis
then the cable is a curved line within
the plane (of loading):
e T = const
If h is the unit vector within the
cable plane perpendicular to the
loading direction (horizontal direction
in vertical plane for gravitational
loading): h e = 0
3/22/2005

Prof. dr Stanko Brcic

Cable Analysis
then the component of cable tension
in direction of h (i.e. horizontal cable
tension for vertical loading) is
constant:
h T = H = const

3/22/2005

Prof. dr Stanko Brcic

Cable Analysis dead load

3/22/2005

Prof. dr Stanko Brcic

Cable Analysis dead load


The cable is loaded by the self-weight
q(s) = q = const (in vertical x-y
plane)
Differential equation of equilibrium is:

dT
2

+ q ( s ) = 0 Hy + q 1 + y = 0
ds

3/22/2005

Prof. dr Stanko Brcic

Cable Analysis dead load


The general solution is given as
qx
y = sinh( C1 )
H
H
qx
y = cosh( C1 ) + C2
q
H

The boundary conditions are:


y (0) = 0
y (l ) = b
3/22/2005

Prof. dr Stanko Brcic

Cable Analysis dead load


With notation:
ql
b
=
= ar sinh(
)+
2H
l sinh
the constants of integration are
C1 =

H
C2 = cosh( )
q
3/22/2005

Prof. dr Stanko Brcic

10

Cable Analysis dead load


So, the final solution is given as:
qx
y( x) = sinh( )
H
H
qx
y ( x) = [cosh( ) cosh( )]
q
H
HYPERBOLIC RELATIONS
(deep cable, catenary)
3/22/2005

Prof. dr Stanko Brcic

11

Cable Analysis dead load


The maximum deflection of the cable:

If

H
y( x) = 0 x = x0 =
q
H
y ( x0 ) = ymax = [cosh( ) 1]
q

0 x0 l

then the max deflection is within the


span of the cable.
3/22/2005

Prof. dr Stanko Brcic

12

Cable Analysis dead load


Extreme values of support denivelation b
in order to have 0 x0 l are:

2H
2H
2

sinh ( ) b
sinh 2 ( )
q
q
2H
| b | bmax =
sinh 2 ( )
q

3/22/2005

Prof. dr Stanko Brcic

or

13

Cable Analysis dead load

3/22/2005

Prof. dr Stanko Brcic

14

Cable Analysis dead load


The cable with horizontal span: b = 0
ql
= =
2H
H
qx
y ( x) = [cosh( ) cosh( )]
q
H
qx

y ( x) = sinh( )
H
H
H ql
l
H
x0 = =
= , ymax = f1 = [cosh( ) 1]
q
q 2H 2
q
3/22/2005

Prof. dr Stanko Brcic

15

Cable Analysis dead load


For horizontal span b = 0:
since,
cosh( ) 1 +

2
2

one obtains the max deflection as


ymax

3/22/2005

H 2 ql 2
=
=
q 2 8H

Prof. dr Stanko Brcic

16

Cable Analysis dead load


The total length of the cable L:
x =l

ds
L=
dx = 1 + y2 dx
dx
x =0
0

Since

qx
2 qx
1 + y = 1 + sinh ( ) = cosh ( )
H
H
2

One obtains the length L as:


2H
L=
sinh( ) cosh( )
q
3/22/2005

Prof. dr Stanko Brcic

17

Cable Analysis dead load


For cable with horizontal span, the
length L of the cable is:

b=0 =
2H
L=
sinh( )
q

3/22/2005

Prof. dr Stanko Brcic

18

Cable Analysis dead load


Reactions of supports at A and B:
TA = H + YA TB = H + YB
dy
dy
YA = H ( ) |x =0 YB = H ( ) |x =l
dx
dx

Vertical component Ya is equal to


(after transformation)
q
YA = H sinh YA = [ L + b coth( )]
2
3/22/2005

Prof. dr Stanko Brcic

19

Cable Analysis dead load


Vertical component Yb is obtained
from equilibrium condition:
q
YA + YB qL = 0 YB = [ L b coth( )]
2

For the cable with horizontal span:

1
YA = YB = qL
2
3/22/2005

Prof. dr Stanko Brcic

20

Cable Analysis dead load

3/22/2005

Prof. dr Stanko Brcic

21

Cable Analysis dead load


PARABOLIC RELATIONS
Assumption:
The cable is relatively shallow, or
The gravitational loading is
distributed along the horizontal
projection of the cable

3/22/2005

Prof. dr Stanko Brcic

22

Cable Analysis dead load

3/22/2005

Prof. dr Stanko Brcic

23

Cable Analysis dead load

3/22/2005

Prof. dr Stanko Brcic

24

Cable Analysis dead load


For deep cable (catenary) differential
equation of equilibrium is
Hy + q 1 + y2 = 0

