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PeoplePowerRevolutionWikipedia

PeoplePowerRevolution
FromWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

ThePeoplePowerRevolution(alsoknownastheEDSA
RevolutionandthePhilippineRevolutionof1986)wasa
seriesofpopulardemonstrationsinthePhilippinesthatbegan
in1983andculminatedonFebruary2225,1986.Therewasa
sustainedcampaignofcivilresistanceagainstregimeviolence
andelectoralfraud.Thenonviolentrevolutionledtothe
departureofPresidentFerdinandMarcosandtherestorationof
democracyinthePhilippines.[4][5]
ItisalsoreferredtoastheYellowRevolutionduetothe
presenceofyellowribbonsduringthedemonstrationsfollowing
theassassinationofFilipinosenatorBenignoAquino,Jr.[4][5]It
waswidelyseenasavictoryofthepeopleagainstthe20year
runningauthoritarian,repressive[6]regimeofthenpresident
FerdinandMarcos,andmadenewsheadlinesas"therevolution
thatsurprisedtheworld".[7]
Themajorityofthedemonstrationstookplaceonalongstretch
ofEpifaniodelosSantosAvenue,morecommonlyknownby
itsacronymEDSA,inMetroManilafromFebruary2225,
1986.TheyinvolvedovertwomillionFilipinocivilians,aswell
asseveralpoliticalandmilitarygroups,andreligiousgroupsled
byCardinalJaimeSin,theArchbishopofManilaandtheCBCP
PresidentCardinalRicardoVidal,theArchbishopofCebu.The
protests,fueledbytheresistanceandoppositionfromyearsof
corruptgovernancebyMarcos,culminatedwiththedeparture
ofthedictatorfromMalacaangPalacetoHawaii.Corazon
AquinowasproclaimedasthePresidentofthePhilippinesafter
therevolution.[8]

Contents
1
2
3
4
5
6

Backgroundandhistory
AssassinationofNinoyAquino
Callsforelection
1986election
Vidal'sdeclaration
Events
6.1 Abortedmilitarycoup
6.2 Sin'sappeal
6.3 Risingmasssupport
6.4 Moremilitarydefections
6.5 ThecaptureofChannel4
6.6 AFPholdsfire
6.7 Twoinaugurations

6.8 Marcos'departure
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PeoplePowerRevolution

Date

22February198625February1986
(3days)

Location Philippines,primarilyEpifaniodelos
SantosAvenue,MetroManila
Causes

Goals
Result

AssassinationofBenignoAquino,
Jr.in1983
Allegedfraudduringthe1986
Presidentialsnapelections
Decadesofoppressiveand
authoritarianrule
RemovalofFerdinandMarcosfromoffice
toputCorazonAquinoasthePresident
Revolutionaryvictory
RemovalofFerdinandMarcos
fromoffice
EndofMarcosEra(19651986)
MarcosexiledtoHawaii
StartoftheFifthPhilippine
Republic
CorazonAquinobecomesPresident
ofthePhilippines
Partiestothecivilconflict

PeoplePower
Revolutionaries
Politicalgroups:

Marcos
Government

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6.8 Marcos'departure
7 Aftermath
8 Legacy
9 Timeline
10 Seealso
10.1 Similarevents
11 References
12 Bibliography

Backgroundandhistory
FerdinandE.Marcoswaselectedpresidentin1965,defeating
incumbentDiosdadoMacapagalbyamarginof52to43
percent.Duringthistime,Marcoswasveryactiveinthe
initiationofpublicworksprojectsandtheintensificationoftax
collections.Marcosandhisgovernmentclaimedthatthey"built
moreroadsthanallhispredecessorscombined,andmore
schoolsthananypreviousadministration."[9]Amidstchargesof
votebuyingandafraudulentelectionfromtheoppositionparty,
MarcoswasdecisivelyreelectedinthePhilippinepresidential
election,1969,thistimedefeatingSergioOsmea,Jr.by61to
39percent.
Marcos'secondtermforthepresidencywasmarredby
allegationsofwidespreadgraftandcorruptionbytheopposition
LiberalParty(Philippines).Theincreasingdisparityofwealth
betweentheverywealthyandtheverypoorwhichmadeupthe
majorityofthePhilippines'populationledtoariseincrimeand
civilunrestaroundthecountryaccordingtoleftistswhorioted
duringtheFirstQuarterStorm.Thesefactors,includingthe
formationoftheNewPeople'sArmyin1968onMaoZedongs
birthday,[10]aCommunistinsurgencysupportedfinanciallyand
militarilybyChina,[11]andabloodyMuslimseparatist
movementinthesouthernislandofMindanaoledbytheMoro
NationalLiberationFrontwhichwasbackedbyMalaysiaand
allegedlybyLiberalPartysenatorNinoyAquino,[12][13]
contributedtotherapidriseofcivildiscontentandunrestinthe
Philippines.
OnSeptember23,1972,citingmorethan15bombing
incidencesandanintensifyingarmedcommunistinsurgency,[14]
hedeclaredmartiallawbyvirtueofpresidentialproclamation
(No.1081).TheWashingtonPostrevealedin1989thatthe
Communistsplottedthe1971PlazaMirandabombingto
provokeMarcosintocrackingdownhisopponents,allowing
themtoincreaserecruitswhichwereneededtomakeuseof
weaponsandfinancialaidcomingfromChina.[11]

