Solution Manual for Water Supply and Wastewater removal 3rd edition chapter 8

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Solution Manual for Water Supply and Wastewater removal 3rd edition chapter 8

© All Rights Reserved

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Chapter 8

Pumping, Storage and Dual Water

Systems

Problem 8.1

Determine the water horsepower, break horsepower and motor horsepower for a pump operating under the following

conditions: water flow of 490 gpm is to be pumped against a total head of 110 ft; the pump efficiency is 75%; and

the motor driving the pump has an efficiency is 85%

Solution:

Water horsepower = Q H/3957

= (490) (110)/3957

= 13.6 hp

Break horsepower = Water horsepower/Epump

= 13.6/0.75

= 18.1 hp

Motor horsepower = break horsepower/Emotor)

= 18.1/0.85

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A pump is to be located 6 ft above a wet well and must lift 600 gpm of water another 52 ft to a storage reservoir

through a piping system consisting of 1,250 ft of 6-in DIP pipe (C = 110), 2 globe valves (open), and 2 medium

sweep elbows. Determine the total dynamic head (TDH) for this water pumping system:

Solution:

Hs = Hsuction + Hd

TDH = Hs + Hf = Hsuction + Hd + Hf

Where

Hs = static head, ft

Hsuction = suction lift head, ft

Hd = discharge head, ft

TDH = total dynamic head, ft

Hf = friction loss head, ft

Hs = Hsuction + Hd

= 6 ft + 52 ft

= 58 ft

From Appendix 17 Equivalent length of pipe to headloss in fittings:

Equivalent 6-in pipe length for 2 globe valves (open) = 2 x 150 ft = 300 ft

Equivalent 6-in pipe length for 2 medium sweep elbows = 2 x 14 ft = 28 ft.

Total equivalent length of 6-in pipe = 1250 + 300 + 28 = 1,578 ft

From Nomogram (C= 110) in Appendix 14 at Q = 600 gpm

Hf = 40 ft of water per 1000 ft of 6-in DIP pipe

= (40/1000) (1,578)

= 63.12 ft

TDH = Hs + Hf

= 58 + 63.12 = 121.12 ft

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Problem 8.3

Using the data given from Problem 8.2 assume the following additional data: efficiency of pump = 80 %, efficiency

of motor = 85 %. Determine (a) the motor horsepower in hp and kWh/day; and (b) the daily power cost if the unit

power cost is $0.1/kWh

Solution:

From Problem 8.2,

TDH = 121.12 ft

hp = (Q) (H)/3,957

= 600 x 121.12/3,957

= 18.4

= 18.4/0.80 x 0.85

= 27 hp

= (27 hp) (24 h/day) (0.746 kW/hp)

= 483 kWh/day

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Problem 8.4

Determine the total power input if the electrical input to a motor-pump system is 220 volts and 36 amps.

Solution:

Input power = (V) ( A )/746

= (220) (36)/746

= 10.6 hp

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Problem 8.5

Determine the wire-to-water efficiency (%) if Q = 510 gpm, TDH = 53.65 ft, V = 220 volts, A = 36 amps.

Solution:

Eww = Water horsepower/Input horsepower

Water horsepower = (Q) (H)/3,957

= 510 x 53.65/3,957

= 6.9 hp

Input power = VA/746

= 220x36/746

= 10.6 hp

Eww = (6.9/10.6) x 100

= 65 %

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Problem 8.6

Changing the speed of a centrifugal pump will change its operating characteristics including the water flow.

Determine the new flow rate or capacity, Q2 if

Q1 = rated water flow = 620 gpm

N2 = pump speed now = 1320 rpm

N1= rated pump speed = 1650 rpm

Solution:

Q2 = (Q1) (N2/N1)

= (620) (1320/1650)

= 496 gpm

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Problem 8.7

Changing the speed of a centrifugal pump will change its operating characteristics, including the head. Determine

the new head, if

H1 = rated head = 120 ft

N2 = pump speed now = 1320 rpm

N1 = rated pump speed = 1650 rpm

Solution:

H2 = (H1) (N2/N1)2

H2 = (120) (1320/1650)2

= 76.8 ft

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Problem 8.8

Changing the speed of a centrifugal pump will change its operating characteristics, including the power requirement.