For shallow cable (parabolic relations)

ds
1.0 Hy + q = 0
dx
3/22/2005

Prof. dr Stanko Brcic

25

Cable Analysis dead load


The general solution of diff. eq. is
q
x + C1
H
q 2
y ( x) =
x + C1 x + C2
2H
y( x) =

From boundary conditions y(0)=0,


y(l)=b one obtains:
b
q
b
C2 = 0 C1 = +
l ( = tan )
l 2H
l
3/22/2005

Prof. dr Stanko Brcic

26

Cable Analysis dead load


Therefore, the final solution is
q
b
(l 2 x) +
l
2H
q
b
2
y ( x) =
(lx x ) + x
l
2H

y( x) =

The cable shape is parabola.


Position of maximum deflection:
y( x) = 0
3/22/2005

l Hb
x0 = +
2 q l

Prof. dr Stanko Brcic

27

Cable Analysis dead load


Therefore, the max deflection is:
y ( x0 ) = ymax

ql 2 b H b 2
=
+ +
8 H 2 2q l 2

Extreme support denivelation to have


max deflection within the cable span:
ql 2
ql 2

b
2H
2H

3/22/2005

or | b | bmax

Prof. dr Stanko Brcic

ql 2
=
2H

28

Cable Analysis dead load


The length of the cable L:
l

L = 1 + y dx
2

1 2
1 + y 1 + y
2
2

It is obtained:
1 ql 2 1 b 2
L l 1 +
+
6 2 H 2 l
1 ql 2
for b = 0 : L l 1 +

6 2 H
3/22/2005

Prof. dr Stanko Brcic

29

Cable Analysis dead load


Vertical components of support
reactions are:
YA = Hy |x =0 YB = Hy |x =l

It is obtained:
ql
b
YA = + H
l
2

ql
b
YB = H
l
2

For horizontal span (b = 0):


3/22/2005

Prof. dr Stanko Brcic

ql
YA = YB =
2
30

Cable Analysis dead load


Hyperbolic or Parabolic relations:
the solution depends on H, i.e. on the
unknown horizontal cable tension
Statically undetermined problem
Initial assumption of H or max cable
tension or
Initial assumption of the total cable
length
3/22/2005

Prof. dr Stanko Brcic

31

Elastic Cables The Cable Equation


Cable is ideally elastic body (material
line) with equivalent
- Modulus of elasticity
- Coefficient of thermal expansion
Two loading conditions are
considered: initial loading (selfweight) and some additional loading
(live load)
3/22/2005

Prof. dr Stanko Brcic

32

Elastic Cables The Cable Equation


For initial loading the cable element is
given as: ds 2 = dx 2 + dy 2
Due to some additional loading the
cable moves to the new equilibrium
configuration (displacement
components u, v).
The cable element in the new
2
2
2

ds
=
(
dx
+
du
)
+
(
dy
+
dv
)
configuration is
3/22/2005

Prof. dr Stanko Brcic

33

Elastic Cables The Cable Equation


Dilatation of a point at the cable element
is given as:
ds ds dx du dy dv 1 dv 2
=
=
+
+ ( )
ds
ds ds ds ds 2 ds

If neglecting the small quantities of the


2nd order:
ds ds dx du dy dv
=
=
+
ds
ds ds ds ds

3/22/2005

Prof. dr Stanko Brcic

34

Elastic Cables The Cable Equation


Increment of cable tension due to
additional load is denoted as .
The corresponding horizontal
component of that increment in
tension is h:
dx
ds
h =
= cos = h
ds
dx

3/22/2005

Prof. dr Stanko Brcic

35

Elastic Cables The Cable Equation


Therefore, the Hookes Law is
=

EA

+ t t

Consequently, it may be obtained:


ds
h
dx + t = dx du + dy dv + 1 ( dv ) 2
t
EA
ds ds ds ds 2 ds

3/22/2005

Prof. dr Stanko Brcic

36

Elastic Cables The Cable Equation


ds

dx

After multiplying with


the cable
equation in differential form is obtained
ds 3
h( )
dx + t ( ds ) 2 = du + dy dv + 1 ( dv ) 2
t
EA
dx
dx dx dx 2 dx