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UNIDO
PDPLaban
LiberalParty

ArmedForcesof
thePhilippines
Forces
loyalto
Marcos
Presidential

Militarydefectors:
ReformtheArmed
ForcesMovement
Defectedsoldiers

SecurityGroup[3]
GovernmentParties:

Others:

KilusangBagong
Lipunan

AntiMarcos
civilianprotesters
Religiousgroups:
Archdioceseof
Manila
CBCP[1]
Protestant
ChurchesofThe
Philippines
Militantgroups:
BagongAlyansang
Makabayan[1][2]
Kilusang
MayoUno
Leagueof
Filipino
Students
Christians
for
National
Liberation
Leadfigures
CorazonAquino
SalvadorLaurel
JuanPonceEnrile
FidelV.Ramos
GringoHonasan
JaimeCardinalSin

FerdinandMarcos
ImeldaMarcos
FabianVer

Number
2,000,000+protestors

Nofiguresavailable

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Martiallawwasratifiedby90.77%ofthevotersduringthePhilippine
MartialLawreferendum,1973thoughthereferendumwasmarredwith
controversy.PrimitivoMijares,authorofthebookConjugal
dictatorship,[15]allegedthattherecouldnothavebeenanyvalid
referendumheldfromJanuary10to15,1973asthe35,000citizen's
assembliesnevermetandthatvotingwasbyshowofhands.[16][17]The
referendumhadthefollowingresults:
Ratification %
YES

90.77

NO

9.23

AsMarcoswasbarredfromrunningforathirdtermaspresidentin1973,it
wasallegedthatheissuedMartialLawtoextendhisterminoffice.
RigobertoTiglao,formerpresssecretaryandaformercommunist
incarceratedduringthemartiallaw,[18]arguedthattheliberaland
PresidentFerdinandMarcos
communistpartiesprovokedmartiallawimposition.[19]Aconstitutional
convention,whichhadbeencalledforin1970toreplacethe
Commonwealthera1935Constitution,continuedtheworkofframinganewconstitutionafterthedeclarationof
martiallaw.Thenewconstitutionwentintoeffectinearly1973,changingtheformofgovernmentfrom
presidentialtoparliamentaryandallowingMarcostostayinpowerbeyond1973.Theconstitutionwasapproved
by95%ofthevotersinthePhilippineconstitutionalplebiscite.
Throughthisdecreeandafterobtainingvotersconsentthroughtheplebiscite,Marcosseizedemergencypowers
givinghimfullcontrolofthePhilippines'militaryandtheauthoritytosuppressandabolishthefreedomofspeech,
thefreedomofthepress,andmanyothercivilliberties.MarcosalsodissolvedthePhilippineCongressandshut
downmediaestablishmentscriticaloftheMarcosgovernment.[20]
Marcosalsoorderedtheimmediatearrestofhispoliticalopponentsandcritics.AmongthosearrestedwereSenate
PresidentJovitoSalonga,SenatorJoseDiokno,andSenatorBenignoAquinoJr.,whoMarcoslinkedwiththe
Communists[21]andthemanwhowasgroomedbytheoppositiontosucceedMarcosafterthe1973elections.[20]
OnNovember25,1977,theMilitaryCommissionchargedAquinoalongwithhistwocoaccused,NPAleaders
BernabeBuscayno(CommanderDante)andLt.VictorCorpuz,guiltyofallchargesandsentencedthemtodeath
byfiringsquad.[22]WhileinterviewswithformerCommunistleadersrevealedthatAquinoprovidedthe
Communistswithfirearms,trainingarea,andlodging[23]tooustMarcos,hedeniedbeingacommunistleaderora
communisthimself.InhisundeliveredspeechuponhisreturnfromtheUSonAugust21,1983,Aquinosaid,"I
wassentencedtodieforallegedlybeingtheleadingcommunistleader.Iamnotacommunist,neverwasandnever
willbe."[24]
In1978,whilestillinprison,Aquinofoundedhispoliticalparty,LakasngBayan(abbreviated"LABAN"English:
People'sPower)torunforofficeintheInterimBatasangPambansa(Parliament).AllLABANcandidateslost,
includingNinoyhimselfandLABANCandidateAlexBoncayao,wholaterwasassociatedwithFilipino
communistdeathsquadAlexBoncayaoBrigade[25][26]thatkilledU.S.armycaptainJamesN.Rowe.
Withpracticallyallofhispoliticalopponentsarrestedandinexile,Marcos'preemptivedeclarationofmartiallaw
in1972andtheratificationofhisnewconstitutionbymorethan95%ofvotersenabledMarcostoeffectively
legitimizehisgovernmentandholdontopowerforanother14yearsbeyondhisfirsttwotermsaspresident.Ina