Determine the new power requirement, if

P1 = rated head = 16 hp

N2 = pump speed now = 1320 rpm

N1 = rated pump speed = 1650 rpm

Solution:

P2 = (P1) (N2/N1)3

= (16) (1320/1650)3

= 8.2 hp

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Problem 8.9

A water pumping station is designed to raise water from a lake at an elevation of 50 ft to a reservoir located at an

elevation of 140 ft. Water is pumped through a 16 in cast iron pipe that develops a headloss of 19 ft of water at a

discharge of 1000 gpm. The pumping station has two pumps, each of which possesses the following characteristics:

Flow, gpm

Head, ft

500

195

1,000

180

1,500

150

2,000

110

2,500

50

Shot of head = 200 ft.

What will be the discharge of the two pumps when operating in parallel?

Solution:

Plot the characteristic curves for one pump and 2 pumps in parallel and the system dynamic head. From the

intersection points of the dynamic head and the characteristic curves for the two pumps in parallel we get the

discharge of the two pumps (see the plot below)

hf = KQn

19 = K (1000)n

K = 19/(1000)n

H = hf + z = hf + 90

Flow

Q

gpm

n = 1.85

hf = KQ1.85

ft

H = hf + z

ft

n=2

hf = KQ2

ft

H = hf + z

ft

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500

1000

1500

2000

2500

3000

5

19

40

68

104

145

95

109

130

158

194

235

5

19

43

76

119

171

95

109

133

166

209

261

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Problem 8.10

The water supply system shown in Fig. 8.14 is designed to serve city ABCDEFA. Water is treated and collected in a

water tank in the treatment plant (WTP). A pump delivers the water through the 24-in main PR 1 to an elevated

reservoir (water level 2,700 ft) at the top of a hill. Pumping is done at a constant rate and only for a period of 16

hours per day from 4 AM to 8 PM. Water flows from the elevated reservoir into the distribution main network

ABCDEF through a 24-in main R2A.

(Here 1 ft = 0.3048 m; 1 in = 2.54 cm)

The water consumption during the maximum day demand in the city is as follows:

Period

Midnight to 4 AM

4 AM to 8 AM

8 AM to Noon

Noon to 4 PM

4 PM to 8 PM

8 PM to Midnight

Flowrate, gpm

2,000

4,000

6,000

5,000

4,000

3,000

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Assume that the water withdrawal from the network is equally distributed among the points A, B, C, D, E

and F, which are at the same elevation of 2,300 ft and that all pipes are ductile iron with C = 100. Also consider

that the pump possesses the following characteristics:

Head, ft

Flow, gpm

400

390

370

345

310

225

2,000

4,000

6,000

8,000

12,000

(a) Calculate the volume of the elevated reservoir needed to balance supply and demand.

(b) Compute the maximum flow in each pipe of the network.

(c) Determine the elevation of the water tank at the treatment plant

(d) At what rate of flow can you pump the water to the elevated reservoir if another identical pump is

installed in parallel with the existing pump?

Solution:

(a) Calculate the volume of the elevated reservoir needed to balance supply and demand.

Calculate the accumulative volume as follows (see following table):

Volume in MG = 4 h x rate gpm x 60 min/h/106

Volume MN to 4 AM = 4 x 2000 x 60/106 = 0.48 MG

Accumulative volume 4 AM to AM = 0.48 + 0.96 = 1.44 MG

Period

Flow rate

gpm

Volume

MG

Accumulative

volume

MG

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Midnight to 4 AM

4 AM to 8 AM

8 AM to Noon

Noon to 4 PM

4 PM to 8 PM

8 PM to Midnight

2000

4000

6000

5000

4000

3000

0.48

0.96

1.44

1.20

0.96

0.72

0.48

1.44

2.88

4.08

5.04

5.76

Plot the accumulative volume vs. time of day for both consumption and pumping as shown in the following

figure:

Peak flow = 6000 gpm

Since flow is equally distributed at the 6 points A, B, C, D, E and F

So flow out of each point = 6000/6 =1000 gpm

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So flow distributes equally in both directions and then

(c) Determine the elevation of the water tank at the treatment plant

sPR1 at Q = 6000 gpm, d = 24 and C =100 is 3.75

(hf)PR1 = sL = 3.75 x 35,000/1000 = 131.25 ft

z = 345 131.25 = 213.75 ft

Elevation of water tank = 2700 213.75 = 2486.25 ft

(d) At what rate of flow can you pump the water to the elevated reservoir if another identical pump is installed in

parallel with the existing pump?