If neglecting the 2nd order terms, then:


ds 3
h( )
dx + t ( ds ) 2 = du + dy dv
t
EA
dx
dx dx dx
3/22/2005

Prof. dr Stanko Brcic

37

Elastic Cables The Cable Equation


Integrating over the span of the cable,
one obtains the Integral form of the Cable
equation:
l

hLe
1 dv 2
dy dv
+ t tLt = u (l ) u (0) +
dx + ( ) dx
2 0 dx
AE
dx dx
0

Or in the form
l

hLe
dy dv
+ t tLt = u (l ) u (0) +
dx
AE
dx dx
0

3/22/2005

Prof. dr Stanko Brcic

38

Elastic Cables The Cable Equation


Where the virtual lengths of the cable
are given by
l

ds 3
Le = ( ) dx
dx
0

ds 2
Lt = ( ) dx
dx
0

Also, u(l) and u(0) are horizontal


displacements of supports A and B

3/22/2005

Prof. dr Stanko Brcic

39

Elastic Cables The Cable Equation


For Hyperbolic relations the virtual
lengths may be obtained as:
l

3 qx
2 qx
Le = cosh ( )dx Lt = cosh ( )dx
H
H
0
0

which may be transformed into


H
3H
Le =
sinh(3 ) cosh 3( ) +
sinh( ) cosh( )
6q
2q
H
l
sinh(2 ) cosh 2( ) +
Lt =
2q
2
3/22/2005

Prof. dr Stanko Brcic

40

Elastic Cables The Cable Equation


For the cable with horizontal span
(b = 0):
H 1
[ sinh(3 ) + 3sinh( )]
2q 3
H
l
ql
sinh(2 ) +
,=
=
Lt =
2q
2
2H
Le =

3/22/2005

Prof. dr Stanko Brcic

41

Elastic Cables The Cable Equation


For the Parabolic relations, the virtual
cable lengths are obtained as
l

Le = (1 + y2 )3/ 2 dx
0

Lt = (1 + y2 )dx
0

After integration, it is obtained


2
4
2

2
f 96 f 3
f 1
2
Le l 1 + 8 + + 1 + 8 + tan tan
5 l 2
l
l 4

16 f 2

2
Lt l 1 + + tan
3l

3/22/2005

ql 2
b
f =
, tan = ,
8H
l

Prof. dr Stanko Brcic

f
=
l 4
42

Elastic Cables The Cable Equation


By the partial integration one obtains
l

dy dv
dy l
d2y
0 dx dx dx = dx v |0 0 dx 2 vdx

For the boundary conditions v(0) = 0


and v(l) = 0, and for the parabolic
relations, since
d2y
q
= = const
2
dx
H
3/22/2005

Prof. dr Stanko Brcic

43

Elastic Cables The Cable Equation


One obtains
l

dy dv
q
0 dx dx dx = H 0 vdx

Therefore, the Integral form of the


Cable equation becomes
l

hLe
1 dv 2
q
+ t tLt = u (l ) u (0) + vdx + ( ) dx
2 0 dx
AE
H 0

3/22/2005

Prof. dr Stanko Brcic

44

Elastic Cables The Cable Equation


or, if neglecting the small terms of
the 2nd order,
l

hLe
q
+ t tLt = u (l ) u (0) + vdx
AE
H 0

If the supports are fixed, then


u(l) = u(0) = 0

3/22/2005

Prof. dr Stanko Brcic

45

Live Load and Temperature Effects


upon the Cable (Parabolic relations)
The cable is loaded by the self-weight
constantly distributed along the span
Dead Load: q(x) = q = const
Differential equation of equilibrium
Hy + q = 0
Additional (static) loading
p(x) = p = const
3/22/2005

Prof. dr Stanko Brcic

46

Live Load and Temperature Effects


upon the Cable (Parabolic relations)

3/22/2005

Prof. dr Stanko Brcic

47

Live Load and Temperature Effects


upon the Cable (Parabolic relations)
Due to additional load p, increment in
horizontal component of cable tension
is denoted as h, so differential
equation of equilibrium is given as
( H + h) ( y + v) + (q + p) = 0
Due to initial equilibrium equation
q
( H + h)v h = p
(a)
H
3/22/2005

Prof. dr Stanko Brcic

48

Live Load and Temperature Effects


upon the Cable (Parabolic relations)
It is possible to neglect the product
h v as relatively small, so one obtains
q
Hv h = p
(b)
H
Equation (a) or (b), together with the
cable equation, say in the form
l

hLe
q
+ t tLt = vdx
AE
H 0
3/22/2005

Prof. dr Stanko Brcic

(c )
49

Live Load and Temperature Effects


upon the Cable (Parabolic relations)
define the problem of additional load
(live load)
Consider eqs. (b) and (c). From (b)
hq p
v = A* = 2 = const
H
H
If v(0) = v(l) = 0, then
1
v( x) = A* ( x 2 lx)
2
3/22/2005

