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FINAL ASIAN DEVELOPMENT BANK ADB TA 8404 PAK PREPARING JALALPUR IRRIGATION PROJECT VOLUME – II ANNEX

FINAL

ASIAN DEVELOPMENT BANK

ADB TA 8404 PAK PREPARING JALALPUR IRRIGATION PROJECT

VOLUME II ANNEX F.2 Gender Assessment

NOVEMBER 2015

NESPAK-ICS Joint Venture

FINAL ASIAN DEVELOPMENT BANK ADB TA 8404 PAK PREPARING JALALPUR IRRIGATION PROJECT VOLUME – II ANNEX
FINAL ASIAN DEVELOPMENT BANK ADB TA 8404 PAK PREPARING JALALPUR IRRIGATION PROJECT VOLUME – II ANNEX

INTEGRATED CONSULTING SERVICES (PVT) LIMITED

219-A NEW MUSLIM TOWN,

LAHORE PAKISTAN

ADB TA 8404 PAK

PREPARING JALALPUR IRRIGATION PROJECT

VOLUME II ANNEX F.2 Gender Assessment

NOVEMBER 2015

NESPAK-ICS Joint Vent

ADB TA 8404 PAK: Preparing Jalalpur Irrigation Project

ANNEX F6.2 - Gender Assessment

ADB TA 8404 PAK - PREPARING JALALPUR IRRIGATION PROJECT

DRAFT GENDER DEVELOPMENT PLAN

CONTENTS

  • 1. INTRODUCTION

1

  • 2. PROJECT OBJECTIVES

2

  • 3. INITIAL POVERTY AND SOCIAL ASSESSMENT

2

3.1.Needs of Beneficiaries in Relation to the Proposed Project

3

  • 3.2 Potential Initial

3

  • 3.3 Gender Mainstreaming Category of the Proposed Project

3

  • 4. APPROACH AND METHODOLOGY FOR GENDER STUDY

4

  • 4.1 Sampling Procedure

4

  • 4.2 Data Collection

.................................................................................................................

5

  • 4.3 Data Processing, Analysis and Findings

5

  • 4.4. Gender Roles and Responsibilities

6

  • 4.5. Main Roles & Responsibilities of Men and Women regarding Livestock and Agriculture

 

6

  • 4.6. Decision Making

..............................................................................................................

7

  • 4.7. Access to Education and Skill

..........................................................................................

8

  • 4.8. Access to Health Facilities ..............................................................................................10

  • 4.9. Access to Drinking Water ...............................................................................................10

    • 4.10. Access to Finance/ Credit .............................................................................................11

    • 4.11. Access

and Control Over Resources/Property ..............................................................12

  • 4.12. Access to Income Earning Opportunities ......................................................................12

  • 4.13. Gender Preference .......................................................................................................13

  • 4.14. Women Participation in Local Forum ............................................................................13

  • 4.15. Vulnerabilities(Elderly, Disabled, Widows and Minorities) .............................................14

4.16.Gender

Violence ............................................................................................................15

  • 4.17. Project Benefits for Women ..........................................................................................15

  • 4.18. Kind of Development Support by Other Development Partner ......................................16

  • 4.19. Other Schemes by the NRSP .......................................................................................17

  • 4.20. Overall Comments ........................................................................................................18

  • 5. GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONS FOR GENDER DEVELOPMENT ...............................18

    • 5.1. Education .......................................................................................................................19

    • 5.2. Health Facility .................................................................................................................19

    • 5.3. Vocational Training Centres............................................................................................19

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  • 5.4. Gender Equitable Property & Resource Ownership ........................................................19

  • 5.5. Greater Gender Equality in the Political

Sphere ..............................................................19

  • 5.6. Credit Facility to Women .................................................................................................20

  • 6. PROJECT SPECIFIC GENDER DEVELOPMENT PLAN ..................................................20

APPENDIX-1

PAK PPTA: JALALPUR IRRIGATION PROJECT Gender Analysis - Focus

APPENDIX-2

Group Discussion (For Women Groups) List of Female Participants

APPENDIX-3 Photolog

List of Figures

Figure 1-1: Project Area

1

List of Tables

Table 4-1 Number of Respondents of the Surveyed Villages

5

Table 4-2 Gender Roles and Responsibilities in the Project Area

6

Table 4-3 . Roles and Responsibilities of Men and Womenrelated

7

7

Table 4-5 Information regarding Decision Making Power with Men and Women

8

Table 4-6 Existing Institutions in the Project

9

Table 4-7 Different Schemes Completed By NRSP in the Project Area ....................................17

Table 4-8

Social sector Services ...............................................................................................17

Table 4-9 Human Resource Development ................................................................................18

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Gender Development Assessment Plan for Jalalpur Irrigation Project (JIP)

1. INTRODUCTION

The proposed JIP area is located along the right bank of Jhelum River in Tehsil Pind Dadan Khan (PD Khan) and Tehsil Khushab of district Khushab. The project area can be accessed through Lahore- Islamabad motorway by taking exit from Lillah interchange. Alternatively, the area may be reached via GT road from Jhelum or Kharian to Rasul barrage. The location of the project area is shown in. Figure 1-1.

Gender Development Assessment Plan for Jalalpur Irrigation Project (JIP) 1. INTRODUCTION The proposed JIP area is

Figure 1-1: Project Area

Under the proposed JIP, a new non-perennial irrigation system will be constructed for enhancing the agricultural produce in Pind Dadan Khan and Khushab districts. The main canal of about 110 km, off-taking from the right flank of the Rasul Barrage, will traverse along the right bank of Jhelum River to irrigate a command area of about 64,550 hectares on its left side. The command area of JIP is in form of long strip of land bounded by the salt range hills on northern side and Jhelum River (right bank) on southern side. The distribution system about 176 km comprising of distributaries and minors extends up to the right bank of Jhelum River.

There are 59 hill torrents of varying catchment size which flow across the project area and ultimately fall in Jhelum River. The climate in the project area is hot and arid. Summer (May- August) temperatures vary from 18 0 to 46 0 C and winter (November-February from 0 0 to 24 0 C). In spring and autumn, temperatures are moderate. The rainfall is low and erratic and the pan evaporation is three times of average yearly rainfall, requiring irrigation essential for crop production.

Presently, farmers in the Project area are practicing mainly rain fed agriculture associated with tube well farming. Dominant crops in the area are wheat, cotton, rice, sugarcane, maize, fodder, potatoes, vegetables, citrus and onion crops. Farmers in the project area face low agricultural

ADB TA 8404 PAK: Preparing Jalalpur Irrigation Project

ANNEX F6.2 - Gender Assessment

production and low farm incomes as the result of frequent crop failure, low crop yields, low farm profitability and secondary salinization.

  • 2. PROJECT OBJECTIVES

The main objective of this project is the supply of irrigation water to the project area through a non-perennial canal proposed to off-take from the right bank of Rasul Barrage on Jhelum River. Most of the area is underlain by unusable to marginally usable groundwater. However, in areas close to river bank, sweet groundwater is available and tubewells are being currently used for irrigation. An irrigation canal not only provides irrigation supplies, but also becomes a source for drinking water where subsurface water is brackish and people have, as a routine, to walk kilometres at an end to fetch drinking water. The construction of the Canal would help to reduce the poverty of area by increasing the per capita income of the community in the area and there will be consequential increase of GDP of Pakistan.

An inundation canal was initially built by the Town Committee, Pind Dadan Khan to meet with their drinking water requirements. It was later taken over by the Irrigation and Power Department. This canal named Pind Dadan Khan Canal emanated from a creek of Jhelum River upstream of Railway Bridge near Haranpur and flowed with the rise of water in the river mainly in the summer months. Apart from providing drinking water to Pind Dadan Khan town, it used to irrigate the area on its way. On completion of the Mangla Dam, supplies in Jhelum River were regulated and this inundation canal stopped functioning due to lack of required water level. Therefore, currently there is no such canal in the project area.