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ColdWarcontext,MarcosretainedthesupportoftheUnitedStatesthroughMarcos'promisetostampout
communisminthePhilippinesandbyassuringtheUnitedStatesofitscontinueduseofmilitaryandnavalbasesin
thePhilippines.[20]

AssassinationofNinoyAquino
DespitewarningsfromthemilitaryandotherproMarcosgroups,NinoyAquinowasdeterminedtoreturntothe
Philippines.Askedwhathethoughtofthedeaththreats,NinoyAquinoresponded,TheFilipinoisworthdying
for.
Atthattime,Ninoy'spassporthadexpiredandtherenewalhadbeendenied.Ninoythereforeacquiredaplanto
acquireafakepassportwiththehelpofRashidLucman,[27]founderoftheBangsamoroLiberationFront,who
trainedabout30,000BangsamoroguerrillasasMNLFfightersandsentthetop90moroguerrillastoMalaysiato
trainguerrillawarfareundertheRoyalMalaysianArmedForcesandtheGurkhaRegiment.[28]Thepassport
carriedthealiasMarcialBonifacio(MarcialformartiallawandBonifacioforFortBonifacio,hiserstwhile
prison).[29]AquinobecameallieswithRashidLucmanashesupportedtheMuslimrebellioninMindanaoagainst
thegovernment.[28]
OnAugust21,1983,afterathreeyearexileintheUnitedStates,Aquinowasassassinatedashedisembarkedfrom
aTaiwanesecommercialflightattheManilaInternationalAirport(whichwaslaterrenamedinAquino'shonor).[30]
HisassassinationshockedandoutragedmanyFilipinos,mostofwhomhadlostconfidenceintheMarcos
administration.Theeventledtomoresuspicionsaboutthegovernment,triggeringnoncooperationamong
Filipinosthateventuallyledtooutrightcivildisobedience.[31]ItalsoshooktheMarcosgovernment,whichwasby
thendeterioratingdue,inpart,toMarcos'worseninghealthandultimatelyfatalillness(lupuserythematosus).
TheassassinationofNinoyAquinocausedthePhilippineseconomytodeteriorateevenfurther,andthe
governmentplungedfurtherintodebt.Bytheendof1983,thePhilippineswasinaneconomicrecession,withthe
economycontractingby6.8%.[32]
In1984,Marcosappointedacommission,ledbyChiefJusticeEnriqueFernando,tolaunchaninvestigationinto
Aquino'sassassination.Despitethecommission'sconclusions,CardinalJaimeSin,theArchbishopofManila,
declinedanoffertojointhecommissionandrejectedthegovernment'sviewsontheassassination.
PabloMartinez,oneoftheconvictedsuspectsintheassassinationofNinoyAquinoJr.confessedthatitwasNinoy
AquinoJr.'srelative,DandingCojuangco,cousinofhiswifeCorazonCojuangcoAquino,whoorderedthe
assassinationofNinoyAquinoJr.whileMarcoswasrecuperatingfromhiskidneytransplant.[33]

Callsforelection
OnNovember3,1985,afterpressurefromtheUSgovernment,[34]Marcossuddenlyannouncedthatasnap
presidentialelectionwouldtakeplacethefollowingyear,oneyearaheadoftheregularpresidentialelection
schedule,tolegitimizehiscontroloverthecountry.[35]ThesnapelectionwaslegalizedwiththepassageofBatas
PambansaBlg.883(NationalLawNo.883)bytheMarcoscontrolledunicameralcongresscalledtheRegular
BatasangPambansa.[36]
ThegrowingoppositionmovementencouragedNinoyAquino'swidow,CorazonAquino,torunforthepresidency.
UnitedOpposition(UNIDO)leader,SalvadorLaurel,whoearlierfiledhiscandidacyasanofficialUNIDO
candidateforthepresidency,gavewaytoCoryafterapoliticaldealwhichwaslaterrenegedbyCoryafterthe
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election.AccordingtoSalvadorLaurel'sdiary,CoryofferedLaurelthathewouldbeherPrimeMinister,thatshe
wouldstepdownintwoyears,thatLaurelwouldname30percentoftheCabinet,thatshewouldappointthe
remaining70percentaftercloseconsultationswithLaurel.[37]SalvadorLaureleventuallyranasCoryAquino's
runningmateforvicepresidentundertheUnitedOpposition(UNIDO)party.Marcosranforreelection,with
ArturoTolentinoashisrunningmateundertheKilusangBagongLipunan(KBL)party.[36]