Prof. dr Stanko Brcic

50

Live Load and Temperature Effects


upon the Cable (Parabolic relations)
Therefore:

1
3
(
)
v
x
dx
=

A
l
*
0
12

If this integral is introduced into the


cable equation (c), one obtains the
linear equation for unknown tension
increment h
hLe
1 ql 3
1 q 2l 3
+ t tLt =
p
h
2
3
12 H
12 H
AE
3/22/2005

Prof. dr Stanko Brcic

51

Live Load and Temperature Effects


upon the Cable (Parabolic relations)
With notation (catenary, or cable
parameter)
q 2l 3 AE
* =
H 3 Le
horizontal tension increment h is
obtained as

*L

Lt 12 AE
p
H t t
h=
12 + * q
Le 12 + *
3/22/2005

Prof. dr Stanko Brcic

52

Live Load and Temperature Effects


upon the Cable (Parabolic relations)
The total cable tension is equal to
H1 = H + h
Or
Lt 12 AE
*
p
H1 = (1 +
) H t t
12 + * q
Le 12 + *
The cable parameter is the measure
of elastic properties of the cable:
for * the cable is in-extensible
3/22/2005

Prof. dr Stanko Brcic

53

Live Load and Temperature Effects


upon the Cable (Parabolic relations)
If eq. (a) is considered:
Then

( H + h)v h

v = A* =

q
= p
H

(a)

hq
p

= const
H ( H + h) H + h

So, for the boundary conditions


v(0)=v(l)=0, the solution is:
1
v( x) = A* ( x 2 lx)
2
3/22/2005

Prof. dr Stanko Brcic

54

Live Load and Temperature Effects


upon the Cable (Parabolic relations)
The cable equation, for t=0 and for
u(0)=u(l)=0, is given as:
l

hLe q
1
= vdx + v2 dx
20
AE H 0

Therefore,
l

1
3
vdx
=

A
l
*
0
12

3/22/2005

1 23
0 v dx = 12 A* l
2

Prof. dr Stanko Brcic

55

Live Load and Temperature Effects


upon the Cable (Parabolic relations)
With notation for non-dimensional
increment of cable tension:
h
=
H

and the catenary (cable) parameter


q 2l 3 EA
* = 3
H Le
3/22/2005

Prof. dr Stanko Brcic

56

Live Load and Temperature Effects


upon the Cable (Parabolic relations)
the Cable equation may be written in
the non-dimensional form of:
*

p
p 2
+ (2 + ) + (1 + ) = [2( ) + ( ) ]
q
24
12
24 q
3

i.e. as the cubic equation in nondimensional increment of cable


tension h

3/22/2005

Prof. dr Stanko Brcic

57

Live Load and Temperature Effects


upon the Cable (Parabolic relations)
The catenary parameter may be also
written as:
8 f 3 EA
* = (

qLe

If * is a large number, then the cable


is inextensible: EA
If * is a small number, then the
cable behaves as the taut string:
f
0
l
3/22/2005

Prof. dr Stanko Brcic

58

Live Load and Temperature Effects


upon the Cable (Parabolic relations)
Obtaining solution of the cubic cable
equation, tension increment is given.
The final horizontal cable tension, due
to additional load p, is given as:
H1 = H + h = (1 + ) H

Also, new deflection shape is given as


v( x) =

3/22/2005

1
A* ( x 2 lx)
2
Prof. dr Stanko Brcic

59

Live Load and Temperature Effects


upon the Cable (Parabolic relations)
Non-dimensional cable equation
*

p
p 2
+ (2 + ) + (1 + ) = [2( ) + ( ) ]
q
24
12
24 q
3

represents the change in cable


tension due to additional load.
Non-linear dependence on additional
load p
Non-linearity is greater for smaller
values of catenary parameter *
3/22/2005

Prof. dr Stanko Brcic

60

Live Load and Temperature Effects


upon the Cable (Parabolic relations)
For * > 5000 non-linearity is relatively
small

Limiting value of non-dimensional


increment of cable tension is:

p
lim =
*
q

3/22/2005

Prof. dr Stanko Brcic

61

Live Load and Temperature Effects


upon the Cable (Parabolic relations)
In the case of the cable equation
where the second-order term is
neglected, i.e.
l

hLe q
= v( x)dx
AE H 0

and diff. equation of equilibrium (a),


is used, the corresponding quadratic
equation for increment of cable
tension h is obtained
3/22/2005

Prof. dr Stanko Brcic

62

Live Load and Temperature Effects


upon the Cable (Parabolic relations)
In the case of simultaneous additional
load p and temperature load t is
considered, the cubic equation for
incremental cable tension is obtained
Lt AE
Lt AE
*
2
+ (2 + + t t
) + (1 + + 2 t t
) =
24
12
Le H
Le H
3

