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Materials System Specification

32-SAMSS-004

30 March 2005

Manufacture of Pressure Vessels


Vessels Standards Committee Members
Naffa'a, M.Y., Chairman
Al-Anezi, M.A.
Al-Anizi, S.S.
Al-Gahtani, M.S.
Al-Sharhan, Z.S.
Al-Sudairy, J.A.
Kim, S.U.
Muir, W.R.
Niemeyer, D.C.

Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards


Table of Contents

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20

Scope............................................................. 2
Conflicts and Deviations................................. 2
References..................................................... 3
Definitions....................................................... 6
Responsibilities.............................................. 7
Proposals....................................................... 7
Mechanical Design......................................... 8
Nozzles and Manways................................. 14
Internals........................................................ 17
Vessel Support............................................. 18
Clips and Attachments................................. 21
Materials....................................................... 22
Fabrication.................................................... 24
Nondestructive Examination......................... 27
Postweld Heat Treatment............................. 30
Examination, Inspection,
Pressure Tests and Repairs................. 31
Nameplates and Stampings......................... 35
Coatings and Painting.................................. 35
Shipping Requirements................................ 36
Drawings, Calculations and Data................. 38

Previous Issue: 29 December 2004 Next Planned Update: 1 January 2010


Revised paragraphs are indicated in the right margin
Primary contact: Mahmoud Y. Naffa'a on 8747263

Page 1 of 44

Document Responsibility: Vessels


Issue Date: 30 March 2005
Next Planned Update: 1 January 2010

32-SAMSS-004
Manufacture of Pressure Vessels

Scope
1.1

This specification covers the minimum mandatory requirements for the


manufacture of pressure vessels. The requirements are in addition to and
supplement the requirements of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Codes.

1.2

This specification does not cover pressure vessels that undergo repairs or
alterations and pressure vessels stamped "UM" per ASME SEC VIII D1.

1.3

Pressure vessels having partial or complete cladding shall also conform to


32-SAMSS-031 in addition to the requirements of this specification.

1.4

Pressure vessels supplied as part of a vendor's off-the-shelf standard design


package unit and intended for air or water services (e.g., air dryers, portable air
compressors, filtering unit, etc.) with a design pressure no greater than 1.7 MPa
(245 psi) and a design temperature no greater than 121C (250F) are exempt ed
from meeting the requirements of this standard provided that:
a)

The vessel is ASME Code stamped,

b)

Full penetration welds joints are used, and

c)

The vessel is protected against overpressure conditions.

1.5

This specification does not include in its scope equipment, which are made of
pressure-containing components generally recognized as piping components
(pipe, fittings, etc.). Equipment include strainers, pressure containers used for
transferring liquids as an integral part of a piping system and devices that serve
the purposes of mixing, separating, distributing, metering and controlling flow.

1.6

Where a licensor's specification requirement is more stringent than that of this


specification, the licensor's specification requirement will govern.

Conflicts and Deviations


2.1

Any conflicts between this Specification and other applicable Saudi Aramco
Materials System Specifications (SAMSSs), Standard Drawings (SASDs), or
industry standards, codes, and forms shall be in writing by the Company or
Buyer Representative through the Manager, Consulting Services Department of
Saudi Aramco, Dhahran.

2.2

Direct all requests to deviate from this specification in writing to the Company or
Buyer Representative, who shall follow internal company procedure SAEP-302
and forward such requests to the Manager, Consulting Services Department of
Saudi Aramco, Dhahran.

Page 2 of 44

Document Responsibility: Vessels


Issue Date: 30 March 2005
Next Planned Update: 1 January 2010

32-SAMSS-004
Manufacture of Pressure Vessels

References
Materials or equipment supplied to this specification shall comply with the latest edition
of the references listed below, unless otherwise noted.
3.1

Saudi Aramco References


Saudi Aramco Engineering Procedure
SAEP-302

Instructions for Obtaining a Waiver of a


Mandatory Saudi Aramco Engineering
Requirement

Saudi Aramco Materials System Specifications


01-SAMSS-016

Qualification of Pipeline and Pressure Vessel


Steels for resistance to Hydrogen-Induced
Cracking

32-SAMSS-020

Manufacture of Trays and Packing

32-SAMSS-031

Manufacture of Clad Vessels and Heat


Exchangers

Saudi Aramco Engineering Standards


SAES-A-004

General Requirements for Pressure Testing

SAES-A-206

Positive Materials Identification

SAES-A-301

Materials Resistant to Sulfide Stress Corrosion


Cracking

SAES-H-100

Coating Materials and Application

SAES-H-101

Approved Protective Coating Systems

SAES-N-001

Industrial Insulation

SAES-N-100

Refractory Systems

SAES-N-110

Installation Requirements - Castable Refractories

SAES-N-120

Installation requirements - Extreme Erosion


Resistant Refractories

SAES-N-130

Installation Requirements Fireclay Bricks

SAES-N-140

Installation Requirements - Refractory Ceramic


Fiber

SAES-W-010

Welding Requirements for Pressure Vessels

SAES-W-014

Weld Overlays and Welding of Clad Materials


Page 3 of 44

Document Responsibility: Vessels


Issue Date: 30 March 2005
Next Planned Update: 1 January 2010

32-SAMSS-004
Manufacture of Pressure Vessels

Saudi Aramco Inspection Requirements


Form 175-321900

Manufacture of Pressure Vessels

Saudi Aramco Forms and Data Sheets


NMR-7919-1

Nonmaterial Requirements for Pressure Vessels

9527-ENG

Pressure Vessel Data Sheet (herein referred to as


data sheet)

Saudi Aramco Standard Drawing


AB-036322
3.2

Anchor Bolt Details

Industry Codes and Standards


American Institute of Steel Construction
AISC M011

Manual of Steel Construction

American Petroleum Institute


API RP 934

Materials and Fabrication requirements for


2Cr-1 Mo & 3Mo Steel Heavy Wall Pressure
Vessels for High Temperature, High Pressure
Hydrogen Service

API PUBL 941

Steels for Hydrogen Service at Elevated


Temperatures and Pressures in Petroleum
Refineries and Petrochemical Plants

API RP 945

Avoiding Environmental Cracking in Amine Units

American Society of Civil Engineers


ASCE 7

Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other


Structures

American Society of Mechanical Engineers (Boiler and Pressure Vessel Codes)


ASME SA-20

Specification for General Requirements for Steel


Plates for pressure Vessels

ASME SA-388

Ultrasonic Examination of Heavy Steel Forgings

ASME SA-435

Straight Beam Ultrasonic Examination of Steel


Plates

ASME SEC II

Material Specifications Parts A, B and D

ASME SEC IIC

Specification for Welding Rods, Electrodes, and


Filler Metals
Page 4 of 44

Document Responsibility: Vessels


Issue Date: 30 March 2005
Next Planned Update: 1 January 2010

32-SAMSS-004
Manufacture of Pressure Vessels

ASME SEC V

Nondestructive Examination

ASME SEC VIII D1

Rules for Construction of Pressure Vessels

ASME SEC VIII D2

Rules for Construction of Pressure Vessels,


Alternative Rules

ASME B16.5

Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings NPS


through NPS 24

ASME B16.11

Forged Steel Fittings, Socket Welding and


Threaded

ASME B1.20.1

Pipe Threads, General Purpose (Inch)

ASME B16.20

Metallic Gaskets for Pipe Flanges-Ring-Joint,


Spiral-Wound, and Jacketed

ASME B16.21

Nonmetallic Flat Gaskets for Pipe Flanges

ASME B16.25

Butt-welding Ends

ASME B16.47

Large Diameter Steel Flanges NPS 26 through


NPS 60

ASME PCC-1

Guidelines for Pressure Boundary Bolted Flange


Joint Assembly

American Society for Testing and Materials


ASTM A307

Standard Specification for Carbon Steel Bolts and


Studs

American Society for Nondestructive Testing


ASNT CP-189

Standard for Qualification and Certification of


Nondestructive Testing Personnel

U.S. Military Specifications


MIL C16173

Corrosion Preventive Compound, Solvent


Cutback, Cold-Application

National Association of Corrosion Engineers


NACE RP0472

Methods of Control to Prevent In-Service


Cracking of Carbon Steel Welds in P-1
Materials in Corrosive Petrochemical Refining
Environments

NACE RP0590

Recommended Practice for Prevention, Detection


and Correction of Deaerator Cracking

Page 5 of 44

Document Responsibility: Vessels


Issue Date: 30 March 2005
Next Planned Update: 1 January 2010

32-SAMSS-004
Manufacture of Pressure Vessels

Process Industry Practices


VEFV1100

Vessel/S&T Heat Exchanger Standard Details

Welding Research Council

WRC 107

Welding Research Council Bulletin

WRC 297

Welding Research Council Bulletin

Definitions
AARH: Average arithmetic roughness height, which is a measure of surface texture.
Cyclic Service: Services that require fatigue analysis per AD-160 of ASME SEC VIII
D2. This applies to Division 1 and Division 2 of ASME SEC VIII.
Design Engineer: The Engineering Company responsible for specifying on the data
sheet the mechanical design requirements for pressure vessels.
High - Alloy Steels: Steels with a total alloying content more than 5%.
Hot Forming: Forming operations carried out at an elevated temperature such that recrystallization occurs simultaneously with deformation.
Hydrogen Service: Process streams containing relatively pure hydrogen and
component streams containing hydrogen with a partial pressure of 350 kPa abs (50 psia)
and higher.
Lethal Services: Process streams containing a concentration of hydrogen sulfide in
excess of 20% by volume shall be considered as lethal service. Other services as
determined by the project design may also be designated as lethal services.
Low - Alloy Steels: Steels with a total alloying content of less than 5% but more than
specified for carbon steels.
MDMT: Minimum design metal temperature, determined by the Design Engineer.
Nominal Thickness: Thickness of a pressure vessel section (head or shell) after
forming.
Pressure Vessel and Vessel: As defined in the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel
Codes.
Saudi Aramco Engineer: The Supervisor of the Process Equipment Unit, Consulting
Services Department, Dhahran.