1986election
TheelectionswereheldonFebruary7,1986.[35]Theofficialelectioncanvasser,theCommissiononElections
(COMELEC),declaredMarcosthewinner.ThefinaltallyoftheCOMELEChadMarcoswinningwith10,807,197
votesagainstAquino's9,291,761votes.Ontheotherhand,basedonreturnsof70%oftheprecincts[38]ofthe
NationalMovementforFreeElections(NAMFREL),anaccreditedpollwatcher,hadAquinowinningwith
7,835,070votesagainstMarcos'7,053,068points.[39]
Thiselectoralexercisewasmarredbywidespreadreportsofviolenceandtamperingofelectionresults,
culminatinginthewalkoutof35COMELECcomputertechnicianstoprotestthedeliberatemanipulationofthe
officialelectionresultstofavorFerdinandMarcos.Thewalkoutwasconsideredasoneoftheearly"sparks"ofthe
PeoplePowerRevolution.
However,notknowntomany,thewalkoutofcomputertechnicianswasledbyLindaKapunan,[40]wifeofLtCol
EduardoKapunan,aleaderofReformtheArmedForcesMovement,whichplottedtoattacktheMalacaang
PalaceandkillMarcosandhisfamily,[41]leadingsometobelievethatthewalkoutcouldhavebeenplannedwith
ulteriormotives.[42]
Becauseofreportsofallegedfraud,theCatholicBishops'ConferenceofthePhilippines(CBCP)throughCardinal
RicardoVidalissuedastatementcondemningtheelections.TheUnitedStatesSenatealsopassedaresolution
statingthesamecondemnation.[35]USpresidentRonaldReaganissuedastatementcallingthefraudreportsas
"disturbing"buthesaidthattherewasfraud"onbothsides"ofthePhilippineelection.[43][44]Inresponsetothe
protests,COMELECclaimedthatMarcoswith53percentwonoverAquino.However,NAMFRELcounteredthat
thelatterwonoverMarcoswith52percentofvotes.[45]
OnFebruary15,MarcoswasproclaimedbyCOMELECandBatasangPambansaasthewinneramidstthe
controversy.All50oppositionmembersoftheParliamentwalkedoutinprotest.TheFilipinopeoplerefusedto
accepttheresults,assertingthatAquinowastherealvictor.Both"winners"tooktheiroathofofficeintwo
differentplaces,withAquinogaininggreatermasssupport.Aquinoalsocalledforcoordinatedstrikesandmass
boycottofthemediaandbusinessesownedbyMarcos'cronies.Asaresult,thecronybanks,corporations,and
mediawerehithard,andtheirsharesinthestockmarketplummetedtorecordlevels.
DespitecommonknowledgethatMarcoscheatedtheelections,someclaimthatMarcosistheonethathadbeen
cheatedbyNamfrelbecausehisSolidNorthvotesweretransmittedverylatetothetabulationcenteratthePICC.
TwoNamfrelvolunteerswerehangedinIlocos.TheIlocanovoteswereenoughtooverwhelmCorysleadin
MetroManilaandotherplaces.[42]FormerAsiaweekCorrespondentTonyLopezsaidthatafterCorytookoverthe
presidency,NamfrelmaderecountofthevotescastintheFebruarysnapelection.ThetallystillshowedMarcos
wastherealwinnerbutonlyby800,000votes.[46]

Vidal'sdeclaration
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CardinalVidal,aftertheresultofthesnapelection,issuedadeclarationinlieuofthePhilippineChurchhierarchy
statingthat"agovernmentdoesnotofitselffreelycorrecttheevilithasinflictedonthepeoplethenitisour
seriousmoralobligationasapeopletomakeitdoso."Thedeclarationalsoasked"everyloyalmemberofthe
Church,everycommunityofthefaithful,toformtheirjudgmentabouttheFebruary7polls"andtoldallthe
Filipinos,"Nowisthetimetospeakup.Nowisthetimetorepairthewrong.Thewrongwassystematically
organized.Somustitscorrectionbe.Butasintheelectionitself,thatdependsfullyonthepeopleonwhattheyare
willingandreadytodo."[47]