Lt AE
p
p 2
= [2( ) + ( ) ] t t
24 q
q
Le H
3/22/2005

Prof. dr Stanko Brcic

63

Live Load and Temperature Effects


upon the Cable (Parabolic relations)
New cable deflection after additional
load p is given as:
y1 ( x) = y ( x) + v( x)
New deflection may be transformed
into the form similar to initial
deflection due to dead load:
q
b
2
B* (lx x ) + x
y1 ( x) =
l
2H
3/22/2005

Prof. dr Stanko Brcic

64

Live Load and Temperature Effects


upon the Cable (Parabolic relations)
where B is the non-dimensional
deflection amplification:
p
1
B* =
(1 + )
q
1+
p
B* = 1 +
q

for hv 0
for hv = 0

Coefficient B is always > 1.0, since


Only for in-extensible cable

p
>
q

* EA B* 1.0
3/22/2005

Prof. dr Stanko Brcic

65

Live Load and Temperature Effects


upon the Cable (Parabolic relations)
Also, it may be concluded that the
amplification of deflection B, due to
additional loading, is greater for
greater relative additional loading
p/q, while the cable parameter is
smaller.

3/22/2005

Prof. dr Stanko Brcic

66

Free Vibrations in the Cable Plane


Cable is in the equilibrium
configuration due to its self-weight
Parabolic approximation: dead load is
uniform over the horizontal projection
of cable: q(x) = q = const
Static equilibrium configuration: y(x)
Free vibration in cable plane
dominant vertical motion v=v(x,t)
3/22/2005

Prof. dr Stanko Brcic

67

Free Vibrations in the Cable Plane


Free vibrations of a cable around its
static equilibrium position.
Position of a cable during free
vibrations is given by:

y1 ( x, t ) = y ( x) + v( x, t )

3/22/2005

Prof. dr Stanko Brcic

68

Free Vibrations in the Cable Plane

3/22/2005

Prof. dr Stanko Brcic

69

Free Vibrations in the Cable Plane


According to DAlemberts Principle,
the total load acting upon cable is:
q1 ( x, t ) = q( x) mv ( x, t )
(active and inertial forces), where m
is cable mass per unit length:
q( x)
m( x ) =
g

3/22/2005

m
9.81 2
s

Prof. dr Stanko Brcic

70

Free Vibrations in the Cable Plane


Horizontal component of cable
tension is equal to
H1 (t ) = H + h(t )

( H = const )

where H is due to dead load q, while


h(t) is the cable tension increment
due to inertial forces

3/22/2005

Prof. dr Stanko Brcic

71

Free Vibrations in the Cable Plane


Differential equation of equilibrium,
according to DAlemberts Principle, is
H1 y1 + q1 = 0
Substituting, one obtains
( H + h) ( y + v) + q mv = 0
or
Hy + Hv + hy + hv + q mv = 0
3/22/2005

Prof. dr Stanko Brcic

72

Free Vibrations in the Cable Plane


Due to differential equation of static
equilibrium: Hy + q = 0 and neglecting
the term hv (as the product of small
increments), one obtains dif. equation
of free vibrations of a cable:
q
mv Hv + h = 0
(a)
H

3/22/2005

Prof. dr Stanko Brcic

73

Free Vibrations in the Cable Plane


Equation (a), together with the Cable
equation, for t = 0:
l

h(t ) Le q
= v( x, t )dx
AE
H 0

(b)

defines free vibrations of a cable in its


plane. As may be seen, in the Cable
equation the influence of the 2nd
order term v2 is neglected too.
3/22/2005

Prof. dr Stanko Brcic

74

Free Vibrations in the Cable Plane


For harmonic free vibrations:

v( x, t ) = v ( x) eit
h(t ) = h eit
So, equations (a) and (b) become
q
m v + Hv = h
H
l
hLe q
= v ( x)dx
AE H 0
2

3/22/2005

Prof. dr Stanko Brcic

( A.1)
( A.2)
75

Non-Symmetric Free Vibrations in


the Cable Plane
Non-symmetric free vibrations are
defined by non-symmetric function
v(x,t) along the span of the cable:
l

v( x, t )dx = 0
0

In that case, it follows from (A.2) that


also
h(t ) = 0
3/22/2005

Prof. dr Stanko Brcic

76

Non-Symmetric Free Vibrations in


the Cable Plane
Therefore, differential eq. of free nonsymmetric vibrations is given as

m 2 v + Hv = 0
The general solution is given by
where

v ( x) = C1 sin(kx) + C2 cos(kx)
m
k =
H

3/22/2005

Prof. dr Stanko Brcic

77

Non-Symmetric Free Vibrations in


the Cable Plane
Integration constants are determined
from the boundary conditions:
l
v (0) = 0
v( ) = 0
2
The 2nd conditions is due to nonsymmetry of free vibrations. Of
course, the condition v(l) = 0 must
be also fulfilled
3/22/2005