Page 6 of 44

Document Responsibility: Vessels


Issue Date: 30 March 2005
Next Planned Update: 1 January 2010

32-SAMSS-004
Manufacture of Pressure Vessels

Saudi Aramco Inspector: The person or company authorized by the Saudi Aramco
Inspection Department to inspect pressure vessels to the requirements of this
specification.
Thick Wall Vessel: A vessel or portion of a vessel with nominal thickness greater than
50 mm.
Unfired Steam Drums: As defined in ASME SEC VIII D1, paragraph U-1 (g)(2).
Utility Services: Water, air and nitrogen services.
Vessel Manufacturer: The company responsible for the manufacture of new pressure
vessels in accordance with this specification.
Wet Sour Service: Following process streams containing water and hydrogen sulfide:

i)

Sour water with a hydrogen sulfide (H2S) concentration above 2 mg/L (2 ppm)
and a total pressure of 400 kPa absolute (65 psia) or greater.

ii)

Hydrocarbon services meeting the definition of sour environments in


SAES-A-301, where the H2S concentration of 2 mg/L (2 ppm) or more in the
water phase is equivalent to H2S partial pressure of 0.05 psia. Sour crude systems
upstream of a stabilization facility and sour gas upstream of a sweetening or
dehydration plant are examples of such environments.

iii)

Hydrocarbon systems exposed to an environment with a H2S concentration above


50 mg/L (50 ppm) in the water phase, regardless of H2S partial pressure.

Responsibilities
The Vessel Manufacturer is responsible for the manufacture of pressure vessels, which
includes complete mechanical design, Code and structural calculations, supply of all
materials, fabrication, nondestructive examination, inspection, testing, surface
preparation, and preparation for shipment in accordance with the completed data sheet
and the requirements of this specification.

Proposals
6.1

The Vessel Manufacturer's proposal shall be based on details for individual


vessels and the requirements of this specification.

6.2

The Vessel Manufacturer may offer an alternative design, but must quote on the
base inquiry documents.

6.3

The proposal shall include a detailed description of any exception to the


requirements of this specification.
Page 7 of 44

Document Responsibility: Vessels


Issue Date: 30 March 2005
Next Planned Update: 1 January 2010

32-SAMSS-004
Manufacture of Pressure Vessels

Mechanical Design
7.1

7.2

General
7.1.1

All pressure vessels shall be designed in accordance with the rules of


the Boiler and Pressure Vessel Codes, ASME SEC VIII D1 or ASME
SEC VIII D2 (herein referred to as the Codes), and the requirements of
this specification.

7.1.2

The ASME SEC VIII D1 or ASME SEC VIII D2, to which a vessel is
to be manufactured, shall be in accordance with the data sheet.

7.1.3

Should the Vessel Manufacturer have any part of a stress analysis


executed by a third party, the Vessel Manufacturer shall advise the
Saudi Aramco Engineer.

7.1.4

No proof testing shall be permitted unless specifically approved by the


Saudi Aramco Engineer.

7.1.5

Application of ASME Code Cases to the manufacturing of pressure


vessels requires approval of the Saudi Aramco Engineer.

7.1.6

Unfired steam drums shall be manufactured and stamped in accordance


with the requirements of this specification.

7.1.7

All welded joints of category A, B, C and D shall be complete fusion


full penetration welds, except for joint welds of slip-on flanges
specified per paragraph 8.1.3 of this specification.

Design Pressure
The value of design pressure(s) shall be in accordance with the data sheet.
Commentary Note:
Design pressure is the maximum difference in pressure between the inside and
the outside of a vessel, or between the chambers of a combination unit. The term
internal design pressure is used when the internal pressure is greater than the
external pressure. However, the term external design pressure is used when
the internal pressure is less than the external pressure.

7.2.1

Unless otherwise specified on the data sheet the design pressure will be
assumed to be at the top of the vessel in the operating position.

7.2.2

Design pressure(s) acting at the bottom of vessels shall take into


account pressure heads, both static and dynamic, due to the maximum
liquid levels.
Page 8 of 44

Document Responsibility: Vessels


Issue Date: 30 March 2005
Next Planned Update: 1 January 2010

7.3

7.4

7.5

7.6

32-SAMSS-004
Manufacture of Pressure Vessels

7.2.3

For the case of multi-compartment vessels, the design pressure


differential for the partition(s) separating the compartment(s) shall be
as specified on the data sheet.

7.2.4

The external design pressure and corresponding temperature shall be as


specified on the data sheet.

7.2.5

For vessels that contain packing, the requirements for the design of
packing bed supports shall be as specified on the data sheet.

Maximum Allowable Working Pressure


7.3.1

The Vessel Manufacturer shall calculate the maximum allowable


working pressure (MAWP) acting on the top of a vessel, in the hot and
corroded condition in accordance with the applicable Code.

7.3.2

The MAWP of a vessel shall not be limited by flange ratings.

7.3.3

The Vessel Manufacturer must ensure, by calculation, that the stresses


imposed during shop and field (erected position) hydrotesting of a
completed vessel do not exceed 90% of the minimum yield stress value
of every pressure component.

Design Temperature
7.4.1

The value of design temperature(s) shall be as specified on the data


sheet.

7.4.2

Where there are differences in the design temperatures for different


zones in a vessel, the extremities of these zones will be shown on the
data sheet.

Minimum Design Metal Temperature (MDMT)


7.5.1

The values of the minimum design metal temperature (MDMT) shall


be as specified on the data sheet.

7.5.2

The MDMT shall be used to determine the requirements for impact


testing in accordance with Section 12 of this specification.

Service and Description


7.6.1

The service of a vessel; hydrocarbon, hydrogen, caustic, amine, wet


sour, steam or utility and whether the service is cyclic and/or lethal
shall be as specified on the data sheet.

Page 9 of 44

Document Responsibility: Vessels


Issue Date: 30 March 2005
Next Planned Update: 1 January 2010

7.6.2
7.7

7.8

7.9

7.10

32-SAMSS-004
Manufacture of Pressure Vessels

The process description of a vessel (for examples: Amine Regenerator,


Air Receiver) shall be specified on the data sheet.

Joint Efficiency
7.7.1

The joint efficiency shall be as specified on the data sheet.

7.7.2

A joint efficiency of 85% or higher shall be specified for the design of


all pressure containing components of ASME SEC VIII D1 pressure
vessels.

7.7.3

A joint efficiency of 50% shall be specified for the following details:


a)

Shell-to-bottom head weld joint that is not exposed for


nondestructive examination from outside the vessel.

b)

Intermediate head-to-shell welds joints shall be designed using a


joint efficiency of 50%.

Corrosion Allowance
7.8.1

A corrosion allowance is to be added to all pressure containing carbon


and low chrome alloy steels which are in contact with the process fluid,
including, shells, heads nozzle/manway necks, covers, and nonremovable internals.

7.8.2

The amount of corrosion allowance shall be as specified on the data


sheet.

7.8.3

The corrosion allowances required for tray assemblies and tray supports
shall be in accordance with the requirements of 32-SAMSS-020.

Minimum Thickness
7.9.1

Minimum thickness of a pressure vessel shall be adequate to withstand


the combined stresses of all loads in accordance with the applicable
Code and this specification.

7.9.2

In no case, shall the nominal thickness of shells and heads be less than
the following:
a)

Carbon steels, 6 mm.

b)

Low chrome alloy steels, 5 mm.

Head Types
7.10.1

Refer to the data Sheet for the type of head.

Page 10 of 44

Document Responsibility: Vessels


Issue Date: 30 March 2005
Next Planned Update: 1 January 2010

Manufacture of Pressure Vessels

7.10.2

The type of heads to be used shall be ASME 2:1-ellipsoidal or ASME


hemispherical.

7.10.3

ASME flanged and dished heads (torispherical) may be used only for
air and water services up to a design pressure of 690 KPa (100 psi).

7.10.4

One piece construction shall be used for heads of nominal thickness


greater than 50 mm and for heads in vessels in cyclic, hydrogen or
lethal services. Other types of head construction shall require prior
approval of Saudi Aramco Engineer as defined in this specification.

7.10.5

Where a forged skirt-to-head junction ring according to ASME SEC


VIII D2, Figure AD-912-1(k) is used in vessels in cyclic, hydrogen or
lethal services one piece construction shall be used for the remaining
portion of head. Other types of construction for this head portion shall
require prior approval of Saudi Aramco Engineer as defined in this
specification.

7.10.6

Heads in thick wall vessels shall be hemispherical unless 2:1


ellipsoidal heads are deemed more economical.

7.10.7

Minimum inside radius of knuckles for conical transition sections or


torispherical heads shall be as follows:

7.10.8

7.11

32-SAMSS-004

a)

Not be less than 15% of the outside diameter of the adjoining


cylindrical section with conical section of thickness more than 2
inches.

b)

Not be less than 10% of the outside diameter of the adjoining


cylindrical section with conical section of transition sections or
torispherical heads with thickness more than 0.75 inch or less
than 2 inches.

c)

Not be less than 6% of the outside diameter of the adjoining


cylindrical section with conical section of transition sections or
torispherical heads with thickness 0.75 inch and less.

Reinforcing for conical transition sections in thick wall vessels shall be


provided by increased plate thickness. The use of reinforcing rings is
prohibited.

Loads
7.11.1

Wind and Earthquake Loads


a)

The Vessel Manufacturer shall calculate the static effects of loads


due to wind and the effects due to earthquake loads acting on the

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Document Responsibility: Vessels


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Next Planned Update: 1 January 2010

32-SAMSS-004
Manufacture of Pressure Vessels

vessel in the operating position accordance with the requirements


of this specification.