Events
Abortedmilitarycoup
Appalledbytheboldandapparentelectionirregularities,theReformtheArmedForcesMovementsetintomotion
acoupattemptagainstMarcos.TheinitialplanwasforateamtoassaultMalacaanPalaceandarrestFerdinand
Marcos.Othermilitaryunitswouldtakeoverkeystrategicfacilities,suchastheairport,militarybases,TVand
radiostations,theGHQAFPinCampAguinaldo,andmajorhighwayjunctionstorestrictcounteroffensiveby
Marcosloyaltroops.
Lt.Col.GregorioHonasanwastoleadtheteamthatwasgoingtoassaultMalacaanPalace.
However,afterMarcoslearnedabouttheplot,heorderedtheirleaders'arrest,[48]andpresentedtotheinternational
andlocalpresssomeofthecapturedplotters,Maj.SaulitoArominandMaj.EdgardoDoromal.[49]
Threatenedwiththeirimpendingimprisonment,DefenseMinisterEnrileandhisfellowcoupplottersdecidedto
askforhelpfromthenAFPViceChiefofStaffLt.GenFidelRamos,whowasalsothechiefofthePhilippine
Constabulary(nowthePhilippineNationalPolice).Ramosagreedtoresignfromhispositionandsupportthe
plotters.EnrilealsocontactedthehighlyinfluentialCardinalArchbishopofManilaJaimeSinforhissupport.
Atabout6:30p.m.on22February,EnrileandRamosheldapressconferenceatCampAguinaldo,wherethey
announcedthattheyhadresignedfromtheirpositionsinMarcos'cabinetandwerewithdrawingsupportfromhis
government.MarcoshimselflaterconductedhisownnewsconferencecallingonEnrileandRamostosurrender,
urgingthemto"stopthisstupidity."[50]

Sin'sappeal
AfterCardinalVidal'scondemnationofthesnapelection'sfraudulentresult,amessagewasairedoverRadio
Veritasataround9p.m.,CardinalSinexhortedFilipinosinthecapitaltoaidrebelleadersbygoingtothesection
ofEDSAbetweenCampCrameandAguinaldoandgivingemotionalsupport,foodandothersupplies.Formany
thisseemedanunwisedecisionsincecivilianswouldnotstandachanceagainstadispersalbygovernmenttroops.
Manypeople,especiallypriestsandnuns,stilltroopedtoEDSA.[50]
RadioVeritasplayedacriticalroleduringthemassuprising.FormerUniversityofthePhilippinespresident
FranciscoNemenzostatedthat:"WithoutRadioVeritas,itwouldhavebeendifficult,ifnotimpossible,tomobilize
millionsofpeopleinamatterofhours."Similarly,acertainaccountintheeventsaidthat:"RadioVeritas,infact,
wasourumbilicalcordtowhateverelsewasgoingon."[51]

Risingmasssupport

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Atdawn,Sunday,governmenttroopsarrivedtoknockdown
themaintransmitterofRadioVeritas,cuttingoffbroadcaststo
peopleintheprovinces.Thestationswitchedtoastandby
transmitterwithalimitedrangeofbroadcast.[51]Thestation
wastargetedbecauseithadproventobeavaluable
communicationstoolforthepeoplesupportingtherebels,
keepingtheminformedofgovernmenttroopmovementsand
relayingrequestsforfood,medicine,andsupplies.[50]
Still,peoplecametoEDSAuntilitswelledtohundredsof
thousandsofunarmedcivilians.Themoodinthestreetwas
actuallyveryfestive,withmanybringingwholefamilies.
Duringtheheightoftherevolution,anestimated
Performersentertainedthecrowds,nunsandpriestsledprayer
threehundredtofivehundredthousandpeople
vigils,andpeoplesetupbarricadesandmakeshiftsandbags,
filledEDSAfromOrtigasAvenueallthewayto
trees,andvehiclesinseveralplacesalongEDSAand
Cubao.Thephotoaboveshowstheareaatthe
intersectingstreetssuchasSantolanandOrtigasAvenue.
intersectionofEDSAandBoniSerranoAvenue,
Everywhere,peoplelistenedtoRadioVeritasontheirradios.
justbetweenCampCrameandCampAguinaldo.
SeveralgroupssangBayanKo(MyHomeland),[52]which,
since1980,hadbecomeapatrioticanthemoftheopposition.
Peoplefrequentlyflashedthe'LABAN'sign,[53]whichisan"L"formedwiththeirthumbandindexfinger.'Laban'
istheTagalogwordfor'fight',butalsotheabbreviationofLakasngBayan,NinoyAquino'sparty.
AfterlunchonFebruary23,EnrileandRamosdecidedtoconsolidatetheirpositions.EnrilecrossedEDSAfrom
CampAguinaldotoCampCrameamidstcheersfromthecrowd.[50]
Inthemidafternoon,RadioVeritasrelayedreportsofMarinesmassingnearthecampsintheeastandLVT5tanks
approachingfromthenorthandsouth.AcontingentofMarineswithtanksandarmoredvans,ledbyBrigadier
GeneralArtemioTadiar,wasstoppedalongOrtigasAvenue,abouttwokilometersfromthecamps,bytensof
thousandsofpeople.[54]Nunsholdingrosarieskneltinfrontofthetanksandmenandwomenlinkedarmstogether
toblockthetroops.[55]Tadiaraskedthecrowdstomakeaclearingforthem,buttheydidnotbudge.Intheend,the
troopsretreatedwithnoshotsfired.[50]
Byevening,thestandbytransmitterofRadioVeritasfailed.Shortlyaftermidnight,thestaffwereabletogoto
anotherstationtobeginbroadcastingfromasecretlocationunderthemoniker"RadyoBandido"(OutlawRadio,
whichisnowknownasDZRJAM).JuneKeithley,withAngeloCastro,Jr.,wastheradiobroadcasterwho
continuedRadioVeritas'programthroughoutthenightandintheremainingdays.[50]

