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The Shell Bitumen

Handbook
Sixth edition

Principal aufhors
Dr Robert N.

Hunter, Andy Self and Professor John Read

Shell Bitumen

Contents
About the

principal authors

xii

Foreword

xiv

Acknowledgements

xv

Chapter

Chapter

Introduction
1.1

Origins

1.2

Definition of bitumen

1.3

The

1.4

Health, safety

1.5

Other binders

1 1

1.6

Terminology

13

uses

of bitumen

and environment

10

References

13

Manufacture and storage of bitumens

15

2.1

The manufacture of bitumen

15

2.2

Fractional distillation of crude oil

15

2.3

Air

blowing of short residues


Delivery, storage and handling temperatures

20

of bitumen

24

2.4

References

Chapter

27

Handling, health, safety and environmental


aspects of bitumens

Handling and safety

29

3.2

Health aspects of bitumen


Bitumen and the environment

36

3.3

Chapter

29

3.1

42

References

44

Constitution and structure of bitumens

47

4.1

Bitumen constitution

48

4.2

Bitumen structure

54

4.3

The

relationship between bitumen


and rheology

structure

constitution,
57

4.4

The

relationship

between broad chemical

composition and physical properties


the bitumen life cycle

during
58

References

Chapter

62

Specifying bitumens and checking their quality


5.1

Penetration

grade,

hard penetration

and

66

5.2

viscosity grade bitumens


Polymer modified bitumens (PMBs)

5.3

Oxidised bitumens

69

5.4

Hard bitumens

5.5

Bitumen

5.6

The CEN bitumen

81

5.7

The

82

66
70
70

quality

specification
SHRP/Superpave bitumen specification

85

References

Chapter

Routine

testing and mechanical properties

of bitumens

87
tests for bitumens

6.1

Standard

6.2

Temperature susceptibility
index (PI)

6.3

Viscosity

6.4

The bitumen

specification

92

93
test

data chart

6.5

Engineering properties of

6.6

Cohesion

99

bitumen

105
1 14
1 1 6

Rheology of bitumens
7.1

Rheology,

7.2

The

119

deformation and flow

rheology of

1 20

bitumen

134

References

Chapter

87

the penetration

References

Chapter

65

grade

145

Polymer modified bitumens and other


modified binders

149

8.1

The role of bitumen

8.2

pavements
The modification of bitumen

8.3

Other modified

industrial

modifiers

products
applications

in

asphalt
150
153

used for road and

166

8.4

Properties of PMBs and related

methods

174

8.5

Manufacture, storage and handling of PMBs


Performance of PMBs for road application:

