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LINEAR MOTION

Sahriani, Aeman Hakim, Eva Septiana Dewi, Titin Fatmawati


ICP of physics education class B FMIPA UNM 2014
Abstrack
Have performed experiments "Linear Motion" where the first activity, using the 3 members of the
group to walk across a similar path, and the second activities use a tube motion along a straight
line. In this experiment purpose to understand the difference between distance and displacement,
can determine the average velocity and the average speed, can determine the relationship between
distance and interval time an object a constant velocity motion along a straight line. and can
understand the constant velocity motion. In the first activity use of 3 people to traveled the same
path of this activity can be calculated how long it takes each to traveled a path with constant
velocity but the steps used by every person different. While in the second activity, will be
calculated the time it takes bubbles to move from the starting point to point end, with a certain
height. From this experiment it can be concluded that the relationship is inversely proportional to
the speed and time, where the faster the speed of an object, then the time needed to traveled a path
the less, as well as the higher path that will be passed to an object, the time needs to be more and
lot.

Keywords: a constant velocity motion, distance, speed, time, velocity

Problem Formulation
1. How to determine the quantities of the distance and displacement
2. How to determine the average velocity and average speed
3. How to determine the relationship between distance and time (t) an object
moving a constant velocity motion (CVM)
4. How to determine a constant velocity motion along a straight line.
Purpose
1.
2.
3.

Students can determine the quantities of the distance and displacement.


Students can determine the average velocity and average speed.
Students can determine the relationship between distance and time (t) an

4.

object moving a constant velocity motion (CVM)


Students can understand a constant velocity motion along a straight line.

EXPERIMENTAL METHODOLOGY
Basic of the theory

From thousands years ago, the concept of motion has been understood by human
being. However, scientific formulation of motions was intensively formulated at
the 16th and 17th centuries by Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) and sir isaac newton
(1642-1727). The study of the motion of objects, and the related concepts of force
and energy, form the field called mechanics. In general, mechanics is subdivided
into two parts, I,e. kinematics, which is the description of how objects move, and
dynamics which deals with force and why objects move as they do.
(zaki suud, 2006)
Any measurement of position, distance, or speed must be made with respect to a
reference frame, or frame of reference. Therefore to determine whether an object
is in moving state or at rest, we should first determine the reference time.
Therefore, moving state or at rest arrelative, it depends on the reference frame. An
object is called as moving is relative to the its position relative to the reference
change with time. Distance is the length of a path followed by a particle.
Displacement is defined as the change in position of the object. That is,
displacement is how far object is from its starting. Displacement is the quantity
that has both magnitude and direction. Such quantities are called vectors. On the
other hands, distance has only magnitude, so that it is scalar. (Tipler)
The term speed refers to how far an object travels in a given time interval,
regardless of direction. If a car travels 240 kilometers (km) in 3 hours (h), we say
its average speed was 80 km/h. in general, the average speed of an object is
defined as the total distance traveled alongs its path divided by the time it takes to
travel this distance.

Average speed =

distance traveled
time elapsed

x
v =
t
note :
v : speed (m/s)

x : distance traveled (m)


t

: time elapsed (s)

The terms velocity and speed are often used interchangeably in ordinary
language. But in physics we make a distinction between the two. Speed is simply
a positive number,with units. Velocity, on the other hand, is used to signify both
the magnitude (numerical value) of how fast an object is moving and also the
directionin which it is moving, (velocity is therefore a vector). There a second
difference between speed and velocity: namely, the average velocity is defined in
terms of displacement, rather then total distance traveled;
Average velocity =

displacement
timeelapsed

x
= t
note :
: velocity (m/s)
x
t

: displacement (m)
: time elapsed (s)

A constant velocity motion is a motion of particle along a straight line track with
constant velocity.
Apparatus
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Meter
Stopwatch
CVM tube
Stative
stationery

Identification of Variables
Activity1
1. manipulated variable : distance (x) = cm

2. control variable
3. response variable

: velocity (v) = m/s


: time (t ) = s

Activity 2
1. manipulated variables : distance (s) = cm
2. control variables
: height (h) = cm
3. response variables
: interval time (t) = s
Operational Definition of Variables
Activity 1
1. Variable manipulation is a variable that is altered during praticum
activities. In this first praticum activity, variable changed is the distance
and the object used.
2. The control variable is a variable that is controlled at the time of trial. In
activity, variable control is the velocity.
3. The response variables are variables that follow the manipulation of
variables. That is, when the manipulation variable is changed, the response
variable is also changing. In the first activity in this lab, which includes
control variables are time.
activity 2
1. The manipulated variable is the variable that is changed-ubah.Variabel are
2.

altered in these two activities is the distance.