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To draw the system curve we need to calculate the total dynamic head for the system as shown in the following

table:

Q

gpm

2000

4000

6000

7000

8000

s

(d = 24 in, C = 100)

0.55

1.80

3.75

5.80

6.40

hf = sL = 35s

ft

19

63

131

182

224

213.75 + hf

ft

233

277

345

396

438

Plot system dynamic head and pump characteristics (one pump and two pumps in parallel) as a function of

water flow rate, Q:

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From the figure it can be seen that the flow using two pumps in parallel is 6,800 gpm. However since in

this case the water cant reach the reservoir, then Qmax = 6000 gpm.

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Problem 8.11

The water supply system shown in Fig. 8.15 is planned to serve a small village. Treated water from the treatment

plant (WTP) flowing at a uniform rate throughout the day is collected in a ground tank. Water is then pumped to an

elevated reservoir at the top of a hill through the main AB. Water flows from the elevated reservoir into the

distribution network through the main CD.

Midnight to 6 AM

6 AM to Noon

60 L/s

240 L/s

Noon to 6 PM

6 PM to Midnight

120 L/s

90 L/s

The pumping station has three pumps, two of which operate in parallel and the third pump is a standby.

Pumping is done at a constant rate and only for a period of 12 hours from 6 AM to 6 PM. Each pump possesses

the following characteristics:

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Flow, L/s

60

90

120

150

180

Head, m

180

165

153

135

105

63

The Hazen-Williams Coefficient C for all mains is 100. The total equivalent length of main AB is 2,500 m and

main CD is 9,000 m.

(a) Determine the volumes of ground tank and elevated reservoir (each separately) needed to balance supply

and demand. (Storage for fire fighting and emergency are not required).

(b) Determine the minimum standard size of the water main AB needed so that the two operating pumps can

deliver the required flow from the ground tank to the elevated reservoir.

Solution:

(a) Determine the volumes of ground tank and elevated reservoir (each separately) needed to balance supply and

demand. (Storage for fire fighting and emergency are not required).

Plot accumulative supply and draft vs. time of day for ground tank:

Period

Midnight to 6AM

6 AM to 8 Noon

Noon to 6 PM

6 PM to Midnight

Flow rate

L/s

Volume

m3

60

240

120

90

1296

5184

2592

1944

Accumulative

volume

m3

1296

6480

9072

11,016

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Plot accumulative supply and draft vs. time of day for elevated reservoir:

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(b) Determine the minimum standard size of the water main AB needed so that the two operating pumps can deliver

the required flow from the ground tank to the elevated reservoir.

Plot the Characteristic curve for the two pumps in parallel.

Q = 11,016 m3/(12 h x 60 min x 60 s) = 0.255 m3/s = 255 L/s

hf = 127.5 120 = 7.5 m (see plot)

The required pipe diameter at Q = 255 L/s, s = 7.5/2.5 = 3 and C =100 is 540 mm.

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Problem 8.12

A water pumping station is designed to raise water from a treatment plant ground reservoir at an elevation of 600 m

to an elevated reservoir located on the opposite side of town at an elevation of 660 m. The trunk line and the water

distribution network connecting the two reservoirs is equivalent to a pipe line (C = 100) 400 mm in diameter and

25,000 m long.

The pumping station has three pumps, two of which operate in series and the third pump is a standby. Each pump

possesses the following characteristics:

Flow, L/s

Head, m

40

80

120

160

200

240

100

98

94

87

79

70

60

During night hours, when consumption is low, the pumped water is greater than demand and excess water is stored

in the elevated reservoir. Considering this mode of operation, determine the flow rate that can be delivered through

the system under the following pumping conditions:

(a) Two pumps are operational.

(b) One pump is operational i.e. one pump failed and the standby is under maintenance.

Solution:

Plot the characteristics curve for one pump using the given data (Head vs. Flow)

Plot the characteristics curve for the two pumps in series by doubling the one pump head for each flow rate.