Provision of irrigation supplies will also help leach surface salinity from the soils and therefore saline areas will be recovered. The project also aims to strengthen community participation and Private Agriculture Support Services. All these measures will help reducing the poverty in the area and boost the economy at local as well as national- level.

  • 3. INITIAL POVERTY AND SOCIAL ASSESSMENT (IPSA)

The Initial Poverty and Social Assessment (IPSA)has been carried out for Jalalpur Irrigation Project. The IPSA has been carried out keeping in view the requirements laid down in Operational Policy (OP Paragraph 6) and needs to address the followings:

  • (i) identify expected poverty and social impacts of the intervention as a contribution to results at the sector and country levels;

(ii) identify key social issues such as participation, gender, involuntary

(iii)

resettlement, indigenous people, labourer, affordability, and other risks and/or vulnerabilities) that need to be addressed during implementation of the project preparatory technical assistance (PPTA) and the ensuing project; identify plans and terms of reference to assist in project preparation; and

(iv)

identify and allocate resources for conducting social analysis during the feasibility study or due diligence

An IPSA of the project is currently uploaded on the ADB website that was prepared by ADB during the Project Concept Stage. As part of TA services, the Consultants have updated the IPSA and have supplemented the IPSA with field data collection. The updated IPSA report was submitted to the ADB in November 2014.

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3.1.Needs of Beneficiaries in Relation to the Proposed Project

The project will benefit more than 225,000 rural peoples; most of them are small farmers. The direct beneficiaries will be the farmers through stabilized crop yield and agricultural support services. The female community will also benefit as they are also contributing directly and indirectly to various agro related activities as illustrated later in the report. The other beneficiaries will include farm labourer and women through enhanced farming activities.

  • 3.2 Potential Initial Stakeholders

The potential stakeholders include:

Direct Beneficiaries / Stakeholders: Farmers, women, farming labourer

Non-governmental organizations working in the project area

Institutions responsible for Implementation: Punjab Irrigation Department and Punjab Agriculture Department.

  • 3.3 Gender Mainstreaming Category of the Proposed Project

As per project TOR and ADB policy regarding gender mainstreaming categories of ADB projects, field survey was conducted and after its analysis, the project has been categorized as; Category-C , i.e. “Some Gender Elements” (SGE) with reference to ADB guidelines as below:

  • (i) by its nature, it is likely to directly improve women's access to social services; and/or economic and financial resources and opportunities, and/or basic rural and urban infrastructure, and/or enhance their voices and rights (for example education, health, rural development, microfinance, water supply and sanitation, food security, and emergency food and rehabilitation assistance), but that Included little, if any gender analysis and few or no specific design features; and did not meet the EGM criteria, or

(ii) is unlikely to directly improve women’s access to social, economic or financial resources or opportunities, but significant efforts were made during project preparation to identify potential positive and negative impacts on women. Some gender features are included to enhance benefits to women (for example targets for employment of women in project construction work, provision of equal pay for equal work, information campaigns on HIV/AIDS risk, gender training of Executing/implementing agencies and adherence to core labor standards, especially child labor); and where resettlement is involved includes attention to women in the mitigation/resettlement plans (such as compensation payments to both men and women, joint-ownership of replacement land/housing, restoration of livelihood initiatives for women, and so forth).

At first stage, socio-economic field survey of the sample 20 villages was conducted and data was collected from famers’ communities and IPSA report was prepared and submitted to the ADB in November 2014. The report did not include gender survey for want of female sociologist in the PPTA team to conduct the Gender Survey. However, subsequent to the submission of IPSA report, TA Consultant managed the collection of data on gender related issues with the facilitation of NRSP.A total of 10 females community organizations (COs) were contacted and

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data was collected through structured questionnaire. However, most of the questions were qualitative and responses were in narrative form and open ended.

Based on the survey, a gender development plan is chalked out to provide the opportunity to uplift their socio-economic status so that they may play important role in economic growth of their families.

  • 4. APPROACH AND METHODOLOGY FOR GENDER STUDY

The methodology for Gender Studies is framed after detailed review and perusal of the project objectives and the requirements of the study. The envisaged approach is based on the identification tentative route of the proposed canal and an expected project impacts. The

Consultant’s approach and methodology for achieving the study objectives is based on the

following criteria:

Detailed consultations with the client throughout the project,

Close review of background reports, ADB and other donors’ policies regarding gender participation, gender planning and development.

Frequent meetings with the female communities/Community Organization (COs) fall in the project area,

Meetings with the local NGO and other institutions to exchange knowledge regarding gender development of the project area.

4.1 Sampling Procedure

Detailed field visits were made from head to tail of the proposed canal to enlist the villages and settlements expected to be impacted due to acquisition of land, privately owned structures/assets and community and public property or structures etc. These villages will also be benefitted from the project as the whole area will become under cultivation. After preparing a

comprehensive list of these villages, a district wise list of these villages was

prepared. .

The

sample size of 10 Community Organizations (COs) was determined for data collection based on

proportionate sampling technique.

The data was collected by exploiting both primary and secondary sources. The primary data was collected by interviewing the respondents/stakeholders in the group.

The designed questionnaire was reviewed and approved by the ADB. The questionnaire was pre-tested in the field to check its authenticity and validity. The required changes were incorporated in the final version (APPENDIX-1).

National Rural Support Program (NRSP), which is a Non-Governmental Organization, is working in the project area since 2001. The program of NRSP aims to improve livelihoods of the local people especially the females to reduce poverty by providing them small and soft loans with relevant training and skill. The second objective is women empowerment. NRSP has formed numerous Community Organizations (COs). They have carried out their registration, assessed training needs and provided training in the required field. The main emphasis of NRSP is to form female organizations to create awareness to participate in the development programmes. The training encouraged them to come forward to participate in the NRSP to get opportunities to uplift their socio-economic condition.

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The local communities and respondents were already aware of the proposed project. Some initial meetings were arranged by the NRSP due to close coordination with the local peoples, especially the women living in the project area.

4.2

Data Collection

 

Data was collected from 152 female respondents belonged to ten surveyed villages as shown in APPENDIX-2, in which females COs were established. The respondents group comprised all type of categories as farming and non-farming community. The questionnaire comprised many questions like role & responsibilities of women, decision making power regarding should have family size/ nos. of children, preference of male baby, gender bias on girl birth, women serving in different institutions, gender preference in education, women health issues, access to drinking water, finance and control over resources like land and other assets. Access to earning opportunities and its usage, salary and its usage and control of women, males attitude with women, vulnerability and caring, social protection of vulnerable, gender violence, project benefits for women, project impact on women and pressing needs of women.

Apart from these indicators, the data was also collected about their opinion and suggestion for the proposed project. It will give an insight picture of the females of the project.

The details of surveyed villages and females Community Organizations (COs) are summarized in the following Table 4-1, while photolog of the interviews are appended with the report.

 

Table 4-1 Number of Respondents of the Surveyed Villages

 
   

Village

Name

of

Village/

Female

Community

Nos.

of

Female

 

ID.No

Organization

 

Respondents

 

1

Tobha

 

12

 

2

Athar

 

11

 

3

Ahmad Abad

   

12

 

4

Saroba

 

09

 

5

Kaurra

 

14

 

6

Sauwal

 

30

 

7

Gharibwal

 

19

 

8

Pindi Saidpur

   

12

 

9

Jalalpur

 

14

 

10

Pinanwal

 

19

 

Total

 

152

4.3

Data Processing, Analysis and Findings

 

The collected data/information from the project area was re-checked, edited and computerized. The data was processed according to separate category of the indicators. It facilitated to process and analyse the findings. The analyzed data is tabulated for interpretation and also in narrative form with explanation deriving conclusion and recommendation, which are presented in the sections that follow.