7.11.2

b)

The wind speed, earthquake zone, and soil coefficient


corresponding to the site location shall be as specified on the data
sheet.

c)

Vessels shall be designed for wind and earthquake loads in


accordance with ASCE 7.

d)

With reference to ASCE 7, the wind Category Classification to


be used in the calculations of wind loads shall be Category III,
and the Seismic Hazard Exposure Group to be used in
calculations of earthquake loads shall be Group III.

e)

Wind pressures shall be assumed to act on the projected surface


area of the pressure vessel and shall include due allowances for
platforms, ladders, piping, insulation, and equipment supported
from the pressure vessel as specified on the data sheet.

f)

The maximum allowable deflection in the corroded condition at


the top tangent line of a vessel shall not exceed 150 mm / 30 m of
height.

Wind-induced Vibration
a)

Vertical vessels shall be checked for wind-induced vibration by


the Vessel Manufacturer when:
H > 30 m with H/D ratio > 15
or, when
W/HD < 400
Where:
H is the height of the vessel in meters, including the supports
D is the diameter of vessel in meters.
(For multi-diameter vessels the diameter shall equal the
weighted diameter of the top third).
W is the weight of the vessel in kilograms in both the erected
empty and operating conditions.

b)

The use of vortex breakers or guying devices in order to maintain


stresses, due to wind-induced vibration within allowable limits, is
prohibited.

c)

The fatigue life of those vessels susceptible to wind induced


vibration shall be a minimum of one million cycles. The fatigue
Page 12 of 44

Document Responsibility: Vessels


Issue Date: 30 March 2005
Next Planned Update: 1 January 2010

32-SAMSS-004
Manufacture of Pressure Vessels

curves in ASME SEC VIII D2 shall be used for the materials at


the specified design temperature.
7.11.3

7.11.4

7.12

a)

The maximum operating liquid level (s) of the vessel shall be


shown on the data sheet, together with the density of the liquid.

b)

The liquid level of liquid on trays shall be included when


calculating the operating weight.

Piping, Equipment and External Loads


a)

The Vessel Manufacturer shall ensure that local stresses imposed


on a vessel due to piping, equipment, lifting, supports and other
external loads do not exceed the allowable limits in accordance
with the applicable Code. The stress analysis shall be completed
in accordance with the procedures as detailed in WRC 107, WRC
297 or a finite element analysis.

b)

Refer to the data sheet for piping and equipment loads imposed
on a vessel.

Load Combinations
7.12.1

7.12.2
7.13

Weight of Liquid Contents

All components of a vessel, including their supports, shall be designed


to withstand the combined stresses resulting from the following:
a)

Internal and/or external design pressures, as applicable.

b)

All other loads exerted on the component and specified in section


7.11.

c)

All pressure vessel components whether shop or field fabricated


shall be designed to withstand a full hydrostatic test in the
erected position. Combined stresses due to full hydrostatic test
and wind or earthquake loads shall not exceed 90% of the lowest
Specified Minimum Yield Strength (SMYS) of the materials of
construction at test temperature. However, forces produced, due
to wind or earthquake design conditions, may be reduced to 40%
of its values.

Moments or forces acting on a vessel due to external piping are to be


added to those moments and forces due to other external primary loads.

Stress Analysis
7.13.1

For vessels designed in accordance with ASME SEC VIII D1, refer to
the data sheet for stress analysis requirements.
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Document Responsibility: Vessels


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Next Planned Update: 1 January 2010

7.13.2

32-SAMSS-004
Manufacture of Pressure Vessels

For vessels designed in accordance with ASME SEC VIII D2, the
specific components of a vessel requiring detailed stress analysis shall
be as specified on the data sheet.

Nozzles and Manways


8.1

General
8.1.1

The quantities, sizes, ratings, (ASME pressure classes), facings,


elevations, and orientations of nozzles and manways shall be as
specified on the data sheet.

8.1.2

Unless otherwise specified on the data sheet, the minimum projections


for nozzles and manway necks, as measured from the outside surface
of the shell or head to the face of a flange, shall meet the following
requirements:

8.1.3

8.1.4

a)

6 inches for NPS 6 nozzles and smaller.

b)

8 inches for NPS 8 nozzles and larger and manways necks.

c)

For insulated vessels, projection shall be sufficient to allow


bolting without interference with the insulation.

d)

For vessel drain connections and other connections, where a


process stream is likely to be stagnant, the projection shall not
exceed three times the connection nominal diameter.

Flanges, nozzles and manways shall be of the following types in all


services:
a)

Forged steel long welding neck.

b)

Forged steel welding neck flange with seamless pipe, or rolled


plate with 100% radiography. The bores of nozzle flanges shall
match the nozzle neck bore.

c)

Studded nozzles and proprietary designs may be offered as


alternatives provided their design is in accordance with the Codes
and approved by the Saudi Aramco Engineer.

d)

Slip-on type flanges with seamless pipe nozzle necks or rolled


plate with 100% radiography are permissible for vessels, other
than those exempted in paragraph 1.5 of this specification, for
only air and water services up to and including 121C (250F)
design temperature and 1.7 MPA (245 psi) design pressure.

Nozzles less than 2-inch NPS are not permissible except for utility
services.
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Document Responsibility: Vessels


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Next Planned Update: 1 January 2010

8.1.5

8.2

32-SAMSS-004
Manufacture of Pressure Vessels

Threaded or socket-welded connections are prohibited in the following


services and conditions:
a)

Lethal service.

b)

Hydrogen service.

c)

Caustic service.

d)

Continuous or intermittent vibration.

e)

Any service where crevice corrosion or severe erosion may


occur.

f)

Services where leakage would result in serious consequences for


the operation or safety of plant or personnel.

8.1.6

Threaded connections shall conform to ASME B1.20.1.

8.1.7

Threaded or socket-welded connections with 3000# rating conforming


to ASME B16.11 may be used for 1- inch NPS and smaller vents,
drains and instrument connections in services other than those
specified in paragraph 8.1.5 of this standard.

8.1.8

Vessels in services other than Utility services shall be provided with a


minimum 2-inch NPS flanged steam-out connection.

8.1.9

The ends of butt-welded connections shall be in accordance with


ASME B16.25.

8.1.10

The Vessel Manufacturer shall design nozzles that are required for the
supporting of mechanical mixers and shall include the additional loads
and dimensional tolerances as specified on the data sheet.

8.1.11

As a minimum, four gusset plates for the reinforcement of nozzles


supporting mixers shall be provided.

8.1.12

All nozzles and manways in thick wall vessels shall be weld neck, long
weld neck or contour forged, as required by this specification, with
inside corner radius of 13 mm minimum.

8.1.13

Design of flanged connections with stud bolts of diameter 1 inch and


above shall be such as to provide clearance to permit use of a stud and
bolt tensioning device.

Reinforcement of Openings
8.2.1

Reinforcement of vessel openings shall be in accordance with the


applicable Code and this specification.
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Document Responsibility: Vessels


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Next Planned Update: 1 January 2010

The thickness of reinforcing pads shall not exceed the shell or head
thickness of a vessel.

8.2.3

Integrally reinforced openings (with no reinforcing pads) shall be


provided under the following services and design conditions:
a)

Cyclic services.

b)

Carbon steel with thickness 50 mm and greater.

c)

Low chrome steels with thickness 25 mm and greater.

d)

Openings which are 900 mm and larger with design temperatures


400C and greater.

e)

Vessels with design temperatures above 425C.

f)

Hydrogen services.

Use of internal reinforcing elements is not permitted.

Flange Ratings, (ASME Pressure Classes) and Facings


8.3.1

The ASME pressure classes and facings shall be as specified on the


data sheet.

8.3.2

Pressure ratings for standard flanges shall be in accordance with the


following:

8.3.3

8.3.4
8.4

Manufacture of Pressure Vessels

8.2.2

8.2.4
8.3

32-SAMSS-004

a)

ASME B16.5 for flanges NPS 24 and smaller.

b)

ASME B16.47, Series A for flanges larger than NPS 24.

Gasket seating surfaces shall comply with the following:


a)

For spiral wound gaskets, 125 to 250 AARH, in all services,


except hydrogen.

b)

For spiral wound gaskets in hydrogen service, 125 to 150 AARH.

c)

The side-walls of rings joint flanges in all services, 63 AARH.

d)

For Nonmetallic gaskets, 250 to 500 AARH.

Machined surfaces other than gasket contact faces shall not exceed 500
AARH.

Manways
8.4.1

The data sheet shall specify the number, nominal inside diameter, and
locations of manways.

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Next Planned Update: 1 January 2010

8.4.2

8.5

Manufacture of Pressure Vessels

All manways shall be circular. The manway covers shall be hinged or


provided with handling davits as specified on the data sheet, according
to PIP VEFV1100.

Weld Attachment Details


8.5.1

All nozzles and manway necks shall be attached by welding


completely through the total thickness of the vessel shell, head or
nozzle wall, including any reinforcement. Backing rings used in
attaching nozzles and manways to vessels shall be removed after
welding.

8.5.2

Permissible types of nozzles larger than NPS 4 and manway necks


weld-attachments are:

8.5.3

8.5.4

8.5.5

32-SAMSS-004

a)

Division 1 vessels: Figure UW-16.1 (c), (d), (e), (f-1), (f-2),


(f-3), (f-4) or (g).

b)

Division 2 vessels: Figure AD-610.1: (c), (d), (e), (e-1), (g) or


weld attachments in paragraph 8.5.4(b).

Permissible types of nozzle weld-attachments for vessels with NPS 4


and smaller connections are:
a)

Division 1 vessels: Figure UW-16.1 (a), (a-1), (b) or weld


attachments in paragraph 8.5.2(a).

b)

Division 2 vessels: Figure AD-610.1 (a), (b), or weld


attachments in paragraphs 8.5.2(b) or 8.5.4(b).

Permissible types of nozzle and manway weld-attachments that require


100% radiography according to Table 4 of this specification are:
a)

Division 1 vessels: Figure UW-16.1: (f-1), (f-2), (f-3) or (f-4).

b)

Division 2 vessels: Figure AD-613.1: (a), (b), (c), (c-1), (d) or


(e).

