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PUMUN Simulations 2016-17

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Committee : Disarmament and International Security

Committee ( DISEC )
Topic : Enhancing Nuclear Disarmament and Curbing
Nuclear Proliferation
Important treaties and conventions
The need for reducing nuclear stockpiles was established during the cold war when
both USA and Russia had 900 nuclear missiles which can launched in a couple of
minutes within the decision to do so. The policy arose as a concern that one side
could launch a surprise first strike to take out as many weapons as they could.
Furthermore the concerns with maintaining hair trigger alert on nuclear weapons
involves increasing the possibility of unauthorized or accidental nuclear weapons
launches, or launches initiated based on false warnings. There have been a number
of steps taken for dismantling nuclear stockpiles. These include;
Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT), negotiations between the United States and
the Soviet Union that were aimed at curtailing the manufacture of strategic missiles
capable of carrying nuclear weapons. The first agreements, known as SALT I and
SALT II, were signed by the United States and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
in 1972 and 1979, respectively, and were intended to restrain the arms race in
strategic (long-range or intercontinental) ballistic missiles armed with nuclear
Under SALT I after three years of negotiations, during a summit meeting between
Nixon and Brezhnev, on 26 May 1972, the talks were concluded with the signing of
two basic SALT I documents: an Interim Agreement on certain measures limiting
strategic offensive arms; and the ABM Treaty on the limitation of strategic
defensive systems.
It was the first agreement between the United States and the USSR that placed
limits and restraints on their nuclear weapons systems.
The SALT II negotiations opened late in 1972 and continued for seven years. A basic
problem in these negotiations was the asymmetry between the strategic forces of
the two countries, the U.S.S.R. having concentrated on missiles with large warheads
while the United States had developed smaller missiles of greater accuracy.
Questions also arose as to new technologies under development, matters of
definition, and methods of verification. However due to increasing tensions and the
invasion of Afghanistan by Russia the treaty was removed.
Arms control negotiations between the United States and the Soviet Union that were
aimed at reducing those two countries stockpiles and missiles.
START I treaty faced little problems initially being ratified, however when the Soviet
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Union broke up into four independent states each with nuclear warheads, the terms
of the negotiations had to be reconsidered. The states were then asked to either
destroy the weapons or hand them over to Russia. Belarus and Kazakhstan quickly
joined the NPT and ratified START I. Ukraine experienced intense domestic debates
over how to deal with its nuclear inheritance that dragged on for more than two
years some important activities were conducted shortly after its signing, most
notably exchange of data on strategic weapons and associated facilities, as well as
inspections to verify data on technical characteristics of strategic missiles and
implementation of provisions on test launches and telemetry exchanges. Both the
United States and Russia continued reductions after reaching START I mandated
limits. By the time of the treaty's expiration, their strategic nuclear arsenals were
significantly below those stipulated in the treaty.

Although both United States and Russia agreed on the outline of START I in 1990,
they accepted that further reductions should be negotiated. START II never actually
came into force. The U.S. Senate did not ratify the treaty until 1996, largely because
the parallel process was moving so slowly in the Russian Duma. In 2000, the Duma
linked the fate of START II to the ABM Treaty, and in June 2002, following the United
States withdrawal from the ABM Treaty, the Duma repudiated START II.
The treaty, sometimes referred to as the Moscow Treaty, was ratified without by
both the U.S. Senate and the Russian Duma, in March and May 2003, respectively It
did not require the elimination of delivery systems; it allowed non deployed
warheads to be stored instead of destroyed; and for verification it relied on
mechanisms outlined in START I. Implementation of SORT proceeded without
problems, although it was apparent from the beginning that difficulties might arise if
START I were to lapse on schedule in 2009 without replacement. Agreement to
negotiate a replacement to START I was made difficult by tensions on a range of
issues, including the United States occupation of Iraq in 2003, Russias invasion of
Georgia in 2008, and U.S. plans to install ballistic missile defense systems in eastern
Europe in order to deter a potential threat from Irans growing missile force.
Negotiations continued through the formal expiration of START I in December, and
Obama and Russian President Dmitry Medvedev agreed to work out a new treaty by
December. The targets set by the so-called New START are some 30 percent below
the levels set by SORT in 2002. The new limits must be
reached seven years after ratification. The verification procedures of START I have
been streamlined to do away with redundant monitoring proceduresfor instance,
ending the permanent monitoring at Votkinsk and reducing telemetry access. The
New START does, however, call for more on-site inspections.
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Global Zero
Global Zero Action Plan is a four-phased action plan which intends to eliminate the
global nuclear arsenal by 2030. After signing the New START Treaty, the USA and
Russia were to sign a bilateral accord to reduce their nuclear stockpile to 1000
warheads each by 2018. Following this agreement, all nuclear weapon states had to
commit to participate in multilateral negotiations to reduce their stockpiles. In
phase II the USA and Russia are to reduce the size of their stockpile to 500 by 2021
while other nuclear states are to have proportionate reduction in their stockpile
while maintaining the cap on the total number of weapons. Phase III calls for a
'Global Zero Accord'- a legally binding document which will call for a proportionate
reduction of nuclear arsenal to zero by 2030- to be negotiated between all nuclear
weapon states. Phase IV deals with postdismantlement scenario of the entire
nuclear arsenal. It calls for the establishment of a permanent verification and
enforcement mechanism to ensure that world is not threatened in future by nuclear
Although public opinion strongly favors the dismantlement of nuclear arsenal to
have a more peaceful world, critics have argued that a complete implementation of
the global zero plan will deprive the world of the deterrence theory- a prominent
military strategy upon which ensured international stability during the Cold War.