Plot the total dynamic head for the system using the total head vs. flow rate as calculated in the following

table:

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Q

L/S

0

40

80

100

120

140

s

(d = 400 mm, C = 100)

0

0.47

1.75

2.7

3.7

5.2

hf = sL = 25s

m

0

12

44

68

93

130

H = hf + z = hf + 60

m

60

72

104

128

153

190

(a) The intersection of the two pumps characteristic curve with the total dynamic head curve yields Q = 128

L/s

(b) The intersection of the one pump characteristic curve with the total dynamic head curve yields Q = 74 L/s

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Problem 8.13

A water pumping station is designed to raise water from a treatment plant ground reservoir at an elevation of 190 ft

to a downtown elevated reservoir located at an elevation of 415 ft. Water is pumped through a 20-in pipe (C = 100),

which is 30,000 ft long. The pumping station has two pumps, each of which possesses the following characteristics:

Flow, L/s

Head, m

1,000

2,000

3,000

4,000

5,000

6,000

7,000

290

270

245

210

170

125

65

What will be the discharge of the two pumps when operating in series? Also what will be the total head against

which the pumps are actually operating?

Solution:

Plot the characteristics curve for one pump using the given data (Head vs. Flow)

Plot the characteristics curve for the two pumps in series by doubling the one pump head for each flow rate.

Plot the total dynamic head for the system using the total head vs. flow rate as calculated in the following

table:

hf = sL = 30s

H =hf + 225

gpm

ft

ft

1000

0.35

10

235

2000

1.20

36

261

3000

2.40

72

297

4000

4.50

135

360

5000

6.40

192

417

6000

9.30

279

504

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The intersection of the two pumps characteristic curve with the total dynamic head curve yields:

Q = 4500 GPM

H = 338 ft

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Problem 8.14

An Industrial Complex utilizes water at a uniform rate of 5,400 gpm during its working hours from 8 AM to 12

Noon and from 4 PM to 8 pm. This water demand is withdrawn from an elevated water tank located at an elevation

of 40 ft above ground level.

Water is pumped, at a uniform rate continuously throughout the day to the tank using two pumps connected in series

from a well whose water level is 460 ft below ground level. The water pipe from the well to the tank is 3000 ft long

(C = 100).

Flow, gpm

Head, ft

1,000

2,000

3,000

4,000

350

325

275

175

50

(a) Calculate the water tank volume required to equalize supply and demand.

(b) Determine the size of the pipe delivering water from the well to the water tank.

Solution:

(a) Calculate the water tank volume required to equalize supply and demand.

Total flow = 5400 gpm 60 min x 8 h/106

= 2.592 MGD

Pumping rate = 2.592/24 =0.108 MG/h

=1800 gpm

Plot the supply and demand curves as shown in the figure

Total storage Volume = 0.432 + 0.864

S = 1.3 MG (see the plot)

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(b) Determine the size of the pipe delivering water from the well to the water tank.

Static head = 460 + 40 = 500 ft

Plot the characteristic curves for 1

Plot the characteristic curves for 2 pumps in series by doubling the head for each given Q

Since the pumping rate Q =1800 gpm, then the 2 pumps in series should be able to deliver this flow.

From the plot of the two pumps characteristics as shown in the following figure, at 1800 gpm the total head

is 575 ft.

Hence the maximum hf shall not be more than 575 500 = 75 ft.

Then the required size of pipe should not be less than the following:

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Problem 8.15

A summer resort complex consumes water at the following uniform rates during the indicated periods:

Period

Midnight to 8 a.m.

8 a.m. to 4 p.m.

4 p.m. to midnight

20

50

30

How large a storage tank would be required to equalize supply and demand for each of the following

conditions?

(a) Water is obtained from a nearby city at a uniform rate from 8 a.m. to 4 p.m.

(b) Water is obtained from the same city at a uniform rate over the 24-hr. period.

Solution:

Plot the accumulative consumption and supply curves over 24 h (see figure)

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Problem 8.16

For the water supply of a small town with daily water requirement of 2,250 m 3, it is proposed to construct a water

reservoir. The pattern of draw off is as below:

Period

% of dail y demand

7 a.m. to 8 a.m.

30

8 a.m. to 5 p.m.

5 p.m. to 6.30 p.m.

8 . 3 0 p.m. to 7 a . m .

35

30

5

Determine the storage capacity of the reservoir needed to balance supply and demand. No storage for fire is

required. If pumping is to be done at a constant rate over the 24 hours, what will then be the required reservoir

size?