NPS 4 and smaller connections attached to nozzles or manways shall


be according to paragraph 8.5.3 of this specification.

Internals
9.1

All fixed and removable internals, including trays, packing, distributors, screens,
etc. shall be specified on the data sheet.

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10

32-SAMSS-004
Manufacture of Pressure Vessels

9.2

Tray rings and tray supports that are welded to vessels shall be designed by the
tray manufacturer and supplied and installed by the Vessel Manufacturer in
accordance with the requirements of 32-SAMSS-020.

9.3

The Vessel Manufacture shall design, supply and install all other internals,
except for trays, as specified on the data sheet.

9.4

All removable internals are to be designed so that they may be passed through
tray and vessel manways.

9.5

Internal ladder rungs shall be provided by the Vessel Manufacturer according to


PIP document VEFV1100.

Vessel Support
10.1

10.2

General
10.1.1

Refer to the data sheet for the type of support.

10.1.2

Each vessel shall be designed as a self-supporting unit in accordance


with the requirements of the applicable Code and AISC.

10.1.3

All supports shall be continuously welded to the vessel.

10.1.4

The material of anchor bolts shall be in accordance with this


specification.

10.1.5

Base plates shall be designed by the Vessel Manufacturer for all


loading conditions in accordance with this specification.

10.1.6

The allowable concrete bearing stress to be used for the design of base
plates shall be 5170 kPa.

Supports for Vertical Vessels


10.2.1

The data sheet shall specify the type, location and overall dimensions
required for the design of supports for vertical vessels.

10.2.2

The Vessel Manufacturer shall design all supports required, including


skirts, legs, lugs, base-plates, number of anchor bolts in accordance
with the data sheet.

10.2.3

Skirts shall have a minimum thickness of 6 mm.

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Next Planned Update: 1 January 2010

32-SAMSS-004
Manufacture of Pressure Vessels

10.2.4

The mean corroded diameter of the shell and the mean diameter of the
skirt shall coincide [rounded off to the nearest 3 mm], and shall be
symmetrical about the vessel centerline.

10.2.5

Hot-box design when specified for skirt-supported vessels with design


temperatures greater than 260C (500F) shall be in accordance with
PIP VEFV1100 and dimensions that meet the intent of reducing the
thermal gradient at the skirt-to-vessel junction.

10.2.6

One minimum 500 mm diameter skirt access opening shall be provided


for vessels with diameters equal to and larger than 1200 mm. For
vessels with diameters less than 1200 mm, skirt access opening
diameter shall be minimum one half of the vessel diameter. Skirt
access opening diameters smaller than the above specified shall require
prior approval of the Saudi Aramco Engineer. It is the vessel
manufacturer's responsibility to determine the need for reinforcing the
opening, according to the applicable Code.

10.2.7

Piping passing through skirt openings shall be adequately supported to


prevent damage during shipment.

10.2.8

The Vessel Manufacturer shall provide skirt bracing to prevent


buckling during shipping and lifting in the field.

10.2.9

Head-to-shell weld in thick wall vessels and vessels in cyclic,


hydrogen or lethal services shall not be covered by the skirt in order to
be readily accessible for nondestructive examinations (magnetic
particle, radiography, ultrasonic, etc.).

10.2.10 Details of the joint between skirt and vessel shall be as follows:
a)

ASME SEC VIII D2, Figures AD-912-1(g), AD-912-1(h),


AD-912-1(j) or weld build-up.

b)

For thick wall vessels and vessels in cyclic, hydrogen or lethal


services:
i)

Only forged skirt-to-head junction ring per ASME SEC


VIII D2, Figures AD-912-1(k), or weld build-up shall be
used for skirt-to-head weld joints. The joint shall provide a
smooth transition, minimizing peak stress concentration
effects. The inner radius of the weld build-up and forged
skirt-to-head junction ring shall be minimum 25 mm (1
inch). Backing strips used to join the skirt to a forged or
weld build-up details, shall be removed after completion of
welding. All welds shall be ground smooth flush contour.

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Document Responsibility: Vessels


Issue Date: 30 March 2005
Next Planned Update: 1 January 2010

ii)

32-SAMSS-004
Manufacture of Pressure Vessels

Forged single butt welding component integral with the


vessel shell or weld metal build-up shall be used for skirtto-shell attachment. The joint shall provide a smooth
transition, minimizing peak stress concentration effects.
The inner radius of the weld build-up and forged detail shall
be minimum 1 inch. Backing strips used to join the skirt to
a forged or weld build-up details, shall be removed after
completion of welding. All welds shall be ground smooth
flush contour.

10.2.11 Shell-to-internal heads joint shall provide for a smooth transition,


minimizing peak stress concentration effects. The joint shall be made
by forging butt-welding component integral with the vessel shell or
weld metal build-up. Backing strips used to join the skirt to a forged or
weld build-up details, shall be removed after completion of welding.
All welds shall be ground smooth flush contour.
10.3

10.4

Supports for Horizontal Vessels


10.3.1

Horizontal vessel shall be supported by two saddles with anchor bolts.


The vessel shall be fixed at one saddle support and free to slide at the
other saddle.

10.3.2

The data sheet shall specify locations of the fixed and sliding saddles
and dimension from vessel centerline to underside of saddle base plate.

10.3.3

The shell shall be analyzed in accordance with the "LP Zick" method.
Saddle supports and the vessel shell shall be analyzed for operating and
hydrotest loads including any piping, wind or other external loads.

10.3.4

Wear pads a minimum of 10 mm thick are to be supplied at the


junction of the saddle and the vessel, and shall be continuously welded
to the shell. Wear pads shall have all corners rounded to a 50 mm
minimum radius, and shall have one inch NPT vent hole at the
lowest elevation.

10.3.5

The anchor bolt holes on the sliding-end saddle shall be slotted to


facilitate thermal expansion.

Anchor Bolts
10.4.1

The Vessel Manufacturer shall determine the size and number of


anchor bolts required.

10.4.2

Anchor bolts shall straddle vessel centerlines on the north-south, eastwest axes.
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11

32-SAMSS-004
Manufacture of Pressure Vessels

10.4.3

Anchor bolts shall not be less than 19 mm minimum nominal diameter.

10.4.4

The allowable stress (based on ASTM A307 Grade B material) shall be


as follows:
a)

104 MPa (tension). External loads (Wind or Earthquake, plus


operating weight).

b)

69 MPa (shear). External loads (Wind or Earthquake, plus


operating).

10.4.5

Vessels supported on skirts, lugs or legs shall be provided with an even


number of anchor bolts with a minimum of four anchor bolts.

10.4.6

Vessels supported on saddles shall be provided with an even number of


anchor bolts with a minimum of two anchor bolts per saddle.

Clips and Attachments


11.1

11.2

11.3

General
11.1.1

The Vessel Manufacturer shall supply and install all clips and
attachments as specified on the data sheet.

11.1.2

All internal and external attachments, including clips, welded directly


to pressure parts are to be attached by continuous welding except for
blank square nuts used for external insulation where tack welding is
allowed.

Insulation Support Rings


11.2.1

The data sheet shall specify the extent and thickness of external
insulation.

11.2.2

Vertical vessels, which are externally insulated, shall be provided with


insulation supports in accordance with SAES-N-001.

11.2.3

The bottom heads of vertical vessels that are externally insulated shall
be provided with 12 mm blank nuts. Blank nuts shall be welded on
edge and located on 300 mm square centers.

11.2.4

Vertical vessels, which are not externally insulated, shall be provided


with a 5 mm thick steel weather cap on the skirt to provide a flashing
for fire-proofing.

Fireproofing Supports

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Next Planned Update: 1 January 2010

11.4

32-SAMSS-004
Manufacture of Pressure Vessels

11.3.1

The extent and thickness of fireproofing shall be specified on the data


sheet.

11.3.2

The Vessel Manufacturer shall supply and install supports required for
fireproofing materials.

Grounding Lugs
All pressure vessels shall be provided with a grounding lug connection welded
to the vessel support in accordance with PIP VEFV1100.

11.5

12

Equipment Davit
11.5.1

A davit for the lifting of equipment shall be supplied when specified on


the data sheet.

11.5.2

The davit shall be in accordance with PIP VEFV1100.

Materials
12.1

General
12.1.1

All materials required for pressure and non-pressure components shall


be specified on the data sheet in accordance with Table 1, Acceptable
Materials for Carbon and Low-Alloy Steels.

12.1.2

The Vessel Manufacturer may propose alternative materials at time of


proposal, with prior approval of Saudi Aramco Engineer. Alternative
materials must comply with all the requirements of the applicable Code
and this specification.

12.1.3

Use of high alloy steels shall be based on the design temperature,


minimum design metal temperature and intended service, with prior
approval of the Saudi Aramco Engineer as defined in this specification.

12.1.4

All materials must be clearly identified and provided with legible


original or certified true copies of Mill Test Certificates. Lack of
adequate identification and certification shall be cause for rejection.

12.1.5

Suitability of steels with nominal chromium content not exceeding 5%


to be used for vessels in hydrogen services with design temperature of
343-593C (650-1100F) shall be qualified through chemical analysis,
mechanical testing including but not limited to tensile, hardness,
micro-hardness and temper embrittlement tests and ultrasonic and
magnetic particle examinations. Materials specifications and tests
procedures for base and weldments materials shall be submitted to
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Next Planned Update: 1 January 2010

32-SAMSS-004
Manufacture of Pressure Vessels

Saudi Aramco Engineer for review and approval prior to ordering the
materials from the mill.

12.2

12.1.6

All materials, except carbon steels, shall be alloy-verified by the


Vessel Manufacturer in accordance with SAES-A-206.

12.1.7

The use of C- Mo steels in hydrogen services is prohibited.

12.1.8

Materials with properties enhanced by heat treatment cycles such as


tempering, intermediate stress relief (ISR) and the final post weld heat
treatment shall be tested to verify that their mechanical properties have
been retained after all heat treatment cycles. These tests shall also
include two additional postweld heat treatment cycles to account for
future repairs or alteration.