Iran Nuclear Deal or Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action

In 2015 , the p5 countries , Germany and European Union made a deal with Iran
whereby the latter agreed to temporarily suspend its nuclear program in return of
the lifting of santions on Iran . Despite being acclaimed as a landmark
achievement , countries such as Israel have aired their serious concerns on this deal
since they beleive that it will not stop Iran make nuclear weapons in the long run .
Comprehensive test ban treaty (CTBT)
The Comprehensive test ban treaty has banned all nuclear explosions for testing
purposes or otherwise. It provided the impetus to abolish Article 5 of the NPT which
supported the ideas of conducting nuclear tests. It has 182 signatories out of which
166 countries have ratified. The CTBT aims to restrain the development of nuclear
weapons by restricting any kind of nuclear tests anywhere in the world. The treaty
proved to be a milestone when countries such as the United States supported its
formation. However, when the United States declined to ratify it under the G.W.
Bush administration, it lost its significance. However it still has been successful in
limiting the number of nuclear tests being conducted in the world. Before it was put
into effect, an estimate of 2000+ nuclear tests had been conducted by countries
such as the United States (1000+), The Soviet Union (700+), France (200+), United
Kingdom and China (45 each). But after the CTBT was signed, only 3 countries have
conducted nuclear tests; Pakistan and India (1996/1998) , and democratic republic
of Korea (2006/2009).
Above all else, the fundamental part of the CTBT is controlling the expansion of
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atomic weapons, in this way it essentially adds to the improvement of universal

peace and security. Its entry into force would strengthen the international security
architecture built upon the foundation of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty.

Non-Proliferation Treaty-NPT
The NPT seeks to inhibit the spread of Nuclear weapons and restricts the use of
nuclear energy for peaceful purposes. It has 190 signatories with the exception of 5
states, Pakistan, India, North Korea, Israel, and South Sudan. All the non signatories
of the NPT with the exception of South Soudan possess or are suspected of
possessing nuclear weapons. North Korea had acceded to the NPT in 1985 but
withdrew from it in 2003. There are two parties to the treaty, the Nuclear weapon
states and nonnuclear weapon states; under Articles I and II of the treaty, the
nuclear states agree not to assist the nonnuclear states to develop or acquire
nuclear weapons. Non-nuclear states permanently forgo the pursuit of such
weapons. Safeguards present in the treaty include inspections to take place under
the supervision of the International Atomic Energy Agency (Article III). It encourages
the establishment of Nuclear Weapon Free Zones. It does recognize five states as
nuclear weapon states; The United states of America, Russia, United Kingdom,
France, and China. Signatories of the NPT meet every five years to evaluate and
assess the treaty in meetings formally named Review Conferences of the Parties to
the Treaty of Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons.
Non-compliant states with current treaties
The Non-proliferation treaty has been one of the most influential treaties of the
modern day, however despite this it has shown limited progress in disallowing
to pursue and obtain nuclear weapons.
The number of nuclear warheads in the world today, while decreasing in most
cases, is still extremely high. There are a total of 9 nuclear powers and for USA,
Russia, China, UK, and France, the number of warheads is steadily decreasing since
the year 2000.The rest of the countries, on the other hand, are steadily increasing
their nuclear stockpile while going against treaties such as the NPT. There are a
total of 4 countries which currently have Nuclear Stockpiles that are non-compliant
with current treaties, and this guide will also talk about Iran, a country which had a
nuclear program, but the Iran Deal has majorly resolved the situation.
Perhaps the most controversial topic within Nuclear Proliferation is the issue of
Israel. Israel has maintained a policy of Nuclear Ambiguity, whereby it has never
officially admitted that it has nuclear weapons (Vague, Opaque and Ambiguous).
Most the nuclear activity of Israel has been ambiguous, so much so that Ehud
Olmert, Israels ex-prime minister, was put under great scrutiny when he
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accidentally admitted to having a nuclear arsenal. Currently it is assumed that Israel