Moremilitarydefections
AtdawnonMonday,February24,thefirstseriousencounterwithgovernmenttroopsoccurred.Marinesmarching
fromLibis,intheeast,lobbedteargasatthedemonstrators,whoquicklydispersed.Some3,000Marinesthen
enteredandheldtheeastsideofCampAguinaldo.[50]
Later,helicoptersmannedbythe15thStrikeWingofthePhilippineAirForce,ledbyColonelAntonioSotelo,
wereorderedfromSangleyPointinCavite(SouthofManila)toheadtoCampCrame.[56]Secretly,thesquadron
hadalreadydefectedandinsteadofattackingCampCrame,landedinit,withthecrowdscheeringandhuggingthe
pilotsandcrewmembers.[50]

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ABell214helicopterpilotedbyMajorDeoCruzofthe205thHelicopterWingandSikorskyS76gunshipspiloted
byColonelCharlesHotchkissofthe20thAirCommandoSquadronjoinedtherebelsquadronearlierintheair.The
presenceofthehelicoptersboostedthemoraleofEnrileandRamoswhohadbeencontinuallyencouragingtheir
fellowsoldierstojointheoppositionmovement.[50]Intheafternoon,AquinoarrivedatthebasewhereEnrile,
Ramos,RAMofficersandathrongwerewaiting.[56]

ThecaptureofChannel4
Ataroundthattime,JuneKeithleyreceivedreportsthatMarcoshadleftMalacaangPalaceandbroadcastthisto
thepeopleatEDSA.ThecrowdcelebratedandevenRamosandEnrilecameoutfromCrametoappeartothe
crowds.ThejubilationwashowevershortlivedasMarcoslaterappearedontelevisiononthegovernment
controlledChannel4,[57](usingtheforeclosedABSCBNfacilities,transmitterandcompound)declaringthathe
wouldnotstepdown.ItwasthereafterspeculatedthatthefalsereportwasacalculatedmoveagainstMarcosto
encouragemoredefections.[50]
Duringthisbroadcast,Channel4suddenlywentofftheair.Acontingentofrebels,underColonelMariano
Santiago,hadcapturedthestation.Channel4wasputbackonlineshortlyafternoon,withOrlyPunzalan
announcingonlivetelevision,"Channel4isontheairagaintoservethepeople."Bythistime,thecrowdsat
EDSAhadswollentooveramillion.(Someestimatesplacedthemattwomillion.)[50]
Thisbroadcastwasconsideredthe"return"ofABSCBNonairbecausethiswasthetimewhenformeremployees
ofABSCBNwereinsidethecomplexafter14yearsofclosuresinceMarcostookitoverduringtheMartialLaw
of1972.RadioBandidoendedbroadcastingthatafternoon,whileRadioVeritasresumedtransmissions,thistime
fromtheABSCBNBroadcastingCenter'sradiostudios.
Inthelateafternoon,rebelhelicoptersattackedVillamorAirbase,destroyingpresidentialairassets.Another
helicopterwenttoMalacaang,firedarocket,andcausedminordamage.Later,mostoftheofficerswhohad
graduatedfromthePhilippineMilitaryAcademy(PMA)defected.ThemajorityoftheArmedForceshadalready
changedsides.[50]

AFPholdsfire
Priordialoguestostoptherevolutionhavenotsucceededwith
theArmedForcesofthePhilippines,whichwasledbyGeneral
FabianVer.AFPwasreadytomountanairstrikeontheday
butwashaltedunderordersofMarcos.