Variable control is a variabel are always controlled at the time praticum
activities. In these two activities that include control variables that height,
because in the event there are two height is used with 4 distance traversed

by bubble.height use is 6 and 12 cm.


3. The response variables are variables that follow the variable manipulation,
That is, when the variable manipulation change, the response variable is
also changing. In this second activity is the control variable is the time (t).
Work Procedures
Activity 1
1. Made three points are points is A, B, C which can form a right triangle.
2. Measure the length of the path between the two points each using a meter
available.

3. Prepare 3 friends, as the object moves at different velocities


4. The first person standing at point A, then march to point b, and measure
the time it used to take the path from point a to point b (Try crusty with
constant velocity). continue with the second and third person, record the
results on the observation table!
5. Do step 4 with different trajectories, for instance from point a to the point
b to point c then. proceed with some of the other tracks, recording the
results in the table of observations
Activity 2
1. Took rectilinear motion tube and stative to drape one end of the tube
2. Mark of at least 4 points as points a, b, c, d on the tube (try having the
same hose)
3. Define / measure the path length of the tube base (0cm) to point a, to point
b, to point c, and to the point d
4. Hanging at one end of the tube at a certain height stative, start from a
height of about 5cm from the base
5. Lift the other end of the tube so that the bubbles in the tip of the tube is
raised
6. Had reached the lower end of the base so that the bubble will move up,
measure the time it takes a bubble to reach a point (when bubbles start the
stopwatch right across the 0 cm position on the tube), repeat 3 times as
much data retrieval
7. Repeat steps 4, 5, and 6 with different distance (to the point b, to c and to
d) record the result in the observation table

EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS AND DATA ANALYSIS


Observations
SSV of meter
SSV of Stopwatch
SSVof CVM tube

= 0.1 cm
= 0.1 s
= 0.1 cm

KM = 0.05 cm
KM = 0.1 s
KM = 0.05 cm

Activity 1
Tabel 1.1 Results of measurement of distance. displacement and travel time
N

Path

Distance (m)

displacement (m)

A to B

|4.00000.0005|

1. |4.0000.0005|

A to B to C

|7.00000.0005|

|7.00000.0005|

o
1.

2.
3.
A to B to C

|10.0000.0005|

|4.00000.0005|

to B
4.
A to B to C

|0.00000.0000|

to B to A

14.00000.0005|

Time interval(s)
1. |4.00.1|
2. |3.40.1|
3 .|3.80.1|
1. |6.80.1|
2. |6.20.1|
3. |6.30.1|
1. |10.00.1|
2. |9.20.1|
3. |9.00.1|
1. |13.50.1|
2. |13.20.1|
3. |11.20.1|

Activity 2
Tabel 1.2 Measurement results mileage and travel time in uniform straight motion
No
1.

Height (cm)

Distance interval (cm)


Point 0-A
|11.000.05|

|6.000.05|
Point 0-B
| 22.000.05|
Point 0-A
x = .|11.000.05|
Point 0-B
| 22.000.05|
Point 0-C
| 33.000.05|
Point 0-D
.|44.000.05|

Time interval (s)


1.|1.900.10|
2.|1.800.10|
3.|1.700.10|
1.| 3.100.10|
2.|3.100.10|
3.|3.100.10|
1.|1.900.10|
2.|1.800.10|
3.|1.700.10|
1.| 3.100.10|
2.|3.100.10|
3.|3.100.10|
1.|5.000.10|
2.|4.900.10|
3.|5.100.10|
1.|6.800.10|
2.|6.600.10|
3.|6.700.10|