12.1.9

Layered construction is prohibited for all vessels.

HIC Resistant Materials


Hydrogen Induced Cracking (HIC) resistant steel qualified in accordance with
01-SAMSS-016 shall be specified for the following environments with normal
operating temperatures between 0C (32F) and 150C (302F):
a)

Sour water service with a hydrogen sulfide (H2S) concentration above


2 mg/L (2 ppm) and a total pressure of 400 Kpa absolute (65 psia) or
greater.

b)

Hydrocarbon services meeting the definition of sour environments in


SAES-A-301, where the H2S concentration of 2 mg/L (2 ppm) or more in
the water phase is equivalent to H2S partial pressure of 0.05 psia.

c)

A hydrocarbon system exposed to an environment with a H2S


concentration above 50 mg/L (50 ppm) in the water phase,regardless of
H2S partial pressure.
Commentary Note:
HIC resistant steel is not required in lean amine systems and rich amine
DGA systems.

12.3

Gasket Materials
12.3.1

The materials of construction for spiral wound gaskets shall be as


follows with flexible graphite filler suitable for the intended service:
a)

For vessels with design metal temperatures from -100C to 0C:


Type 304 or 316 Stainless Steel (SS) windings with solid Type
304 or 316 Stainless Steel outer centering rings.
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Issue Date: 30 March 2005
Next Planned Update: 1 January 2010

b)

32-SAMSS-004
Manufacture of Pressure Vessels

For vessels with design metal temperatures from 1C to 425C:


Type 304 or 316 SS windings with solid carbon steel outer
centering rings.

c)

For vessels with design metal temperatures above 425C:


Type 321 or 347 SS windings with solid Type 304 or 316 for
inner and outer centering rings.

d)
12.3.2

12.4

13

For vessels in vacuum or catalyst services, inner ring shall be


either Type 304 or 316 Stainless Steel (SS).

Material specification for sheet gaskets shall be non-asbestos


conforming to ASME B16.21, and must be chemically resistant and
mechanically suitable for the service conditions.

Impact Testing
12.4.1

The Vessel Manufacturer shall determine impact test requirements of


materials based on the values of the minimum design metal
temperature (MDMT), unless lower test temperature is specified on the
data sheet.

12.4.2

Impact testing requirements for materials not listed in Table 1, shall be


obtained from the Saudi Aramco Engineer.

12.4.3

The minimum acceptable Charpy impact energy values for steels listed
in Table 3 shall be per Table-2 unless larger values are specified on the
data sheet. Materials that are not listed in Table 3 shall be referred to
Saudi Aramco Engineer for classification.

12.4.4

For Div. 1 vessels the impact testing exemptions of UG-20 (f), UCS-66
(b)(1) and (3), UCS-68(c), UG-84 (b)(2) and by reference to Table
UG-84.4 are not permitted. For Div. 2 vessels the exemptions of
AM-213.1 and AM-218.2 are not permitted.

Fabrication
13.1

13.2

Fabrication Tolerances
13.1.1

Fabrication tolerances shall be in accordance with the applicable Code,


and PIP document VEFV1100.

13.1.2

Dished heads shall achieve at least the minimum required thickness in


all areas after forming.

Forming and Assembly


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Next Planned Update: 1 January 2010

13.2.1

32-SAMSS-004
Manufacture of Pressure Vessels

Tapered transitions shall be made only on the external surface of the


vessel, according to the rules of the applicable Code, in the following
conditions:
a)

There will be an interference with the removal of a vessel's


internals.

b)

Vessels that have strict requirements regarding smooth internal


profiles for flow or cyclic loading conditions or internal volume
constraints.

13.2.2

The beveled edges of weld preparations for carbon steel plates with
thickness 25 mm and thicker and all ferrous alloy plates shall be
magnetic particle examined for linear discontinuities. Defects shall not
exceed limits as per ASME SA-20.

13.2.3

Plate edge laminations revealed by magnetic particle examination shall


be completely removed and repaired.

13.2.4

Each shell section shall be completely welded longitudinally and


corrected for out of roundness and peaking of the weld seam prior to
welding to adjoining shell or head.

13.2.5

All re-rolling or forming of the shell sections is to be completed prior


to radiography.

13.2.6

Welds attaching manways, nozzles and their reinforcement pads and


other structural attachments to pressure components shall not be closer
than 20 mm (toe-to-toe) from any welds under stresses due to pressure.
It is the responsibility of the manufacturer to ensure that requirements
of paragraphs 7.11.4 and 14.2.4 of this specification are met in the
vicinity of the welds.

13.2.7

Tapped tell-tale holes " NPT shall be provided at low location in


reinforcing pads for attachments, including nozzles and manways, as
follows:
a)

One hole in single piece reinforcing pad.

b)

Where a pad is split, each segment shall have at least one hole.

13.2.8

Split-reinforcing pad sections shall be welded together without using a


backing strip.

13.2.9

Telltale holes in external attachment pads, including nozzle reinforcing


pads, shall be plugged with grease, wooden plugs or other non-pressure
retaining material to prevent moisture ingress between the pad and the

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32-SAMSS-004
Manufacture of Pressure Vessels

vessel pressure-retaining component. Telltale holes in internal


attachment pads shall be seal welded.
13.2.10 Internal and external welded attachment pads shall have their corners
rounded to a minimum radius of 50 mm radius and shall be fully sealwelded. Use of suitable non-pressure retaining sealing material is
permitted on externally welded attachments that can not be fully seal
welded, due to inaccessibility, after prior approval of the Saudi
Aramco Engineer.
13.2.11 No tack welding is permitted between heads and skirts on the inside of
skirts.
13.2.12 Large vessels that cannot be completely shop fabricated shall be
designed to minimize the amount of field welding, radiography and
heat treatment. Where adjacent sections are of such a size that shop
fabrication and field assembly is required, the sections shall be match
marked to ensure proper field fit up.
13.2.13 Leg supports, lug supports, lifting lugs and other attachments that will
impose stress levels higher than the acceptable limits per the
acceptable Code shall be welded to an attachment pad. The pad shall
be a minimum of 10 mm (3/8") thick or equal to the shell thickness,
whichever is less. Attachment loads must comply with paragraph
7.11.4 above and pads shall not cover pressure retaining welds.
13.2.14 Forming and heat treatment
13.2.14.1 Heat-treatment, as a separate operation, shall be performed
after a forming operation (hot or cold) for any of the
conditions listed below. The heat treatment shall be
annealing, normalizing, normalizing and tempering, or
quench and tempering, as required.

Heads and other double-curvature components with


nominal thickness exceeding 50 mm.

Heads and other double-curvature components made of


P-No. 3, 4, 5, 9A or 9B materials.

Any hot-formed component.

Commentary Note:
Nominal thickness of heads is its thinnest portion
measured after forming.

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Next Planned Update: 1 January 2010

32-SAMSS-004
Manufacture of Pressure Vessels

13.2.14.2 For any hot forming operation, the procedure shall be


submitted to Saudi Aramco Engineer for approval prior to
commencement of any fabrication requiring hot forming.
The procedure shall describe all heat treatment operations
and tests to be performed. The tests shall include, but not
limited to, all of the mechanical tests required by the
original material specification.
13.2.15 Bolt tensioning device shall be used for bolting up flanged connections
with stud bolts of diameter 1- inch and above. Bolt-up of flanges
with stud bolts of diameter less 1- inch shall be according to ASME
PCC-1 requirements.
13.3

Welding
All welding shall be in accordance with the requirements of SAES-W-010.

14

Nondestructive Examination
14.1

General
14.1.1

All required Nondestructive Examination (NDE) shall be performed in


accordance with inspection procedures that are in complete compliance
with ASME SEC V and this specification. This written procedure shall
address each inspection method and technique used including
acceptance criteria. When required by the purchase order the
procedure(s) shall be submitted to Saudi Aramco Inspection
Department for approval.

14.1.2

All Nondestructive Examination, including Magnetic Particle and


Liquid Penetrant examinations, shall be performed by personnel
certified in accordance with ASNT CP-189, or equivalent National
Certification Programs that has been approved by the Saudi Aramco
Inspection Department. Personnel responsible for interpretation of
Nondestructive Examination results shall be certified to a minimum of
Level II.

14.1.3

All required NDE for final acceptance of the vessel, prior to pressure
testing, shall be performed after the completion of all welding and
repairs. In vessels requiring PWHT, all NDE for final acceptance shall
be performed after the final PWHT.

14.1.4

All pressure and non-pressure welds shall be visually inspected where


accessible. All segments of longitudinal, circumferential or built-up
head pressure weld seams covered or rendered inaccessible by
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32-SAMSS-004
Manufacture of Pressure Vessels

internals, lifting lugs or other attachments shall be fully radiographed


the entire affected length plus 25 cm (10 inches) either side prior to
installation of the attachment.
14.1.5

14.2

Magnetic particle examination or liquid penetrant examination per the


applicable Code shall be performed on the surfaces of hot formed and
reheat treated parts.

Radiographic Examination
14.2.1

All radiography shall be performed with intensifying screens. Only


lead or lead foil (fluoro-metallic) screens shall be permitted unless
otherwise approved by the Saudi Aramco Inspection Department.

14.2.2

Tungsten inclusions in Gas Tungsten Arc welds shall be evaluated as


individual rounded indications. Clustered or aligned tungsten
inclusions shall be removed and repaired.

14.2.3

Following are radiography examination requirements in addition to


those in Table 4:
Butt welds in forged skirt-to-head junction ring, conforming to ASME
SEC VIII D2, Figure AD-912-1 (k), shall be 100% radiographed.