Prof. dr Stanko Brcic

78

Non-Symmetric Free Vibrations in


the Cable Plane
From the boundary conditions one
obtains:
C2 = 0

kl
C1 sin( ) = 0
2

The frequency equation is, therefore,


kl
sin( ) = 0
2

3/22/2005

kl
= n , n = 1, 2,3,
2

Prof. dr Stanko Brcic

79

Non-Symmetric Free Vibrations in


the Cable Plane
Since

m
k =
H

the natural circular frequencies of free


non-symmetric vibrations in the cable
plane are obtained as:
2 n
n =
l

3/22/2005

H
m

n = 1, 2,3,...

Prof. dr Stanko Brcic

80

Non-Symmetric Free Vibrations in


the Cable Plane
The corresponding natural shapes are
given as:
2 nx
vn ( x) = Cn sin(
)
n = 1, 2,3,...
l
It may also be seen that the solution
satisfies the condition v(l) = 0

3/22/2005

Prof. dr Stanko Brcic

81

Symmetric Free Vibrations in the


Cable Plane
Symmetric free vibrations of the
cable in its plane are given by
equations (A):

q
m v + Hv = h
H
l
hLe q
= v ( x)dx
AE H 0
2

3/22/2005

Prof. dr Stanko Brcic

82

Symmetric Free Vibrations in the


Cable Plane
The general solution of differential
equation is given as:
v ( x) = vh ( x) + v p ( x)

where the general solution of


homogeneous equation is
vh ( x) = C1 sin(kx) + C2 cos(kx)

while v p ( x) is any particular solution of


non-homogeneous equation.
3/22/2005

Prof. dr Stanko Brcic

83

Symmetric Free Vibrations in the


Cable Plane
The particular solution is
v p ( x) =

qh
m 2 H

so the general solution is given as


vh ( x) = C1 sin(kx) + C2 cos(kx) +

3/22/2005

Prof. dr Stanko Brcic

qh
m 2 H

84

Symmetric Free Vibrations in the


Cable Plane
Integration constants are obtained
from the boundary conditions:
v (0) = 0

v (l ) = 0

It may be obtained:
C2 =

3/22/2005

qh
m H
2

(1 cos kl )
C1 =

2
m H
sin kl
qh

Prof. dr Stanko Brcic

85

Symmetric Free Vibrations in the


Cable Plane
Therefore, the general solution of diff.
equation is obtained as:
qh
qh
(1 cos kl )
v ( x) =

sin kx
cos kx +
2
2
m H
m H
m 2 H
sin kl
qh

This general solution is inserted into


the integral of the 2nd equation (the
cable equation).

3/22/2005

Prof. dr Stanko Brcic

86

Symmetric Free Vibrations in the


Cable Plane
It is obtained
qh
(1 cos kl ) 2
qh
qh
0 v ( x)dx = m 2 Hk sin kl m 2 Hk sin kl + m 2 H l
0

Inserting this into the cable equation,


and dividing by h 0 it is obtained
Le
(1 cos kl ) 2
q2
q2
q2
+

+
sin kl
l = 0
3
2
2
2
2
2
2
sin kl
AEl
m H k
m H k
m H

3/22/2005

Prof. dr Stanko Brcic

87

Symmetric Free Vibrations in the


Cable Plane
Since
H
k = k
m
2

the last equation may be transformed


as

Le
q 2 (1 cos kl ) 2
+ 3
+ sin kl kl = 0
3
3
AEl
H (kl ) sin kl

3/22/2005

Prof. dr Stanko Brcic

88

Symmetric Free Vibrations in the


Cable Plane
With notation
m
= kl = l
H

q 2l 3 AE
* =
H 3 Le

it may be obtained
Le
AEl 3

* 2(1 cos )

1
= 0
+ 3

sin

from which
3/22/2005

Prof. dr Stanko Brcic

89

Symmetric Free Vibrations in the


Cable Plane
the frequency equation is obtained:

4 3
tan( ) = ( ) ( )
(c )
2
2 * 2
If the cable parameter * is relatively
large (cable tends to be in-extensible,
which is NOT the case of cable-stayed
bridges), then (c) becomes

tan( ) =
2
2
3/22/2005

(d )

Prof. dr Stanko Brcic

90

Symmetric Free Vibrations in the


Cable Plane
Roots of the frequency equation (d)
for in-extensible cable are

4
n = (2n + 1) 1
2 2
+
n

(2
1)

n = 1, 2,3,...

