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SOCIAL SCIENCE. 6th LEVEL.

UNIT 1. THE EARTH AND THE UNIVERSE


1. Whats the Universe?
The Universe is all the matter and space that exists. Its made up or stars,
planets, satellites, comets, asteroids and meteors. These are all astronomical
objects.
Teora del Big Bang. Los cientficos creen que el Universo se origin debido a
una gran explosin, el Big Bang, que ocurri hace unos 15000 millones de
aos. Segn esta teora, antes de la explosin toda la materia y la energa que
constituyen el Universo estaba compactada en un punto muy pequeo.Al
producirse la gran explosin, esta materia se fue expandiendo en todas
direcciones en forma de gas y de polvo y, al enfriarse y compactarse en
algunos lugares del espacio, se originaron las primeras estrellas, que se
reunieron formando las galaxias.
En la actualidad, las galaxias siguen movindose en el espacio y, por lo
general, alejndose unas respecto a otras.
Galaxies. Galaxies are enormous clouds which contain billions of stars and
other astronomical objects. Galaxies have different shapes: spherical,
elliptical, spiral and irregular.
2. What astronomical objects are there?
The Universe is full of amazing astronomical objects.
Stars are enormous spherical balls made up mostly of hydrogen and helium at
very high temperatures. They produce their own energy.
Then there are the planets, which are much smaller, and their satellites.
Satellites are smaller astronomical objects which orbit planets.
Asteroids are rocks which orbit the Sun.
Comets are burning bodies of rock and dust which orbit the Sun.
Meteors are fragments of comets which break of and burn up as they hit the
Earths atmosphere.

3. What are the Sun and the Earth like?


The Sun is the star at the centre of our Solar System. The Sun is a small star. It
produces light and heat.

The Earth has various internal layers and an atmosphere which has different
layers, too.

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4. How does the Earth move?


The Earth rotates on its axis. We call this movement rotation. The Earth also
orbits the Sun. This movement is called revolution.

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The Earth also revolves around the Sun. It takes exactly 365 days.
In Europe we live in the Northern Hemisphere.
5. How does the Moon move?
Lunar phases. The Moon also
rotates, and it revolves around the
Earth. This revolution takes 28
days. During these 28 days, the
Moon seems to grow, become a
huge circle, then get smaller again.
Then it disappears completely!
These different shapes are called
the Moons lunar phases.

Eclipses