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PharDose Lab

Angelyka Cabalo
2APH (2016-2017)
Prep 19 - ISO-ALCOHOLIC ELIXIR
Synonyms :
Iso-elixir
Description :
clear, colorless, hydroalcoholic solution
Uses :
general vehicle
Container : 30 ML NARROW MOUTH AMBER BOTTLE
Label : WHITE
Category : NON MEDICATED ELIXIR
Method of Preparation : ADMIXTURE
Preparation : UNOFFICIAL
Elixirs
-

hydroalcoholic oral solutions


clear, sweetened and usually flavored to improve
taste
contain less sugar than syrup = less effective in
masking unpleasant taste of APIs
can contain both water-soluble and alcoholsoluble components
adjunctive solvents glycerine and propylene glycol
are commonly added
alcohol content of more than 10-12% = selfpreserving
Non Medicated Elixirs
used as vehicles
Medicated Elixirs
with active ingredient
method

of preparations :
Simple Solution w/ agitation
solute dissolved in solvent
Admixture
admixture of 2 or more liquid ingredients
manner of adding the two mixtures :
from high concentration low concentration
density of saccharin : 0.828 g/ml
allegation
% alcohol = amt of alcohol / total ml x 100
computation :

Terpinol Elixir
Description :
clear, colorless solution with striations containing
43% alcohol
Uses :
expectorant (for productive cough)
Container : 15 ML NARROW MOUTH AMBER BOTTLE
Label : WHITE
Category : MEDICATED ELIXIR
Method of Preparation : SIMPLE SOLUTION
Preparation : OFFICIAL (USP)
Terpin Hydrate Oral Solution
each 100 ml contains nlt 1.53 g and nmt 1.87 g of
terpin hydrate

terpin hydrate will precipitate out if lower alcohol


concentration
alcohol - co solvent
orange peel tincture flavorant
benzaldehyde preservative
glycerin & syrup sweetening agents
purified water - solvent

Prep 21 COMPOUND ORANGE SPIRIT


Compound Orange Spirit
each 100 ml contains ntl 25 ml and nmt 30 ml of
the mixed oils

Prep 22 PEPPERMINT SPIRIT


Peppermint Spirit
each 100 ml contains nlt 9.0ml and nmt 11.0ml of
peppermint oil

Prep 23 AROMATIC AMMONIA SPIRIT


Aromatic Ammonia Spirit
hydroalcoholic solution
intended to be inhaled
each 100 ml contains nlt 1.7g and nmt 2.1g of
total NH3 content AND nlt 3.5g and nmt 4.5g
(NH4)2CO3

Prep 24 IODINE TINCTURE


Synonyms :
Tincture of Iodine
Tinctura Iodi
Solutio Iodi
Description :
dark brown to reddish brown solutions
Uses :
local anti-infective
germicide
fungicide
antiseptic
Container : 15 ML NARROW MOUTH AMBER BOTTLE
Label : RED
Category : TOPICAL TINCTURE
Method of Preparation : SIMPLE SOLUTION
Preparation : OFFICIAL

Prep 20 - TERPIN HYDRATE ORAL SOLUTION


Synonyms :
Terpin Hydrate Elixir
Elixir Terpin Hydrate

Tinctures
alcoholic or hydroalcoholic solutions
from vegetable materials or chemical substances
10g of drug in 100 ml potent
10-20g of drug in 100 ml

less than 50 % alcohol

Fluidextracts
1g of drug in 1 ml
more potent
100% tinctures
pure alcohol
method of preparation : (USP)
percolation
maceration
Sodium
-

Iodide
solubilizing agent
stabilizing agent
prevents formation of ethyl iodide (lowers
bacteriostatic activity)

Oily Liniments
milder in action
useful for massages
Forms :
Solutions Camphor Liniment
Emulsions White Liniment
Suspensions Calamine Liniment