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4.4. Gender Roles and Responsibilities

During the field survey, data was collected to ascertain the situation regarding gender roles and responsibilities in the project area. The results are provided in the Table 4-2 below:

Table 4-2 Gender Roles and Responsibilities in the Project Area

 

Taking

             

Taking care of

Village

Care of

Preparing

Washing

Dish

Cleaning

Water

Fuel

Patients at

ID.No.

Children

Food

Clothes

Washing

House

Ironing

Fetching

Wood

Home

1

 
  • 100 100

100

 
  • 100 100

 
  • 100 100

30

 

100

2

 
  • 100 100

100

 
  • 100 100

  • 100 0

 

100

100

3

 
  • 100 100

100

 
  • 100 100

 
  • 100 50

0

 

100

4

 
  • 100 100

100

 
  • 100 100

  • 100 10

 

50

100

5

 
  • 100 100

100

 
  • 100 100

  • 100 30

 

100

100

6

 
  • 100 100

100

 
  • 100 100

  • 100 20

 

50

100

7

 
  • 100 100

100

 
  • 100 100

  • 100 30

 

70

100

8

 
  • 100 100

100

 
  • 100 100

  • 100 20

 

50

100

9

 
  • 100 100

100

 
  • 100 100

  • 100 20

 

40

100

10

 
  • 100 100

100

 
  • 100 100

  • 100 30

 

30

100

Total

 
  • 100 100

100

 
  • 100 100

  • 100 19

 

64

100

Data provided in the table indicates that all activities mentioned in the above table are being carried out by the females in the study area. Women also take significant part in most laborious tasks including fetching water and collection of fuel wood.

The above findings are in line with socio-cultural norms of Pakistan in which family affairs are divided between husband and wife based on individual household preferences. Most of the housekeeping activities are watched by women, whereas men are primarily involved in outdoor activities. Majority of the female respondents reported that due to low income and limited resources, their life is restless and they do not get enough healthy food and nutrients which lead to health problems like body pain (joint pain), blood pressure and skin diseases.

4.5.

Main

Roles

&

Responsibilities

Agriculture Management.

of Men and Women regarding Livestock and

It is generally observed in the farming and rural community, that most of livestock related activities and many of agriculture related activities are being performed by the females. In surveys on other projects such as Lower Bari Doab Canal Improvement Project (LBDCIP) and Punjab Irrigated Agriculture Investment Program (PIAIP), it has been determined that without participation of rural women, farmers cannot perform their farming activities very well.

The related information were gathered from the female respondents and result is provided in the Table 4-3 and Table 4-4 below.

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Table 4-3 Roles and Responsibilities of Men and Women related

to Livestock

and Agriculture.

 

Responsibilities of Livestock Management

Sr.No.

Activity

Participation (%)

Male

Female

 
  • 1 Preparing Fodder

 
  • 20 80

 
  • 2 Feeding Animals

 
  • 10 90

 
  • 3 Veterinary Care

 
  • 80 20

 
  • 4 Cleaning

0

100

 
  • 5 Milking Cow

10

90

 
  • 6 Watering Animals

0

100

Table 4-4 Roles and Responsibilities of Men and Women related to Livestock and Agriculture

 

Responsibilities Related to Agriculture

 

Sr.No.

Activity

 

Responsibilities (%)

Male

Female

Both

 
  • 1 Preparing Land

100

0

0

 
  • 2 Sowing

50

30

20

 
  • 3 Harvesting

0

20

80

 

Picking Vegetables

  • 4 0

 

100

0

 

On-Farm Water

     
  • 5 Management

100

0

0

Data was collected on eleven activities related to female contribution and performance is shown in tables above. Out of 11 activities, 08 activities ( 73 %), on which females were more involved, while three activities, which were beyond their capacity like land preparation by oxen or tractors, treatment of adult livestock in the veterinary hospital far away from their houses and irrigating the field especially at night ( water management).

4.6. Decision Making

Pakistan rural population is more than 72 percent and the female population is higher than male. As per socio-cultural traditions, the decision making role is divided within the family. In some aspects, only the male members are deciding factors, while in others the female members are contributing in the decision making.

During the field survey, data regarding decision making power was collected from the 10 females’ community organizations in the project area. After analyzing the information, the results are provided in the Table 4-3. The survey indicates that there is a level of gender awareness in the community. The female community is generally respected and carry weightage in decision making and consultation in different domestic matters.

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The data clearly indicates that except two activities i.e. “assets to buy & sell and health facility from where to be availed” other matters are decided through mutual consultation and understanding. Out of seven domestic matters, five (71%) are being performed with mutual understanding. It indicates a positive sign of females’ preference and respect.

An important information was gathered that 60 % agree to send females outside the home to work with mutual understanding. At the same time, they are reluctant to send females, especially the young girls outside the area in other cities for a job. It indicates that there was lack of confidence and the trust over their females as well as the host community.

Table 4-5 Information regarding Decision Making Power with Men and Women

       

Health

       
 

Education

Facilities

Number of

Women to

 

Education

(Whom to

(Where to

Children to

 

Children

Assets to Buy

Work Outside

Village

ID. No.

(Where to send)

send)

 

Avail)

 

Have

Marriages

and Sell

 

Home

M

*

F **

Both

M

F

Both

M

F

Both

M

F

Both

M

F

Both

M

F

Both

M

F

Both

1

   

 

 

       

   

   

   

2

   

 

 

       

   

   

   

3

   

   

   

   

   

   

   

4

   

   

   

   

   

       

5

   

   

   

   

   

       

6

   

   

       

   

   

   

7

   

   

       

   

       

8

   

   

       

   

       

9

   

   

       

   

 

     

10

   

   

       

   

       

Total

0

0

10

0

2

8

7

0

3

0

0

10

0

0

10

9

1

0

4

0

6

%age 0 0 100 0 20 80 70 0 30 0 0 100 0 0 100
%age
0
0
100
0
20
80
70
0
30
0
0
100
0
0
100
90
10
0
40
0
60

Note: - * denotes Male and ** indicates female.

4.7. Access to Education and Skill

The education plays an important role for the overall development of the society. Through education, development can be pursued in a scientific way. In agriculture sector, proper land preparation, sowing, irrigation, pesticides/ insecticides, harvesting, storage and marketing require update knowledge and full awareness for maximum benefit. Similarly, to maintain the house by the females, proper education and training like cleaning, mid-wife, stitching, dyeing, animal raring, kitchen garden, child caring and so on cannot be performed properly without education and proper skill.

In this regard, the project area is backward due to non-availability of educational and vocational institutions.

Three questions were placed in the questionnaire regarding “Access to Education and Skill” like:

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I.

Are there any constraints for girls accessing education? What are the main constraints?

II.

Gender preference for sending children to school?

III.

Are there any vocational centres/schools for girls/women? What kinds of training courses are available with these vocational centres?

During

the field survey,

the data was collected

in

this

regards. These were open ended

questions and the responses were recorded in narrative form, which are expressed in the

qualitative form.

 

There was no constraint to access education for the girls. All the respondents were satisfied that there is no problem and issue to send girls to school. There is no preference for sending the children to schools and girls have the equal rights to obtain education. During the survey, primary schools were available in the villages while for higher education, no high schools and colleges were established by the government. The respondents expressed their requirement to establish higher educational institutions in the area to educate their girls. They wished that if their girls could get higher education, they would get good jobs and their social status will be raised.

