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OCSNM1/RMCSM1 Data Communication &

Network Principles, Section A 8


Access to Wide Area Networks using the Public
Switched Telephone Network (PSTN)

Architecture of the PSTN


PCM coding
Data rates for voice band modems up to 33.6 kbps
Voice band modems - 56kbps
Integrated Services Digital network (ISDN)

PSTN architecture
64 kbit/sec
Subscriber 'A'

PCM Codec serial data


PCM
Switch

Analogue
copper
pair (2 wire)
to customer

64 kBit/sec data streams are


multiplexed & routed through
the PSTN trunk network

PCM
Switch
2/4 wire conversion
A's local telephone exchange

64 kbit/sec
PCM Codec serial data
Subscriber 'A'

Analogue
copper
pair (2 wire)
to customer

PCM
Switch

PCM
Switch
PSTN Trunk network
2/4 wire conversion

What is
the
bandwidth
of the
various
links in
the
network?

B's local telephone exchange

Data Communications, Ed. 2, D. Lauder

Section A 8, Page 1

PSTN - PCM coding (voice)

Data Communications, Ed. 2, D. Lauder

Principle of PCM digitisation

Sampling A/D Converter P/S Converter


Analogue
copper
pair (2 wire)
to customer

2/4
wire

Tx
path

(a) PCM coder


block
diagram
(b) PCM coder
waveforms

Rx
LPF
Anti-aliasing
filter (3.4 kHz)

8 bit parallel

64 kbit/sec
serial data

8 kHz sampling pulses


PCM Coder (Half of CODEC) at telephone exchange

8 bit samples @ 8000 samples/sec =64000 bits/sec.


PSTN is built to route circuit-switched calls carrying serial
64 kbit/sec digitised voice (or ISDN data).
PSTN is fully digital apart from analogue copper pairs from
exchanges to customers.
Data Communications, Ed. 2, D. Lauder

Section A 8, Page 3

Section A 8, Page 2

(Halsall Fig 2.23)

Data Communications, Ed. 2, D. Lauder

Section A 8, Page 4

Quantisation errors and quantisation noise

PCM Companding
(Halsall Fig 2.25)

3 bit A/D
conversion
shown for
simplicity

-law or A-law
companding 8 bit companded
PCM is used
instead of 12 bit
linear PCM
Example shown is
5 bit for clarity

(Halsall Fig 2.24a)

Data Communications, Ed. 2, D. Lauder

Section A 8, Page 5

Theoretical maximum data rate via the PSTN


- the Shannon-Hartley Law
Defines the theoretical maximum rate at which
information (data) can be transmitted through a
channel. This rate depends on the bandwidth and
signal to noise ratio of the channel.

C = W Log2 (1+S/N)

Where:
C is the information (data) rate in bits/sec
W is the bandwidth of the channel in hertz,
S is the average signal power in watts,
N is the random noise power in watts.
Data Communications, Ed. 2, D. Lauder

Section A 8, Page 7

Data Communications, Ed. 2, D. Lauder

Section A 8, Page 6

Theoretical maximum data rate via the PSTN


A voice-band modem (up to 33.6kbps, not 56k)
treats the PSTN as an analogue end-to-end link.
What is the fundamental limiting factor that
determines the best S/N ratio that can be achieved
on an analogue-to-analogue PSTN link that goes
via a 64 kbit/sec PCM digital link?
If the best S/N ratio that can be achieved on a
PSTN link is 38 - 39 dB, what is the theoretical
maximum data rate?
Data Communications, Ed. 2, D. Lauder

Section A 8, Page 8

Notes on using the Shannon-Hartley Law

64 kbit/sec

Client

PCM Codec serial data

56k modem
Tx

The S/N ratio must be expressed in linear


units as a power ratio, not in dB.
To convert Log10(N) to Log2(N),
multiply Log10(N) by (Log2(2))/(Log10(2))
= 1/0.3010 = 3.3219

PCM
Switch

Digital
Rx

Analogue
copper
2/4 wire conversion
pair (2 wire)
to client
Client's local telephone exchange

Server

64 kbit/sec
serial data

64k bit/sec
ISDN
connection

Tx

ISDN
CPE

PCM
Switch

PCM
Switch

PCM
Switch

Digital
Rx

Use of
a 56k
modem
on the
PSTN

64 kBit/sec data streams are


multiplexed & routed through
the PSTN trunk network

ISDN
Line card

PSTN Trunk network

Server's local telephone exchange

Data Communications, Ed. 2, D. Lauder

Section A 8, Page 9

Data Communications, Ed. 2, D. Lauder

Section A 8, Page 10

Use of a 56k modem on the PSTN

56k modem operation (1)

With 56k, the server is connected to the


PSTN via an ISDN line. In practice, this is
normally a primary rate ISDN connection
(30 x 64 kBit/sec channels), of which only
one is shown on page 10 above.
56k modems can achieve downstream data
rates that exceed the Shannon-Hartley limit
for a PSTN circuit. How is this possible?

Data rates of up to 56k bit/sec are only possible in


the downstream direction (from the server to the
client). Why?
56k modems are fundamentally different from
analogue modems in the downstream direction.
The server's ISDN connection gives the server a
direct digital connection to the 64 kbit/sec PCM
data path through the PSTN.

Data Communications, Ed. 2, D. Lauder

Section A 8, Page 11

Data Communications, Ed. 2, D. Lauder

Section A 8, Page 12

56k modem operation (2)

56k modem operation (3)

In the downstream direction, the server


sends PCM codes that are used in the digital
portion of the PSTN.
With conventional modems, the PCM codes
in the PSTN are a digital representation of
audio tones representing digital data.
With 56k modems, these PCM codes are a
direct representation of the user's data.