Gelatinization if soap comes from animal


origin

Prep 26 STARCH GLYCERITE

Extracts
semi-liquid
syrupy consistency
very sticky but firm
20 ml of solvent left
pilular
solid
plastic masses
all of the solvent evaporates
dry powders
starchy consistency
no solvent left
examples : cassava & raddish

Prep 25 CAMPHORATED SOAP LINIMENT, BP


Synonyms :
Linimentum Camphoras El Saponis
Linimentum Saponis Mollis
Linimentum Saponis Camphoratum
Soap Liniment
Liquid Opodeldoc
Description :
clear, colorless to yellow solution with odor of
camphor
Uses :
rubefacient
counterirritant
Container : NARROW FLINT BOTTLE
Label : RED
Category : ALCOHOL BASED LINIMENT IN SOLUTION FORM
Method of Preparation :
Preparation : UNOFFICIAL
Liniments
alcoholic or oil base solutions or emultions
for external application
embrocations
applied with friction & rubbing of the skin
usually composed of oily, spirituous, gummy or
saponaceous substances
more fluid than ointments
denser than water
Alcoholic Liniments
rubefacient, counterirritant, mildly astringent and
penetrating effects
penetrate the skin more readily

Synonyms :
Starch Glycerine
Glyceratum Amyli
Glycamyl
Description :
translucent jelly like mass
Uses :
topical vehicle
protectant
Container : GERBER
Label : RED
Category : GLYCERITES
Method of Preparation :
Preparation : UNOFFICIAL
Glycerines or Glycerites
nlt 50% by weight of glycerine
most glycerins are extremely viscous, some are
jelly-like consistency
few are used extensively
a valuable pharmaceutical solvent
forms permanent & concentrated solutions
sole solvent for Antipyrine & Benzoaine Otic
Solution, USP
hygroscopic
should be stored in tightly closed containers
density : 1.26 g/ml

used sand bath (temperature exceeding 100


degrees Celsius)

Prep 27 MINERAL OIL EMULSION


Synonyms :
Liquid Petrolatum Emulsion

Description :
whitish yellow emulsion with no phase separation
Uses :

lubricating cathartic
Container : WIDE MOUTH AMBER BOTTLE
Label : WHITE + SHAKE WELL
Category : ORAL EMULSION
Method of Preparation : WET GUM METHOD
Preparation :

Emulsions
two phase systems
one liquid is dispersed throughout another liquid
(small droplets) which it is immiscible
w/ emulsifying agent
components :
Dispersed Liquid internal / discontinuous phase
Dispersion Agent external / continuous phase
Emulsifying agent - intermediate
Oil in Water
oil dispersed as droplets in an aqueous solution
most common
preferred for oral preparations
oily feel in mouth is objectional
Water in Oil
water is dispersed as droplets in an oil or
oleaginous material
for external products
emollient, lubricating and protective property
types :
simple o/w or w/o
multiple w/o/w or o/w/o
microemulsion 100-1000 amstrong (1A = 0.1
nm)
method of preparations :
Continental or Dry Gum Method
emulsifying agent + oil + water
English or Wet Gum Method
emulsifying agent + water oil
Bottle or Forbes Bottle Method
put all in bottle then shake
Auxiliary Method
hand homogenizer enhance different emulsions
In Situ Soap
lime water
calcium & soft soaps
Microemulsion
heavy machineries
most stable kind of emulsions

types of emulsifying agents :


1) Natural
Animal
Gelatin : Egg yolk : Casein : Woolfat : Cholesterol
Vegetable
- Acacia : Tragacanth : Carrageenan : Condrus :
Pectin : Caraya
2) Synthetic
Finely divided solid Mg(OH)2 , Al(OH)3 , Mg
trisilicate
Colloid kaolin, bentonite magma
Anionic sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS)
Cationic benzalkonium Cl, cetylpyridinium CL
Nonionic - PEG 400, span, tweens
Amphotenic - lecithin
Activity
Antifoaming
Emulsifier
(w/o)
Wetting agent
Emulsifier
(o/w)
Detergents
Solubilizing