Data was also collected related to existence of vocational centres and type of training being provided. Out of total, 90% of the respondents reported that there was no training centre for female. They further said that only NRSP is providing training. The Government of Punjab has established training centres in the Chak Shadi and Chak Jani between Pind Dadan Khan and Jalalpur Sharif. An allowance of Rupees five hundred is also provided to trainees by the Punjab Government. However, these centres are more accessible for the females located on the main road. The survey indicated that female community is generally not aware of these training institutes. Another NGO named “Akhuwwat” working in the area provides small loans and training along with awareness in the females’ community to improve their socio-economic status. The details of these institutions are provided below Table:

Table 4-6 Existing Institutions in the Project Area.

Name of

Location

Kind of courses

Education

Duration

Fee

stipend

Institution

required

( months)

Vocational

Chak Shadi

-plumbring

-primary

-

08

-

 

Training

-electrician

-middle

-

14

-

Rs.500

Institute

 

-computer

-matric

-

14

-

Chak Jani

-dress making

-primary

-

14

-

   
  • - child caring, livestock, book binding,

 

-Normally

1-

-

-

dopatta rangai( dyeing),grain storage,

7 days.

 

NRSP

P D Khan

embroidery, soap & surf making,

No

-Embroidery

cooking and beautician.

one month

Akhuwwat

P D Khan

  • - child caring, livestock, dopatta rangai( dyeing), grain storage, soap & surf making, cooking

No

 

1-7 days

-

-

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  • 4.8. Access to Health Facilities

Health facilities present a disappointing situation in the area. All the respondents showed their serious concerns over health facilities. Few questions were put in the questionnaire for female respondents as:

  • - What kinds of health facilities are available in the area? Do women seek pre and post natal health consultations and care? If not, what are the main constraints?

  • - Distance from the nearest health facility in KMs? (BHU, RHC District Hospital)?

  • - What are the main health issues for men and women? Any common water borne diseases in the area?

Data was collected from the targeted female community organizations to ascertain existing health facilities for the local population, especially the females. About 60 % of the contacted females organization reported that Basic Health Unit (BHU) are established in their villages, 20 % informed that no BHU were in their villages and 20% reported that BHUs are away from their villages.

As far as Gynaecologist doctor is concerned, 80 % responded that no natal specialist was available in their areas. The patients have to go to Sargodha, Lahore and Rawal Pindi for emergency check-up and delivery purpose. It causes too many risks and heavy expenses, beyond the affordability of a common family.

The respondents of Pindi Saidpur, Sauwal, Ahmad Abad, Gharib wal and Pinnanwal reported that BHUs are there, but no lady doctors were appointed in those BHUs. There are private hospitals and clinics, but there were no lady doctors having adequate experience besides charging heavy fees.

Data regarding common diseases and water- related diseases was also collected. Blood pressure, diarrhoea, kidney pain, joint pain, sugar (diabetes) and hepatitis are common diseases in both males and females. Amongst these diseases, diarrhoea, kidney and blood pressure are caused due to brackish and unhygienic drinking water. Kidney problem was reported in Ahmad Abad village, while hepatitis cases were recorded in Saroba village.

  • 4.9. Access to Drinking Water

During field survey, the data was on drinking water and its quality collected. Three questions were added in the questionnaire to ascertain the existing situation of drinking water. The following questions were asked:

I.

What are the main sources of drinking water?

II.

What are the key drinking water specific issues in the area?

III.

Do women fetch water in the area? Distance travelled by women (in Kms) to access water? Time used in fetching water?

In the study area, 50 % water supply was managed by the government water supply schemes, 30 % by the private water supply schemes and the remaining 20 % had installed their own hand pumps and electric water pumps to extract ground water for their domestic use.

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The information collected on water quality situation was disappointing and dismal. Only 30% reported good quality of drinking water, while 70% reported that water quality was not good due to the following reasons:

Shallow depth bore of water supply scheme or their personal hand pumps.

Pipes were damaged and rusted causing mix-up of brackish water with fresh and making it contaminated.

Response regarding “ women fetch water” was also ascertained during the field survey. The data indicates that 50% women of the area do not need to fetch water as they had regular water supply in their house. A few households of Saroba, Sauwal, Gharibwal, Pindi saidpur and Pinnanwal villages reported that the females of these villages do fetch water from the nearby area. The reason was that they belonged to very poor families and cannot afford installation cost and monthly water charges. It takes 40-50 minutes daily to fetch water. Some of them had arranged their own hand pumps or electric water pumps to pump out groundwater, but the quality of the water is not good.

4.10. Access to Finance/ Credit

The project area fall in rain fed area and most of the lands are not under cultivation. The farmers have small land holding and depend upon rain for cultivation. The non-farming community is closely associated with the farming community. The low income and limited resources of farmers also affect the non-farmers’ households. The study conducted in twenty villages of the project area in October 2014 indicated that per capita income was less than one US$.

Keeping in view the financial condition of the local people, National Rural Support Program (NRSP) initiated micro financing program to improve the socio-economic condition of the poorer. For this purpose, male and female community organizations are being formed. The field staffs of NRSP do conduct social mobilization in the communities and establish different groups to get benefits from the program.

Generally, up to rupees twenty thousand is provided to each CO female member. During the application, purpose of getting small loan (business or activity) is assessed. At the time of providing loan, the relevant training is provided to the recipient, so that she could get skill, knowledge and ability to run her business activity.

At present, NRSP is providing training in the following fields to manage their domestic activities and generate income:

  • - Book binding

  • - Dopatta rangai (Dying of fabrics)

  • - Livestock raring

  • - Beautician

  • - Cooking

  • - Embroidery

  • - Grain storage

  • - Surf & soap

  • - Child caring

Data was collected from the field regarding access to financing. To collect the requisite information, following questions were included in the questionnaire:

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  • I. What kind of financial services (such as banking, micro-finance, and savings) are available to women? What kind of challenges/constraints women face in accessing financial services?

II.

The results of the survey indicates that 100% of the respondents had obtained loan from NRSP and started various small business activities. But majority of them invested their loan to purchase goat and calves etc. After two-three years, they buy cow or buffalo to sell milk for enhancing their income.

It was observed that they feel comforts to get loan due to easy process, because vast majority of the females were illiterate. They never feel any constraints while getting small loan. However, few of them showed their mild concern that NRSP recovers the loan with two extra instalments.

Another NGO named “Akhuwat” has also initiated program similar to NRSP.

  • 4.11. Access and Control Over Resources/Property

Generally the assets and property issues are managed and controlled by the male of the household. Although the asset and property is owned by female, yet she is not allowed to disclose to others. She cannot supervise it. She cannot sale it or purchase new property without permission of the male, although religion and country law permits her to own, sell & purchase the property. In some cases, the business or property (land/house etc.) is entirely owned by the female but the family members including husband, son, brother or father get benefit out of it and she has no right to talk about it.

Data was collected in this regard to ascertain the local situation. 100% of the respondents responded that the females alone cannot sell or purchase their properties. Mostly the males manage such activities. For example, if the males desire to sell her house or land for another purpose, he will ask her to obey and sign the papers.

  • 4.12. Access to Income Earning Opportunities

Income is considered main indicator to assess socio-economic condition of the community or socio-economic status of an individual. There are many sources of income, from salary/job, business, remittance and from agriculture activities etc. In the project area, income from agriculture is too limited due to small holding and arani (rain fed) area. There is limited opportunity to get jobs in Khewra mines, Gharibwal cement factory and Maple cement factory providing limited jobs to the local people. In this situation, the jobs for the female part of the community are rare.