For n = 1 (i.e. the lowest root) is


obtained as

1 = 2.86
3/22/2005

Prof. dr Stanko Brcic

91

Symmetric Free Vibrations in the


Cable Plane
As may be seen, the roots of the
frequency equation (c) depend on the
cable parameter * (which depends
upon the loading, cross section, span,
modulus of elasticity, cable tension).

4 3
tan( ) = ( ) ( )
2
2 * 2
3/22/2005

Prof. dr Stanko Brcic

(c )

92

Symmetric Free Vibrations in the


Cable Plane
If the cable parameter is relatively
small, the cable behaves as the taut
string, which IS usually the case of
cable-stayed bridges, the frequency
equation (c) may be approximated as

tan( ) n = (2n 1) , n = 1, 2,3,...


2

or
3/22/2005

= ,3 ,5 ,...
Prof. dr Stanko Brcic

93

Symmetric Free Vibrations in the


Cable Plane
Considering the notation for the
natural circular frequencies of free
symmetric vibrations in plane of the
cable are:
n

H
n =
l
m

n = 1, 2,3,...

where n are solutions of the


frequency equation
3/22/2005

Prof. dr Stanko Brcic

94

Symmetric Free Vibrations in the


Cable Plane
Symmetric natural modes of free
vibrations of the cable are given by
qhn
vn ( x) =
mn2 H

where

3/22/2005

hn

1 cos n

sin kn x cos kn x
1
sin n

is an arbitrary constant

Prof. dr Stanko Brcic

95

Orthogonality of Natural Modes


Non-Symmetric Vibrations
Two different natural modes of nonsymmetric free vibrations are
considered:
m p2 v p + Hvp = 0

( A)

mq2 vq + Hvq = 0

( p q)

The first one is multiplied by vq ( x) and


integrated over the span:
l

m p2 v p vq dx + H vp vq dx = 0
3/22/2005

Prof. dr Stanko Brcic

96

Orthogonality of Natural Modes


Non-Symmetric Vibrations
Partial integration of the 2nd integral:
l

v
v
dx
=
[
v
v

v
v
]
p q
p q 0 + v p vq dx
pq

Due to the boundary conditions,


v(0)=v(l)=0, boundary terms are
zero, while, due to the 2nd of eqs. (A),
l

H v p vqdx = mq2 v p vq dx
3/22/2005

Prof. dr Stanko Brcic

97

Orthogonality of Natural Modes


Non-Symmetric Vibrations
Consequently, it may be obtained
l

m( p2 q2 ) v p vq dx = 0
0

Since the natural frequencies are


different, it follows that
l

v v dx = 0
p q

i.e. natural modes are orthogonal.


3/22/2005

Prof. dr Stanko Brcic

98

Orthogonality of Natural Modes


Non-Symmetric Vibrations
Natural modes of non-symmetric free
vibrations are given by
vn ( x) = Cn sin( n x)

Since

n =

2n
, n = 1, 2,3,...
l

l
0 v dx = C 2
2
n

2
n

for integration constants


3/22/2005

Prof. dr Stanko Brcic

2
Cn =
l

(n = 1, 2,3,...)

99

Orthogonality of Natural Modes


Non-Symmetric Vibrations
natural modes of free non-symmetric
vibrations are orthonormal:
l
0 n m
0 vnvm dx = 1 n = m

2
2n
vn ( x) =
, n = 1, 2,3,...
sin n x n =
l
l
3/22/2005

Prof. dr Stanko Brcic

100

Orthogonality of Natural Modes


Symmetric Vibrations
Symmetric mode number p:
q
2
m p v p + Hvp = hp
H

hp Le

q
= v p dx
AE H 0

Symmetric mode number q:


q
2
mq vq + Hvq = hq
H

3/22/2005

hq Le

q
= vq dx
AE H 0

Prof. dr Stanko Brcic

101

Orthogonality of Natural Modes


Symmetric Vibrations
It may be obtained (considering diff.
equations of motion):
l
l

q
2
2
m( p q ) v p vq dx = hp vq dx hq v p dx
H 0
0
0

Considering both cable equations, it


may be obtained:
l
l

Le
hp vq dx hq v p dx = 0
AE 0
0

3/22/2005

Prof. dr Stanko Brcic

102

Orthogonality of Natural Modes


Symmetric Vibrations
Therefore, the natural modes of
symmetric vibrations are orthogonal:
l

v v dx = 0
p q

Also, the following relations are valid:


l

h v dx = h v dx
p q

3/22/2005

q p

Prof. dr Stanko Brcic

103

Orthogonality of Natural Modes


Symmetric Vibrations
The natural modes of free symmetric
vibrations may be written as

vn ( x) = An 1 tan( ) sin(kn x) cos(kn x)