14.2.4

Where it is not possible to meet the spacing requirement in paragraph


13.2.6 of this specification such that a nozzle or an attachment weld of
a reinforcing pad or a structural component will either intersect or
encroach on a butt weld the following shall be performed:
14.2.4.1

14.2.4.2

If the nozzle is installed onto or encroaching on a butt weld


in the vessel wall:
a)

Radiograph of the butt weld in the vessel wall for a


length equal to three times the diameter of the
opening with the center of the opening at mid-length.

b)

Where a reinforcing pad is required, the butt weld


shall be ground flush and radiographed, prior to the
installation of the reinforcing pad.

Where an attachment weld of a reinforcing pad or a


structural component will either intersect or encroach on a
butt-weld in the vessel wall:
a)

The butt weld shall be radiographed for a length equal


to the projection of the intersecting or encroaching

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32-SAMSS-004
Manufacture of Pressure Vessels

segment of the attachment weld plus a minimum of 50


mm on either side.
b)

14.2.4.3

14.3

Perform magnetic particle examination on the vessel


side of the joint attaching the reinforcing pad or
structural component.

It is the responsibility of the manufacturer to ensure that


requirements of paragraph 7.11.4 of this specification at the
attachment are met.

Ultrasonic Examination
Following are ultrasonic examinations requirements in addition to those in Table
5:
14.3.1

Ultrasonic examination is required for thick wall vessels as follows:


14.3.1.1

14.3.1.2

Plates and Welds


a)

All plates, including plate-like forgings, such as shell


rings shall be ultrasonically examined by the Vessel
Manufacturer in accordance with ASME SA-435.

b)

All pressure retaining welds and vessel support


attachment full-penetration welds shall be 100%
ultrasonically examined after final heat treatment.

Forgings
All forgings, except plate-like forgings and standard shall
be ultrasonically examined by the equipment manufacturer
in accordance with ASME SA-388. Acceptance criteria
shall be in accordance with ASME SEC VIII D2, paragraph
AM-203.2(c).

14.3.2
14.4

Ultrasonic examination is required for the whole weld metal build-up


skirt-to-vessel joints in paragraph 10.2.10 of this specification.

Magnetic Particle Examination


14.4.1

Permanent magnetic yokes are not permitted.

14.4.2

Prods are not permitted for use on air-hardenable materials, materials


that require impact testing, and on the fluid side of pressured
components for vessels in wet sour service.

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14.4.3

14.4.4

32-SAMSS-004
Manufacture of Pressure Vessels

Except for non-Ferro magnetic materials, wet fluorescent magnetic


particle examination using an AC yoke is required for the following:
a)

All internal welds and areas where temporary welds have been
removed for vessels in wet sour, caustic, amine, de-aeration and
hydrogen services.

b)

All internal and external welds and areas where temporary welds
have been removed when the nominal thickness of pressured
components is 25 mm and thicker.

c)

Vessel support attachment fillet welds.

In thick Wall Vessel


14.4.4.1

All edges prepared for welding and all openings shall be


magnetic particle examined in accordance with the
applicable Code.

14.4.4.2

Forgings shall be examined on all surfaces, utilizing wet


fluorescent magnetic particle method after final machining.
All defects shall be removed and repaired by welding in
accordance with SAES-W-010.
Exception:
Except for welding edges, liquid penetrant examination is
acceptable as an alternative to magnetic particle
examination.

14.4.4.3

14.4.5

14.5

All welds, including areas where temporary welds have


been removed, are to be wet fluorescent magnetic particle
examined.

Magnetic particle examination is required for the whole weld-up skirtto-vessel joints in paragraph 10.2.10 of this specification after each
6 mm depth of weld deposit. For non-Ferro magnetic materials, liquid
penetrant examination shall be used.

Hardness Testing
Weld hardness testing shall be in accordance with the requirements of
SAES-W-010.

15

Postweld Heat Treatment


15.1

Postweld heat treatment shall be done when required by the applicable Code or
when specified on the data sheet.
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32-SAMSS-004
Manufacture of Pressure Vessels

15.2

Code exemptions for postweld heat treatment of ferritic materials based on the
use of austenitic or nickel-based electrodes are not permitted.

15.3

Code exemptions for postweld heat treatment of P4 and P5 materials are not
permitted for applications involving either wet sour or hydrogen services or for
materials exceeding 1.25% nominal chromium content.

15.4

The maximum postweld heat treating soaking temperature for quenched and
tempered carbon steel and C- Mo materials shall not exceed the temperature at
which the test pieces were heat treated, as shown on the Mill Test Reports or
650C maximum for carbon steel, 690C maximum for C- Mo and 700C for
low chrome alloy steels.

15.5

Final postweld heat treatment shall follow all welding and repairs but shall be
performed prior to any hydrotest or other load test.

15.6

A sign shall be painted on a postweld heat treated vessel and located such that it
is clearly visible from grade reading:
"Caution-Vessel Has Been Postweld Heat Treated-Do Not Weld"

15.7

16

Postweld heat treatment shall be in accordance with the requirements of


SAES-W-010.

Examination, Inspection, Pressure Tests and Repairs


16.1

Examination
16.1.1

The responsibility for examination rests with the Vessel Manufacturer


in accordance with the applicable Code and the requirements of this
specification.

16.1.2

Additional examination of any weld joint at any stage of the fabrication


may be requested by the Saudi Aramco Inspector, including repeating
examination of previously examined joints. The Saudi Aramco
Inspector also has the right to request or conduct independent
Nondestructive Examination of any joint. If such examination should
disclose nonconformance to the requirements of the applicable Code or
this specification, all repair and Nondestructive examination costs shall
be done at the Vessel Manufacturer's expense.

16.1.3

All necessary safety precautions shall be taken for each examination


method.

Page 31 of 44

Document Responsibility: Vessels


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Next Planned Update: 1 January 2010

16.2

32-SAMSS-004
Manufacture of Pressure Vessels

16.1.4

Surface irregularities, including weld reinforcement, inhibiting


accurate interpretation of the specified method of nondestructive
examination shall be ground smooth.

16.1.5

Examination of all welds shall include a band of base metal at least one
inch wide on each side of the weld.

Inspection
16.2.1

The Saudi Aramco Inspector shall have free access to the work at all
times.

16.2.2

Saudi Aramco shall have the right to inspect the fabrication at any
stage and to reject material or workmanship, which does not conform
to the specified requirements.

16.2.3

Saudi Aramco reserves the right to inspect, photograph, and/or


videotape all material, fabrication, coating, and workmanship and any
materials, equipment, or tools used or to be used for any part of the
work to be performed.

16.2.4

Saudi Aramco may reject the use of any materials, equipment, or tools
that do not conform to the specification requirements, jeopardize safety
of personnel, or impose hazard or damage to Saudi Aramco property.

16.2.5

All of the rights of Saudi Aramco and their designated representatives


for access, documentation, inspection, and rejection shall include any
work done by sub-contractors or sub-vendors.

16.2.6

The Vessel Manufacturer shall provide the Saudi Aramco Inspector all
reasonable facilities to satisfy him that the work is being performed as
specified.

16.2.7

The fabricator shall furnish, install, and maintain in a safe operating


condition all necessary scaffolding, ladders, walkways, and lighting for
a safe and thorough inspection.

16.2.8

Pressure vessels manufactured in accordance with this specification are


subject to verification by the Saudi Aramco Inspector in accordance
with Saudi Aramco Inspection Requirements Form 175-321900,
Manufacture of Pressure Vessels.

16.2.9

Prior to final inspection and pressure testing, the inside and outside of
the vessel shall be thoroughly cleaned of all slag, scale, dirt, grit, weld
spatter, paint, oil, etc.

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32-SAMSS-004
Manufacture of Pressure Vessels

16.2.10 Inspection at the mill, shop, or fabrication yard shall not release the
Vessel Manufacturer from responsibility for repairing or replacing any
defective material or workmanship that may be subsequently
discovered in the field.
16.3

Pressure Testing
16.3.1

After completion of all external and internal welding, nondestructive


examination, repairs and heat treatment, as applicable, and prior to
painting, vessels shall be pressure tested using water as the testing
media in accordance with the applicable Code, SAES-A-004 and this
specification. Pneumatic testing in lieu of hydrostatic testing requires
the approval of the Manager of the Saudi Aramco Inspection
Department. Hydrostatic test pressure shall be held for a minimum of
one hour per 25 mm of vessel thickness and in no case less than one
hour.

16.3.2

No acceptance of pressure testing shall be made prior to postweld heat


treatment.

16.3.3

All welded attachments provided with telltale holes shall be


pneumatically tested at minimum 35 kPa (5 psi) prior to heat treatment
and vessel pressure testing. Telltale holes must not be plugged during
the vessel pressure test.

16.3.4

The use of shellacs, glues, lead, etc., on gaskets during testing is


prohibited. No paint or primer shall be applied to a vessel prior to
hydrostatic testing.

16.3.5

The Vessel Manufacturer shall furnish all test materials and facilities,
including blinds, bolting, and gaskets.

16.3.6

Hydrostatic pressure testing shall be performed with gaskets and


bolting identical to those required in service and as specified on the
data sheet. These gaskets may be used as service gaskets if the bolted
joint is not disassembled after completion of hydrostatic pressure
testing.

16.3.7

The manufacturer shall supply the following:


a)

Minimum two sets of spare gaskets with a blind flange for each
manway and blinded nozzle in the vessel.

b)

Minimum one set of service gasket set and two sets of spare
gaskets for each nozzle with companion flanges in the vessel.

Page 33 of 44

Document Responsibility: Vessels


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Next Planned Update: 1 January 2010

c)
16.3.8

16.3.9

32-SAMSS-004
Manufacture of Pressure Vessels

All bolting with minimum 10% spare bolting (3 minimum for


each size) per vessel.

The test pressure measured at the top of the vessel shall be:
16.3.8.1

For Division 1 vessels: 1.3 times the Maximum Allowable


Working Pressure (MAWP) of the vessel multiplied by the
lowest ratio (for the materials of which the vessels is
constructed) of the allowable stress for the test temperature
to the allowable stress for the design temperature. See
UG-99(b) of Div. 1.