During the field survey and meetings with female community organizations, following questions

were incorporated to assess the income source, females’ right to use their salary/income in the

house and level of satisfaction with salary/wage etc.

  • Are you involved in Income generating activities?

  • What is opinion of male about the job of female, whether they like and encourage the female in jobs?

  • Are women allowed to work outside home? What are the main constraints for women in accessing economic opportunities?

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  • Do you satisfied with the private wage/salary?

  • Did you allow saving your salary/income independently in a separate bank account?

  • In which area, the female employees spend their salaries or earnings on?

  • What are the key potentials in the area for increasing women’s participation in economic activities?

Data was collected from 152 female respondents of 10 female community organizations in the project area. Only 3% of the respondents are serving in health and education institutions. Most of them are employees of private schools. Some are earning from embroidery. The salary of government females’ employees are credited in the bank account and the females withdraw their salaries to spend on education, kitchen and bills etc. They are getting low wages and cannot afford heavy expenses like construction of house and marriage of their offspring. They have to obtain loan from the relatives to fulfil these requirements.

In a question, are women allowed to work outside home town? They responded NO. They avoid sending their females, especially young females for work outside home town.

Data was also collected regarding “potential area for increasing women’s participation in economic activities”. During the discussion with female respondents, following key area was identified for increasing women’s participation:

o

Agro-based activities like ruminant (goat & sheep), grain processing, kitchen garden,

o

In education sector ( government and private),

o

In health sector, public and private sector,

o

Females jobs in local factories,

o

Establishment of various vocational centres to provide training i.e. dyeing, packing,

o

sewing and stitching etc, Dairy sector, processing and packing milk products.

The females were interested to take part in the above mentioned area to enhance their skill and participation.

4.13. Gender Preference

Gender preference refers to the gap indicated by the differential preference between male and female in any field of life. Data was collected regarding “attitude of the husband/in-laws family in case of more girl in family. The result indicated positive attitude of the husband or in-laws. They expressed their views with reference to the religion and awareness in the peoples that they never felt any problem due to more girls in their family. Some of them added that they love to their daughters with the views; 1) daughter is blessing ( Rehmat) of God, 2) Girls do more care of their aged parents and 3) having a girl or boy is not in their control.

4.14. Women Participation in Local Forum

The Initial Poverty & Social Assessment (IPSA) survey of the project area conducted in October 2014 showed that sex ratio of the area is 100:111. It clearly indicated that females are more than males. To ascertain the existing situation regarding women engagement, participation and involvement, following five questions were included in the question:

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  • What kind of local forums (formal, informal) exist in the area where women can participate?

  • Are there any cultural norms and social constraints refraining women to participate in the local forums?

  • What are the key potentials for engaging women in the local networks for development e.g. in water user associations/groups?

  • Do women participate in training programs offered by development partners (NGOs/NRSP/CSOs)? What kind of training programs has been imparted?

  • Would women farmers be willing to participate in the farmers’ capacity building program? If no, what are the constraints/challenges?

During the field investigation, open ended qualitative responses were recorded, which are explained herein:

90 % of the CO groups responded that NRSP forum exists in the area, where females are participating in their activities. The NRSP is a formal organization to deliver different type of services for the community, particular for the poorer. The 100 % respondents told that there were no any cultural norms and constraints refraining their participation in the local forum. Because, NRSP is working in the project area since 2001. Through social mobilization, rapport has been developed and the local females trust NRSP. o Another NGO named Akhuwwat (currently established office in Pind Dadan Khan) is also working in area, but the field network of Akhuwwat is smaller than NRSP. Only 10 % respondents knew about it. In a question, regarding women participation in water user association in future, 100% respondents showed their inability to participate in water user association because lack of information and experience. If there will be any training program for farmers’ capacity building, they agreed to participate at local level. All the respondents participated in various training programs initiated by the NRSP from time to time:

o

o

o

  • a. Book binding

  • b. Dopatta rangai ( dyeing)

  • c. Livestock raring work shop

  • d. Beautician

  • e. Cooking

  • f. Embroidery

  • g. Child caring

  • h. Grain storage

  • i. Soap & surf

4.15. Vulnerabilities(Elderly, Disabled, Widows and Minorities)

In under developed and developing countries, no organized system prevails to look after, care and support vulnerable peoples. Majority of the cases, they live in miserable condition. In case of a poor family, the situation becomes worst.

To observe the situation, following two questions were put in the questionnaire;

  • What are the key vulnerabilities for women in the area?

  • What kind of social protection mechanisms/programs for the vulnerable women?

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During meetings with female groups, it was learnt that about 10-15 elderly vulnerable are present in each studied village. Disabled from polio and paralyzed cases were on average 4 in each studied village, while about 20-25 women were reported as widow. Only few women of minorities lived in each village.

Regarding their care, look after and social protection, 100 % respondents answered that no formal mechanism and facility exists in the area for their caring. Traditionally their family is responsible to look after and care of vulnerable. NRSP provides crutches (besakhi) to some disabled person, otherwise there is no institutional support for these vulnerable groups.

4.16.Gender Violence

Data collected shows very heartening result. All the respondents reported zero occurrences of violence incidents. The main reason is level of awareness in the community and gender violence is not recognised as act of boldness, rather it is regarded as shameful. No complaint/case was reported to any NGO or police station.

4.17. Project Benefits for Women

The project aims to strengthen community participation through provision of Private Agriculture Support Services. All these measures will help reducing the poverty in the area and boost the economy at local as well as national-scale. The benefits to farmers will also be reached to non- farming community including females as well. All the agricultural activities have direct and indirect effect and impacts on other segment of the society.

It is anticipated that women would be benefitted to a great extent from the project. To assess benefits to women, following questions were placed in the questionnaire:

  • What do you suggest protective measures regarding the project implementation?

  • How women’s participation could be ensured in the project implementation? How project interventions will benefit women?

  • What are the key recommendations for maximizing project benefits for women?

  • What kind of negative impacts do this project has on women?

  • What are the pressing needs of women of the Project Area (Recorded by them)?

The female respondents suggested protective measures that during the project implementation, their mobility should not be restricted. They should be allowed to go in their field without any hesitation. Risk of safety, security and privacy will be increased due to outsiders working in the area during construction of the project.

Most of the women suggested that some ponds along the channels near the villages should be constructed for washing clothes and crockery, bathing their children as well as for other similar activities.

As far as pressing needs of the women of the project area are listed as under:

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  • Educational facility: Primary schools exist in the village that does not meet the requirement of the advance education system. There is need to establish more schools with regard to population size. Moreover, the primary schools should be upgraded to high school and college, so that the maximum children could go to school and college.

  • Health Facility: Sufficient and good medical facilities are not available in the project area. The females highlighted their concerns that they never get reasonable treatment from the existing basic health unit. No proper medical equipment is provided to the health institutions. They reported that there is serious issue of non-availability of a qualified gynaecologist in the existing basic health units. Most of the cases are referred to Sargodha, Lahore and Rawal Pindi causing many natal complications as well as heavy financial burden.

  • Vocational Training Centres: As it is mentioned earlier that there are few training centres existing in the project area, which are not enough to provide training and skill to the youth. Keeping in view the training needs of the community, vocational institutions should be established at Union Council level for easy access of the female community.

  • Portable Drinking Water: The project area fall in brackish zone. The underground water is not fit for drinking. A numbers of water supply schemes are installed by the public and private sector. But the supply is very short and the females find it hard to accomplish their duties related to kitchen and washing cloths. They demanded more supply schemes in the area.