2.
Point 0-A
x = .|11.000.05|
|12.000.05|
Point 0-B
| 22.000.05|
Point 0-C
| 33.000.05|
Point 0-D
.|44.000.05|

1.|1.100.10|
2. |1.200.10|
3.|1.100.10|
1.|2.400.10|
2.|2.400.10|
3. |240.0.10|
1.|3.400.10|
2.|3.400.10|
3.|3.500.10|
1.|4.900.10|
2.|4.900.10|
3.|4.800.10|

Data analysis
Activity 1

KegiatanPertama

Y (cm)
B

4.0000 m

A0
r A = 0 i^ +`0 ^j

r B = ( 0 i^ + ( 4.0000 0.0005 ) ^j ) cm

3.000 m

X (cm)

r C = ( ( 3.0000 0.0005 ) i^ + ( 4.000 0.0005 ) ^j ) cm

1. Path A B
velocity

v =

s
1
v= s t
t

|vs|d s +|vt |dt

d v =

d v =

| |

( s t 1 )
( s t 1 )
d s+
dt
s
t

d v =|t 1|d s +|s t 2|dt

| |

d v
t 1
s t 2
=
d

s
+
dt
v
s t 1
s t 1

| || |
v s t
=
+
v | s | | t |
s t
v =|
+
v
s | | t |
d v d s dt
=
+
v
s
t

a. For the first person

i^ +`0 ^j

rA = 0

r B = ( 0 i^ + ( 4.0000 0.0005 ) ^j ) m

|4.0 0.1|s

r AB=
r B
rA =
=

sab=|
r AB|=4 m

^ ( 4.0000 0.0005 ) ^j ) m ) ( 0 i+0


^ ` ^j )
(( 0 i+

( 4.0000 0.0005 ) ^j m

v ab

s ab
=
t

4
4 =1m

| s s|+|t t |v

v =
=

v
100
v

={

0.05
+|
}(1)
|0.0005
|
4
4 |

0.0126
100
1

= 0.0126

= 1.26%

DC=100 KR= 98.74 %


PR=|v v|cm/s = |1.00 0.013| m/s
2. For the second person

r A = 0 i^ +`0 ^j

r B = ( 0 i^ + ( 4.0000 0.0005 ) ^j ) m

|3.4 0.1|s

^ ( 4.0000 0.0005 ) ^j ) m ) ( 0 i+0


^ ` ^j )

r AB=
r B
r A = ( ( 0 i+
=

( 4.0000 0.0005 ) ^j m

sab=|
r AB|=4 m
v ab

s ab
=
t

| s s|+|t t |v

v =

v
100
v

4
3.40 = 1.1765 m

={

0.05
+
}(1)
|0.0005
4 | |3.40 |

0.0148
100
1.1765

= 1.26%

DC=100 KR= 98.74 %

PR=|v v|cm/s = |1.17 0.015|m/s

= 0.0148

3. For the third person

r A = 0 i^ +`0 ^j

rB =

(( 4.0000 0.0005) i^ + 0 ^j ) m
|3.8 0.2| s

r AB=
r B
rA =

^ ( 4.0000 0.0005 ) ^j ) m ) ( 0 i+0


^ ` ^j )
(( 0 i+

( 4.0000 0.0005 ) ^jm


sab=|
r AB|=4 m
v ab

s ab
=
t

| s s|+|t t |v

v =

v
100
v

4
3.80 = 1.0526 m

={

0.05
+|
}(1)
|0.0005
|
4
3.80 |

0.0133
100
1.0526

= 0.0133

= 1.26%

DC=100 KR= 98.74 %

PR=|v v|cm/s = |1.05 0.013| m/ s


1.

Path A B C
a. for the first person

r A = 0 i^ +`0 ^j

r B = ( ( 4.0000 0.0005 ) i^ + 0 ^j ) m

r C = ( ( 7.0000 0.0005 ) i^ +0 ^j ) m

r AB = ( ( 4.0000 0.0005 ) i^ + 0 ^j ) m|
r AB|=R AB=|( 4.0000 0.0005 )|m

r BC

( ( 3.0000 0.0005 ) i^ +0 ^j )

|
r BC|=R BC =|3.0000 0.0005|m

|6.8 0.1| s

sab= rbc 2 +rab 2


2

sab=( R AB + RBC
2

1
2 2

sab= ( 4 + 3 )
d s abc =

1
2 2

=5

s ab
s ab
d R AB+
d R BC
R AB
R BC

for example :