16.3.8.2

For Division 2 vessels: 1.25 times the Maximum Allowable


Working Pressure (MAWP) of the vessel multiplied by the
lowest ratio (for the materials of which the vessels is
constructed) of the allowable stress for the test temperature
to the allowable stress for the design temperature. See
AT-301, Div. 2.

Water used for pressure testing shall be potable. For vessels


manufactured from stainless steel, the water shall not contain more
than 50 ppm chlorides with pH value of 10 to 11 at the time of filling
the vessel.

16.3.10 The temperature of the water during hydrostatic testing shall be


maintained at not less than 17C throughout the testing cycle.
16.3.11 Vertical vessels that are tested in the horizontal position shall be
adequately supported such that the primary stresses in any part of the
vessel do not exceed 90% of the minimum specified yield strength of
the vessel material.
16.3.12 Horizontal vessels shall be tested while resting on their permanent
support saddles without additional supports or cribbing.
16.3.13 After testing the vessel, it shall be completely drained and thoroughly
dried including around internals.
16.4

Manufacturing Repairs
16.4.1

The Saudi Aramco Engineer must review and approve crack repair
procedures, required by the applicable Code, prior to commencement
of repairs. It is the responsibility of the manufacturer to ensure that
repairs done by the mill of any material defects, per the applicable
Code, are documented.

Page 34 of 44

Document Responsibility: Vessels


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Next Planned Update: 1 January 2010

16.4.2

17

18

32-SAMSS-004
Manufacture of Pressure Vessels

After completion of repairs required by the applicable Code the


following shall be repeated:
a)

Heat treatment of the repaired section if it has been heat-treated


prior to the repairs.

b)

All nondestructive examinations (radiography, magnetic particle,


dye-penetrant, etc.) performed on the repaired section prior to the
repairs.

c)

A weld map of all repairs shall be made a part of the final vessel
documentation. The weld map shall include the nondestructive
examination procedure and results, the welding procedure
specifications and stress relief charts.

Nameplates and Stampings


17.1

Each vessel shall be identified by a nameplate and marked with the information
required by the applicable Code and the requirements of this specification.

17.2

Vessels manufactured inside and outside Saudi Arabia shall be Code stamped
for all services in accordance with the applicable Code.

17.3

Nameplates and nameplate mounting brackets shall be located such that they
will not be covered by insulation and are easily readable from grade or a
platform. Brackets shall extend from the outside of vessel to clear insulation,
and with sufficient access for surface preparation, and painting. The nameplate
markings as required by the applicable Code shall be stamped or engraved such
that the nameplate material is permanently deformed with the symbols.

17.4

Nameplates shall be 3-mm minimum thickness and manufactured from type 304
stainless steel or Monel and continuously welded to the mounting bracket
according to PIP VEFV1100.

17.5

The mounting bracket material shall conform to Table 1 in this specification.


The bracket shall be continuously seal welded and positioned such as not to
allow for collection of moisture or rain.

17.6

For internally coated vessels, the nameplate shall show: the Saudi Aramco
Painting System Numbers, type of coating, brand name, and date of application.

Coatings and Painting


18.1

Type of coating and painting systems to be applied shall be as specified on the


Vessel data Sheet.

Page 35 of 44

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Next Planned Update: 1 January 2010

19

32-SAMSS-004
Manufacture of Pressure Vessels

18.2

Surfaces to be coated shall be cleaned and prepared prior to its coating in


accordance with the applicable coating and painting systems, in accordance with
SAES-H-100.

18.3

Gasket contact surfaces shall be properly protected from blasting and shall not
be coated or painted.

Shipping Requirements
19.1

19.2

General
19.1.1

Vessel shall be protected against corrosion during shipping and at


fabrication yard and construction sites.

19.1.2

Prior to shipping, vessels are to be completely and thoroughly dried


and cleaned from all loose scales, weld slags, dirt and debris to the
satisfaction of the Saudi Aramco Inspector.

19.1.3

The Vessel Manufacturer is responsible for ensuring that the vessels


and internals being shipped are adequately braced and shall provide
temporary supports where appropriate to ensure adequate supporting of
the vessel during shipment.

19.1.4

Vessels partially shop fabricated and/or liable to suffer distortion


during transit and erection shall be suitably braced. All ends that will
be open during shipment shall be covered to prevent ingress of dirt and
other foreign matters. The Vessel Manufacturer shall advise the Saudi
Aramco Engineer of the method of protection for review and approval.

19.1.5

Markings shall be done with water-insoluble materials that contain no


harmful substances that would attack or harmfully affect the vessel at
both ambient and design temperatures.

19.1.6

Marking materials shall be free of lead, sulfur, zinc, cadmium,


mercury, chlorine, or any other halogens.

19.1.7

Export packaging marking and shipping shall be in accordance with


the purchase order.

Internal Protection
19.2.1

The interior surfaces of vessels, including internals, shall be protected


from corrosion by use of a nontoxic vapor phase corrosion inhibitor
such as COTEC VCI-309 or 307 or equivalent, (depending on the
metallurgy of the vessel) applied at a rate of 0.1 kg/m.

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Document Responsibility: Vessels


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Next Planned Update: 1 January 2010

19.3

32-SAMSS-004
Manufacture of Pressure Vessels

19.2.2

The inhibitor selected must be appropriate for the metallurgy of the


vessel. Desiccants may only be used with approval of the Saudi
Aramco Engineer.

19.2.3

Vessels must be sealed vapor tight using metallic covers, for inhibitors
to be effective.

19.2.4

Nitrogen blanketing, temporary rust preventive coatings in accordance


with MIL C16173 Grade IV (example: Tectyl 846) or a vapor proof
bag with moisture control may be used for carbon and low chrome
alloy steels.

19.2.5

Nitrogen blanketing at a pressure of 35 Kpa (5 psi) shall be provided


for vessels made completely of Austenitic Stainless Steels and vessels
internally cladded or weld-overlayed with Austenitic Stainless Steels in
the following conditions:
a)

Ocean shipment.

b)

Where vessel is not undergoing fabrication, construction


activities, after hydrotesting or prior to commissioning.

19.2.6

Temporary coatings for use on vessels with corrosion resistant linings


(stainless steel and Monel clad) must be chloride free, suitable for its
intended use and not result in crevice corrosion.

19.2.7

For vessels that have permanent internal coatings covering the vessel
wall partially, the Vessel Manufacturer shall contact the Saudi Aramco
Engineer for any corrosion protection required.

19.2.8

Use of non-toxic desiccants is considered acceptable as an alternative


internal protection measure against corrosion for vessels which
warranty will be revoked by using non-toxic vapor phase inhibitor;
provided that the following conditions are met:
a)

Calcium chloride desiccants shall not be used.

b)

The desiccant must be removed on site prior to operating the


vessel.

c)

Measures shall be taken to ensure that the adsorbent material in


the protected vessel will not be harmed by vapor phase inhibitor
that may be introduced through the process stream from upstream
equipment.

External Protection

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Document Responsibility: Vessels


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Next Planned Update: 1 January 2010

19.3.1

20

32-SAMSS-004
Manufacture of Pressure Vessels

The protection of external surfaces shall be obtained by using one of


the following:
a)

A hard temporary preservative in accordance with MIL C16173,


Grade I, which can be removed at site prior to surface preparation
and application of the Saudi Aramco coating and painting
system.

b)

Prepare the surface and apply the complete (primer and final
coatings) Saudi Aramco surface preparation, and coating and
painting system in the shop.

c)

For solid Stainless Steel vessels, which are to be shipped via


ocean freight, shall be protected using a temporary protective
system compatible with stainless steel and suitable outdoor
exposure in accordance with MIL C16173 Grade IV.

19.3.2

Threaded nozzle connections shall be protected with threaded plugs.


However, telltale holes in reinforcing pads shall be protected with
wooden plugs or packed with rust preventative grease such as Denso
paste.

19.3.3

Flanged connections and all other machined surfaces shall be protected


by a coating such as MIL C16173 Grade IV, which is easily removed
in the field and fitted with steel or wood cover, 3 mm thick and
neoprene gaskets.

19.3.4

Covers shall be securely attached by a minimum of four bolts equally


spaced. For ocean shipment, flanged connections shall also be covered
with heavy-duty plastic bags securely taped to the nozzles.

19.3.5

Flanges with permanent blind flanges or covers shall be secured with


the gaskets and bolting specified for service.

Drawings, Calculations and Data


20.1

The Vessel Manufacturer shall Prepare drawings, calculations, and data in


accordance with NMR-7919-1, Nonmaterial Requirements.

20.2

Drawings and calculations that are approved by the Design Engineer shall not
relieve the Vessel Manufacturer from the responsibility to comply with the
Codes, and this specification.

20.3

Vessel manufacturer shall prepare drawings which indicate the ultrasonic


thickness of the vessel shell section, heads and nozzles. An adequate number of
readings shall be taken to represent the actual thickness of the components.

Page 38 of 44

Document Responsibility: Vessels


Issue Date: 30 March 2005
Next Planned Update: 1 January 2010

20.4

32-SAMSS-004
Manufacture of Pressure Vessels

All approved data sheets, drawings and forms are to be submitted to Engineering
Drawings Services Division (EDSD) for inclusion into Corporate Drawings
Management System.

29 December 2004
30 March 2005

Revision Summary
Major revision.
Editorial revision to replace NACE MR0175 with newly approved SAES-A-301.