2

where
qhn
qhn
An =
= 2 2
2
mn H kn H

3/22/2005

Prof. dr Stanko Brcic

104

Orthogonality of Natural Modes


Symmetric Vibrations
It is possible to determine constants
An in order to have orthonormal
natural modes of symmetric free
vibrations

0 n m
0 vnvm dx = 1 n = m
l

3/22/2005

Prof. dr Stanko Brcic

105

Free Vibrations of Cables outside of


the Cable Plane
Free vibrations without the change of
cable shape PENDULUM Mode
Shallow cable with horizontal slope
(b=0)
Dead load of the cable
q(x) = mg = const
Parabolic relations
3/22/2005

Prof. dr Stanko Brcic

106

Free Vibrations of Cables outside of


the Cable Plane Pendulum Mode

3/22/2005

Prof. dr Stanko Brcic

107

Free Vibrations of Cables outside of


the Cable Plane Pendulum Mode
In the pendulum mode the cable
retains its shape and the plane of
cable rotates about horizontal axis x.
Generalized coordinate: angle
between x-y (initial vertical) plane
and current cable plane during
pendulum motion.

3/22/2005

Prof. dr Stanko Brcic

108

Free Vibrations of Cables outside of


the Cable Plane Pendulum Mode
Element of the cable arc:
- length ds
- mass dm = m ds = q/g ds (g=9.81)
Differential equation of motion of the
cable element:
J = M

dJ x = qds sin

dJ x = 2 dm = 2 mds

3/22/2005

Prof. dr Stanko Brcic

109

Free Vibrations of Cables outside of


the Cable Plane Pendulum Mode
Substituting, one obtains:
2 m ds = mg ds sin

( g = 9.81m / s 2 )

Integrating over the length of the


cable, one obtains:
m 2 ds = mg sin ds
s

or
3/22/2005

l* + g sin = 0
Prof. dr Stanko Brcic

110

Free Vibrations of Cables outside of


the Cable Plane Pendulum Mode
where the equivalent pendulum
length is given by:
l* =

ds
s

ds
s

Since
ds = 1 + 2 d

3/22/2005

(ds = 1 + y2 dx)

Prof. dr Stanko Brcic

111

Free Vibrations of Cables outside of


the Cable Plane Pendulum Mode
so, the equivalent pendulum length is
given as
l
l* =

2
2

0
l

+
d
1

With approximation:
1 + y 2 1 +

3/22/2005

1 2
y
2

Prof. dr Stanko Brcic

112

Free Vibrations of Cables outside of


the Cable Plane Pendulum Mode
And also, for parabolic relations and
horizontal span:
q
4f
(l 2 ) = 2 (l 2 )
=
l
2H

ql 2
f =
8H

It may be obtained
8 f 2
1+ ( )
4
l* = f 7 l 0.80 f
5 1 + 8 ( f )2
5 l
3/22/2005

Prof. dr Stanko Brcic

113

Free Vibrations of Cables outside of


the Cable Plane Pendulum Mode
Therefore, the equivalent pendulum
length is about 80% of max cable
deflection
For relatively small angles of
inclination : sin so, differential
equation of motion becomes
+ = 0
2

3/22/2005

g
=
l*

Prof. dr Stanko Brcic

114

Free Vibrations of Cables outside of


the Cable Plane Pendulum Mode
and represents the pendulum mode
oscillation of the cable about
horizontal axis in direction of span.
For initial conditions (0) = 0 , (0) = 0
the solution is given as
(t ) = 0 cos t +

3/22/2005

0
sin t

Prof. dr Stanko Brcic

115

Free Vibrations of Cables outside of


the Cable Plane Pendulum Mode
If the angle is not small enough
(but it is still small!), then one may
assume approximation
1 3
sin
6

Differential equation of motion is


1 2
+ (1 ) = 0
6
2

3/22/2005

Prof. dr Stanko Brcic

g
=
l*
2

116

Free Vibrations of Cables outside of


the Cable Plane Pendulum Mode
For the initial conditions
(0) = 0 , (0) = 0

the solution may be obtained as:


1 3
(t ) = 0 cos t +
0 (cos t cos 3t )
192

3/22/2005

Prof. dr Stanko Brcic

117

3/22/2005

Prof. dr Stanko Brcic

118