Twoinaugurations

"Marcos'finesthour"
0:00

MENU

PresidentFerdinandMarcosand
GeneralFabianVerduringapress
conferenceinMalacaanPalace.
Problemsplayingthisfile?Seemediahelp.

OnthemorningofTuesday,February25,ataround7a.m.,a
minorclashoccurredbetweenloyalgovernmenttroopsandthereformists.Snipersstationedatopthegovernment
ownedChannel9tower,nearChannel4,beganshootingatthereformists.Manyrebelsoldierssurgedtothe
station,[50]andarebelS76helicopterlatershotthesnipersatthebroadcasttower.ThetroopslaterleftafteraV
150wasblockedbythecrowdassembled.
Laterinthemorning,CorazonAquinowasinauguratedasPresidentofthePhilippinesinasimpleceremonyat
ClubFilipino[58]inGreenhills,aboutakilometerfromCampCrame.ShewassworninasPresidentbySenior
AssociateJusticeClaudioTeehankee,andLaurelasVicePresidentbyJusticeVicenteAbadSantos.TheBibleon

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whichAquinosworeheroathwasheldbyAuroraAquino,the
motherofNinoyAquino.Attendingtheceremonieswere
Ramos,whowasthenpromotedtoGeneral,Enrile,andmany
politicians.[50]
OutsideClubFilipino,allthewaytoEDSA,hundredsof
peoplecheeredandcelebrated.BayanKo(MyCountry,a
popularfolksongandtheunofficialNationalAnthemof
protest)wassungafterAquino'soathtaking.Manypeople
woreyellow,thecolorofAquino'scampaignforpresidency.
Anhourlater,MarcosheldtheinaugurationatMalacaang
CorazonAquinowasinauguratedasthe11th
Palace.Loyalistciviliansattendedtheceremony,shouting
presidentofthePhilippinesonFebruary25,1986at
"Marcos,Marcos,Marcosparin!(Marcos,Marcos,still
SampaguitaHall(NowKalayaanHall).
Marcos!)".OnthePalacebalcony,MarcostooktheOathof
Office,broadcastbyIBC13andGMA7.[50]Noneofthe
invitedforeigndignitariesattendedtheceremony,forsecurityreasons.Thecouplefinallyemergedonthebalcony
ofthePalacebefore3,000KBLloyalistswhowereshouting,"Capturethesnakes!"[59]Rathertearfully,[59]First
LadyImeldaMarcosgaveafarewellrenditionofthecouple'sthemesongthe1938kundiman"DahilSaIyo"
(BecauseofYou)chantingthesong'sentreatiesinTagalog:
Becauseofyou,Ibecamehappy
LovingIshallofferyou
IfitistrueIshallbeenslavedbyyou
Allofthisbecauseofyou.[59]
Aftertheinauguration,theMarcosfamilyandtheircloseassociateshurriedlyfledthePalace.Thebroadcastofthe
eventwasinterruptedasrebeltroopssuccessfullycapturedtheotherstations.[50]
Bythistime,hundredsofpeoplehadamassedatthebarricadesalongMendiola,onlyahundredmetersawayfrom
Malacaang.TheywerepreventedfromstormingthePalacebyloyalgovernmenttroopssecuringthearea.The
angrydemonstratorswerepacifiedbypriestswhowarnedthemnottobeviolent.[50]

Marcos'departure
At3:00p.m.(EST)onMonday,PresidentMarcosphonedUnitedStatesSenatorPaulLaxalt,[59]askingforadvice
fromtheWhiteHouse.Laxaltadvisedhimto"cutandcutclean",[60]towhichMarcosexpressedhis
disappointmentafterashortpause.Intheafternoon,MarcostalkedtoMinisterEnrile,askingforsafepassagefor
him,hisfamily,andclosealliessuchasGeneralVer.
AtmidnightPHT,theMarcosfamilyboardedaUnitedStatesAirForceHH3ERescuehelicopters[6]andflewto
ClarkAirBaseinAngelesCity83kilometresnorthofManila.ThedeposedFirstFamilyandtheirservantsthen
rodeUSAirForceDC9MedivacandC141BplanestoAndersenAirForceBaseinthenorthoftheUnitedStates
territoryofGuam,thenflyingtoHickamAirForceBaseinHawaiiwhereMarcosfinallyarrivedonFebruary26.
USGovernmentdocumentedthattheyenteredtheUSAwithmillionsofdollarsinjewelries,gold,stocks,andcash
[7][50]