  • Sanitation/Drainage System: In most of the villages, proper drainage system was not constructed. In rainy season, the rain water and drains mix up and water stands in the house and streets causing many environmental problem which lead to different diseases. They proposed to develop drainage system in the area.

  • Supply of Gas: In the project area, there was lack of trees and fuel wood. People have to buy fuel wood from the market, which is costly and unaffordable for the poor families. The female respondents showed their willingness that natural gas should be available in the area or bio gas plants should be installed and training shall be provided to the desired households on subsidy basis.

4.18. Kind of Development Support by Other Development Partner

As discussed earlier, two NGOs, National Rural Support Program (NRSP) and Akhuwwat are working in the Project Area. NRSP is well established and is working all over the project area, whereas Akhuwwat is present only in limited part of the project area. For this purpose, activities of NRSP are described hereunder.

NRSP has started many beneficial programs for males and females to improve their socio- economic condition and to reduce poverty. For this purpose, NRSP has established its area office in Pind Dadan Khan and launched many programs. Many groups consisting 20 to 25 female members were formed. Trainings were provided in different fields and provided micro credit facility to start different activities. The credit is being utilized to keep

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small livestock (goats and sheep etc.) and poultry. The loan is also used for other small businesses like shop, sewing machine, stitching and embroidery.

The information collected from NRSP office Pind Dadan Khan indicates a very inspiring situation that overall 1162 Community Organizations (Cos) were formed. Out of this, 790 are females and 372 male. The total female members of 790 COs are 14024 and male members of 372 COs are 7097. The program encourages women to participate in the schemes to generate more income to enhance their empowerment in the society. The data also indicates that NRSP encouraged females than males. There are 42 Village Organizations (VOs) in the project area organized by the NRSP to carry out development activities like water supply scheme, road/street pavement, education, tree plantation and other as per requirement. A Community Investment Fund (CIF) is created by the village members to deposit a fixed amount after a specific time to utilize for different welfare activities. For the purpose, training is provided by the NRSP. In the area, three Local Support Organizations (LSOs) are also formed at Union Council level to launch different development activities to generate income and to reduce poverty.

4.19. Other Schemes by the NRSP

NRSP have provided services and completed the following schemes:

Table 4-7 Different Schemes Completed By NRSP in the Project Area

S.No

Activity

Nos. of

Households

Schemes

Benefitted(Nos.)

1

Drinking Water Supply

14

1545

2

Agriculture

18

642

3

Communication

46

12160

4

Sewerage & Drainage

01

100

5

Others

108

1600

Total

187

16511

Data source: NRSP office Pind Dadan Khan

Table 4-8 Social sector Services

1-Education

Nos.

a- Teachers trained

236

2-Health

a-Eye Camps

15

 

10

b-Mother Child Health Camps c-Free Medical Camps

30

3-Social Services

a-NADRA Camps

64

Data source: NRSP office Pind Dadan Khan

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Table 4-9 Human Resource Development

Type of Training

Male

Female

Total

Managerial

963

2365

3328

NRM training

246

411

657

Vocational

2766

389

3155

Activist workshops

361

204

565

Exposure Visits

9

4

13

Staff trainings

79

48

1127

Total

4424

3421

7845

Data source: NRSP office Pind Dadan Khan

4.20. Overall Comments

All the respondents except one were satisfied with the proposed project. They thought it will bring a social change in the area in general and farming community specifically. The dis-agreed case found in Pinnanwal village, and she earns her living by selling bangles.

  • 5. GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONS FOR GENDER DEVELOPMENT

It is believed that goal of poverty reduction cannot be fully achieved without increased investments in women and greater attention to their needs and concerns. Investing in health and education of females not only results in positive returns to women, but return to the society is even larger and last for generations.

A number of questions were added in the questionnaire to collect the data and information to ascertain the existing condition of the females and their role in development activities. During the survey, the following data was gathered to report on gender development plan.

Education (expanding enrolment of girls in schools),

Health institutions,

Economic participation,

Power sharing and decision making,

Gender violence,

Gender disparity,

NGO exists in the area for female development,

Women consultation and opinion about the proposed project,

Social, cultural and gender problems, and

Forum established in the project area for gender development.

Based on the field survey, data collection and consultation with a large number of females of the project area, development and improvement is required in the following sectors for gender development.

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  • 5.1. Education

    • There is need to establish more schools in relation to population size and number of the children. Moreover, the primary schools need upgrade to high school and college. It is required that middle and high schools of female should be established at Union Council level to provide an opportunity to all girls of school going age. There should a special incentive for the poorer to attract them to send their children to the educational institutions. The girls, who are at present engaged in some earning activities, should be persuaded to attend educational institutes.

During the survey, it was also observed that at present, there was a growing trend to educate their girls and in the near future need for college and university will rise. A mobilization is also proposed to motivate and convince the parents to send their girls to colleges / universities after completing elementary education.

  • 5.2. Health Facility

    • Data indicated that sufficient and better medical facilities were not available in the project area. The females highlighted their concerns that they never get reasonable treatment from the existing basic health units. Even no proper medical equipment was available in the health centres. They reported that there was serious issue of non-availability of a qualified child specialist and gynaecologist in the existing basic health units. For gynaecological cases, most are referred to Sargodha, Lahore and Rawal Pindi causing many complications and heavy financial burden. The general appearance of health of the females did not look better mainly due to malnutrition and poverty.

  • 5.3. Vocational Training Centres

    • As it is mentioned earlier that there are few training centres in the project area which are not enough to provide training and skill. There is an need to develop more vocational training centres in the area.

  • 5.4. Gender Equitable Property & Resource Ownership

    • Civil and religious law permits women rights over their property and resource. But most the women are deprived from their ownership status. For the gender development, women should be allowed to utilize their property and other resources, when and where required.

  • 5.5. Greater Gender Equality in the Political Sphere

    • The women are can play a pivotal role in the country development through their involvement and contribution in political and government affairs. In the project area, women political participation is negligible and they are kept away from this field. It is recommended that women participation in local and national level politics should be encouraged so that they can utilize their capability for development of the area.

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5.6. Credit Facility to Women

  • The commercial banks prefer to provide credit and loan to males. The males obtain loan and spend according to their own will and wish. Even they don’t bother to consult with females about the loan and its purpose. In the project area, NRSP at large scale and Akhuwwat at limited level provide loans to the females. No other commercial banks do provide loan to the females for small business. It is proposed that after training or skill, the other commercial banks should provide loan at minimum interest rate to the women to run their business in more comfortable environment.

  • 6. PROJECT SPECIFIC GENDER DEVELOPMENT PLAN

Following sector are envisaged, where there is potential for women development:

i.

Women’s participation at planning and design stage of the project shall be ensured.

ii.

Social infrastructures, such as drinking water facilities, washing points, foot bridges to cross torrent and proposed canal/distributaries, livestock ghats in the project area should be planned in consultation with women resource user groups. It will help to develop sense of ownership and their role in development.

iii.

Reflect women’s preference for particular tree species to be used for fuel in the

project area. It will help them to reduce budgetary burden spend on fuel.

iv.

Ensure participation of women in affected person’s committee. The information on

payments of compensation shall be available to women and affected women be encouraged to open their own account

v.

During the construction phase of the project, the contractor may be asked to employ for certain number of females for the jobs suitable for them. A proper check and balance system to observe that women are paid proper salary and wage according to their services be established. Their participation in development process may be ensured through a designated female coordinator.

vi.

NRSP has organised more than 790 female community organizations. The total members of these Cos are 14024. NRSP have provided different type of trainings to these members. It is proposed that an annual gathering of females should be organised in a common and accessible venue to share their knowledge and display of successful story to convince other females.

vii.

Livelihood skills of the women shall be enhanced by mobilizing the gender specialist and conducting trainings in the area.

viii.