Solution:

Plot the accumulative consumption and supply curves over 24 h period (see figure)

% of

Daily demand

m3/period

7 AM 8 AM

30

675

Accumulative

volume

m3

675

8 A M 5 PM

35

787.5

1462.5

5 P M 6.30 PM

30

675

2137.5

8 . 3 0 PM 7AM

112.5

2250

Period

For 24-h pumping, storage capacity of reservoir = 1060 m3

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Problem 8.17

An industrial plant requires 5000 gpm of water during its onshift hours from 6 a.m. to 10 p.m. How large (in

gallons) a storage tank would be required to equalize the pumping rate for each of the following conditions:

(a) Water is obtained from a well at a uniform rate over the 214-h period.

(b) Water is obtained from a well during the period 10 p.m. to 6 a.m., which is the off peak period in electricity

consumption.

Solution:

Plot the accumulative demand and the two supply alternative curves over 24 h period (see figure)

(b) For 10 p.m. to 6 a.m. pumping, storage capacity of tank should be = 4.8 MG

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Problem 8.18

A factory requires 50 L/s of water during its working hours from 8 AM to 4 PM How large a storage reservoir would

be required, to equalize supply and demand for each of the following water supply conditions?

(a) Water is supplied from a well at a uniform rate over the 24-h period.

(b) Water is supplied at a uniform rate from the city network during the off peak period from 4 p.m. to 8 a.m

Solution:

Plot the accumulative demand and the two supply alternative curves over 24 h period (see figure)

(a) For 24-h pumping, storage capacity of tank should be = V1a + V1b = 480 + 480 = 960 m3

(b) For 4 p.m. to 8 a.m. pumping, storage capacity of tank should be = V2 = 1440 m3

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Problem 8.19

A residential neighborhood, population 20,000, is supplied with water from an elevated reservoir. The daily water

consumption is as follows:

Period of day

% of daily demand

Midnight to 3 a.m.

5

3 a.m. to 6 a.m.

7

6 a.m. to 9 a.m.

13

9 a.m. to noon

20

Noon to 3 p.m.

20

3 p.m.to 6 p.m.

15

6 p.m.to 9 p.m.

10

9 p.m.to midnight

10

The average daily water consumption is 400 L/capita and the maximum daily consumption is 125% of the daily

average. Determine the storage volume (in m 3) necessary to balance supply and demand in each of the

following cases:

(a) If water is supplied into the reservoir at a constant rate over the 24-h period.

(b) If water is supplied into the reservoir at a constant rate, but only for a period of 12 h from 6 a.m. to 6 p.m.

Solution:

Total max daily demand = 20,000 persons x 400 L/capita x 1.25 for max day/ (1000 L/m 3 ) = 10,000 m3

Calculate the accumulative volume (see table)

Plot the accumulative consumption and supply curves over 24 h period (see figure)

Period

% of

Daily demand

m3/period

MN 3

500

Accumulative

volume

m3

500

3-6

700

1200

6-9

13

1300

2500

9-N

20

2000

4500

N-3

20

2000

6500

36

15

1500

8000

79

10

1000

9000

9 - MN

10

1000

10,000

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(a) For 24 h pumping, storage capacity of tank should be = S1a + S1b = 1300 + 500 = 1800 m3

(b) For 4 PM to 8 AM pumping, storage capacity of tank should be = S2a + S2b = 1200 + 2000 = 3200 m3

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Problem 8.20

A residential complex consists of 60 duplex villas (two housing units in each). Each housing unit can accommodate

a maximum of 10 persons. The expected maximum daily water consumption is 400 L/capita. Water is supplied from

the municipal network at a uniform rate throughout the day and is collected in a ground storage reservoir. Water is

then pumped to an elevated reservoir at a constant rate but only for a period of 9 hours from 6 a.m. to 3 p.m. Water

then flows from the elevated reservoir to the various villas by gravity to satisfy the following daily demands:

Period of day

Midnight to 3 a.m.

3 a.m. to 6 a.m.

6 a.m. to 9 a.m.

9 a.m. to noon

Noon to 3 p.m.

3 p.m. to 6 p.m.

6 p.m. to 9 p.m.

9 p.m. to midnight

% of daily demand

5

5

25

15

15

10

15

10

(a) Required volume of ground reservoir.

(b) Required volume of elevated reservoir.