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WhennewsoftheMarcosfamily'sdeparturereachedcivilians,manyrejoicedanddancedinthestreets.Overat
Mendiola,thedemonstratorsstormedthePalace,whichwasclosedtoordinarypeopleforaroundadecade.Despite
lootingbysomeangryprotesters,themajoritywanderedaboutinsidethroughroomswherenationalhistorywas
shaped,lookingatobjectsextravagantandmundanethattheMarcosclananditscourthadabandonedintheir
flight.
Inothercountries,peoplealsorejoicedandcongratulatedFilipinostheyknew.CBSanchormanBobSimon
reported:WeAmericansliketothinkwetaughttheFilipinosdemocracy.Well,tonighttheyareteachingthe
world.[50]

Aftermath
Immediatelyafterassumingthepresidency,PresidentCorazonAquinoissuedProclamationNo.3,which
establishedarevolutionarygovernment.AquinounilaterallyabolishedtheparliamentBatasangPambansawhich
wasdulyelectedinthePhilippineparliamentaryelection,1984.Sheabolishedthe1973Constitutionthatwasin
forceduringmartiallaw,andinsteadpromulgatedtheprovisional1986FreedomConstitution,pendingthe
ratificationofanewConstitutionbythepeople.ThisallowedAquinotoexercisebothexecutiveandlegislative
powersuntiltheratificationofthenewPhilippineConstitutionandtheestablishmentofanewCongressin
1987.[61]AquinoalsoremovedseveralgovernmentofficialsperceivedasloyaliststotheMarcosadministration
andappointedcabinetmembersandofficerswhowillbeloyaltocurrentadministration.[62][63]
TheestablishmentofthenewgovernmentwasmetwithcriticismamongthecontemporariesofCoryAquino.
SupremeCourtJusticeCeciliaMuozPalmavehementlyopposedthemoveciting,"tocallthegovernment
revolutionaryandabolishtheBatasanPambansawastobehavenobetterthanDictatorMarcos".Homobono
Adaza,whobrokeredforUnitedDemocraticOpposition(UNIDO)whichsupportedAquino,criticizedCoryfor
betrayingtheagreementoftheUNIDOpoliticalcoalitionthatthetypeofgovernmentofMarcoswouldbe
continuedandthatCoryshallonlybeaceremonialPresident.HealsoaddressedCory'slackofexperienceonthe
position,saying"everyoneknewthatCoryhadnoknowledgeofhowtorunthecountry,andsheadmittedthis."[64]
AletterbyresignedformersecretaryofforeignaffairsandformervicepresidentSalvadorLaurel,aswellascritics
thereafter,reportedcontroversiesbyinvolvingclosestrelativesandgivingunfairprivilegeswithinthenew
administration.[65][66][67]
TherevolutionhadaneffectondemocratizationmovementsinsuchcountriesasTaiwanandSouthKoreaother
effectsincludetherestorationofthefreedomofthepress,abolitionofrepressivelawsunderadictator'sregime,
adoptionofanewconstitution,andthesubordinationofthemilitarytocivilianrule,despiteseveralcoupattempts
duringtheAquinoadministration.[68]
Therevolutionprovidedfortherestorationofdemocraticinstitutionsafterthirteenyearsofauthoritarianruleand
theseinstitutionshavebeenusedbyvariousgroupstochallengetheentrenchedpoliticalfamiliesandtostrengthen
Philippinedemocracy.[69]

Legacy
TheEDSARevolutionAnniversaryisaspecialpublicholidayinthePhilippines.Since2010,theholidayhasbeen
aspecialnonworkingholiday.[70][71]
RampantcorruptionduringthetermofPresidentJosephEstradaledtothesimilar2001EDSARevolutionleading
tohisresignationfromthepresidency.
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Timeline
Seealso
EpifaniodelosSantosAvenueformoreinformationabouttheroad
HandogngPilipinosaMundo
EDSAShrine
PeoplePowerMonument

Similarevents

10pesocoincommemoratingthe
PeoplePowerRevolution

EDSAII
EDSAIII
GdaskAgreementof1980andRoundTableAgreementof1989,bothinducedbypeacefulprotestsin
Poland
TiananmenSquareprotestsof1989
RomanianRevolution
VelvetRevolution,inCzechoslovakia
8888Uprising,inBurma(nowMyanmar)
IranianRevolution
TunisianRevolution
EgyptianRevolutionof2011

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