Reserve seats for woman at KP level may allocated in order to ensure the effective participation of women in decision making process.

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APPENDICES

APPENDIX-1

PAK PPTA: JALALPUR IRRIGATION PROJECT Gender Analysis - Focus Group Discussion (For Women Groups)

PAK PPTA: JALALPUR IRRIGATION PROJECT Gender Analysis - Focus Group Discussion (For Women Groups)

1-

Identification:

Name of Moderator/ Consultant:

Date:

_______________________________

Village:

Union Council: ________________________

Tehsil:

 

______________________________

  • 2- Profile of FGD Participants:

Age No. Name (Years) Marital Status Education Occupation, if any
Age
No.
Name
(Years)
Marital Status
Education
Occupation, if any
  • 3- Gender Roles and Responsibilities: 3.1 What are the main roles and responsibilities of women related to care activities?

Roles

Involvement( %age)

   

Taking care of children Preparing food

 

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Washing clothes

 

Dish washing

 

Cleaning house

 

Ironing

 

Water Fetching

 

Fuel wood

 
   

Taking care of patients at home Others

 

3.2 What are the main roles and responsibilities of men and women related to Livestock Management?

Involvement in

Men

Women

Preparing Fodder

   

Feeding animals

   

Veterinary care

   

Cleaning

   

Milking cow

   

Watering animals

   

Others

   

3.3What are the main roles and responsibilities of men and women related to agriculture?

Involvement in

Men

Women

Preparing land

   

Sowing

   

Harvesting

   

Picking vegetables

   
     

On-farm water Management Others

   
  • 4- Decision Making:

4.1 Who decides the following household matters?

Men = 1, Women = 2, Both = 3.

Activities

Decision maker

Education where to send, whom to send

 

Health facilities (from where to avail)

 

Number of children to have

 
   

Children Marriages What HH assets to buy and sell

 

Women to work outside home

 
  • 5- Women Serving in Different Institutions

(Numbers)

Name of

Education

Health

NGO

Private

Owned

Any

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Village/

Govt

Pvt

Govt

Pvt

 

Job

Business

Other

Dhok

                 
                 
  • 6- Access to Social/Financial Services and Mobility

    • 6.1 Access to Education and Skills

    • 6.2 Are there any constraints for girls accessing education? What are the main constraints?

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

  • 6.3 Gender preferences for sending children to school?

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

  • 6.4 Are there any vocational centres/schools for girls/women? What kinds of training courses are available with these vocational centres?

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

  • 7- Access to Health

    • 7.1 What kinds of health facilities are available in the area? Do women seek pre and post natal health consultations and care? If not, what are the main constraints?

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

  • 7.2 Distance from the nearest health facility in KMs? (BHU, RHC District Hospital)?

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

  • 7.3 What are the main health issues for men and women? Any common water borne diseases in the area?

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

  • 8- Access to Drinking Water

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8.1What are the main sources of drinking water?

______________________________________________________________________

8.2 What are the key drinking water specific issues in the area? _______________________________________________________________________

8.3 Do women fetch water in the area? Distance travelled by women (In Kms) to access water? Time used in fetching water? _______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________

  • 9- Access to Finance

9.1 What kind of financial services (such as banking, micro-finance, savings) are available to women? _______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________

9.2 What kind of challenges/constraints women face in accessing financial services?

_____________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________

  • 10- Access and Control over Resources

10.1 What are the common trends of women ownership of land and assets?

______________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________

  • 10.2 What kind of issues, women face in access and control over resources/assets/property?

______________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________

  • 11- Access to Income Earning Opportunities

    • 11.1 Are you involved in Income generating activities?

i)

Yes _____________________

ii)

No

____________________

 

If yes, what are common activities?

 

i) Stitching/Embroidery

___________

ii) Livestock

________

iii)Job

iv) other

________

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11.2

What is opinion of male about the job of female, whether they like and encourage

the female in jobs?

 

______________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________

11.3

Are women allowed to work outside home? What are the main constraints for

women in accessing economic opportunities?

 

_________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________

11.4

Do you satisfied with the private wage/salary?

 

Yes

No

if No, how much it should be per day or per month (Rs.) ___________

11.5

Did you allow saving your salary/income independently in a separate bank account,

Yes

No

,

If No, why explain the

_________________

11.6

In which area, the female employees spend their salaries or earnings on?

House construction

_______________________

Marriage of her children

_____________________

Education

_______

Kitchen

______________

Livestock

Other ______

Support her male in agriculture to purchase agriculture inputs etc

Any Other ________

11.7

What are the key potentials in the area for increasing women’s participation in

economic activities?

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

  • 12- What is the attitude of the husband/ in laws family in case of more girl baby births against the willing of boy baby?

__________________________________________________________________________________

  • 13- Women’s Participation in Local Forums/Training Programs

    • 13.1 What kind of local forums (formal, informal) exist in the area where women can

participate?

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

  • 13.2 Are there any cultural norms and social constraints refraining women to participate

in the local forums?

NESPAK-ICS JV

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ADB TA 8404 PAK: Preparing Jalalpur Irrigation Project

ANNEX F6.2 - Gender Assessment

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

13.3 What are the key potentials for engaging development e.g. in water user associations/groups?

women in

the local networks for

_______________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________

13.4 Do women participate in training programs offered by development partners (NGOs/NRSP/CSOs)? What kind of training programs has been imparted? _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________

13.5 Would women farmers be willing to participate in the farmers’ capacity building program? If no, what are the constraints/challenges? _______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________

  • 14- Vulnerabilities (Elderly, Disabled, Widows and Minorities)

14.1 What are the key vulnerabilities for women in the area? ____________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________

14.2 What kind of social protection mechanisms/programs for the vulnerable women? ____________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________

  • 15- Have you ever faced violence from male members of the household?

Yes

________________________

No _____________________

If Yes, Type

Physical

___________________

Mental

___________________

On what type of Issues?

 

i)

Domestic

_______

ii) Economic

iii) Others

______________________

16-

Any complaint or voice rose against violence to NGO or Police?

 

i)

Yes

No

________

,

if yes where ____________________

 

ii)

Was compensated to the affected woman? yes ____________

No

________________

iii)

If yes, what result and consequences of that complaint? ________________________

______________________________________________________________________

If Not. Why ..___________________________________________________________

  • 17- Project Benefits for Women

1.1 What do you suggest protective measures regarding the project implementation?

NESPAK-ICS JV

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ADB TA 8404 PAK: Preparing Jalalpur Irrigation Project

ANNEX F6.2 - Gender Assessment

______________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

17.2 How women’s participation could be ensured in the project implementation? How project interventions will benefit women?

_______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

17.3 What are the key recommendations for maximizing project benefits for women? ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________

17.4 What kind of negative impacts do this project has on women? ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________

17.5 What are the pressing needs of women of the Project Area (Recorded by them)? _____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________

  • 18- Existence of other development partners:

18.1 Are there any other development partners (funding agencies, CSOs/NGOs) working in this area for the socio-economic development of the communities? List down the name of the development partners. ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________

18.2 What kind of development support is provided by other development partners for the socio-economic uplift of the communities in this area? ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________

  • 19- Any other concerns/comments

Interviewer’s Signature

_____________________________

Date __________________

NESPAK-ICS JV

7

List of Females Participants

APPENDIX-2

List of Females Participants

Jalalpur Irrigation Project

Profile of FGD Participants

Sr.No

       

Occupation, if

.