u=R AB2+ R BC 2
1

sab=u 2
1

s ab 1 u 2 u
=
=2 R AB
u
2 R AB
1
s ab u
R
R AB
1 2
= u .2 R AB = AB
=
1
1
u R AB 2
u 2 ( R AB 2+ R BC 2 ) 2

s ab 1 u 2 u
=
=2 R BC2
.
u
2 R BC
1
s ab u
RBC .
R BC.
1 2
.
= u .2 RBC = 1 =
1
u R BC . 2
u 2 ( R AB2+ R BC 2 )2

d s abc =
d s abc =

s ab
s ab
d R AB+
d R BC
R AB
R BC
R AB
2

1
2 2

( R AB + R BC )

d R AB +

R BC
2

.
1
2 2

( R AB + RBC )

d R BC

d s abc =

R AB d R AB + RBC . d R BC
1
2 2

( R AB + RBC )

R AB d R AB+ R BC d RBC
1

d s abc
=
sabc

( R AB2+ R BC 2 )2
1

( R AB2+ R BC 2 )2

d s abc R AB d R AB + R BC. d R BC
=
sabc
( R AB2+ R BC 2 )

d s abc =

s abc =

|
|

R AB d R AB + R BC . d R BC

( R AB2+ R BC 2 )

|
|

R AB R AB + RBC . R BC

( R AB2 + R BC2 )

s ab

s ab

s abc = 0.0007
=

s ab
100
s ab

= 0.0140 %

PR=|5.000 0.0007|m/s
b. For the second person

|6.2 0.2| s
1

sab= rbc 2 +rab 2=( R AB2+ R BC 2 ) 2 =( 42 +32 ) 2

s abc = 0.0007
=

s ab
100
s ab

= 0.0140 %

PR=|5.000 0.0007|m/s

=5

c. For the third person

|6.3 0.2| s

sab= rbc +rab =( R AB + R BC


2

1
2 2

1
2 2

) =( 4 +3 )

=5

s abc = 0.0007
=

s ab
100
s ab

= 0.0140 %

PR=|5.000 0.0007|m/s
2.

Path A B C B
a. For the first person

r A = 0 i^ +`0 ^j

r B = ( ( 4.0000 0.0005 ) i^ + 0 ^j ) m

r C = ( ( 7.0000 0.0005 ) i^ +0 ^j ) m

r AB =

( ( 4.0000 0.0005 ) i^ + 0 ^j ) m|
r AB|=R AB=|( 4.0000 0.0005 )|m

r BC = ( ( 3.0000 0.0005 ) i^ +0 ^j ) m
|
r BC|=R BC =|3.0000 0.0005|m

r CB = ( ( 3.0000 0.0005 ) i^ +0 ^j ) m

|
r BC|=R BC =|3.0000 0.0005|m

r ABCB =
r AB +
r BC
r CB =( ( 4.0000 0.0005 ) i^ + 0 ^j ) m
|
r AB|=R AB =|4.0000 0.0005|m

t = |6.8 0.2| s
sab=|
r AB|=4 m

v ab

s ab
=
t

| s s|+|t t |v

v =

v
100
v

4
0.3670 m
10.9 =

={

0.05
+|
}(1)
|0.0005
|
4
4 |

0.0126
100
1

= 1.26%

DC=100 KR= 98.74 %


PR=|v v|cm /s = |1.00 0.012|m/ s

v =( 0.3670 i^ ) cm/ s
v =0.3670 cm/s

v =0.0092 cm/s
KR=2.51

v =|0.367 0.009|cm/s

a. For the second person

v =( 0.4348 i^ ) cm/ s
v =0.4348 cm/s

v =0.0108 cm/s
KR=2.48

v =|0.435 0.010| m/s


b. For the third person

v =( 0.4444 i^ ) cm/s
v =0.4444 cm/s

v =0.0111 cm/s

= 0.0126

KR=2.50
v =|0.444 0.011|cm/ s
1. Speed
1) For the first person

v =0.831 m/ s

v=0.0068 m/s

KR=0.82
v =|0.8310 0.0068| m/s
2) For the second person

v =0.540 m/s

v=0.0028 m/s

KR=0.51
v =|0.5400 0.0028| m/s
3) For the third person

v =0.447 m/s

v=0.0019 m/s

KR=0.42
v =|0.4472 0.0019|m/ s
3.