Page 39 of 44

Document Responsibility: Vessels


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Next Planned Update: 1 January 2010

32-SAMSS-004
Manufacture of Pressure Vessels

Table 1 Acceptable Materials for Carbon and Low - Alloy Steels


[Note: The numbers in ( ) refer to the specific notes at the end of the table]

Vessel
Component
Shells, heads,
nozzle & manway
necks, and
reinforcing pads
Pipe, Nozzle and
manway necks
Forged flanges

Design Temperature
1 to 425C

-100 to -47C

-46 to 0C

SA-203
Grades D or E

SA-516
Grade 70N, or
SA-537, Class 1

SA-333, Grade 3

SA-333, Grade 6

SA-350 LF3

SA-350 LF2

SA-516
Grade 70, or
SA-537, Class 1 or
SA-285 Grade C (1)
SA-106, Grade B
SA-53, Grade (B) (1)
SA-105

Wrought fittings

SA-420 WPL3

SA-420 WPL6

SA-234 WPB

Studs/nuts for
pressure
connections
Internal attachment
clips (3)

SA-320 L43/
SA-194
Grades 4 or 7
SA-203
Grades D or E

SA-320, L7 w/
SA-194 Grade 2H

SA-193 B7/
SA-194 Grade 2H

External attachment
clips (3)

SA-203
Grades D or E

SA-516
Grade 70N, or
SA-537, Class 1
SA-516
Grade 70N, or
SA-537 Class 1

Vessel supports:
saddles, skirts,
legs, lugs and base
rings (2)
Anchor bolts (4)

SA-203
Grades D or E

SA-516, Grade 70 or
SA-537, Class 1
SA-285, Grade (C) (1)
SA-516, Grade 70 or
SA-537 Class 1
SA-285, Grade C or
SA-36 (1)
SA-516 Grade 70, or
SA-285, Grade C or
SA-36 (1)

SA-307, Grade A
or C

SA-516
Grade 70N, or
SA-537, Class 1 or
SA-285 Grade C (1)
SA-307, Grade A or C

SA-307, Grade A or C

351 to 645C
SA-387
Grades 11, 12 or 22

SA-335 Grades P11,


12 or 22
SA-182 Grades F11,
12 or 22
SA-234
Grades WP11,
WP12 and WP22
SA-193 B5, or
B16 w/
SA-194, Grade 3
SA-387
Grades 11, 12 or 22
SA-387
Grades 11, 12 or 22

SA-387
Grades 11, 12 or 22

SA-307, Grade A or C

General Notes:
A)

Materials for hydrogen service shall be selected in accordance with API PUBL 941 using a value for the hydrogen partial
pressure 10% above the design partial pressure and a temperature of 30C above the design temperature.

B)

Materials for pressure vessels in amine service shall be selected in accordance with Table 1 and API RP 945.

C)

Materials for pressure vessels for de-aeration service shall be in accordance with Table 1 and NACE RP0590.

D)

Materials for vessels in environments specified in paragraph 12.2 of this specification with normal operating temperatures
up to 150C (302F), shall be in accordance with Table 1, with the following revisions:
i)

Forged flanges and forged fittings are restricted to: SA-350 LF1 or LF2 or SA-266 Grade 4.
Flanges above 24-inch diameter shall be SA-266, Grade 4.

ii)

Studs and nuts are restricted to: SA-193 B7M or L7M and SA-194 Grade 2HM.

iii)

It shall satisfy the requirements of SAES-A-301 and NACE RP0472.

iv)

Shells and heads formed from plate shall be manufactured from HIC resistant steels that meet the testing
requirements of 01-SAMSS-016.

v)

Piping components used in the manufacture of a pressure vessel within the scope of this specification shall be
manufactured from HIC resistant steels that meet the testing requirements of 01-SAMSS-016.

E)

Low alloy steels shall not be mixed, i.e., a vessel requiring 1- Cr- Mo materials shall have all components manufactured
from 1- Cr- Mo.

F)

Low alloy steels shall be specified in the normalized and tempered heat-treated condition.

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32-SAMSS-004
Manufacture of Pressure Vessels

G)

The material for nameplate mounting brackets shall be of the same type and material grade as the shell material.

H)

Impact testing of materials and welding procedures are required when MDMT is lower than -28C.

I)

Impact testing of materials is only required when MDMT is -27 to -18C. Impact testing of welding procedures is not
required for this temperature range, (unless otherwise required by the applicable Codes) or if the consumable classifications
per ASME SEC IIC has impact property requirements at -46C or lower.

Specific Notes:
1)

Only SA-36, SA-283, and SA-285 materials shall be used for vessel's components in water and air services.

2)

The materials of supports shall be as follows:


i)

Legs and lugs: same material as shell

ii)

Skirts: same ASME material as the shell base material for a minimum distance of 300 mm measured below the vesselto-shell connection line, unless thermal calculations require additional length.

iii)

Saddles: same ASME material as the shell base material.

3)

All internal and external attachment clips on vessels shall be of the same ASME material as the pressure parts.

4)

Anchor bolts shall be according to SASD AB-036322.

Table 2 Charpy-V Impact Test Requirements


Minimum Required Impact Value for Full Size Specimen at MDMT, Joules
Reference Thickness, t, inch
Material Class

<t1

1<t2

t>2

1a

34/27

34/27

34/27

34/27

1b

34/27

34/27

34/27

34/27

2a

34/27

34/27

34/27

34/27

2b

34/27

34/27

34/27

47/38

2c

34/27

34/27

47/38

61/48

34/27

34/27

34/27

34/27

Notes:
1)

In the notation such as 34/27, the first number is the minimum average energy of three specimens and the second number
is the minimum for one specimen impact test results.

2)

See Table 3 for material specification.

Page 41 of 44

Document Responsibility: Vessels


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Next Planned Update: 1 January 2010

32-SAMSS-004
Manufacture of Pressure Vessels

Table 3 Material Classes


Class

Material Specification

1a

SA 53

Gr. B

2b

SA 105

2a

SA 106

Gr. B

2b

SA 182

Gr. F11 and F12

2c

SA 182

Gr. F22

SA 203

Gr. D and E

2b

SA 204

Gr. A, B and C

2b

SA 266

Cl. 1

2c

SA 266

Cl. 2 and 4

1a

SA 333

Gr. 1

SA 333

Gr. 3

2a

SA 333

Gr. 6

2b

SA 335

Gr. P11, P12 and P22

2c

SA 336

Cl. F12 and F22A

2c

SA 336

Cl. F22

2b

SA 350

Gr. LF2

SA 350

Gr. LF3

2b

SA 387

Cl. 1, Gr. 11, 12 and 22

2c

SA 387

Cl. 2, Gr. 5, 12, 21 and 22

2a

SA 442

Gr. 55 and 60

2b

SA 516

Gr. 70

2c

SA 533

Cl. 1

2b

SA 537

Cl. 1

2c

SA 420

Gr. WPL3 and WPL6

2c

SA 234

Gr. WPB

2c

SA 234

Gr. WP11, WP12 and WP22

Page 42 of 44

Document Responsibility: Vessels


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Next Planned Update: 1 January 2010

32-SAMSS-004
Manufacture of Pressure Vessels

Table 4 Radiography Requirements for Vessels


Weld Joint Category

Radiography (RT)

Notes

A and B

Per Code Design Criteria (Spot


or 100%)

(1) and (4)

100%

(1), (3) and (4)

100%

(1), (2), (3), (4) and (5)

Notes:
1.

100% RT is required in vessels under any of the following services or design conditions:

Lethal services.

Hydrogen services.

Cyclic services.

Unfired steam boilers with design pressure exceeding 50 psi.

Vessel weld joints requiring full radiography per the applicable Code (see UW-11 for Division 1 vessels
and AF-220 for Division 2 vessels).

Thick wall vessels.

Butt welds in nozzles attached to weld neck flanges.

Butt welds in integrally reinforced contoured fittings.

2.

UT for Category-D weld joint in attachments with a reinforcing plate must be performed prior to installing
reinforcing plate.

3.

UT from accessible side must be conducted after any heat treatment, if applicable.

4.

UT methods which generate permanent records may be used as a substitute to radiography in vessels that
require 100% RT per the applicable Code and this specification. Such UT methods must be approved by
Inspection Department prior to commencement of any work.

5.

UT methods which generate permanent records may be used as a substitute to RT where a weld joint can
not be readily radiographed, because of the joint geometry, e.g., Category D weld joint using integrally
reinforced nozzle without a contour that would facilitate radiography or a nozzle with a reinforcing pad. Such
UT methods must be approved by Inspection Department prior to commencement of any work.

6.

UT may be substituted for RT for NPS 4 and smaller connections to nozzles and manways.

7.

To facilitate 100% radiography of category-D weld joint, it shall be according to:


a)

For Division 1 vessels: Figures UW-16.1: (f-1), (f-2) (f-3) or (f-4).

b)

For Division 2 vessels: Figures AD-613.1: (a), (b) (c), (c-1) (d) or (e).

Page 43 of 44

Document Responsibility: Vessels


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Next Planned Update: 1 January 2010

32-SAMSS-004
Manufacture of Pressure Vessels

Table 5 Ultrasonic Examination Requirements for Vessels


Weld Joint Category

UT

Notes

A and B

100%

(1) and (4)

100%

(1), (3) and (4)

100%

(1), (2),(3) and (5)

Notes:
1.

2.

100% UT is required in vessels under any of the following services or design conditions:

Lethal services.

Hydrogen services.

Cyclic services.

Thick wall vessels.

Butt welds in nozzles attached to weld neck flanges.

Butt welds in integrally reinforced contoured fittings.

UT for Category-D weld joint in attachments with a reinforcing plate must be performed prior to installing
reinforcing plate.

3.

UT from accessible side must be conducted after any heat treatment, if applicable.

4.

UT methods, which generate permanent records, used as a substitute to radiography in vessels must be
approved by Inspection Department prior to commencement of any work.

5.

UT methods, which generate permanent records, used as a substitute to RT for weld joints that can not be
readily radiographed, because of the joint geometry (e.g., Category D weld joint using integrally reinforced
nozzle without a contour that would facilitate radiography or a nozzle with a reinforcing pad) must be
approved by Inspection Department prior to commencement of any work.

6.

UT may be substituted for RT for NPS 4 and smaller connections to nozzles and manways.

7.

If ultrasonic examination is not practical for joint D in vessels, with thickness up to 50 mm (2 inches), under
services other than those specified in note (1), the whole joint shall be either magnetic particle or liquid
penetrant examined after each 6 mm depth of weld deposit.

Page 44 of 44