Name

Age (Years)

Marital Status

Education

any

 

Tobha

1

Jamal Bibi

65

Married

Nil

H.H

2

Nargas

50

Married

Nil

Farm Work

3

Kausar

45

Married

 
  • 5 Farm Work

4

Rasoolan Bibi

60

Married

Nil

H.H

5

Azra Begum

45

Married

Nil

Farm Work

6

Samreena Kausar

25

Married

Nil

H.H

7

Shamim Akhter

45

Married

Nil

H.H

8

Sameena Kausar

20

Unmarried

 
  • 5 H.H

9

Nasreen

32

Married

Nil

Farm Work

 
  • 10 Adeela Yaseen

18

Unmarried

10

H.H

 
  • 11 Tahira Mubeen

40

Married

 
  • 8 Farm Work

 
  • 12 Zareena Bibi

30

Married

 
  • 4 H.H

 

Athar

 
  • 1 Naseem Akhter

60

Married

 
  • 5 H.H

 
  • 2 Ghulam Fatima

75

Married

Nil

H.H

 
  • 3 Asmat Bibi

35

Married

Nil

H.H

 
  • 4 Shahnaz Begum

45

Married

Nil

Farm Work

 
  • 5 Fozia Firdous

35

Married

 
  • 10 H.H

 
  • 6 Shamim Akhter

45

Married

Nil

H.H

 
  • 7 Kausar Parveen

45

Married

 
  • 10 LHV

 
  • 8 Zahida Naseem

40

Married

 
  • 10 H.H

 
  • 9 Zareena Begum

55

Married

Nil

H.H

 
  • 10 Shaista

45

Married

 
  • 10 H.H

 
  • 11 Najaat Bibi

45

Married

 
  • 12 H.H

 

Ahmad Abad

 
 
  • 1 Nasreen

40

Married

Nil

Farm Work

 
  • 2 Fatima

60

Married

Nil

Farm Work

 
  • 3 Najma

45

Married

Nil

Farm Work

 
  • 4 Rasool Bibi

65

Married

Nil

Farm Work

 
  • 5 Zarina Bibi

65

Married

Nil

Farm Work

 
  • 6 Hashan Bibi

70

Married

Nil

H.H

 
  • 7 Bushra

35

Married

 
  • 8 H.H

 
  • 8 Pathan Bibi

40

Married

Nil

Farm Work

 
  • 9 safia

35

Married

 
  • 5 H.H

ADB TA 8404 PAK: Preparing Jalalpur Irrigation Project

ANNEX F6.2 - Gender Assessment

Sr.No

Name

Age (Years)

Marital Status

Education

Occupation, if

 
  • 10 Kausar Bibi

35

Married

5

H.H

 
  • 11 Munawar Bibi

40

Married

Nil

Farm Work

 
  • 12 Khursheed Bibi

36

Married

Nil

H.H

 

Sarobha

 
 
  • 1 Sitara Bibi

65

Married

Nil

Farm Work

 
  • 2 Maryam

60

Married

Nil

Farm Work

 
  • 3 Bushra

25

Married

 
  • 10 H.H

 
  • 4 Bushra

45

Married

 
  • 10 Teacher

 
  • 5 Farzana

25

Married

 
  • 10 H.H

 
  • 6 Fatima

30

Married

Nil

Farm Work

 
  • 7 Taskeen Fatima

45

Married

 
  • 8 H.H

 
  • 8 Yasmeen

20

Married

 
  • 8 H.H

 
  • 9 Naseem Bibi

18

Unmarried

 
  • 8 H.H

 

Kaurra

 
  • 1 Fazal Bibi

65

Married

Nil

H.H

 
  • 2 Naseem Bibi

50

Married

 
  • 5 Farm Work

 
  • 3 Bashiran Bibi

55

Married

Nil

Farm Work

 
  • 4 Parveen

52

Married

 
  • 5 Farm Work

 
  • 5 Feroz Bibi

55

Married

Nil

Farm Work

 
  • 6 Kaneez Bibi

60

Married

Nil

H.H

 
  • 7 Amina Bibi

60

Married

Nil

H.H

 
  • 8 Bashiran Bibi

40

Married

Nil

Farm Work

 
  • 9 Pervez Bibi

35

Married

 
  • 8 Farm Work

 
  • 10 Samina

35

Married

16

H.H

 
  • 11 Munawar Bibi

50

Married

Nil

H.H

 
  • 12 Ruqaya Bibi

40

Married

8

H.H

 
  • 13 Raheela Kausar

30

Married

Nil

H.H

 
  • 14 Shameem

45

Married

Nil

Farm Work

 

Sahuwal

 
 
  • 1 Parveen

55

Married

Nil

Farm Work

 
  • 2 Rubeena

35

Married

 
  • 12 H.H

 
  • 3 Shahida

40

Married

 
  • 10 LHW

 
  • 4 Shahida

46

Married

 
  • 10 Teacher

 
  • 5 Rasheeda

45

Married

 
  • 5 H.H

 
  • 6 Um-e-Kalsoom

40

Married

Nil

Farm Work

 
  • 7 Nasreen

50

Married

 
  • 5 H.H

 
  • 8 Shahnaz

52

Married

Nil

Farm Work

 
  • 9 Imrana

53

Married

 
  • 5 Farm Work

 
  • 10 Ansa

20

Unmarried

 
  • 5 H.H

 
  • 11 Azra Bibi

40

Married

 
  • 5 Farm Work

NESPAK-ICS JV

2

ADB TA 8404 PAK: Preparing Jalalpur Irrigation Project

ANNEX F6.2 - Gender Assessment

Sr.No

Name

Age (Years)

Marital Status

Education

Occupation, if

 
  • 12 Raheela

 
  • 35 Farm Work

Married

Nil

 
 
  • 13 Rasheeda

 
  • 50 Farm Work

Married

Nil

 
 
  • 14 Samia Begum

 
  • 35 Farm Work

Married

Nil

 
 
  • 15 Saira Batool

 

Married

  • 40 H.H

Nil

 
 
  • 16 Samina

 

Married

  • 35 H.H

5

 
 
  • 17 Safia

 

Married

  • 35 LHW

10

 
 
  • 18 Perveen

 
  • 40 Farm Work

Married

Nil

 
 
  • 19 Ruqaya Bibi

 

Married

  • 35 H.H

Nil

 
 
  • 20 Maqsood Bibi

 
  • 60 Farm Work

Married

Nil

 
 
  • 21 Razia

 
  • 55 Married

 
  • 5 Farm Work

 
  • 22 Shamim

 
  • 40 Married

 
  • 5 H.H

 
  • 23 Bushra

 
  • 45 Married

 
  • 5 H.H

 
  • 24 Sakeena

 
  • 45 Married

 
  • 5 Farm Work

 
  • 25 Riaz Begum

 
  • 55 Married

 
  • 5 Farm Work

 
  • 26 Sanawar Bibi

 
  • 50 Farm Work

Married

Nil

 
 
  • 27 Samina Kausar

 
  • 35 Married

 
  • 5 H.H

 
  • 28 Naseem

 
  • 40 Married

 
  • 5 H.H

 
  • 29 Kalsoom

 
  • 50 Married

 
  • 5 Farm Work

 
  • 30 Tasleem

 
  • 40 Married

 
  • 5 H.H

 

Gharibwal

 
 
  • 1 Perveen

 
  • 40 Married

 
  • 10 NRSP

 
  • 2 Noreen

 
  • 35 Married

 
  • 14 NRSP

 
  • 3 Maryam

 
  • 25 Married

 
  • 10 NRSP

 
  • 4 Asima

 
  • 35 Married

 
  • 14 Teacher

 
  • 5 Shahida

 
  • 40 Married

 
  • 8 H.H

 
  • 6 Razia

 
  • 45 Farm Work

Married

Nil

 
 
  • 7 Sanawar Bibi