Path A B C D - A
a. velocity
1) for the first person

v =0 m/s
v =0 m/s

v =0 m/s
KR=0

v =|0 0|m/s
2) for the second person

v =0 m/s

v =0 m/s
v =0 m/s

KR=0
v =|0 0|m/s
3) for the third person

v =0 m/s
v =0 m/s

v =0 m/s
KR=0

v =|0 0|m/s
b. speed
1) for the first person

v =0.881 m/ s

v=0.0055 m/s
KR=0.62

v =|0.8810 0.0055| m/s


2) for the second person

v =0.527 m/s

v=0.0022 m/s
KR=0.42

v =|0.5271 0.0022|m/s
3) for the third person

v =0.410 m/s

v=0.0013 m/s
KR=0.31

v =|0.4103 0.0013| m/ s

activity 2
1.

determine the average of time interval

|6.00 0.05|cm and the distance

a. for the height

|11.00 0.05|cm
t 1 =|1.90 0.10| s
t 2 =|1.80 0.10| s

t 3 =|1.70 0.10| s
t=

1.90+ 1.80+1.70
=1.80 s
3

1=|t 1t|=|1.901.80|s=0.10 s
2=|t 2t|=|1.801.80|s=0.00 s
3=|t 3t |=|1.701.80| s=0.10 s
max= t=0.10 s
t=|1.80 0.10|s
b. for the height

|6.00 0.05|cm and the distance

|22.00 0.05|cm
t 1 =|3.10 0.10| s
t 2 =|3.10 0.10| s

t 3 =|3.10 0.10|s
t=

3.10+ 3.10+3.10
=3.10 s
3

1=|t 1t|=|3.103.10|s=0.0 s
2=|t 2t|=|3.103.10| s=0.0 s
3=|t 3t |=|3.103.10| s=0.0 s
max= t=0.0 s
t=|3.10 0.10|s

c. for the height

|6.00 0.05|cm and distance |33.00 0.05| cm

t 1 =|5.00 0.10| s

t 2 =|4.90 0.10|s
t 3 =|5.10 0.10| s

t=

5.00+4.90+5.10
=5.00 s
3
1=|t 1t|=|5.005.00|s=0.0 s
2=|t 2t|=|4.905.00| s=0.10 s
3=|t 3t |=|5.105.00| s=0.10 s

max= t=0.10 s
t=|5.00 0.10|s
d. for the height |6.00 0.05|cm

t 1 =|6.80 0.10| s
t 2 =|6.60 0.10|s

t 3 =|6.70 0.10|s
t=

6.80+6.60+6.70
=6.70 s
3

1=|t 1t|=|6.806.70| s=0.10 s


2=|t 2t|=|6.606.70| s=0.10 s
3=|t 3t |=|6.706.70| s=0.0 s
max= t=0.10 s
t=|6.70 0.10|s

and distance |44.00 0.05|cm

8
7
f(x) = 0.15x - 0
R = 0.99

6
5
time (s)

4
3
2
1
0
5

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

distance (m)

Grafik 1.2 The relationship between distance and time interval


y=mx +c
s=mt+ c

v=

s
t

v=

ds
dt

v=

d ( mt +c )
dt

v = 0.150

v =m=0.150
DC=0.994 100

= 99.4%

=100 99.4 =0.6


v=

0.6 0.150
= 0.0009 4 SF
100

45

50

PR=|v v|cm/s
PR=|0.1500 0.0009|cm /s
2.