Solution:

Total max daily demand = 60x2x10 persons x 400 L/capita x (1000 L/m3 ) = 480 m3

Calculate the accumulative volume (see table)

Plot the accumulative consumption and the two supply curves over 24 h period (see figure)

Period

% of

Daily demand

m3/period

MN 3

3-6

6-9

9-N

N-3

36

79

9 - MN

5

5

25

15

15

10

15

10

24

24

120

72

72

48

72

48

Accumulative

volume

m3

24

48

168

240

312

360

432

480

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(a) Volume of ground reservoir should be = S1a + S2a = 120 + 180 = 300 m3

(b) Volume of elevated reservoir should be = S1b + S2b = 48 + 168 = 216 m3

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Problem 8.21

A small water system in the rural area has a population of 800 persons, and its daily per capita usage is estimated to

be 100 gpcd. The required fire flow determined by the village engineer is 500 gpm for a duration of 2 hours. There is

no particular hazard to the water supply works. Determine the required water storage to be provided for the village

using the Recommended Standards for Water Works, 2007 Edition. Visit the website or contact the local health

department for the latest edition of these Ten- State Standards for water works.

Solution:

Storage volume for domestic consumption = Average daily consumption (Ten States Standards)

= 800 x 100 = 80,000 gpd average daily demand

= 0.08 MGD

The fire reserve is 500 gpm for 2 hours

= (500 gal/min x 2 h x 60 min/h)/106

= 0.06 MG

Total storage = Domestic storage + Fire storage = 0.08 + 0.06 = 0.14 MG

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Problem 8.22

A city is planning to improve its water supply system (Fig. 8.16). At present the city has a surface water supply

reservoir at elevation 100 ft (Point A), a pumping station at elevation 80 ft (Point B), water storage tank at elevation

200 ft (Point C), a 500 ft o suction transmission line between the reservoir and the pumping station, and a 10,000 ft

of 10-in pressure transmission line between the pumping station and the water storage tank. The water at the water

storage tank site is treated by UV for disinfection and then discharged to the water distribution system.

(Here 1 ft = 0.3048 m; 1 in = 2.54 cm)

A proposal has been made to replace the current pumps with two centrifugal pumps, construct 10,000 ft of 16-in

transmission main to parallel the present 10-in water main and to provide additional water storage at elevation 200 ft

at the present water storage site. The following conditions are assumed: (a) C factor for all pipes = 120, (b) fire flow

requirements in the city = 2000 gpm for 10 hours; (c) average daily demand = 3 MGD; (d) maximum daily demand

= 5 MGD, (e) peak hourly demand = 10 MGD; (f) pumping station head losses = 500 ft of 16-in pipe (equivalent);

(g) the field measured total dynamic head delivered by the pump from raw water supply reservoir to the pump

station, then to the water storage tank = 150 ft.

(a) What should the pump rating (gpm) be for each of the two new pumps?

(b) What will be the brake horsepower (BHP) for pump selection, and what will be the motor horsepower

(MHP) for motor selection?

(c) Will the two selected pumps be connected in parallel or in series?

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Solution:

It should be noted that the head loss is the same for the existing 10-in pipe and the new 16-in pipe in parallel. Two

new pumps are necessary, each of the same capacity, in order to meet the maximum daily demand of 5 MGD (i.e.

3470 gpm), with one pump operating and the other idle for repairs or in reserve as a standby for emergency.

= (Q gpm) (8.33 lb/gal) (H ft)/(33,000 ft-lb/min)

= (Q gpm) (H ft) /(3957)

= (3740) (150)/3957

= 142 hp

(b) Assuming the combined efficiency (Epump)(Emotor) = 0.75, the input power to the motor can then be

determined.

= (142 hp) / 0.75

= 189 hp

(c) When pumps operate in series the total flow is limited to the capacity of the smallest pump. Therefore, the

two new pumps should operate in parallel.

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Problem 8.23

Using the same given data in Problem 8.22, explain why the pipe line is designed based on the maximum daily

water demand, and determine the total storage capacity of a new water storage tank.

Solution:

Water supply conduits leading to water storage tanks are generally so proportioned that they can deliver water at a

rate sufficient to meet the maximum daily demand. Hour peak water demands in excess of this rate are supplied

from the water storage tanks. The three major components of water storage are: (a) equalizing or operating storage;

(b) fire reserve; and (c) emergency reserve.

1.

2.

3.

4.

The capacity of a new water storage tank can also be determined in accordance with the 10 State Standards (2007

edition):

1.

2.

3.

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