HLB Value
1-3
3-6
7-9
8-18
13-16
15-20

agents
problems :
Creaming
the droplets will temporarily aggregate together
reversible
Cracking
total separation of the 2 phase system
irreversible
Phase Inversion
o/w to w/o (and vice versa)
irreversible
Method

of identifying emulsion
Drop dilution test
adding 1 drop of water
aggregation : w/o emulsion
Dye solubility
sudan red oil soluble (w/o)
amaranth green water soluble (o/w)
Electronic conductivity test
o/w
Fluorescence
only oil absorbs uv light
w/o

SLS shampoo, body wash


HLB hydrophilic lipophilic balance

Prep 28 CHALK MIXTURE


Synonyms :
Mixture de Creta
Mistura Cratae
Description :
whitish mixture containing insoluble substances
Uses :
antacid
Container : NARROW MOUTH FLINT BOTTLE
Label : WHITE + SHAKE WELL
Category : MEDICATED MIXTURE
Method of Preparation :
Preparation :
Mixtures
particle size is less than 0.5 micrometers
aqueous liquid preparation containing suspended
(suspensoid) insoluble solid substances
for internal use
consists of a liquid holding an insoluble medicinal
substance in suspension by means of acacia,
sugar or some other viscid material
use of suspending or thickening agent
solid in liquid
characteristics :
very finely divided state
suspend more readily
settle out much slowly than large particles
result : uniform dosage
colloidal
better as protective & adsorbent on inflamed
surfaces
palatability
associated with colloidal agent

Shake Well Label (for mixtures and other preps w/


insoluble particles)
Chalk CaCO3
Suspension bigger term (solid in solid, liquid or
gas)

Prep 29 ALUMINUM HYDROXIDE GEL


Synonyms :
Colloidal Aluminum Hydroxide
Amphojel
Alternagel

Description :
white viscous, translucent gel
Uses :

antacid
for heartburn & hyperacidity
Container : WIDE MOUTH AMBER BOTTLE
Label : WHITE
Category : MEDICATED GEL
Method of Preparation :
Preparation :
Gels
-

jellies
semi solid systems consisting either of suspension
made up of small inorganic particles or large
organic molecules interpenetrated by a liquid
semirigid systems
movement of dispersing medium is restricted by
an interlacing 3D network of particles or solvated
macromolecules of the dispersed phase
thixotropic suspensions (semisolid on standing ;
liquid on being shaken ; single-phase systems of
synthetic macromolecules or natural gums)

classifications :
inorganic hydrogels
2 phase system
aluminum hydroxide gel and bentonite magma
organic
single-phase system
may include gelling agents : carbomer &
tragacanth
hydrogels

organic HG pectin paste, tragacanth jelly


natural & synthetic gums methylcellulose, Na
CMC
inorganic HG bentonite gel, veegum, silica
organogels
HC type petrolatum, mineral oil, polyethylene
gel (Plastibase)
Animal & vegetable fats lard, cocoa butter
Hydrophilic organogels carbowax bases, PEG
ointment

Prep 30 CALAMINE LOTION


Synonyms :
Lotio Calamine
Description :
liquid dispersion with pinkish color
Uses :
antipruritic
Container : NARROW MOUTH FLINT BOTTLE

Label : RED
Category : LOTION
Method of Preparation :
Preparation :
Lotions
washes, lotio, lavare
o/w emulsions with cetearyl alcohol (keep
emulsion together)
aqueous liquid or sometimes alcoholic suspension
w/ insoluble materials
for external application w/o rubbing
antibiotic, antiseptic, antifungal, corticosteroid,
anti-acne agent, soothing, smoothing,
moisturizing or protective agent
types :
medicated
cosmetic
method of preparations :
Trituration calamine lotion
Chemical Reaction white lotion

White Lotion zinc sulfate + sulfurated potash