Determine the average of time interval


a. For the height |12.0 0.05| cm and distance |11.00 0.05|cm
t 1 =|1.10 0.10| s

t 2 =|1.20 0.10| s
t 3 =|1.10 0.10| s

t=

1.10+ 1.20+1.10
=1.13 s
3

1=|t 1t|=|1.101.13|s=0.03 s
2=|t 2t|=|1.201.13|s=0.07 s
3=|t 3t |=|1.101.13| s=0.03 s
max= t=0.07 s
t=|1.13 0.07|s
b. For the height |12.00 0.05| cm

t 1 =|2.40 0.05| s
t 2 =|2.40 0.05| s

t 3 =|2.40 0.05|s
t=

2.40+ 2.40+2.40
=2.40 s
3

1=|t 1t|=|2.402.40| s=0.0 s


2=|t 2t|=|2.402.40| s=0.0 s
3=|t 3t |=|2.402.40| s=0.0 s
max= t=0.0 s
t=|2.40 0.05|s

and distance

|22.00 0.05|cm

|12.00 0.05| cm and distance |33.00 0.05| cm


t 1 =|3.40 0.05| s

c. For the height

t 2 =|3.40 0.05| s
t 3 =|3.50 0.05| s

t=

3.40+3.40+3.50
=3.43 s
3
1=|t 1t|=|3.403.43|s=0.03 s
2=|t 2t|=|3.403.43| s=0.03 s
3=|t 3t |=|3.503.43| s=0.07 s

max= t=0.07 s
t=|3.43 0.07|s
d. For the height |12.00 0.005| cm

|44.00 0.05|cm
t 1 =|4.90 0.05|s

t 2 =|4.90 0.05|s
t 3 =|4.80 0.05| s

t=

4.90+ 4.90+4.80
=4.86 s
3

1=|t 1t|=|4.904.86|s=0.04 s
2=|t 2t|=|4.904.86| s=0.04 s
3=|t 3t |=|4.804.86| s=0.06 s
max= t=0.06 s
t=|4.86 0.06| s

and the distance

6
5
f(x) = 0.11x - 0.1
R = 1

4
time (s)

3
2
1
0
5

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

distance (cm)

Grafik 1.3 The relationship between distance and time interval


y=mx +c
s=mt+ c

v=

s
t

v=

ds
dt

v=

d ( mt +c )
dt

v = 0.1111

v =m= 0.1111
DK =0.996 100 =99.6

KR=100 99.6 =0.4

45

50

v=

0.111.0 .4
=0.0004
100

v =|v v|cm/ s
v =|0.1111 0.0004|cm /s

DISCUSSION
Activity 1
The activities of one instrument used are metre and stopwatch. Metre used to
measuring the path length passed by. stopwatch used to measuring the time
interval used to get through of the path.of this experiment used 3 person
to get through the path which in form right of triangle. with equal of the path
length and different velocity. Obtained the conclusion that the grater its speed. the
travel time is used less and less.
Activity 2
The activities of two instrument used ruler. CVM tube. and stative. In this
experiment using a point 4 as point A. B. C. and D. thing observed is the
movement of a bubbles in the tube CVM when it was taking a path from point 0
to the point D. in the event. the time taken by the bubbles to reach the point that
last long enough for the bubble motion is affected by height. thenthe motion is
upward (slowed).
CONCLUSION
Conclusion :
1. Distance is the length of a path followed by a particle. Distance is the
2.

quantities of scalar.
Displacement is defined as the change in position of the object. That is.
displacement is how far object is from its starting. Displacement is the

quantity that has both magnitude and direction. Such quantities are called
vectors.
3. the grater its speed. the travel time is used less and less.
4. the time taken by the bubbles to reach the point that last long enough for
the bubble motion is affected by height. thenthe motion is upward
(slowed).

Discussion :
Physics education is a subject that is complex. which basically learned theories
will not develop without lab. The science or study of education theory and
practice are two things that can not be separated. with practice theories learned
will feel more realized. Yet more support for the practice is in inftrastucture.
instrument used in the lab. all its the infrastructure for success in the studyof
physics

and praktikum course. Therefore. maintenance and provision

of

infrastructure should be considered.

REFERENCES
Tipler. Paul A. 2001. Fisika untuk sains dan teknik Edisi kelima (Terjemahan).
Jakarta: Erlangga.
Buku Penuntun Praktikum Fisika Dasar 1 Unit Laboratorium Fisika Dasar
Jurusan Fisika FMIPA Universitas Negeri Makassar.
Giancoli. 2001 (terjemahan Yuhliza Hanum). Fisika Edisi Kelima Jilid 1. Jakarta:
Erlangga.