The downstream PCM codes are converted to an


analogue signal by the CODEC at the client's local
exchange ('Central Office' in U.S.).
The clients 56k modem attempts to discriminate
between 128 possible analogue voltage levels and
recover 8000 x 7 bit words per second,
Ideally, the 56k modem would re-create the same
64 kbit/sec digital data stream that came through
the PSTN. In practice, the full 64 kbit/sec rate
cannot be achieved. Why?

Data Communications, Ed. 2, D. Lauder

Section A 8, Page 13

Data Communications, Ed. 2, D. Lauder

Section A 8, Page 14

Effect of analogue line impairments on a 56k


modem

PSTN Local Loop characteristics above audio


frequency

Two impairments on the analogue local loop are


line loss and phase shift. Both of these
characteristics are frequency dependent and differ
from one line to another.
Adaptive equalisation is used
The adaptive equaliser goes through a training
sequence after the connection is established.
An Eye Quality Monitor (EQM) algorithm is used
to create a virtual 'eye diagram' in software and to
measure the amount of 'eye opening'.

The cables in the PSTN local network can be used


to carry signals far above audio frequency for
ISDN and DSL (Digital Subscriber Line).
The following characteristics affect high speed
data transmission:

Data Communications, Ed. 2, D. Lauder

Section A 8, Page 15

Attenuation
Phase shift
Characteristic impedance
Crosstalk
Impulsive interference and random noise

Data Communications, Ed. 2, D. Lauder

Section A 8, Page 16

PSTN local loop transmission impairments Attenuation and phase shift

PSTN local loop transmission Characteristic impedance

Maximum cable attenuation at audio


frequencies is typically 15dB at 1.6 kHz.
Attenuation rises sharply above audio
frequencies and could be 50dB or more at
300 kHz for a long line.
Phase shift - The variation of phase shift
with frequency is linear above about 10 kHz
and is relatively easy to equalise.

The characteristic impedance of PSTN local loop


cables is approx 100-120 above about 100kHz.
The local loop has a 'tree' structure with cables
radiating from the local telephone exchange. The
network uses various types of multi-pair cables,
containing 10 - 800 pairs, each with a conductor
diameter of 0.63 mm down to 0.32 mm.
Joints between cables of different diameters result
in changes in characteristic impedance, causing
partial reflection of signals at the joints.

Data Communications, Ed. 2, D. Lauder

Section A 8, Page 17

Local loop transmission impairments Crosstalk


What is crosstalk? How does it vary with
frequency?
What is NEXT? (limiting factor, typically
<55dB at 100 kHz)
What is FEXT?
Data Communications, Ed. 2, D. Lauder

Section A 8, Page 19

Data Communications, Ed. 2, D. Lauder

Section A 8, Page 18

Local loop transmission impairments Impulsive and random noise


Electromagnetic switching transients from
adjacent cable pairs.
Electromagnetic interference from unintentional
sources outside the telephone network.
Electromagnetic interference from intentional
sources outside the telephone network.
Thermal noise (not normally the limiting factor in
DSL transmission systems which are usually
crosstalk limited).
Data Communications, Ed. 2, D. Lauder

Section A 8, Page 20

Integrated services Digital Network (ISDN)


ISDN-BA - "Basic rate" 2B+D channels.
Two "B" channels each carry 64 kbit/sec user
data (not guaranteed error free)
One "D" channel is a 16 kbit/sec signalling
channel, used for call setup. Total user data rate
144 kbit/sec.
Supports up to 8 terminals of which two may be
in use simultaneously. Available through BT as
"ISDN 2" and "HomeHighway".
Data Communications, Ed. 2, D. Lauder

Section A 8, Page 21

ISDN Line Transmission


Basic rate ISDN uses the existing copper
telephone pair for baseband digital
transmission
ISDN replaces the ordinary analogue
telephony service (POTS). The two cannot
be used on the same line at the same time
ISDN calls are circuit-switched through the
PSTN, in the same way as voice calls
Data Communications, Ed. 2, D. Lauder

Section A 8, Page 22

ISDN Line transmission 'U' interface line code

ISDN Line transmission ANSI 2B1Q code

The ISDN 'U' interface line code is not defined by


ITU-T. Different PTTs can use their own
implementation
AMI (Alternate Mark Inversion) code can be used.
This maintains DC balance and is used as the
ISDN "U" reference point line code in some
countries but suffers from limited range.
HDB3 (High Density Bipolar 3) code can be used
for ISDN. This is a development of AMI which is
used in some PCM applications.

A line code used in the UK and USA for the ISDN


"U" ref. point is ANSI 2B1Q (2 bits, 1 quat), a
quaternary (4 level) code. This offers increased
range compared to AMI because it transmits 2 bits
per symbol, i.e. 160 kbit/sec using 80 kbaud/sec.

Data Communications, Ed. 2, D. Lauder

Section A 8, Page 23

Data Communications, Ed. 2, D. Lauder

Section A 8, Page 24

ISDN multiplexing - 2B+D to BRI Frames


The 2 B + D channels are time division
multiplexed and are then assembled into frames
BRI = 666.66 frames/s = 666.66 x 240 bits/frame = 160 kBit/sec (Europe)
1 second

Frame 1

Frame 2

18 bits
block
sync.

96
bits
B1

Data Communications, Ed. 2, D. Lauder

Frame 666
96
bits
B2

24
bits
D

Frame 667
6
bits
ctrl

Section A 8, Page 25