177

8.6

Shell
References

Cariphalte example

test

1 79
180

Chapter

Bitumen emulsions
9.1

9.2
9.3

A brief

history

185

of the

development

of bitumen

emulsions

186

The components of emulsions


The manufacture of bitumen emulsions

187

handling

193

Storage

9.5

Properties of bitumen emulsions

196

9.6

Modification of bitumen emulsion properties


Classification and specification of bitumen

203

emulsions

208

9.7

and

of bitumen emulsions

9.4

9.8

Uses of bitumen emulsions

9.9

Trends and

new

developments

209
in

the

use

of

bitumen emulsions
9.10

Chapter

10

Further information

214
on

bitumen emulsions

1 1

214

Aggregates in asphalts

217

10.1

Introduction

21 7

10.2

Origin and type

218

10.3

Aggregate processing

224

10.4

Coarse and fine aggregates

231

10.5

Filler aggregate

250

10.6

Assuring aggregate quality

255
256

Choosing asphalts for


pavement layers
11.1
Asphalts used
11.2

UK

11.3

Asphalts used
Asphalts used
Asphalts used

1 1.4
1 1.5

use

in flexible
261

in flexible

1 1.6

Europe

flexible pavements
flexible pavements

in

the UK

267

in France

277

in

flexible pavements

in

in

flexible pavements

in

264

pavements

Asphalts

in
in

282

used

the
284

USA
1 1.7

Asphalts used

in

1 1.8

used

in

Asphalts

flexible pavements
flexible pavements

in India
in

China

287

289
290

References
1 2

261

pavements

in

Germany

Chapter

214

References

References

Chapter

194

Design of asphalt mixtures


12.1

A very brief
methods

12.2

Mixture volumetrics

history

of

asphalt

295
mixture

design
295
297
vii

Chapter

1 3

12.3

Grading

12.4

Mixture

14

Design of flexible pavements

347

13.1

Introduction

347

13.2

Background

13.3

The importance of stiffness


The elements of a flexible pavement
involved

design

of pavements

Stages

13.6

Pavement

designs

13.7

Empirical

and

13.8

Analytical pavement design

1 3.9

The contribution of Shell Bitumen

in

353

356

pavement design
in the USA

analytical

pavement

35 1

360
366

design

368

368
to

the

development of pavement design


13.10 Example pavement designs using SPDM-PC
13.11 A glimpse of the future for pavement design?

369

References

375

Asphalt production plants

379

Introduction

372
374

379

of mixing

14.2

Types

14.3

Plant capacities
Additive systems

402

14.4
14.5

Cold

404

14.7
14.8

380

plants

403

plants
Warm
plants
Asphalt plant control
Sampling
mix

406

mix

407
410

References

41 2

Transport, laying and compaction of


asphalts

413

15.1

413

15.2

Transport
Preparatory works
of bond

41 3

15.3

Application

15.4

Delivery and discharge

417

15.5

Pavers

418

15.6

Laying

15.7

Machine

15.8

Hot-on-hot paving
Hand laying

15.9
15.10
15.1 1

viii

the

to

13.5

14.6

15

31 1
342

14.1

Chapter

methods

design

References

1 3.4

Chapter

304

Layer
Joints

415

coats

in adverse weather conditions

laying

thickness and surface

423
424
427
427

regularity

429
430

of hot rolled

15.12

Chipping

15.13

Installing gussasphalt

asphalt

surface

course

435
437

15.14 Compaction
15.15
15.16
15.17

443

surface courses
Application of grit
Opening to traffic
Specification and qualify control
to

443
444
444

References

Chapter

Chapter

16

17

447

Laboratory testing of asphalts

449

16.1

Fundamental

16.2

Simulative

16.3

Empirical

1 6.4

Determination of recovered bitumen

tests

459

tests

467

properties

1 8

474

Properties of asphalts

479

17.1

Stiffness of

479

17.2

Deformation of

486

1 7.3

Fatigue characteristics of asphalts

491

1 7.4

Failure theories for

asphalts
asphalts
cracking

in

asphalt layers

of

properties

on

the
503

asphalts

18.1

Introduction

18.2

The influence of binder

503

properties during
508

construction
18.3

The influence of binder properties on the


performance of asphalts in service

Adhesion of bitumen and moisture


in

damage
549

asphalts

19.1

Thermodynamic principles of adhesion,


550

cohesion and surface free energy

affecting bitumen-aggregate

adhesion

19.2

Factors

19.3

Disbonding mechanisms

19.4

Methods of measuring and assessing


adhesion between bitumen and aggregates
and moisture damage
Improving bitumen-aggregate adhesion

19.5

51 1
542

References

19

496
499

Influence of binder

performance

Chapter

470

References

References

Chapter

434

References

in

asphalts

552
553

557
567
569

ix

Chapter

20

Durability of bitumens and asphalts

573

20.1

hardening
Hardening of bitumen during storage,

574

mixing and

576

20.2
20.3

Chapter

21

Bitumen

Bitumen

in service
tests

ageing

586

References

588

Surface treatments

591

Surface

591

21.3

dressing
Slurry surfacing/microsurfacing
High friction surfaces

21.4

Grouted macadams

636

21.1
21.2

621

635

References

Chapter

22

640

Alternative

asphalts

643

22.1

Asphalts produced

22.2

Warm

22.3

Shell

mix

using foamed bitumen

asphalts

Thiopave,

651

sulfur-based

asphalt

modifier

for enhanced
22.4

asphalt road applications


Recycling of asphalt pavements

22.5

Modification of bitumen

by

671

References

23

680

Certification of bitumens and

asphalts

23.1

The

23.2

Standards

23.3

Certification for

23.4

the scope of CEN harmonised standards


Requirements for product certification

regulatory framework

24

Other

691

products

and systems outside

important

uses of

697

bitumens and
703

roofing applications

24.1

Bitumen in

24.2

Bituminous adhesive for

use

704

with pavement

markers

694

700

asphalts

714

24.4

Airfield pavements
Conventional and high

24.5

applications
Bridges

24.6

Recreational

24.7

Motor racing

24.3

687
688

References

Chapter

654
666

the addition of

rubber

Chapter

643

716

speed railway
721
726
728

areas

tracks, including

Formula 1 tracks

729

24.8

Vehicle testing

24.9

Hydraulic applications

circuits

24.10 Coloured surface


24.1 1

courses

730
730

and surface

treatments

732

Asphalt

735

kerbs

References

735

Appendix

Physical

Appendix

Conversion factors for viscosities

743

Appendix

Blending charts and formulae

744

Appendix

Calculation of bitumen film thickness in

constants of bitumens

739

an

asphalt

Appendix

Bitumen

748

product standards used

across

the

world

Appendix

750

Asphalt product standards used

across

the

world

Appendix

754

Reporting asphalt compositional analysis


results

Appendix
Index

Volumetrics

756

symbols

759
761

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