has 200 nuclear weapons, but could be as much as 400, which is the information
gathered from Colin Powells (former US secretary) leaked email. All of which were,
allegedly, pointed towards Iran.
The Israeli nuclear arsenal has come about with great help from France (Warner D.
Farr). Moreover, Israel is also one of the few countries in the world to possess a
nuclear triad, whereby it has the capability to launch nuclear missiles from land, air
or sea. This allows Israel to have a second-strike capability.
North Korea
Extreme controversy came about when North Korea claimed to have successfully
tested a HydrogenBomb. This was the 5th nuclear test carried out by North Korea
and shows that the countrys nuclear prowess is increasing day by day. It is
speculated that North Korea started its Nuclear Program during the early 1990s with
help from Pakistan., and was initially a part of the NPT, but announced its
withdrawal from it in 2003 (Fact Sheet on DPRK Nuclear Safeguards).
Pakistan started its Nuclear Program a little after the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971,
which led to the creation of Bangladesh. It took great help from both allies China
and USA. Pakistan, in 2009, had a total of 90 Nuclear Warheads but does not have a
nuclear triad. While it was certain that Pakistan will soon develop nuclear weapons
to be deployed by sea, currently there are no such plans for it. The main reason the
Pakistani stockpile is increasing day by day is due to increasing tensions between
India and Pakistan, its neighboring country.
Pakistans policy on nuclear disarmament is such that it states it will only give up its
nuclear power when the other states do so as well. Pakistans stance is such that it
wants to eliminate the discrimination which happens in the current non-proliferation
treaties and wants to talk about issues of weapons of mass destruction falling into
terrorists hands. Pakistan faces a great threat from India and thus wants to make
sure that it has sufficient defense against it.
India started its nuclear research as early as 1962 as a means to deter Chinese
aggression. India is also a country which possesses a nuclear triad and has second
strike capability, but it has a written doctrine in which it states its clear no-first-use
policy. While India is not a signatory to the NPT or the Comprehensive Test Ban
Treaty (CTBT), it is a part of the Partial Test Ban Treaty. Moreover 4 out of 17 reactors
of India are subject to IAEA safeguards. IAEA has much greater control of civilian
nuclear reactors in India than any other non-compliant countries stated before. India
has also been granted a waiver by the Nuclear Suppliers Group which allows it to
get materials, technology and fuel from other countries despite not being a part of
NPT. Thus, it is the only country in the world to carry out nuclear trade without being
a part of NPT.
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Indias stance is similar to that of Pakistan when it comes to NPT and other treaties,
stating that the treaties are biased in favor of the superpowers of the world.

Nuclear Suppliers Group

This is a group which was created after the nuclear tests conducted by India in 1974
. Currently it has 48 member States which are committed to augment the existing
mechanisms and laws to restrict the proliferation of nuclear technology . These 48
member States can trade nuclear material and equipments between each other .
However , in order for a country to become a member of NSG , all 48 countries must
agree for the admission of that country in the group , and the country should be a
signatory to the NPT . However , in 2008 , US and India signed a civil nuclear deal
despite India being neither a signatory of NPT nor a member of NSG . This has
provoked a debate that such bilateral nuclear deals may infringe the sanctity of
multilateral organisations such as NSG . Although India's application to become a
member of NSG member was rejected by certain countries , it recieved an
overwhelming support in NSG . It urged Pakistan too to apply for its membership ,
but that too was rejected considering the allegations Pakistan has recieved in regard
to the nuclear proliferation .
A draft resolution should answer the following questions :
1- What are the range of threats that the world faces from nuclear weapons ?
2- 1- What kind of confidence building measures should be taken that can help
nuclear countries move towards nuclear disarmament
3- 2- How countries can be stopped from nuclear proliferation .
4- 3- How IAEA can be made a more viable agency that can help in detecting
activities targeted towards acquiring a nuclear weapon ?
5- 4- How can the threat of modern delivery systems of nuclear weapons - such
as short range ballistic missiles - be thawrted to avoid nuclear weapons being
for tactical attacks in a conventional war ?
5- Is Iran Nuclear deal really a "comprehensive" plan of action ? 6- How can the
Nuclear Suppliers Group be restructured to make the peaceful use of nuclear
energy more avaible for the countries ?

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Punjab University Model United Nations